Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald
The major thesis of this new approach to pedagogy is that through an understanding of the problems of disadvantaged children the educational problems of all children will be better understood. The functionalism of John Dewey has been brought up to date in this book through the propositions that curriculum should move from the remote to the…
Bruce Burnett; Jo Lampert
This paper outlines the Exceptional Teachers for Disadvantaged Schools (ETDS) project which began in June 2010 with the aim of developing and documenting an Australian university-based teacher education program specifically focusing on the preparation of high quality teachers for the disadvantaged school sector. ETDS constitutes a novel model of teacher education targeting disadvantaged schooling in that the selection of participating pre-service teachers has been based on their proven academ...
Full Text Available This paper outlines the Exceptional Teachers for Disadvantaged Schools (ETDS project which began in June 2010 with the aim of developing and documenting an Australian university-based teacher education program specifically focusing on the preparation of high quality teachers for the disadvantaged school sector. ETDS constitutes a novel model of teacher education targeting disadvantaged schooling in that the selection of participating pre-service teachers has been based on their proven academic performance over the first 2 years of their 4-year Bachelor of Education degree. ETDS has established a modified curriculum that better supports the on-campus training of this cohort while also targeting the role of field experience within partner disadvantaged school settings. This paper offers a rationale for the model, unpacks its various phases and provides a justification of the model’s selection criteria based on high academic achievement.
Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam
When people talk about education of remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, the language used is often replete with messages of failure and deficit, of disparity and problems. This language is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait…
Marks, Gary N.
Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…
Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G
Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations. PMID:24183183
Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…
Crawford, Claire; Greaves, Ellen
Teach First is a charity that seeks to address educational disadvantage by placing high-quality graduates as teachers in schools with the most educationally disadvantaged pupils. There are two questions to answer when deciding the appropriate way to do this. First, how does one define educational disadvantage? Second, in the absence of observing all characteristics of a pupil that define them as educationally disadvantaged, which socio-economic indicator (or combination of indicators) best pr...
Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.
Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspec...
Mazawi, Andre Elias
Examines effects of aggregated indicators of concentrated disadvantage on access of the 17-18 cohort to high school matriculation, comparing Arab and Jewish localities in Israel. Suggests that Arab localities secure a significantly lower access to educational credentials. (CMK)
Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S
Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834
As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…
Johnson, Odis, Jr.
Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…
GORDON, EDMUND W.; WILKERSON, DOXEY A.
THE DISADVANTAGED POPULATION IS IDENTIFIED AND SPECIFIC COMPENSATORY EDUCATION PROGRAMS ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS COMPENDIUM, ANALYSIS, AND CRITICAL EVALUATION OF COMPENSATORY EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. SUBJECTS SPECIFICALLY DISCUSSED ARE--(1) THE STATUS OF COMPENSATORY EDUCATION, (2) INNOVATIONS IN SCHOOL PROGRAMS AND STAFFING PATTERNS, (3)…
Power, Sally; Curtis, Andrew; Whitty, Geoff; Edwards, Tony
It is now nearly thirty years since Margaret Thatcher and her Conservative administration introduced the Assisted Places Scheme (their first education policy) and over ten years since New Labour abolished it. The Scheme, which was designed to provide a ladder of opportunity for academically able students from poor backgrounds to attend private…
Matthews, Frank L.
The retired Procter & Gamble corporate leader and member of the Committee for Economic Development (CED) discusses the crisis in the American education system and his efforts for reform. Subjects covered include implications for business and the nation, business and federal reform initiatives, and the mandate for community-wide involvement. (AF)
Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…
Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1–3 Rahim Moineddin,1,4,5 Stephen W Hwang,3,6 Richard H Glazier1–3,4,51Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 3Centre for Research on Inner City Health, The Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 4Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, 5Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, 6Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education.Method: The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup.Results: Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting.Conclusion: The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates.Keywords: vulnerable populations, early detection of cancer, vaginal smears, Pap test, reproducibility of results, validity
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the level of knowledge of a group of children from disadvantaged backgrounds regarding the prevention of teeth decay, after having participated in courses of dental health care. The study is based on 107 socially disadvantaged children. They have been applied questionnaires referring to the scope of the study. After having completed the courses in the dental health field and dental hygiene, the children became more aware of the importance of a proper tooth brushing (77.6% than they were before the educational program (66.3%. The number of children who acknowledged that the toothbrush is a personal property has increased in percent from 96.5% to 99.1%. After the first educational program they became more aware of the role of mouthwash (the percentage increased from 79.1 % to 91.5% and of the use of the dental floss (from 50% to 91.5%. Psychologically, a very useful procedure to make children aware of the importance of the oral hygiene is to highlight the loss of a beautiful smile (96% because of tooth decay or of extractions (72%. All the indicators measured have shown an increase in the knowledge level of dental health care. The knowledge level of the use of dental floss and mouthwash proved a statistically significant increase. The results we obtained showed that the knowledge gap between the use of dental floss and mouth wash observed at the beginning of the study was closed after just one educational lesson. At the end of our program we were able to create an assessment loop process that can offer enough feedback to the management team so as to deliver the most suitable dental healthcare education for the socially disadvantaged children.
Pumar Méndez, María J; Armayor, Navidad Canga; Díaz Navarlaz, María Teresa; Wakefield, Ann
The complexity of contemporary clinical practice demands that increasingly skilled high quality health and social care is provided to individuals. However, the failure of health and social care professionals to work collaboratively has been widely reported in the international literature. Hence, interprofessional education has been suggested as a means of improving both interprofessional understanding and respect across a diverse range of practice disciplines. In this way, functional barriers can be challenged or broken down; teamwork enhanced and healthcare outcomes improved. Lack of conclusive evidence to substantiate the above healthcare benefits has been attributed to weak methodological approaches when evaluating such educational initiatives. In Spain barriers to implementing interprofessional education are potentially less challenging. Recent legislative demands following the Bologna Agreement on European Higher Education is compelling Spanish higher education institutes to engage in radical educational reforms. Consequently, this paper examines some of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing interprofessional education into health and social care curricula in Spain to see when and how interprofessional initiatives might be assimilated into the health care curricula. In this way lessons learned from a thorough review of the relevant literature might help to inform such educational reforms across mainland Europe and beyond. PMID:17881094
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational technology applications generally produced a positive, though modest, effect (ES=+0.16 in comparison to traditional methods. A marginally significant difference was found among four types of educational technology applications. Larger effect sizes were found with comprehensive models (ES=+0.23 and innovative technology applications (ES=+0.20. Effect sizes for supplemental programs and computer-managed learning were +0.15 and +0.12, respectively. The findings provide some suggestive evidence that approaches that integrated computer and non-computer instruction in the classrooms and innovative approaches are effective in improving student achievement. Differential impacts were also found by both substantive and methodological features.
Sunnie Lee Watson
Full Text Available The United States’ educational system have responded to school reform needs over the lastseveral decades, but had little success in producing meaningful change. In this paper, weargue that there is a need to engage in a more inclusive social discourse to address theproblems in the educational system in the United States. This two year critical ethnographicstudy examines a disadvantaged alternative school and it’s members’ perspectives on schoolculture and school change. Through a discussion about the district-wide, systemic changeeffort that has been implemented in their school district, participants share perspectives onwhat schools can do in order to meet disadvantaged and marginalized students’ needs.Through a process of listening to the voices of these marginalized and disadvantaged students,we hope to enrich the discussion of educational change.
Sunnie Lee Watson; Reigeluth, Charles M.
The United States’ educational system have responded to school reform needs over the lastseveral decades, but had little success in producing meaningful change. In this paper, weargue that there is a need to engage in a more inclusive social discourse to address theproblems in the educational system in the United States. This two year critical ethnographicstudy examines a disadvantaged alternative school and it’s members’ perspectives on schoolculture and school change. Through a discus...
Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís
In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (?g mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.
McAleavy, G; McCrystal, P; Kelly, G
The paper reports on the initial phase of an evaluation of a multi-agency project designed to deliver social and health education to 16-18-year-old trainees attending four community workshops in North and West Belfast. A survey of the first year of the project was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies which included a questionnaire survey of those trainees attending the programme and structured interviews with a representative sample of trainees. The first stage of the research involved a baseline measure (time 0) which provided valuable insights into the behaviours, attitudes and values of the trainees regarding a range of health issues, including smoking and alcohol behaviours, and substance abuse. Some changes in behaviour, during the first year of the project, were noted, such as reported reductions in substance abuse and increased awareness of sources of advice relating to health issues. PMID:8685307
Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…
Webb, Nigel L.
Findings related to the background knowledge, writing, and reading of disadvantaged students in a South African university geography department are discussed. The notion "academic discourse community" is used as an analytical framework. Findings indicate that students and instructors alike face several extreme challenges. (Contains 6 tables.)
Jefferson, Renee N.; Arnold, Liz W.
The perceived advantages and disadvantages of courses taught in online and face-to-face learning environments were explored for students taking an accounting and a data collection and analysis course. Both courses were taught in a face-to-face learning environment at the main or satellite campus. It was hypothesized that there would be…
Sepulveda, Betty R.
Contending that language is the single greatest block to developing a deprived Hispano child's full learning potential, this primary teacher proposes a re-examination of reading readiness procedures at the K-3 level. She maintains that disadvantaged children are not non-verbal, as they are often mis-categorized, but have tremendous difficulty…
Gemma Barberillo Nualart
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In India the women’s movement and the government have done much to ameliorate women’s education and to build the gender gap. However, it is argued that India still has much gender inequalities embedded in society and, as a consequence, in education and that there is much work to be done in terms of implementation. An alternative form of education, the Mahila Samakhya Program, was launched in India in 1988 for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas and disadvantaged communities in order to achieve equality. The Mahila Sanghas or women’s collectives were created to provide a space for women and girls to meet, reflect, ask questions and express their thoughts. This article argues for the implementation of an empowering education, apart from the formal education, to help women and girls overcome inequalities especially in education. It aims to prove how this empowering education increases education for poor women in rural areas, especially for girls. It examines the quality and results of the existing Mahila Samakhya program analyzing the empowering process. The case study will be the Indian state of Bihar and two theories of empowerment will be applied.
Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E
Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children's socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents' human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417
Dietrich, M C
Evaluation of medical technology students often deemphasizes the affective behavioral domain. The intangible dimensions of the domain and its subsequent difficulties in measurement have been offered as rationales for this lack of curricular emphasis. The work of Klopfer and others in science education constitute a resource from which to construct an affective table of specifications for medical technology students. The Krathwohl taxonomy permits quantifications of these goals. Some techniques for such measurement (open-ended approaches, checklists, Likert scales, and semantic differentials) are reviewed. Finally, the nature of the interface between the affective and cognitive domains is analyzed. The clinical laboratory sciences educator functions as a nonverbal as well as a verbal affective role model for his/her students. This paper emphasizes the responsibility of the educator in creating flexible student assessment approaches in the domain. PMID:7424956
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; Polegato, Jillian L.
Background: Children's rights education in schools has many social and educational benefits. Among them are a deeper understanding of rights and social responsibility, an improved school climate, and greater school engagement and achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children's rights education has the power to…
Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…
Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.
Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.
The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic…
Drazan, John F; Scott, John M; Hoke, Jahkeen I; Ledet, Eric H
A hands-on learning module called "Science of the Slam" is created that taps into the passions and interests of an under-represented group in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). This is achieved by examining the use of the scientific method to quantify the biomechanics of basketball players who are good at performing the slam dunk. Students already have an intrinsic understanding of the biomechanics of basketball however this "hidden capital" has never translated into the underlying STEM concepts. The effectiveness of the program is rooted in the exploitation of "hidden capital" within the field of athletics to inform and enhance athletic performance. This translation of STEM concepts to athletic performance provides a context and a motivation for students to study the STEM fields who are traditionally disengaged from the classic engineering outreach programs. "Science of the Slam" has the potential to serve as a framework for other researchers to engage under-represented groups in novel ways by tapping into shared interests between the researcher and disadvantaged populations. PMID:25571155
This paper analyses the development and implementation of the European Union's policies in distance higher education and elearning since the 1957 Treaty of Rome. Distance education emerged in the 1960s and 70s as an instrument at national level to redress disadvantage, and to provide flexible, high-quality and cost-effective access to higher education to adults who were unable, for geographical, employment or personal reasons, to attend on-campus. Analysis of EU policy documents and interview...
...received a secondary school diploma (or an equivalency...additional secondary school education, remedial...offered at the secondary school level as provided in...vocational rehabilitation counselor in the Vocational Rehabilitation...is found by accepted testing methods that the...
The study investigates the chances of gaining admission to Georgian higher education in relation to residential origin. The analysis of broad trends is combined with details from an in-depth individual-level inquiry. Qualitative data on the entire population of 150,000 applicants over the period 2005-9, together with interview data from a…
The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…
Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
Participants from India, Korea, Maldives, Nepal, Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia met to formulate strategies and develop alternative methods of teaching multiple classes and educating disadvantaged groups. Activities of the Study Group Meeting included four phases: presentation and discussion of country experiences relating to…
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier So...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style related to child feeding; b provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV; and c creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022
Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.
Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corres...
Boado, Hector Cebolla
This paper explores the prospective transition of immigrant and native students in France from lower to upper secondary school. Because they are more likely to be tracked to less prestigious (vocational) tracks, immigrant and immigrant-origin students are significantly disadvantaged at this key academic stage in comparison with the children of…
Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez
In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…
Efthymios Alepis; Virvou, M.; Kabassi, K.
One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making th...
Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.
The No Child Left Behind education act mandates that school districts develop supplemental educational service programs for students not demonstrating mathematical proficiency on state standardized math assessments. Yet there is limited understanding of issues related to supplemental educational service math programs. The purpose of this…
Ryan, Thomas G.
A cross section of educators from Ontario, Canada, many of whom were beginning teachers, volunteered to complete the survey at an Ontario Faculty of Education. Of the 121 educators who participated, 55% worked with students at the elementary school level, 24% at the middle school level, and 23% at the high school level. This investigation of…
Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans; Pettersen, Ivar
We investigate whether the academic performance of non-eligible students - in an institutional setting of full inclusion - are affected by special education resources. Special education resources are per definition provided in a compensatory manner, and are increasingly being targeted to misbehaving students. The hypothesis is thus that special education resources might dampen the negative externalities associated with misbehaving students, and thus work to improve the performance of non-elig...
This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…
Physical educators cannot continue to list as goals everything that physical activity instruction might possibly contribute to students' lives. The affective domain has been additionally burdened by the long-standing assumption that affective benefits are the automatic result of instruction in other domains. The need to clarify the workings of the…
Teacher Education at a Distance: Meeting the Needs of the Disadvantaged. Final Report of the Regional Workshop in Distance Education in Teacher Education Organized by Unesco PROAP in Collaboration with Balitbang Dikbud and the Universitas Terbuka (Jakarta, Indonesia, November 1-9, 1988).
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.
This regional workshop on teacher education at a distance met to review existing distance education modalities and identify common problems and issues; cooperatively develop innovative strategies and guidelines for meeting the needs of girls, disadvantaged groups, and those in remote areas; review existing networks in distance education for…
Dalley, Bernell; Podawiltz, Alan; Castro, Robert; Fallon, Kathleen; Kott, Marylee; Rabek, Jeffrey; Richardson, James; Thomson, William; Ferry, Pamela; Mabry, Budge; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Smith, Quentin
In 2003, Texas initiated an experiment to address enrollment disparities in its medical schools. With bipartisan support from key Texas legislators, funding was allocated in 2002 to establish the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP). Texas' then eight medical schools created, through JAMP, a partnership with the state's 31 public and 34 private undergraduate colleges and universities. Cognizant of legal prohibitions against reliance solely on race or ethnicity in promoting diversity, JAMP is designed to enhance opportunities for economically disadvantaged students from across the state, including those from (1) rural and remote areas of the state, and (2) institutions that have historically sent few students to medical school. Now in its seventh year of operation, JAMP is overseen by a council with representatives from all nine Texas medical schools. For the six years-2003 to 2008-for which data are available, indicators of JAMP performance can be seen in (1) the numbers of applicants to JAMP (1,230 applicants in the first six years), (2) levels of JAMP participation (480 participants), and (3) matriculation of JAMP participants into medical schools (164 of 288 of those accepted into the program in the years 2003-2006).The authors provide a brief history of JAMP, describe its structure and operation, summarize objective performance data, and identify some of the challenges still faced. These include increasing the participation of students from underrepresented minority groups within the legal structure for the program, and fostering substantive participation in JAMP by all of Texas' undergraduate institutions. A focused effort is under way to strengthen the evaluative aspects of JAMP so that more comprehensive data, including subjective evaluation data from participants, can be shared with colleagues in the future. PMID:19881424
Lam, Ching Man
With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…
Melville, D. Scott; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Investigated whether being a good model of physical activity and fitness would influence employability within the physical education (PE) profession. Surveys of individuals who hired PE teachers indicated that being 10-20 pounds overweight was detrimental when seeking employment as a public school PE teacher during both initial screening and final…
Rathner, Joseph A; Byrne, Graeme
The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as "the human bioscience problem." In the present report, we describe the outcomes for individual success in studying first-year human physiology in a subject that emphasises team-based active learning as the major pedagogy for mastering subject learning outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to develop a model of the impact team learning had on individual performance. Modeling was consistent with the idea that students with similar academic abilities (as determined by tertiary entrance rank) were advantaged (scored higher on individual assessment items) by working in strong teams (teams that scored higher in team-based assessments). Analysis of covariance revealed that students who studied the subject with active learning as the major mode of learning activities outperformed students who studied the subject using the traditional didactic teaching format (lectures and tutorials, P = 0.000). After adjustment for tertiary entrance rank (via analysis of covariance) on two individual tests (the final exam and a late-semester in-class test), individual student grades improved by 8% (95% confidence interval: 6-10%) and 12% (95% confidence interval: 10-14%) when students engaged in team-based active learning. These data quantitatively support the notion that weaker students working in strong teams can overcome their educational disadvantages. PMID:25179611
Delport, Rina; Geyer, Stephan; Strydom, Hermanus; Theron, Linda Carol
The aim of this article is to hear the voices of HIV- and AIDS-affected educators regarding their experiences of the psychosocial effect that the HIV and AIDS pandemic has on them as well as to voice their experiences of how Resilient Educators (REds), a support programme to enable educators affected by HIV and AIDS towards resilience, enabled them. A qualitative study was undertaken with 100 affected educators from different provinces in South Africa. Open-ended questionnaires were used to c...
van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien
Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010
This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…
Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul
This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…
Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.
This report describes a 12-week pilot phase of an affective education program in the Stuttgart School District, Arkansas. Participating in the program were 218 children, grades 2-4, and a team of nineteen teachers who were given 12 weeks of in-service training designed to facilitate their use of the DUSO, Focus on Self-Development Human…
College physical education is one of the important contents in promoting the college students' quality education. Improving teaching quality and building up the students' physical quality have become the problems that the society is concerned. Through practices, the application of the idea of happy physical education can not only improve teaching quality effectively but also improve the students' physical conditions greatly. It not only has some advantages but also has some limitations. How t...
There is a paucity of research about how the policies enacted by states either foster or hinder charter schools’ service to disadvantaged students or how the characteristics of charter schools themselves affect this outcome. By combining data from the US Department of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey with data on the characteristics of state charter school policies, this article examines how different types of charter schools respond to the policy and market signals established by ...
Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.
The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional development will continue through the 2013-2014 academic year. Formative assessment of the ongoing project indicates that students, teachers, parents and school administrators rank their experiences highly and that students are motivated to continue on the path to geoscience careers.
Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.
Hong Thi Nguyen
Full Text Available This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study’s findings show that many factors hinder the quality of English teaching and learning: uninteresting teaching style; insufficient time for communicative activities; grammar-driven teaching; unreasonable time-management; unclear instructions; large class sizes; teachers’ limited ability in classroom organization; unequal students’ English levels; inadequate lesson preparation; teachers’ limited use of teaching aids and technology; and students’ lack of confidence in using oral English in class activities. Based on these results, recommendations are given to improve the quality of non-major English teaching and learning, at HUTECH University in particular and in Vietnamese higher education in general.
Lynsay A. Shepherd
Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.
Rathner, Joseph A.; Byrne, Graeme
The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as "the human…
The adoption of a single currency was considered one of the most important successes of the effort to unify the countries of the European Union. Obviously, a common currency has indisputable advantages, the most important being that of stimulating trade in countries that have joined the Eurozone. Meanwhile, the euro has several disadvantages, the most important being that the excessive centralization of monetary policy in the European Union. Moreover, the introduction of a single currency gen...
Timothy W. Bodnar
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess whether the organization and structure of inpatient team rounds affects medical student perception of the overall quantity and quality of teaching on an inpatient general medicine service. Methods: A pilot project to improve inpatient care was launched at the Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VAAAHS. General medicine attending physicians involved in the pilot followed a "non-traditional" rounding structure (accentuating senior resident-run "work rounds" while time for "attending rounds" focused on critical issues and teaching. The remainder kept the "traditional" rounding structure (entire team rounds on patients one-by-one. In a cross-sectional design, third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Michigan were surveyed after their rotation about their experience. Students were asked to rate their educational experience in 21 domains. Responses were evaluated by rounding structure. Results: A total of 90 students (59 responded. Across every domain surveyed, students rated the quantity and quality of teaching higher after experiencing "non-traditional" rounds. Statistically significant increases were seen in ratings for "teaching during rounds from senior resident", "teaching during rounds from attending", "sit-down teaching from attending", "overall amount/quality of teaching", and "overall improvement in internal medicine knowledge", among others. Conclusions: The organization and structure of inpatient rounds can significantly impact medical student education. Teaching physicians and medical school clerkship directors should consider this when organizing inpatient team workflow.
Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy
In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…
The article discussed various disadvantages of the wind power production and focuses on turbine types, generators, operational safety and development aspects. Some environmental problems are mentioned
Koch, Patricia Barthalow
Because of the “computer revolution,” health-care professionals are being called upon in academic, continuing education, and on-site settings to teach computer education to students as well as other professionals. It has been demonstrated that education which includes the examination of attitudes, values, and feelings will reduce anxiety and increase interest towards the subject matter and will also help the student integrate the subject matter more effectively into his or her life. There...
Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…
Idrus, Rozhan M.; Ghani, Noraida A.; Ma, Omar; Rahman, Zuraidah A.; Atan, Hanafi
The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at t...
... to determine if the child qualifies for special education services. This means that professionals from a variety of fields (medicine, psychology, occupational therapy, etc.) and the parents of the ...
Kolm, Ann-sofie; Larsen, Birthe
While examining the macroeconomic effects of government tax and punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector general equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choice of education is determined endogenously. Job opportunities in an informal sector are available only to workers who choose not to acquire higher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activities increases the number...
China's phenomenal growth is accompanied by both relatively low level of standards of living and high inequality. It is widely believe that investing in education could be an effective strategy to promote higher standards of living as well as to reduce inequality. However, little is known about whether this belief is empirically supported. To this end, we employ a recently developed distributional approach to estimate returns to education across the whole earnings distribution in urban China ...
Individual risk attitudes are widely used in order to predict decisions regarding education. These uses of risk attitudes as a control variable for education decisions, however, have been criticized due to potential reverse causality. The causality between risk aversion and education is not clear, and it is hard to disentangle the different directions. We here investigate the causal effect of education on risk aversion by looking at the 1973 British Education Reform. With the educational refo...
Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari
Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal ...
The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters
Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari
Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…
The Great Depression is a prime example of a macroeconomic crisis that produced adverse economic and social effects in all spheres of life. The theoretical arguments about the real effects of the Great Depression on education vary. The first is that of economic hardships, which might force individuals eligible to go to school to work for their sustenance. The second argument is that high unemployment would reduce the opportunity cost of going to school, making going to school the best other ...
Dewald, Margaret R.; And Others
As part of a series on implementing competency-based education, this monograph provides guidelines for developing and using affective performance objectives. After the characteristics of affective, cognitive, and psychomotor objectives are summarized, a discussion is presented of the skepticism many instructors feel toward the evaluation of areas…
Mora, Toni; Llargués, Esteve; Recasens, Assumpta
We examine the effects of a comprehensive school-based health education programme (introducing healthy habits in the curriculum) to combat childhood obesity in the mid-size urban city of Granollers (Catalonia, Spain). The intervention was carried out between 2006 and 2008. New anthropometric measurements were obtained in 2008, 2010 and 2012. The length of the intervention evaluation constitutes a valuable contribution to the existing literature. Data refers to 509 schoolchildren aged 6 years old from 16 schools that were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or to the control group. Our results indicate that children's BMI in the treatment group was reduced by 1.13kg/m(2) four years after the intervention, representing on average and for an average height, a loss of 1.6kg. We examine heterogeneity and find that most effect is driven by children coming from disadvantaged backgrounds whilst no differences were obtained differentiating by gender. PMID:25483772
Dervin, Fred; Tournebise, Céline
This article examines a rather neglected context of intercultural education: intercultural communication education (ICE). ICE can be found in different fields such as business, applied linguistics, intercultural communication and health education, amongst others. The authors start by reviewing the latest and ongoing changes…
The author identifies two tendencies affecting higher education. On the one hand, universities and colleges are under pressure to become more market-oriented and to respond to rapid changes in information technology and knowledge production. On the other hand, there is a growing concern that they should work for the benefit of society, promoting social equity and responding to community needs. The author argues that partnerships between the community and institutions of higher education are an effective way of contributing to community development. He describes the potential of South Africa's historically disadvantaged institutions to contribute to reconstruction and development in the aftermath of apartheid.
Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah
Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a single case study to explore the role of affect in entrepreneurial learning. The study focuses on a learning activity involving the creation of a flashmob by the students, as well as the buildup to the flashmob, which included a Lego based exercise. The case study builds on a combination of observation data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the students’ learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created very different patterns of affect. We suggest that these differences are due to differnces in the space in which the learning activity occurs, and the temporal duration of the activity. Implications Our study suggests that entrepreneurship educators can and should seek to address the issue of affect in their teaching. We also provide evidence of how teachers can create learning-conducive platforms. Value/Originality The study bridges theoretical insight into the affective turn and empirical data from an entrepreneurship classroom. This results in useful descriptions of learning activities and the affects created both within and among the students. We also point to challenges and risks involved in leveraging affect in entrepreneurship teaching.
Honeypot Systems: Advantages and Disadvantages / Jarkko Teriö Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, 2011, 31 s. Kandidaatintutkielma Hunajapurkkijärjestelmät ovat tietojärjestelmäresursseja, joiden toivotaan tulevan hyökkäyksen kohteeksi. Valvomalla hunajapurkkijärjestelmiä tarkasti, voidaan hyökkääjistä ja näiden käyttämistä työkaluista, tekniikoista ja motiiveista oppia paljon. Tätä tietoa voidaan hyödyntää organisaation tietoturvamekanismien parantamisessa. T...
Feldman, Roberta M.; Walter Grondzik
I am impressed but not surprised at how differently Tom, Richard and Iview the question of “affecting change in architectural education.” Tomtook on the more expansive issue of how the broader university might redefineitself through “design thinking” and “design thinkers’” leadership,while Richard gave a concise overview of long held aspirations forarchitectural education and the profession. And I took on architecture’srelationship to society, particularly concerned with “ma...
Full Text Available Business schools have been criticized failing to acknowledge their role in educating responsible managers thatcould have helped in solving the recent financial crisis that affected corporate institutions. This has resulted in anumber of measures by most business schools in the areas of introduction of responsible management educationcourses. Nevertheless, the general view prevails that business schools as a whole are making only very littleprogress in addressing these critical issues on institutional level. The study therefore examines the key factorsaffecting the implementation of responsible management education in Ghanaian Business Schools.The study revealed that the most important factors affecting business schools authorities’ decisions in theimplementation of the concept of responsible management education were; financial constraints, tensionsbetween the university, business schools and national Accreditation Board (NAB. That is not all, but mostrespondents placed much emphasis on lack of learning environments to promote knowledge, skills and attitudesof students to become responsible business leaders as among the most critical factor affecting theimplementation of responsible management education.Past experience with a CSR agenda and size of the business school were recorded as the least critical factorsidentified as affecting successful implementation of responsible management education.
Noordegraaf, M.; Wit, B. C.
Relations between professionals and managers in public domains are the subject of sharp controversies, especially in domains like education. According to public opinion, the rise of Managerialism has fuelled clashes between managers and professionals. In the past few years, academic research has mainly studied how management reforms affect professionals and their work. How managers, such as school managers, are affected has hardly been studied, however. This paper studies wheth...
Capper, Colleen A.
This descriptive study examined the impact of special education policy on three disadvantaged, rural students with severe disabilities. Findings revealed a school day with little or no instruction and limited opportunities for peer interaction due to such factors as personnel shortages and lack of positive service examples. (Author/DB)
Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine
Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990
This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…
Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.
This report describes the effects of a 2-year affective-social education program offered by the elementary guidance services of the Stuttgart School District in Arkansas. Four groups of children (a total of 105 boys and 116 girls) were identified for this evaluation: Group I, involved in the program for two full years; Group II, participating one…
Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.
This is an evaluation of developmental guidance services' affective education program. Data was collected on children enrolled in Buerkle School and in a control school (Julia Shannon) in Stuttgart School District No. 22 (AR). Third- and fourth-grade level boys and girls who had been in the program for the full 1975-1976 year provided data for…
Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…
Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie
This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeco...
G., Garcia-Garcia; V., Jha.
Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predispo [...] sition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.
Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J
Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358
Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand
The increased burden of CKD in disadavantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities, and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expanding deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25525919
Grauer, Bette L.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore (a) the types of student affective responses that secondary science teachers reported emerged in science classes, (b) how those teachers worked with student affective responses, and (c) what interactions were present in the classroom when they worked with student affective responses. The study was motivated by research indicating that student interest and motivation for learning science is low. Eight secondary science teachers participated in the case study. The participants were selected from a pool of teachers who graduated from the same teacher education program at a large Midwest university. The primary sources of data were individual semi-structured interviews with the participants. Krathwohl's Taxonomy of the Affective Domain served as the research framework for the study. Student affective behavior reported by participants was classified within the five levels of Krathwohl's Affective Taxonomy: receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Participants in the study reported student behavior representing all levels of the Affective Taxonomy. The types of behavior most frequently reported by participants were identified with the receiving and responding levels of the Affective Taxonomy. Organization behavior emerged during the study of perceived controversial science topics such as evolution. Participants in the study used student affective behavior to provide feedback on their lesson activities and instructional practices. Classroom interactions identified as collaboration and conversation contributed to the development of responding behavior. The researcher identified a process of affective progression in which teachers encouraged and developed student affective behavior changes from receiving to responding levels of the Affective Taxonomy.
By scrapping the Education Maintenance Allowance the Coalition government risks losing their opportunity to target entrenched problems of social mobility and educational disadvantage among pupils from deprived backgrounds in England
In late 2010 the Coalition government announced that the Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) – a UK-wide scheme that offers weekly finance to students from low-income households who continue into post-compulsory further education – would come to an end in England after only 4 years of national availability to all 16-18 year olds. Joan Wilson finds that the scrapping of the scheme may work against the Coalition’s plans for social mobility.
Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning
A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes. PMID:23965029
Woszidlo, Alesia; Segrin, Chris
This investigation examines the role of negative affectivity and educational attainment in newlywed couples' mutual problem solving and marital quality (i.e., personal commitment and divorce proneness). The vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model of marital development was used as a framework to explain the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities, adaptive processes, and marital quality. Dyadic analyses and tests of indirect effects were performed on data from 186 couples who had been married on average for 1.5 years. Spouses' negative affectivity and educational attainment were significantly associated with their own and their partner's mutual problem solving, personal commitment, and propensity to divorce. In addition, there was evidence supporting the assumption that the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities and marital quality can be explained, in part, by mutual problem solving for husbands. This study highlights the important role that enduring vulnerabilities have on mutual problem solving communication and marital quality. PMID:23472443
Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-ntoumani, Cecilie
Objective: We examined changes in student achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and affective responses in secondary school physical education. Method: Greek junior high school students (N ¼ 394; 191 males and 203 females) responded to a multisection questionnaire twice a year from the ages of 12 to 15 years. Results: Multilevel modeling analyses showed significant linear decreases in perceptions of taskinvolving teacher climate, task and ego goal orienta...
Süleyman Erhan Deveci
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ?10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ?10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.
This article briefly summarizes the progress made by women globally and points out that women are still disadvantaged. The article is based on statistics compiled in a wall chart on Women in 1998 by the Population Reference Bureau. Women have progressed in education, the labor force, and health. Women's life expectancy has increased from 49 to 68 years since the 1950s. Women's participation in the labor force has increased from 33% to 54%. Literacy has risen from 54% to 64% since the 1970s. The gender gap in secondary school enrollment has narrowed since the 1980s. The ratio of girl-to-boy secondary school enrollment is 80 or 90 girls/100 boys. However, women still experience major disadvantages. In 1997, women became HIV-infected at a rate of almost 6000 women/day. 41% of people living with HIV/AIDS are women. In sub-Saharan Africa, women with HIV account for 50% of the nearly 20 million adults infected with HIV. The proportion of HIV-infected women in other regions ranges 20-33%. 4 million of the 11.7 million people who have died of AIDS were women. Nearly 600,000 women die every year from maternal mortality and abortion. Maternal mortality rates range from under 8 deaths/100,000 live births in European countries to 1400 deaths/100,000 live births in some sub-Saharan countries. Family planning and access to and services for prenatal, delivery, and postpartum care can help reduce maternal deaths. Maternal care has improved, but not sufficiently to offset the increased number of pregnancies. The number of female-headed households has grown, and these households tend to be poor. PMID:12293548
A review of research evidence suggests that low levels of educational attainment are crucial in generating and sustaining social exclusion. Test scores at school are the most effective predictor of many adult outcomes. School attendance and soft skills are also important. Reviewing the factors accounting for the variance in educational attainment, it is evident that combinations of social disadvantage powerfully affect school performance with up to 75% of school variation in 16 year old attai...
...The U.S. Small Business Administration...amend the 8(a) Business Development (BD...and the regulations affecting Small Disadvantaged Businesses (SDBs). That rule...and procedures, Government procurement,...
Dale, Di; James, Chris
Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…
Morse, William C.; Munger, Richard L.
Designed as a resource for teachers, this bibliography provides reference to materials on affective education from the areas of psychology, education, and mental health published between 1951 and 1975. Included in the listing are professional books, articles, periodicals, children's books, organizations and projects, additional bibliographic…
Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee
This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an important…
Lu?demann, Elke; Schwerdt, Guido
Research on educational disadvantages of second-generation immigrants largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS Extension, we provide evidence that second-generation immigrants face an additional disadvantage when tracked into different types of secondary school. We find that second-generation immigrants are less likely to receive a teacher recommendation for a higher school track. This difference cannot be attributed to differences in ...
María Jesús, NIETO; , OTERO.
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es evidente que la afectividad es un elemento a tomar en cuenta en el proceso de educación. Algunas investigaciones recientes muestran la necesidad de armonizar la educación intelectual y la educación de la afectividad para alcanzar una mejor educación del carácter (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 200 [...] 4). En este sentido, puede resultar oportuno buscar antecedentes en los pensadores humanistas venezolanos. En esta investigación me pregunto: ¿Qué aportes ofrece Augusto Mijares a la educación de la afectividad? ¿Cuál es la caracterización de la afectividad del venezolano según A. Mijares? ¿Cuál es la propuesta de Mijares para educar mejor la afectividad en Venezuela? Para responder a estas preguntas sigo la metodología del Análisis del Discurso (Van Dijk, 1985; Bolívar, 1995). El corpus está formado por artículos de Mijares publicados en prensa, y los dos discursos de incorporación a las Academias de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, y Venezolana de la Lengua -correspondiente de la Real Academia Española-. Las categorías de análisis son los conceptos de afectividad, virtud de la constancia, educación y perfectibilidad del ser humano; estas categorías se definen desde la perspectiva del Romanticismo según Augusto Mijares. Las categorías se analizan principalmente en las descripciones de personajes históricos, venezolanos, que Mijares relata en sus escritos. Al final de este trabajo, encuentro que Mijares formuló una propuesta para la educación de la afectividad de los venezolanos, y es: Educar en la virtud de la constancia. Pareciera conveniente considerar hoy, en Venezuela, esta alternativa educativa como un medio para armonizar razón y afectividad. La propuesta de Mijares en este corpus invita a continuar profundizando el estudio de la educación de la afectividad en sus obras completas. Abstract in english Affectivity is a relevant element in the educational process. Multidisciplinary international research on character education shows the need for harmonizing intellectual education and the education of affectivity (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 2004). In order to find precedents to improve Venezuelan [...] education of affectivity, we must look to teachers that have made a mark in the nation's history. In this article, we explore the contributions of Mijares to the concept of education of affectivity, how he characterizes Venezuelan affectivity, and what is his proposal for improving Venezuelan education for affectivity. Mijares' proposal and his conception of the human being are studied within his Possitivist background and considering the effects of previous Romantic ideas. We conclude that Mijares states a viable alternative for the education of affectivity by educating in the virtue of constancy. It seems convenient to consider this educational alternative today in order to harmonize reason and affectivity.
Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa
Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450
Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa
Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450
Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza
Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking.
Harding, David J.
Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the ...
This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)
Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar
This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.
...Each individual claiming economic disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement...married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial...net worth of an individual claiming disadvantage must be less than...
...disadvantaged businesses. 706...AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS...disadvantaged businesses. (a...full and open competition to award contracts to small business...
Murphy, Henrietta Clare
Adult education and further training in Ire land is currently undergoing reform. The VEC structure is now abolished and it has been rcplaced by Education and Training Boards. Meanwhile digital technology is also being integrated into adult education and bringing about changes of its own. This case study aimed primarily to examinc how thc use of digital tecliiJgy can impact on the roles of those involved ill adult education. In particular, thc focus of the S!!!bl was ~ ro les...
Viviane Melo de Mendonça
Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.
Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.
This report presents the Virginia Department of Education's study of the current standards for qualified educational interpreters for deaf and hearing impaired students and the impact of qualification standards on the supply and demand of educational interpreters. The study involved synthesis of data concerning the Virginia Quality Assurance…
Vlachopoulos, S.; Biddle, S. J. H.
This study investigated likely determinants of achievement-related affect in physical education. In particular, interrelationships were examined between achievement goal orientations, success perceptions, personally controllable attributions and achievement-related affect based on data collected from 1,070 British students aged 11-16 years. A positive association emerged between task orientation and success perception, but not between ego orientation and success perception. In addition, perce...
This article describes a qualitative research study that examined the educational experiences of refugee students who have immigrated to Canada. Many children from war-affected countries have been denied basic human entitlements, and their immigration to Canada represents hope for their futures. Evidence suggests that these students are further…
Secondary physical education (PE) has become a popular area of inquiry because students are not meeting overarching goals of PE programs, are less motivated, and demonstrate negative affect while in class. As such, teachers and researchers are starting to examine pedagogical approaches that support student motivation as a means to alleviate some…
Oswaldo, Martínez Padrón.
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM) y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías [...] sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM. Abstract in english This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM) and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation o [...] f mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.
Oswaldo Martínez Padrón
Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM.This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation of mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.
Usher, Alex; Dunn, Ryan
With the global recession in full effect, post-secondary education in Canada is about to face some very significant challenges. The purpose of this report is to outline the likely main effects of this global recession on the Canadian post-secondary education (PSE) sector, as well as suggest a series of measures that governments can take to help…
Taymans, Juliana M.
Although the exact prevalence is not determined, a noticeable subset of individuals who enroll in adult education and training programs have either diagnosed or undiagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLD). Understanding SLD is important basic information for adult educators to inform program policies as well as determine effective…
One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide explains the use of deposit collections, small library collections placed in easily accessible locations. A collection of materials in a familiar place is one way to make information available to people who don't visit the library and to encourage them to come. The library…
Harding, David J.
Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…
Sharman, I. M.
Carbohydrate loading enables an athlete to build up stores of muscle glycogen. Such raised levels increase work times and are therefore of real benefit to long-distance runners. It is unclear how frequently the regimen can be repeated with the same advantageous results. There are possible disadvantages in the regimen, and even dangers in older subjects.
Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.
Sinatra, G. M.
Changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues, such as human-induced climate change, presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). First, climate science is complex and requires "systems thinking," or the ability to think and reason abstractly about emergent systems (Goldstone & Sakamoto, 2003). Appreciating the intricacies of complex systems and emergent processes has proven challenging for students (Chi, 2005). In addition to these challenges, there are specific misconceptions that may lead thinking astray on the issue of global climate change, such as the distinction between weather and climate (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). As an example, when students are asked about their views on climate change, they often recall individual storm events or very cold periods and use their personal experiences and recollections of short-term temperature fluctuations to assess whether the planet is warming. Beyond the conceptual difficulties, controversial topics offer another layer of challenge. Such topics are often embedded in complex socio-cultural and political contexts, have a high degree of uncertainty, and may be perceived by individuals as in conflict with their personal or religious beliefs (Levinson, 2006, Sinatra, Kardash, Taasoobshirazi, & Lombardi, 2011). Individuals are often committed to their own views on socio-scientific issues and this commitment may serve as a motivation to actively resist new ideas (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Individuals may also have strong emotions associated with their misconceptions (Broughton, Pekrun, & Sinatra, 2011). Negative emotions, misconceptions, and resistance do not make a productive combination for learning. Further, teachers who find human-induced climate change implausible have been shown to hold negative emotions about having to teach about climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation), which could affect how they present the topic to students. In this presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.
Uddin, Salah; Rahman, Atta Ur
A number of students in the urban and rural areas of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group were collected to examine the various socio-economic factors which affect our education system. A logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate) person(s) and the risk factors are Father literacy [FE], Father income[FI] Parents’ attitude towards education[PA], Mother literacy [ME], Present examination ...
BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2) to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household membe...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factors and problems associated with the growth of Information and Communication Technologies(ICTin developing countries and examine the Turkish distance Education System from the point of the factors such as cultural;political;economic;technological..The study,firstly,introduces some applications and problems of instructional technology and distance education in some developed countries and Turkey as a developing country;than examines Turkish distance education system,Open Education Faculty(OEF,from the points of factors such as cultural,political,economic and technological.
Hac? Mehmet Yildirim; Lütfi Atay
Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism unde...
...contains small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets. The Contractor...requirement . If this contract contains SDB participation targets, the Contractor shall report on the participation of SDB concerns at contract completion,...
Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia
We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…
Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa
Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…
Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…
Teacher stress has attracted considerable attention, yet few studies have focused on special education teachers. This article, by Lambros Lazuras of the South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) in Thessaloniki, reports research designed to explore differences in the stress levels of general and special educators in Greece and provides…
Adetunde, I. A.; Akensina, Akampae P.
This study presents the current factors affecting the standard of female education in the Kassena-Nankana district in Upper East Region of Ghana. Poverty, long-held negative attitudes about women's intellectual capabilities, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, examination failure in mathematics and science and the traditional division of household labour are among the many factors that continue to keep vast numbers of girls out of the classroom in the district and country as well.
Aragone?s, Enriqueta; Sa?nchez-page?s, Santiago
This paper analyzes the problem that an incumbent faces during the legislature when deciding how to react to popular initiatives or policy proposals coming from different sources. We argue that this potential source of electoral disadvantage that the incumbent obtains after being elected can jeopardize the reelection possibilities of the incumbent. We analyze the decision of the incumbent when facing reelection and we characterize the conditions under which the advantages that the incumbent o...
Stewart, M J
In Canada, cultural, physical and structural barriers to the poor's accessibility to health care persist. The economically disadvantaged are clearly identified as a national high-risk target group because of poorer health status and health behaviours than higher-income Canadians. A four-component model is proposed to describe the complex, multivariate nature of access to health care for the economically disadvantaged. The mutual effects of characteristics of access and poverty are outlined and strategies to facilitate improved access are delineated and exemplified. Education, comprehensive and personalized care, consumer participation, and environmental strategies, while not uniquely applicable to the needs of the poor, may collectively constitute a reasonable approach to removing barriers to access to care for this vulnerable group. Furthermore, these four strategies are consistent with premises of primary health care and health promotion. While the model encompasses many relevant variables, it is neither exclusive nor all-inclusive. Further research is required to assess the linkage between specific elements of these four components and to conduct monetary and human cost-benefit analyses of recommended approaches. PMID:2282608
Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet
Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261
The aim of this study is to determine the factors and problems associated with the growth of Information and Communication Technologies(ICT)in developing countries and examine the Turkish distance Education System from the point of the factors such as cultural;political;economic;technological..The study,firstly,introduces some applications and problems of instructional technology and distance education in some developed countries and Turkey as a developing country;than examines Turkish distan...
The American Council on Education, headed by David Ward (the former Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin), "seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on key higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives." To this end, their Web site is a vast repository of papers, research initiatives, and newsletters that will assist those persons working in higher education administration, or those with a general interest in trends within American universities and colleges. The main page contains links to the Council's different working units, such as the Center for Adult Learning, the Center for Policy Analysis, and the International Initiatives office. While many of the publications listed within these respective offices are available for purchase, users will also find helpful working papers available at no charge, such as "Crucial Choices: How Students' Financial Decisions Affect Their Academic Success" and "Gender Equity in Higher Education: Are Male Students at a Disadvantage?"
Describes an experimental literacy class for socially and economically disadvantaged parents in the United Kingdom. Looks at the many factors affecting these adult students' participation and learning. Notes that the literacy students wanted more than functional literacy--literacy had to fulfill the need to express feelings, the need for…
Buntin, L. Ann
Forty-two teachers and supervisors, selected by the Texas Education Agency, participated in a 2-week workshop designed to provide an intensive study of the disadvantaged and to increase the effectiveness of teachers of culturally disadvantaged youth, primarily in the area of occupational training. Scholars in the fields of sociology and psychology…
Sammons, Pam; Hall, James; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda
Whether or not more effective schools can successfully mitigate the impacts of early disadvantage upon educational attainment remains uncertain. We investigated 2,664 children aged 6-11 years and measured their academic skills in English and maths along with self-regulation at 6, 7, and 11. Experiencing multiple disadvantages before age 5 strongly…
Castellano, Marisa; Stringfield, Samuel; Stone, James R., III
A 5-year longitudinal study was designed to examine diverse and promising programs to integrate career and technical education (CTE) with whole-school reforms in schools serving predominantly disadvantaged students. A literature review focused on conceptual underpinnings: disadvantaged youth; transition points; whole-school reform; and CTE.…
The growing number of high-achieving students choosing to attend community colleges has fueled this debate: Are two-year schools shortchanging educationally and financially disadvantaged, students in the process? Answers aren't easy, and of course, they vary widely among educators. But because community colleges are such a major portal of entry…
M G, Steyn; Teresa, Harris; C G, Hartell.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of th [...] em enrol in this particular programme at a historically white university. Through a qualitative, case study approach the reasons for the low enrolment and completion rates were investigated. Participants mentioned that recruitment for this programme, particularly in rural areas should be improved. They also pointed out the higher prestige of other career options, the linguistic challenges they face, the cost of university education and early teacher education in particular, as well as access to transport and resources as barriers to recruitment and retention. Their recommendations for higher enrolment rates included the use of black students to recruit in rural and in township areas, increased funding for bursaries, and more culturally sensitive pedagogies in early childhood teacher education.
Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again. With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in education, great memories can now be shaped on the go. And of course we need memory to learn. Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for historical reasons, all this useful knowledge rarely reaches teachers or designers of educational games.
Zipse, D.W. (Zipse Electrical Engineering, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States))
The successful 200-year-old method of using a (Franklin) rod to collect, control, and convey to earth the awesome and destructive power of lightning has produced other controversial, potential alternate methods. The mechanics and interaction of lightning-producing thunderclouds and earth are discussed. Compared to the Franklin Air Terminal (rod) and Faraday Cage method, the debatable advantages and disadvantages of the early streamer emission-enhanced ionizing air terminal and multipoint discharge systems are examined, along with conceptual future methods of lightning protection.
It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.
This paper emerges from an ongoing, three-year qualitative study of how adolescents, teachers, and peer sexual health educators interpret the language of abstinence and represent the emotional meanings that enliven sexuality and sexual health. The paper demonstrates how conflicts of thinking and relationality emerge from aesthetic narratives about…
Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia
Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…
Students with print disabilities continue to face inaccessible information and information technologies in higher education institutions despite federal and state legislation and local policies. Although most individuals responsible for making their course materials accessible often express support for the egalitarian principles of such policies,…
Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley
Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality)…
Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.
A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…
Erden, Feyza Tantekin
The aim of this study is to investigate if a semester-long course on gender equity in education has an impact on the attitudes of preservice teachers toward gender roles. To this end, a pretest-posttest analysis is carried out in a state university in Ankara, Turkey, employing a sample of 133 preservice teachers; 33 of whom had taken the course…
O'Neil, Bryan L.
The purpose of the practicum was to determine the societal factors existing in the accounting industry and accounting education, with the aim of integrating the changing regulations and environment of the industry into the classroom at Castleton State College (Vermont). A group of certified public accountants were surveyed by Likert scale to learn…
Waters, Alan; Vilches, Ma. Luz C.
A number of recent studies, especially within the East Asian region, have chronicled the problems involved in successful implementation of the English language teaching component of large-scale, system-wide educational innovations. This paper reports on the findings of research into the implementation, in both general and ELT-related terms, of…
Based on Social Cognitive Carier Theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2002), this study tested the effects of mathematics teacher candidates' self-efficacy in, outcome expectations from, and interest in CAME on their intentions to integrate Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME). While mathematics teacher candidates' outcome…
Full Text Available Neo-classical economic doctrine dominating governmental policies shows its impact on recent transport policies, causing these policies; tend to base on demand and efficiency criteria instead of equity concerns. Public transit operating for remote areas is less cost-effective eventually leading to have a low level of service quality. In metropolitan areas of developing countries, a large part of socially disadvantaged and vulnerable groups live in outer suburban locations not in the inner-city. Transit equity evaluation is required by in order to consider the requirements of more vulnerable populations, as well as to foster equal benefits. The evaluation approach is based on highlighting the spatial distribution and clustering patterns of bus network and service as well as some disadvantaged social groups including unemployed, migrated, less educated, elderly, young, and disabled. The hypothesis is that vulnerable groups and economically disadvantaged communities receive a less than equal share of public bus services. The findings show that poor accessibility is associated both with low-income neighborhoods and with neighborhoods with disproportionately high populations of migrated, less-educated, unemployed and low-income groups. Modifications need to make in transport planning and policy system to achieve a better distribution of public transport services in hope of increasing level of service for minority groups and economically disadvantaged communities.
Weldegebriel, Mengistu H.
Refugee and immigrant students face challenges in pursuing higher education. This study examined factors that affect the decision of refugees and immigrant students to pursue higher education in Tennessee. The factors included cultural capital these students acquire from their parents and families; cultural difference they have with the mainstream…
This paper presents research that investigates the nature of the connection between the professional development of five teachers in higher education and the evaluation processes they have to undergo. Since teaching, scholarship, and service are the three components that evaluation measures, this research examines how the teachers’ professional development was reflected in these components, and how they viewed the connection between their professional activities and the evaluation process. ...
Rahi, J. S.; Cumberland, P. M.; Peckham, C. S.
Objective To determine the association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition.Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood Unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social ...
The aims of the present study were to investigate principals’ opinions of PE resourcing in schools. Resourcing was divided for different resourcing factors in schools: principals’ money allocation, qualified PE teachers, PE teachers’ in-service education, extracurricular PE and optional PE courses. These resource factors were investigated by associations between school size and different resourcing factors and between school’s regional location and different resourcing factors. Other ...
Meng, Xin; Ryan, Jim
The Food for Education (FFE) program was introduced to Bangladesh in 1993. This paper evaluates the effect of this program on school participation and duration of schooling using a household survey data collected in 2000, after 7 years of operation of the program. Using propensity score matching combined with difference-in-differences methodologies we estimate the average effect of FFE eligibility on the schooling outcomes. We found that the program is successful in that the eligible children...
Jazairy, Yousra H. Al; Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Hussainan, Nawaf Al; Maflehi, Nassr Al; Abraham, Nimmi Biju; Jacob, Vimal
A disparity exists in the educational qualifications of dental assistants working in various public and private institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of professional and personal characteristics on job satisfaction among dental assistants. A cross-sectional survey was performed among dental assistants using a 24-item self-administered questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between over...
Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon
Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.
Full Text Available A paper deals with the issue of lifelong learning of elementary school teachers, secondary-school teachers and university lecturers. The attention is focused on main competences related with acquiring digital competence and competence learn to teach. ICT has become a strong means for simplifying of self-studying attitude. The skills in this area are necessary for quality improvement of life of individuals. The ICT processes stimulated searching of new approaches for more effective achievement of educational goals in the field of education. An accredited training program ,supported by e-learning in LMS Moodle surroundings, was created and verified in practice by staff members of Department of Computer Sciences FPV UKF in Nitra. A specialized teaching modul was focused on self-studying of teachers in the area of ICT and multimedia with a goal of achieving a higher degree of digital competences. The core contribution consists of questions how many teachers responded to a challenge and what results achieved those who completed education.
This paper was intended to be read to a class or group of people who will in turn respond to the directions given in the paper. It is an attempt to merge the affective and cognitive experiences of literature in order to provide a more meaningful experience while studying J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy, "The Lord of the Rings." The directions are to…
Cheraghi, Maryam; SchØtt, Thomas
Purpose – Gender gaps pervade human activity. But little is known about forces reshaping gaps across career phases, from education to running a business. The purpose of this study is to account for gender gaps owing to a lack of education and training. Such gaps may accumulate over one’s entrepreneurial career and widen or narrow due both to environmental forces that reconfigure the gap across career phases and to the gendering of competencies and benefits from education and training. Methodology – A representative sample of 110,689 adults around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Gender-related effects were ascertained by odds ratios estimated by hierarchical modelling, controlling for country and attributes of individuals. Findings – Education and entrepreneurial training, both during and after formal schooling, are highly beneficial in developing competencies and during career phases – i.e. intending to start a business, starting a business, and running a business. Early gaps in human capital are reproduced as gaps in careers, and continuous disadvantages in the environment repeatedly widen gaps throughout a person’s entrepreneurial career. That said, gender gaps are reduced slightly over time as women gain greater benefit from training than men. Implications for research – The cumulative effects of early gender gaps in education and training call for research on gendered learning, and recurrent gender effects across career phases call for research on gendering in micro-level contexts such as networks and macro-level contexts such as institutions. Implications for policy and education – Understanding the gendering of human capital and careers has implications for policy and education aimed at developing human resources, especially for mobilising women. The finding that women gain greater benefit than men from training is informative for policies that foster gender equality and empower women pursuing careers. Originality/value – Conceptualising the entrepreneurial career as a sequence of several stages enables the assessment of gender gaps owing to initial disadvantages in education and to recurrent disadvantages on the career path.
Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.
Morita, Satoru; Yoshimura, Jin
The evolution of a bet-hedging system is an important problem in fluctuating environments. However, the adaptability of preferential dispersal is not yet known. We have investigated preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems using a discrete-time stochastic matrix model, in which each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with a temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth was derived by mean-field approximation. We clarified the effect of the time correlation of environments and found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or when the sensitivity of preference is superlinear.
Segal-isaacson, C. J.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Stephen M.; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Anita; Wang, Cuiling; Camille, Joanne; Gousse, Yolene; Ishii, Mary; Jones, Deborah; Laperriere, Arthur; Lydston, David; Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail
There is a lack of information on whether brief nutrition education can succeed in improving longer-term dietary patterns in disadvantaged populations with HIV/AIDS. In the SMART/EST II Women’s Project 466 disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS were randomized to one of four groups and received a two-phase training consisting of a coping skills/stress management and nutrition education provided either in a group or individually. At baseline the majority of participants had excessive fat and suga...
Lloro-Bidart, Teresa Katrina
Drawing on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork at the Aquarium of the Pacific and Michel Foucault's governmentality and biopolitics as an overarching theoretical frame, this dissertation engages in a political ecological analysis to explore how the institution, its staff, and nonhumans work to produce various sorts of knowledge about the environment. I argue that the educative assemblages imagined and formed there, which are intimately linked to institutional fiscal survivability, politically deploy nonhuman animals in the Aquarium's "edutainment" project. Through the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to entertain, invoke compassion, and convey science to the public, staff encourage guests to have tactile, auditory, and visual encounters with live ocean creatures in order to construct a natural world worthy of being saved, due to its instrumental and intrinsic value. I show how this public conservation re-education project attempts to highlight the voices of the animals being represented there, but not necessarily the voices of the animals actually residing there. I also draw out the implications of these representative practices and argue that the institution ought to utilize staff-nonhuman relationships, which are grounded in care and empathy, as a framework for developing visitor-nonhuman relationships.
This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…
Harrison, Neil; Hatt, Sue
This paper analyses the definition of the appropriate target group for widening participation activities advanced by the Higher Education Funding Council for England in their "Targeting Disadvantaged Learners" advice to Aimhigher and higher education providers. This definition includes components of area deprivation and higher education…
Harding, David J.
The literature on neighborhood effects on schooling theorizes that neighborhood cultural context is an important mechanism generating such effects. However, explanations that rely on subcultural theories, such as oppositional culture, have met with considerable criticism on empirical grounds, and no alternative account of the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods has been developed in the education literature. This study develops a new account of the cultural context of schooling de...
Sunish Kumar O S
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to suggest a model for improving and retaining the highly qualified teachers in higher technical education. There are numerous researches going on all over the world regarding the key quality factors which are directly linked with teacher’s performance and the methods to improve them. Whatever the methods and measures, the teacher’s active participation and dedication is very important to achieve these objectives. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to highly qualified and experienced teachers who are working in engineering colleges for more than five years. Since the variables in this study are quality factors, the collected data is analyzed using the fuzzy logic and inference is drawn for getting more accurate results compared to probability study of the same case. Based on the results obtained from fuzzy inference system, a new model called Adaptive Performance-Incentive-Development (PID control system for improving the quality as well as retaining the highly qualified teachers in the teaching profession is created.
Full Text Available
Aesthetic is the branch of philosophy that is discussed about the perception issues including beauty, such as aesthetic experience. John Dewey as a natural philosopher, shared the twentieth century with the possibility of an empirically grounded ethics. There is much to learn from Dewey about how to proceed in an aesthetic experience in quire about morality, so it is important to explore the relation between Dewey's ethics and his aesthetic experience. This essay with analytical method is an effort to explore this relation. The result showed that Aesthetic experience, response to the demand of feeling in difference situation. Therefore, factors of artistic this experience such as feeling, imagination, compassion are the essential components of morality that complete the experience, understanding, and meaning of morality in the people. Moreover aesthetic experience and moral education are inseparable. One of the criticize in this theory is that aesthetic experience is still new and practical application is rare and lacks of a strong theoretical structure.
Williams, P.L. [Department of Radiography, Anglia Polytechnic University, East Road, Cambridge CB1 1PT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; White, N. [School of Radiography, University of Central England Birmingham, Perry Barr, Birmingham B42 2SU (United Kingdom); Klem, R. [School of Radiography, University of Central England Birmingham, Perry Barr, Birmingham B42 2SU (United Kingdom); Wilson, S.E. [Department of Radiography, Anglia Polytechnic University, East Road, Cambridge CB1 1PT (United Kingdom); Bartholomew, P. [School of Radiography, University of Central England Birmingham, Perry Barr, Birmingham B42 2SU (United Kingdom)
There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues.
A. Seda YUCEL
Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.
Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert
Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…
Tierean, O. M.; M, Tierean
The article covers the disadvantages the countries that are currently within the Eurozone are facing at the moment and how these disadvantages will impact the Romanian society if it joins the Euro. The article is divided into 3 chapters: the deflationary impact, the decline in competitiveness and asymmetric shocks.
Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet
A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…
Davis, Nanette J.
This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…
Full Text Available This study examines the earnings of an under-researched group: Asian women in computer science, in the United States (U.S.. I distinguish three subsets of college-educated Asian female computer scientists working full time in the U.S.: 1 U.S.-born, U.S.-educated Asian Americans, 2 Asian-born, U.S.-educated Asian immigrants, and 3 Asian-born, Asian-educated Asian immigrants. Results from multivariate regression and quantile regressions (at the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles show that U.S.- and Asian-educated Asian immigrant women earn less on average (at the mean level and at the 10th, 50th, and/or 75th percentile levels than their white male counterparts. Only Asian American women do not earn less than their white male counterparts at any level. Further analysis reveals that Asian immigrant women earn less due to their gender, but not because of a combination of their gender and race. Neither the immigrant women’s birthplace or the origin of their degree further disadvantage their earnings. The lack of multiple disadvantages may be explained by white women earning less than expected, but not Asian immigrant women earning more than expected. Suggestions for further research are discussed.
In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…
Shaver, Debra M.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.
This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the extent to which homeless children in the United States receive the "free and appropriate education" to which they are entitled. Data were collected through several surveys conducted in two San Francisco Bay Area counties: (1) surveys of parents in homeless shelters with 313 school-age…
Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).
Tedesco, Juan Carlos
Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…
Goldberg, Rachel E; Short, Susan E
In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans' differential disadvantage?Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach. PMID:22865946
Hac? Mehmet Yildirim
Full Text Available Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism undergraduate programs where they are registered. With this purpose, a questionnaire was performed on 1734 students. The method of classification tree was used in determining the factors affecting students’ satisfaction. As a result of the classification tree analysis, it was observed that the variable, which affected students’ satisfaction most, was the job considered to be done after graduation and that this was followed by sufficiency of job opportunities after graduation, whether the department was chosen after researching or not, whether one can be a good manager with the education received from the department or not, and whether the courses included current subjects or not, respectively.
Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay
Full Text Available The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the students? parent; related to the parent?s socio-economic background and their involvement strategies in their children?s education at home. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent?s involvement. The findings of this study indicated that most parents from the low socioeconomic background claimed that they showed high involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child?s education success. However, the education level, employment status, and income among the the parents fom the lower socioeconomic background affect their understanding and their knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child?s education. As a result, there is a lack among these children in terms of good skills, behaviour and values which are extremely important for their academic success.
Bilski-Cohen, Rachel; Melnik, Noah
In this report, the formation and use of a creative movement program by a group of Israeli educators as a means of promoting intellectual development in culturally disadvantaged children, mostly of North African and Asian origin, is described. The theoretical framework of the experiment, based on the work of Piaget and other educational…
...Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section...Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination...
Antibodies and biological binder proteins are the two major types of macromolecules which are used for competitive ligand binding radioassays. The relative advantages or disadvantages of the biological binder proteins are discussed in this paper
...the following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets proposed by the contractor... (b) The following specifically identified SDB(s) was (were) considered under the Section—SDB participation evaluation factor or...
Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.
The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.
Teresi, Jeanne A.; Grober, Ellen; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Ehrlich, Amy R.
A randomized controlled trial examined whether the diagnostic process for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias may be influenced by knowledge of the patient's education and/or self-reported race. Four conditions were implemented: diagnostic team knows (a) race and education, (b) education only, (c) race only, or (d) neither. Diagnosis and…
Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370
...What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation...What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1) You must rebuttably...
Full Text Available Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assumptions of this study were an attempt to identify lacquer coating disadvantages. Samples of the parts with disadvantages were prepared with the use of microtome and then viewed on an optical microscope. The defects have been described and the causes of their formation have been identified.Findings: The paper shows the examples of common disadvantages of polymer coatings’ application in automotive industry.Research limitations/implications: In automotive industry, they are often used as a substrate - metals or other materials. The description and identification of disadvantages of coatings on these substrates requires further study.Practical implications: The identification of disadvantages of the applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate allows to eliminate them. Through the improvement and generation of new technologies of coating industry as a major supplier to the very large automotive industry, the industry will continue to thrive, grow and maintain its economical competitiveness in the global marketplace.Originality/value: Applications of multilayer polymer coatings in automotive industry are rarely described in literature - especially the application on polymers substrate. The description and identification for the emergence of the most frequent reasons of lacquer disadvantage is a novelty in this article.
Ensminger, Margaret E; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Juon, Hee-Soon; Pearson, Jennifer L; Robertson, Judith A
We compare life course characteristics of a cohort of African American women (N=457) by their smoking status at age 42: never smoker (34.1%), former smoker (27.8%), or current smoker (38.1%). The Woodlawn population from which our sample is drawn has been followed from first grade (1966-67) to mid adulthood (2002-3) and is a cohort of children from a disadvantaged Chicago community. Examination of the effects of cumulative disadvantage on smoking behavior showed that nearly half of women who first lived in poverty as children, dropped out of school, became teen mothers, and were poor as young adults currently smoked; less than 22% of women with none of these difficulties were current smokers. Regression analyses focusing on smoking and evidence of social disadvantage in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood showed that women with more education were much less likely to be current smokers. Women reporting low parental supervision in adolescence and less frequent church attendance in young adulthood and those whose mothers' reported regular smoking were significantly more likely to be current smokers. Poverty and marital status in young adulthood varied significantly among smoking categories in bivariate relationships, but not in final multivariate regression models. Few other studies have examined smoking careers with data from age 6-42, comparing social disadvantage characteristics over the life course. While marital status, church involvement and parental supervision are not usually included as measures of socioeconomic status, they represent advantages in terms of social capital and should be considered mechanisms for transmitting disparities. PMID:19616387
Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.
Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.
The Finnish education system is known as one of the best performing systems in the world. This has raised a significant international interest, making the export of the Finnish know-how in education a good business opportunity. This thesis considers the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a target market for the export of Finnish primary education and analyzes the business environment particularly from socio-cultural aspects to shed more light on what to consider ahead before venturing in that area...
This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the org...
Education directly determines life, liberty, and happiness for that segment of the population which can afford better educational facilities. For economically and socially disadvantaged people, education only perpetuates inequality. Financial inequality results in some school districts spending more money per student than other school districts.…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…
We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms of…
Badia, Antoni; Meneses, Julio; Sigales, Carles
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the main factors that influence teachers' decision-making regarding the educational use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in technology-rich classrooms. Method: We collected data from 278 teachers in Catalonia (Spain) working in eight primary and secondary education…
de Castro, Belinda V.; de Guzman, Allan B.
The overall intent of this exploratory study is to test a model that considers demographic characteristics, attitudes toward shadow education and shadow education institutions' service attributes as antecedents of satisfaction level and behavioural intentions among a select group of Filipino university students. To test the seven hypotheses…
Komunda, Rodney Noel
Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...
Full Text Available Disaster plans almost always do not benefit from the knowledge and values of disadvantaged people who are frequently underrepresented in disaster planning processes. Consequently, the plans are inconsistent with the conditions, concerns, and capabilities of disadvantaged people. We present an approach to community-based participatory planning aimed at engaging marginalized and distrustful communities to build their capacity to be more disaster resilient. We review the experiences of six disadvantaged communities under the Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD project. The EPD effort revealed several critical implications: recruit a diverse set of participants for inclusive collaboration; provide analytical tools to co-develop information and empower people; employ coaches to organize and facilitate sustainable community change; design a bottom-up review process for selection of strategies that holds communities accountable; and build capacity for implementation of strategies.
Aurino Lima Ferreira
Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo.This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.
This study reports five years of a school readiness intervention called “HABLA” (Home Based Activities Building Language Acquisition), designed to increase and enrich speech and literacy activities in the homes of economically and educationally disadvantaged Latino families with children between the age of 2 and 4. A team of trained home visitors provided two years of a 23-week program of visitation in which they met with parent(s) and child twice weekly. Both...
Mokris, Rebecca L.
The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…
The possibility of using the generalized perturbation theory to calculate the perturbation of the flux disadvantage factors of reactor cell, resulting from the variation of the cell parameters, is studied. For simplicity the one-group diffusion approximation is considered. All necessary equations are derived for variations both of the cell dimensions. Numerical results are presented in the paper
Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer
This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…
It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. “Conventional mortgage-type loan” and “Income contingent loan” has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice for student loans programs in China. These suggestions maybe supply references to other developing countries.
Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…
Jovica ?urkovi?; Vuk Vukovi?; Lazar Rakovi?
The works points to open source approach in software development, which has recorded important results since its beginning. Thanks to it, we are able to use the software representing the fruit of this approach. The work also points to the characteristics of open source approach through the prism of advantages and disadvantages.
...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance of a resulting...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the contract...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the...
Houtz, John C.; And Others
A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that Ss from disadvantaged homes have poorly developed "abstract" thinking skills and that their thought can be characterized as more "concrete" or relational. Four forms of a problem-solving inventory were developed which differed in mode of presentation. The original form consisted of real-life…
GOMBERG, ADELINE W.
A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…
German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.
Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social ...
Griffiths Kathleen M
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282 including emotional support (n = 154, informational support (n = 93, companionship support (n = 36 and instrumental support (n = 23. Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72, the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62, the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49, their accessibility (n = 36, and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30. The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53, inappropriate support (n = 45, the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32 and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20 and the relationship (n = 18. Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers.
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; SchØtt, Thomas
The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs. Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.
San Fernando Valley State Coll., Northridge, CA.
The Elementary Teacher Education Project in Compensatory Education was instituted in 1967-68 at San Fernando Valley State College for the purpose of preparing teachers to work effectively with the disadvantaged at the elementary school level. Main features of the program included student teaching and intern teaching in disadvantaged urban areas;…
Rovai, Alfred P.; Gallien, Louis B., Jr.; Wighting, Mervyn J.
The disparity in educational outcomes between majority White and minority African American populations has become known as the African American achievement gap. The authors examine the under performance of African American university students by providing an overview of the major cultural, communication, and learning style characteristics of Black…
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
We investigated curricular conditions and educational practices that influenced the development of life-long learning orientations among 405 undergraduate students. Results suggest that growth in life-long learning orientations was facilitated by instruction that included opportunities for reflection, active learning, and perspective-taking and…
Jepkemboi, Grace; Aldridge, Jerry
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the perceptions of teachers and caregivers concerning gender differences in the educational experiences of children influenced by the HIV status of their parents or orphaned by AIDS in 7 orphanage schools of Western Kenya. 12 teachers and 8 caregivers participated in the study. Data were…
Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764
Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya
In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…
Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita
It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans' school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration. PMID:20107622
Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.
The Brazilian school system offers several programs for gifted students, including: Scientists for the Future (promoting science-related study); programs and a special school for disadvantaged gifted students; and special enrichment programs within regular public education programs. (CB)
DOREL DUMITRU CHIRI?ESCU
Full Text Available In the process of adopting the single currency, Romania is forced to think carefully about its strategies because sucha process is complex and involves, as everyone knows, both advantages and disadvantages. Depending on theapproach or the distance to the euro area in economic and civilizational terms, the first category or the second mayprevail. If in the common mentality it is estimated that the euro would be accompanied only by advantages, expertsmust know that important disadvantages can also appear and which are their harmful effects on medium and longterm on the economy and society. We plan to begin this subject by showing that Romania is not fully prepared tomove to a single currency and euro adoption at this time would cause great disservice for our economy, underminingfuture efforts towards compatibility and closeness.
Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise
Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood. PMID:24294916
Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.
This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity ...
Andersen, Lykke E.
This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of rural-urban migration, and shows that the costs of increased urbanization (crime, pollution, congestion, etc) in Bolivia are rather small compared to the costs experienced in other Latin American countries. The benefits, on the other hand, may be large. Encouraging rural-urban migration may be one of the cheapest ways of reducing poverty in Bolivia because it is so much cheaper to provide basic services like electricity, piped water, sc...
Rosalie David, A.
Mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. This paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of DNA in mummified remainsLos restos momificados y sus artefactos asociados son frágiles y vulnerables a varios tipos de deteri...
Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk Africa...
Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.
Baumer, J.; Hunt, L.; Shield, J.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between social disadvantage and family composition on diabetes prevalence and diabetes care outcome.?DESIGN—Retrospective audit in the south west of England of 801 children with diabetes mellitus.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of diabetes in relation to the Townsend index. Admissions to hospital with diabetes related problems, glycated haemoglobin, time spent in hospital, outpatient attendance rates.?RESULTS—There was no...
Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.
A number od heavy water and light water reactor cells are analyzed in this paper by applying analytical methods of neutron thermalization. Calculations done according to the one-group Amouyal-Benoist method are included in addition. Computer codes for ZUSE Z-23 computer were written by applying both methods. The obtained results of disadvantage factors are then compared to results obtained by one-group P3 approximation and by multigroup K7-THERMOS code
Wierzbicki, ?.; Kulesza, J.
Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assu...
Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Plummer, Virginia
Evidence-based practice (EBP) in the clinical setting is recognized as an approach that leads to improved patient outcomes. Nurse educators (NEs), clinical coaches (CCs) and nurse specialists are in key positions to promote and facilitate EBP within clinical settings and have opportunities to advance practice. Therefore, it is important to understand their perceptions of factors promoting EBP and perceived barriers in facilitating EBP in clinical settings, before developing educational programmes. This paper reports findings from a study that aimed to explore NEs' , CCs' and nurse specialists' knowledge, skills and attitudes associated with EBP. This study used a questionnaire containing quantitative and a small number of qualitative questions to capture data collected from NEs, CCs and nurse specialists working at a tertiary health-care facility in Victoria, Australia. The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 435 people, of whom 135 responded (31%). Findings revealed that the three senior nurse groups relied heavily on personal experience, organizational policies and protocols as formal sources of knowledge. Furthermore, they had positive attitudes towards EBP. However, participants demonstrated lack of knowledge and skills in appraising and utilizing evidence into practice. They indicated a desire to seek educational opportunities to upskill themselves in the process of EBP. PMID:25355492
Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.
Bookman, Michael; Safferstone, Mark
This report contains substance abuse program guides for fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. Each program combines pharmacological facts with affective experiences. Included are descriptions of self-awareness experiences, activities which identify and improve communication skills, activities that will develop decision making and problem-solving…
Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.
Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative recognition, are used, the effects seem to contradict a low-frequency advantage in memory. Four experiments are presented to support the claim that in ad...
Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.
Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative…
Full Text Available The relationship between human capital and economic growth is highly acclimatized by the quality anddistribution of education in the labor force. However, to realize this issue it is important to focus on the base ofeducation at the school level. There is evidence that environmental positions affect students’ performance. Thestudy was conducted using field research. Interviews and surveys were conducted with 229 administers locatedat three directorates of the North Badia region. Subjects were selected using stratified random sampling. Resultsindicated that education at Mafraq Governorate lacks quality and quantity of supply as it is located away fromurban centers. Over all perceived performance was affected differently in the three directorates of North Badia;the highest perceived performance was in Central Mafraq and the least in Northeast Badia. Geographicallocation is associated with: number of students at Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Ninth Elementarygrades; number of students at Eleventh Grade Literature, Computer, Nursing stream, and number of sections atEleventh grade Scientific, Literature, Computer, and Vocational streams; and with number of Physics andAthletics teachers. It is negatively associated with number of students at Twelfth grade scientific stream. Thereshould be emphasis of joining schools together.
Katsardis, C.; Chatzimichael, A.; Zimeras, S.; Rigas, A.; Paraskakis, E.; Tsalkidis, A.; Tsakiris, A.; Iordanidou, M.
Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point a...
Seda Yucel, A.
The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...
...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...
...System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC...than full and open competition, the contractor...small disadvantaged business (as defined in...small disadvantaged business unless he or she determines...status by the Small Business Administration or...
...2010-10-01 false Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises...Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises...no realistic expectation of U.S. subcontracting opportunities and so documents...
...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of...their overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for...about moving to a three-year cycle: (1) The difficulty in estimating...transportation, Minority business, Reporting and...
Green, Robert L., Ed.
This collection of essays scrutinizes needs in urban educational reform, and systematically analyzes curriculum, the urban school child, the language patterns of disadvantaged black children, teacher training, compensatory education, community control, and educational separatism. It is contended that the urban school should be redesigned to…
... Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged...DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Delegations § 1.62 Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged...Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged...execution of functions and duties under sections 8...
Hastie, P A
This study describes the changes which occurred in the instructional ecology of a boys' physical education class with a change of teacher. Moreover, it examines the critical incidences which promoted and inhibited that teacher's attempts to change the accountability system of the class from one of attendance and minimal participation to one of performance quality. Twenty-two eighth and ninth grade boys participated in a 6-week program of physical activity with the researcher as the new teacher. Through an action research methodology, using the teacher's reflective accounts of lessons together with formal and informal interviews with the students, it was determined that three factors were critical in the change process: the students' previous history with the subject, the nature of the set tasks, and the emotional climate of the class. PMID:9094764
Anil K Chillimuntha
Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ?upside-down? perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location?allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82
Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6 and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High School have inadequate knowledge on nutrition and nutrition education, they often skip meal and most of them have two meals ?n a day. A very low proportion of them have regular breakfast.In addition, it was seen that students who have good economic status and lived in the dormitory and believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast and regular nutrition.
...condition of the woman claiming economic disadvantage, including her personal income...Assets that a woman claiming economic disadvantage transferred within two years of the...attributed to the woman claiming economic disadvantage if the assets were transferred...
Marilys, Martínez Torres; Michel, Sierra Leyva; Keilym, Artiles Martínez; Yaquelin, Martínez Chávez; Ailin, Anoceto Martínez; Lelys, Navarro Aguirre.
Full Text Available Fundamento: el uso adecuado de fármacos contra las afecciones oculares es un contenido esencial en la asignatura Farmacología II de tercer año de Medicina. Objetivo: diseñar un software educativo sobre el uso de fármacos contra las afecciones oculares. Métodos: se realizó una investigación cualitati [...] va en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara en el curso 2013-2014. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción para la interpretación y procesamiento de la información y los referentes teóricos del tema; empíricos: análisis documental de los programas y orientaciones metodológicas, y la encuesta en su modalidad de cuestionario a estudiantes para diagnosticar los conocimientos adquiridos sobre la prescripción y uso racional de medicamentos contra las afecciones oftalmológicas y en forma de entrevista a informantes clave. Resultados: en el programa no se contempla la farmacología contra las afecciones oftalmológicas ni se establecen suficientes nexos interdisciplinares desde una perspectiva integradora para consolidar las habilidades de los alumnos en este campo; no hay bibliografía especializada sobre el tema ni medios de enseñanza en formato digital para estos contenidos; por lo que se diseñó un software educativo utilizando la herramienta de CrheaSoft con una combinación de elementos visuales. Conclusiones: el software proporciona un material educativo didáctico de consulta y de apoyo a la docencia en Farmacología II, facilita la motivación y permite que los estudiantes construyan el conocimiento sobre la aplicación de medicamentos contra afecciones oftalmológicas. Fue valorado por los especialistas como pertinente, útil y factible por su cientificidad y carácter pedagógico. Abstract in english Background: the appropriate use of drugs against ocular affections is an essential content in the subject Pharmacology II of the third year of Medicine. Objective: to design educational software on the use of drugs against ocular affections. Methods: it was carried out a qualitative research work in [...] Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2013-2014. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction for the processing and interpretation of information and the theoretical foundations of the topic; empiric: documental analysis of the programs and methodological orientations, and the survey in questionnaire modality was applied to the students to diagnose the acquired knowledge on the prescription and rational use of medications against ocular affections and an interview was applied to key informants. Results: the pharmacology against ocular affections is not contemplated in the program and there aren´t settle down enough interdisciplinary connections from an integrative perspective to consolidate the abilities of the students in this field; there is not specialized bibliography on the topic neither teaching means in digital format for these contents; that´s why an educational software was designed using the tool of CrheaSoft with a combination of visual elements. Conclusions: the software provides a didactic educational material of consultation and support to teaching in Pharmacology II, it facilitates the motivation and it allows the students to build knowledge on the application of medications against ocular affections. It was valued by the specialists as pertinent, useful and feasible for its scientific and pedagogic character.
Peter Howard; Jude Butcher; Luke Egan
In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is buil...
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic intellectual in relation to his views about the unity of reason and emotion offer points of departure for activism, especially small acts of everyday life that often go unnoticed. Finally, Gramsci’s concern with the emotional potential of subaltern subjects shows how important it is to consider subaltern passions as political resources that challenge hegemonic conditions and formulate strategic counter-hegemonic responses.
Although a rest period during radiotherapy will alleviate early reactions it will not spare late-reacting tissues, and in addition tumour cells may proliferate rapidly in the rest interval. The potential doubling time of tumours is always much faster than the volume doubling time, and is often < 5 days. Giving such fast growing tumours a 2 week rest period could prove fatal for the patients. Since late effects are not spared by introducing the rest period, it is not possible to increase the total dose to compensate for tumour proliferation. Thus, theoretically, the therapeutic ratio is decreased if split courses are used on rapidly proliferative tumours. Clinical data from split-course studies on head and neck cancer give conflicting results, with one group showing the rest period to be disadvantageous and two other groups showing no detriment. (author)
Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. PMID:24726043
News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education
Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education
Matchett, Jeremy A.
At the University of Kansas, continuing professional education for pharmacists is available in the correspondence course format. Other independent study packages, including audio and videotape programs, are also discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. (JMD)
Gupta, P C; Ray, Cecily S
The incontrovertible scientific evidence about tobacco use causing serious health consequences is now accepted even by the tobacco industry. Research continues to enlarge the spectrum of diseases caused by tobacco use among users as well as among nonusers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. This review attempts to illustrate the greater risk to adverse health outcomes among the less educated due to a greater prevalence of tobacco use among them. Numerous surveys worldwide and in India show a greater prevalence of tobacco use among the less educated and illiterate. In a large population based study in Mumbai, the odds ratios for any kind of tobacco use among the illiterate as compared to the college educated were 7.4 for males and 20.3 for females after adjusting for age and occupation. School-dropouts are more likely to take up tobacco use in childhood and adolescence. Student youth taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school are less likely to initiate tobacco use. High tobacco use among the less educated and under privileged affects them in multiple ways: (i) Tobacco users in such households, because of their nicotine addiction, prefer spending a disproportionate amount of their meager income on tobacco products, often curtailing essential expenditures for food, healthcare and education for the family. (ii) Because of high tobacco use and other factors of disadvantage connected with low educational status, they suffer more from the diseases and other health impacts caused by tobacco. This higher morbidity results in high health care expenditures, which impoverish the family further. (iii) Premature death caused by tobacco use in this under- privileged section often takes away the major wage earner in the family, plunging it into even more hardship. Tobacco use is a terrible scourge particularly of the less educated, globally and in India. Tobacco use, education and health in a human population are inter-related in ways that make sufferings and deaths caused by tobacco use even more tragic than normally realized. Tobacco use works against social and economic development and should be appropriately addressed through health education and tobacco cessation services particularly in the underprivileged, illiterate population. PMID:18032804
Powell, Justin J. W.
With educational expansion and rising standards, ever more students are being transferred into special education. These programs serve children and youth with ‘special educational needs’ (SEN), a heterogeneous group with social, ethnic, linguistic, physical, and intellectual disadvantages. An increasing proportion of students at risk of leaving secondary school without qualifications participate in special education. While most European countries aim to replace segregated schools and sepa...
This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…
This paper is a comparative study about the principal stochastic methods that is used in Project Management. Risk determination is a mustfor every Project Manager worldwide, but the methods have, of course, advantages and disadvantages. Further, many Project Managers work withdeterministic methods, but they see only the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. In Subject of this paper it is Risk determination inprojects. The advantages and disadvantages of stochastic methods. Choosing th...
Listed are some considerations, including advantages and disadvantages, of doctoral internships in special education programs within state education agencies. Among advantages noted are that the student gains knowledge of the daily functioning of a state department while maintaining relations with his university, and that an awareness of other…
Pearce-Morris, Jennifer; King, Valarie
An increasing number of U.S. children are living with interethnic parents, yet we know relatively little about how they are faring. Using data from the first wave (1987-1988) of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), this study examines differences in child well-being between children living with interethnic parents and those living with same-ethnic parents. Results provide only limited evidence that child well-being is lower among children living with interethnic parents. Compared with children in same-ethnic families, children living with interethnic parents exhibited higher levels of negative affect, and this difference could not be explained by differences in background or family characteristics, levels of parents relationship stressors, or parenting quality. At the same time, however, no differences were found in global well-being, positive affect, or behavior problems. Children living with interethnic parents may face some greater difficulties that warrant concern, but they do not appear to face pervasive disadvantages. PMID:23372279
...persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei...consider education, employment and business history, where applicable, to see if the totality...non-business fields. (C) Business history. SBA considers such factors as...
A. Rosalie David
Full Text Available Mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. This paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of DNA in mummified remainsLos restos momificados y sus artefactos asociados son frágiles y vulnerables a varios tipos de deterioro, incluyendo los factores que resultan de las condiciones ambientales, el daño físico y el daño causado por intentos anteriores o inapropiados de conservación. Este informe considerará los beneficios y desventajas de los métodos de conservación mediante los cuales la mayor parte del deterioro puede ser evitada o rectificada después. También se considerará la reparación física, el apoyo y el cuidado de las momias y, en particular, los problemas asociados con su exposición en museos. Finalmente, se presentarán nuevas investigaciones que consideran las maneras en que varios tratamientos de conservación pueden afectar la preservación de ADN en restos momificados
Jones, Thomas H.
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides a basic understanding of the mechanics of the various taxes used to raise money for education, the extent to which these taxes are utilized, the way they interrelate, and the criteria that can be used when judging their relative advantages and disadvantages. The chapter opens with…
Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael
This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…
Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…
As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…
Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne
Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…
David, Alex Hugh
Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…
Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie
It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…
...What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? 124.1002 Section 124.1002 ...What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? (a) Reliance on 8(a) criteria...determining whether a firm qualifies as an SDB, the criteria of social and...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. 53.302-312 Section 53.302-312...Illustrations of Forms 53.302-312 Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. ER26JY00.003 ER26JY00.004...
...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the contract. Credit under...factor or subfactor is not available to an SDB concern that qualifies for a price evaluation...Disadvantaged Business Concerns, unless the SDB concern specifically waives the price...
Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce
Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…
The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...
T P Maforah
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education. Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.
Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill
This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967
Perico, Norberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a key determinant of the poor health outcomes for major non-communicable diseases that are the leading cause of death in the world. CKD is a worldwide threat to public health, but the size of the problem is not fully appreciated. Early recognition of CKD and concomitant co-morbid conditions, can potentially slow progression to renal failure, increase longevity, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs. Although screening programmes are attractive, there is no consensus yet on which individuals should be prioritized (high-risk group for CKD, or general population) especially in resourcepoor regions. In these settings there is not a unique blueprint of screening strategy, so that the approaches should be adapted on single-nation conditions and socioeconomic status. Effective multimodal tools are available to prevent CKD by managing its risk factors, and to slow or even halt disease progression to end-stage renal failure, as well as reduce the associated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. They can be adapted even to the poorest populations who are at the highest risk of CKD. Where management strategies have been implemented, the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been reduced. The hope is that all these efforts will assist to make major advances in addressing the neglected aspect of renal health, especially of poor and disadvantaged populations worldwide. Beside saving young lives, such action would minimize the present health inequity that arises mainly from the unaffordable cost of renal replacement therapy if ESRD is not prevented. PMID:25725241
According to current projections of economic development of Ukraine, domestic consumption of electricity will grow from the present level of 190 billion kWh / year to about 280 billion kWh / year in 2030, which determines the prospects of the electricity industry development. Alternative ''green'' energy sources - solar, wind and small hydropower can develop only within a commercially reasonable considering temporary ''green'' tariff, which is far above the rates for traditional sources. According to prognoses the share of ''green'' energy sources in Ukraine in 2030 will not exceed 10-15% regardless of their environmental appeal. The updated nuclear energy development strategy by 2030 will save the share of nuclear electricity generation at the achieved level about half of total domestic electricity production. Development of nuclear power generation in the period to 2030 provides: increase the safety of the operating NPP; efficiency increase of existing nuclear power plants (up to 85% in terms of the basic mode of operation); continued of NPP units operation for 20 years over time, provided the original design; completion of the units 3,4 Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in 2017; construction and commissioning prior to 2027 three new nuclear power units the total capacity to 3.5 GW on new NPP site; beginning in 2022-2029 years construction of new nuclear reactors at sites of existing nuclear power plants to replace existing units that will be decommissioned after 2030; implementation of the units preparation to decommissioning after an additional period of operation; improvement of infrastructure support and development of nuclear power generation. In the article analyzes the necessity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy in Ukraine in the Updated Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2030.(author).
Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.
Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W
This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402679
The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207
Forgasz, Helen; Tan, Hazel
In 2009, four mathematics subjects were offered at the year 12 level in the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE). The two subjects at the intermediate level--Mathematical Methods and Mathematical Methods CAS--run in parallel, that is, a student can be enrolled in only one or the other, the choice being made at the school level. The curricular…
Hamilton, Jennifer; Bloomer, Fiona; Potter, Michael
The issues facing Travellers, including those associated with education are often linked to social exclusion, widespread disadvantage and discrimination (Reynolds, McCartan, and Knipe 2003). The Office for Standards in Education (Office for Standards in Education 1999) referred to Gypsy Traveller pupils as "the most at risk in the education…
Education is thought to be the pathway to success for disadvantaged groups. Given that young women now match or surpass men's educational achievements on many measures, how do they fare in terms of equal earnings? Would further educational changes matter for closing any existing gap? Analyzing data from the National Educational Longitudinal…
Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra
Educational inequalities are evident even before children start school. Some educational achievement gaps widen out as individuals progress further through the education sequence and into the labour market, especially those connected to disadvantaged students. Thus, there is a significant need for careful evaluation of educational policies that…
Full Text Available This study was designed to determine changes in the mathematics achievements and goal orientations among disadvantaged students after instructional intervention in textbook transformation and instructional intervention for disadvantaged students. There were eight disadvantaged students in this instructional intervention. Factor analysis, MANOVA, and covariance analysis were used in data analysis. Several important findings were discovered. First, prior to instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientations of disadvantaged students were no different from those of other students, but their mathematics achievements were lower than those of others. Second, after instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientation of disadvantaged students became higher. Finally, after instructional intervention, the mathematics achievements of disadvantaged students became higher, too
Peri?, Marija; Milici?, Valerija; Pajtler, Marija; Marjanovi?, Ksenija; Zubci?, Vedran
Ameloblastoma is a benign, slow growing but locally aggressive tumor that is clinically manifested as swelling in a jaws. Prone to relapse (30%) even 30 years after inadequate primary operation. The most important cytological features of this tumor are small bazaloid cells in clusters, and single spindle and stellate shaped cells. We report on a case of 79-year-old patient, who was hospitalized due to tumor formation in the buccal region. FNA was performed and liquid material that contained only fagocites was collected. The conclusion was--cyst, while biopsy finding--adenoma baseo-cellulare, pointed to the salivary gland tumor. Patient refused the proposed surgical treatment. Four years later, the patient was urgently hospitalized due heavy bleeding from the tumor in the same region. It affected the crest portion of the upper jaw and a section of hard palate, and was bleeding on palpation. In second FNA we found phagocytes and a few small clusters of basaloid cells with palisade arrangement at the edges. Because of uniform and benign cytomorphological features it was concluded that it was a cystic tumor. On biopsy pattern the diagnose of ameloblastoma was determinated. The patient underwent surgery, however due to postoperative complications he died. Preoperative diagnosis is usually set on the basis of clinical and often nonspecific radiological findings. As it is very important to get the correct diagnose before planning an adequate surgical procedure, we would like to point out the potential value and disadvantages of FNA cytology in the diagnosis of ameloblastoma. PMID:23397775
Vellymalay, Suresh Kumar N.
The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the ...
Alcazar, Rosa M; Hilliard, Austin T; Becker, Lisa; Bernaba, Michael; Fernald, Russell D
Life experiences can alter cognitive abilities and subsequent behavior. Here we asked whether differences in experience could affect social status. In hierarchical animal societies, high-ranking males that typically win aggressive encounters gain territories and hence access to mates. To understand the relative contributions of social experience and physical environment on status, we used a highly territorial African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, that lives in a dynamic lek-like social hierarchy. Astatotilapia burtoni males are either dominant or submissive and can switch status rapidly depending on the local environment. Although dominant males are innately aggressive, we wondered whether they modulated their aggression based on experience. We hypothesized that as males mature they might hone their fighting tactics based on observation of other males fighting. We compared males of different ages and sizes in distinctly different physical environments and subsequently tested their fighting skills. We found that a size difference previously thought negligible (<10% body length) gave a significant advantage to the larger opponent. In contrast, we found no evidence that increasing environmental complexity affected status outcomes. Surprisingly, we found that males only a few days older than their opponents had a significant advantage during territorial disputes so that being older compensated for the disadvantage of being smaller. Moreover, the slightly older winners exploited a consistent fighting strategy, starting with lower levels of aggression on the first day that significantly increased on the second day, a pattern absent in younger winners. These data suggest that experience is an advantage during fights for status, and that social learning provides more relevant experience than the physical complexity of the territory. PMID:24436381
Nikodym, Jacqueline Z.; Tejeda, Armando R.; Moffett, David W.
A new leadership model is needed in all organizations. In response, The Affect-Centered Transformational Leadership Model came about. The new model resulted from a doctoral student's participation in a leadership course, and continued dialogue with its professor. Ultimately, the new model reached the stage of needing to be operationalized. A…
Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada
To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…
Koo, Tae Seo
Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…
de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa; Fa'afoi, Amosa; Sitomaniemi-San, Johanna; Ahenakew, Cash
This article presents an analysis of journal entries of student teachers in a course on multicultural and language studies in primary education in Aotearoa/New Zealand, which was informed by a discursive strand of postcolonial theory, in particular Gayatri C. Spivak's ideas of education "to-come" as an "un-coercive…
...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? (a) General. The...contract until: (i) The SBA has made an SDB determination, or (ii) 15...
Karoly, Lynn A; Gonzalez, Gabriella C
A substantial and growing share of the population, immigrant children are more likely than children with native-born parents to face a variety of circumstances, such as low family income, low parental education, and language barriers that place them at risk of developmental delay and poor academic performance once they enter school. Lynn Karoly and Gabriella Gonzalez examine the current role of and future potential for early care and education (ECE) programs in promoting healthy development for immigrant children. Participation in center-based care and preschool programs has been shown to have substantial short-term benefits and may also lead to long-term gains as children go through school and enter adulthood. Yet, overall, immigrant children have lower rates of participation in nonparental care of any type, including center-based ECE programs, than their native counterparts. Much of the participation gap can be explained by just a few economic and sociodemographic factors, the authors find. To some extent, the factors that affect disadvantaged immigrant children resemble those of their similarly disadvantaged native counterparts. Affordability, availability, and access to ECE programs are structural barriers for many immigrant families, as they are for disadvantaged families more generally. Language barriers, bureaucratic complexity, and distrust of government programs, especially among undocumented immigrants, are unique challenges that may prevent some immigrant families from taking advantage of ECE programs, even when their children might qualify for subsidies. Cultural preferences for parental care at home can also be a barrier. Thus the authors suggest that policy makers follow a two-pronged approach for improving ECE participation rates among immigrant children. First, they note, federal and state ECE programs that target disadvantaged children in general are likely to benefit disadvantaged immigrant children as well. Making preschool attendance universal is one way to benefit all immigrant children. Second, participation gaps that stem from the unique obstacles facing immigrants, such as language barriers and informational gaps, can be addressed through the way publicly subsidized and private or nonprofit programs are structured. PMID:21465856
Adriana Manolic?; Teodora Roman
Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but...
Whatman, Susan L.; Singh, Parlo
Background: Over the last 20 years, curriculum development in Health and Physical Education (HPE) (or Physical Education, Physical Education and Health, Sport Education as it is variously called) has repeatedly attempted to address issues of equity and social inclusion. Why then does systemic educational disadvantage persist, and why do the…
...Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752...System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES...Utilization of small business concerns and small...give small business firms an...
The advantages and disadvantages of spiked standards are discussed and contrasted with those of natural matrix standards. The preparation of the former class of standards and the evidence supporting recommendation of caution in their use are considered. (author)
...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the contract. The nature of the evaluation of an SDB offeror under this evaluation factor or subfactor is dependent upon whether the SDB concern qualifies for the price...
...Title I--Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY...rulemaking regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments based on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice...
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Diversos factores influyen en el desarrollo intelectual de niños en edad preescolar con desventajas socioeconómicas. El desarrollo de la inteligencia es un concepto multidimensional que está determinado por factores biológicos, sociales y ambientales. Sin embargo, en la presente revisión únicamente [...] se analizan y discuten los aspectos sociales y ambientales. Algunos de los factores que presentan profundos efectos en el desarrollo cognitivo son los siguientes: la estimulación del medio ambiente, las actitudes de los padres, la edad materna y la educación. Se ejemplifican también algunos programas de prevención e intervenciones exitosas encaminadas al enriquecimiento del desarrollo cognitivo infantil. Parece que los programas de intervención temprana en el segundo y tercer año de la vida infantil tienen efectos fundamentales en el desarrollo cognitivo de aquellos niños con ciertas desventajas. Es claro que el aprendizaje se inicia con el nacimiento. Algunos estudios longitudinales mostraron que el periodo más efectivo para la intervención es durante la niñez temprana. Aquellos niños que han estado en programas de estancias y jardines infantiles han mantenido estos logros en la adolescencia y en la edad adulta. Algunos de estos beneficios incluyen puntuaciones elevadas en pruebas de IQ, mejores calificaciones en pruebas de puntuación y mejores habilidades en lectura y matemáticas, mayor número de logros educacionales, mayor número de títulos universitarios y un menor número de problemas psicológicos y de salud mental. Por tanto, la investigación en programas tempranos de alta calidad proporciona múltiples ventajas en forma personal, así como para la sociedad en su conjunto. Activistas sociales, psicólogos y consejeros deberían hacer un mayor esfuerzo para modificar las políticas gubernamentales y la asignación de fondos. Abstract in english The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social [...] and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results g...
Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,211), we examine neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. We find that: (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial assistance, from family and friends; (b) residential stability is associated with stronger personal safety nets irrespective of neighborhood quality; and (c) mothers who ...
Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H.; Schoenbach, Victor J.
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal S...
Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of...
O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John
Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist such services to achieve optimal population impact among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:25848739
...community for a short period of time. One consequence of this lifestyle and mobility is that the children of migratory workers frequently...properly train authorized users in the appropriate use of the MSIX online system as well as the information contained in the...
Sbarbaro, Victor S.; Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.
This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer…
Full Text Available The analysis of the development of the phenomenon in Romania has the role to highlight the trend that has been followed by the number of organisational entities that have been affected by the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, the distribution by counties and regions of the number of insolvency cases as well as the activity sectors that have been most affected by this phenomenon. At the same time, in order to provide an overall picture regarding the size of the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, organisational entities with extremely high turnovers have been given as examples, (legal entities entities which, since 2008 up to the present moment, have been crossing one of the stages of the insolvency procedure. Some of them have been applied the simplified insolvency procedure, since they didn’t have the possibility to reorganise, and others, fewer in number, have used insolvency as a „rescue boat”, following the general insolvency procedure and entering a reorganisation process, in the attempt to avoid bankruptcy.
Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy
The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…
International students bring billions of pounds annually to the UK through higher education. Although nursing students may not contribute as significantly in monetary terms as traditional graduate and postgraduate learners, they do, however, bring with them other benefits in terms of wealth of experience, diversity and cultural capital, often looking after client groups sometimes marginalized by mainstream society. The reality is that many nursing homes and care homes simply would not function without internationally recruited nurses contributing to our health service and the wellbeing of society. The author of this article is a module manager for a Nursing and Midwifery Council regulated Overseas Nurses Programme, which runs up to four times per year at a large Faculty of Health, Sports and Science in South Wales. Anecdotal evidence from class disclosures by international nursing students provided the rationale for this independent enquiry. Listening to verbal accounts suggested that internationally-recruited nurses were experiencing episodes of 'unfair treatment' by patients under their care when undertaking the clinical practice component of the programme. PMID:21072017
The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…
Holmquist, Donna; Risk, Shirley
Advantages to telecommuting are flexibility, control, productivity, morale, quality of life, and, for employers, access to a wider skill pool. Disadvantages are frustration, isolation, sweatshop potential, and resentment of co-workers. Business education should emphasize keyboarding, telecommunications, time management, and communication skills in…
Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.Keywords: delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic disadvantaged, neigborhood, health policy
Mecarelli, Oriano; Messina, Paolo; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Michelucci, Roberto; Romeo, Antonino; Beghi, Ettore; De Simone, Roberto; Cerquiglini, Antonella; Vecchi, Marilena; Boniver, Clementina; Monti, Fabrizio; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Baldassarri, Chiara; Cesaroni, Elisabetta; Stranci, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Severi, Sauro; Pizzanelli, Chiara; Ausserer, Harald; Montalenti, Elisa; Pieri, Ilaria; Germano, Michele; Cantisani, Teresa; Casellato, Susanna; Pruna, Dario
A cohort of 582 Italian primary school teachers underwent a questionnaire survey to test their knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy and verify whether an intensive and focused educational program could result in improvement of knowledge and attitudes. The program consisted of a presentation of the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and the distribution of informative brochures and an educational kit on the disease and its management to be used with their students. After several months, 317 teachers were retested using the same questions. Upon retest, the number of "don't know" answers decreased significantly for almost all questions. This was not the case for negative attitudes. The same holds true for teachers believing that epilepsy is a source of learning disability and social disadvantage. These findings support the beliefs that education on epilepsy is more likely to affect ignorance than prejudice and that stronger interventions are needed to counteract stigmatizing behaviors. PMID:25500360
Ms. Beena [Research Scholar
Full Text Available Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Information and communications are closely linked to power and the ability to affect change. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer etc. Socially the majorities of Indian women are still tradition bound and are in disadvantageous position. ICTs are emerging as a powerful tool for women empowerment in a developing country like India. The sample size of the research was 200 by no. of trainees and 30 by no of instructors of different Governmental and Nongovernmental Organizations of Jaipur district. Researcher used random sampling technique to select the sample for the study. The data was collected with the help of self constructed questionnaire. The analysis of mean and graphical representation used for the analysis of data indicated that the Age group, Marital status, Educational level had significant effect on different variable of women empowerment like Self confidence, Self awareness, Independence and Feeling of freedom. The study can be used to create awareness among women for betterment of their live. This research concluded that the information and communication technology empower a women in various areas like social, educational, personal, psychological, political, technological and economical.
King, Katherine E; Clarke, Philippa J
Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition, region, and urbanicity across the United States. Using linear regression models and 2000-2001 US Census data, we investigated the relationship between 5 neighborhood census characteristics (income, education, racial/ethnic composition, age distribution, and sex) and 5 walkability indicators in almost 65,000 census tracts in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the built environment were obtained from the RAND Corporation's (Santa Monica, California) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (median block length, street segment, and node density) and the US Geological Survey's National Land Cover Database (proportion open space and proportion highly developed). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and those with more educated residents were more walkable (i.e., shorter block length, greater street node density, more developed land use, and higher density of street segments). However, tracts with a higher proportion of children and older adults were less walkable (fewer street nodes and lower density of street segments), after adjustment for region and level of urbanicity. Research and policy on the walkability-health link should give nuanced attention to the gap between persons living in walkable areas and those for whom walkability has the most to offer. PMID:25414159
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 low-risk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.
Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-GrØn, Morten
Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.
Full Text Available This study is the first to test experimentally (vs. correlationally whether perceiving racial/ethnic disadvantageleads to lower self-esteem among Asian-Americans. We manipulated perceived disadvantage by havingAsian-American college students recall and write about experiences in which they were personallydisadvantaged because of their race/ethnicity, and examined the effects of perceiving disadvantage on variousoutcome measures, including racial/ethnic identity, racial/ethnic salience (the number of ethnic identitiesparticipants listed on the Twenty Statements Test, and self-esteem. Consistent with experimental research withother racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States, the self-esteem of Asian-Americans was unharmed byrecalling and describing past incidents of racially-based disadvantage.
Ellili-Cherif, Maha; Romanowski, Michael
The paper reports the results of a qualitative research study that explores principal, teacher, and parent perceptions with regard to Qatar's education reform, Education for a New Era (EFNE) launched in 2004. The study focuses on the effects of the reform on each group, their perceived advantages and disadvantages of the reform, and the…
Sirkova, M.; Ali Taha, V.; Ferencova, M.
The purpose of this paper is to present the reality of implementation of the continuing education and practices in Slovak business environment. Questionnaire survey was a tool for obtaining primary data. The survey examines the complex of continuing education and practices in Slovak businesses such as what forms, methods and techniques of education are used in education and training. The paper presents partial results of the survey concerning the advantages/disadvantages of education and ...
Mcvey, D.; Stapleton, J.
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking television advertising campaign in motivating smokers to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up.?DESIGN—A prospective, controlled trial was conducted in four TV regions in central and northern England. One region received no intervention (controls), two regions received TV anti-smoking advertising (TV media), and one region received TV anti-smoking advertising ...
Massimo, Musicco; Rosalia Azzaro, Pulvirenti; Sabina, Gainotti; Carlo, Petrini; Chiara, Riccio; Bruno, Silvestrini.
Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attenda [...] nce and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.
Afetividade, cognição e educação: ensaio acerca da demarcação de fronteiras entre os conceitos e a dificuldade de ser do homem / Affectivity, cognition and education: essay about the demarcation of borders between concepts and the difficulty of being human
Full Text Available Busca-se discutir os conceitos afetividade e cognição, e suas implicações na educação. Parte-se da ideia de que a diferença entre humanos e demais seres decorre da necessidade de aprender a ser; ou seja, das dificuldades de ser do homem, advindas desse exercício, e não o emprego puro e simples da ra [...] cionalidade. Schopenhauer apresenta a hipótese de que as noções de tempo e espaço são resultado da sensibilidade e percepção acerca, respectivamente, dos fenômenos do movimento e das relações das coisas no mundo. Infere-se, então, que das relações estabelecidas ao longo de suas trajetórias existenciais entre as coisas e seres nascem os afetos, ou seja, os modos como as coisas (ou seres) afetam ou são afetadas em suas diversas manifestações. A tese deste ensaio sugere que a razão nada mais é do que a afetividade formatada ao modo humano: a resultante do sentido existencial entrecruzado à realidade. Logo não haveria supremacia da cognição em detrimento da afetividade, por serem um e mesmo fenômeno: o do entendimento da realidade; baseando-se nos afetos sentidos e percebidos pelo sujeito. Tal premissa pode contribuir com o pensamento educacional ao (re)integrar a afetividade e a cognição, ao contrário do que se vem praticando: um privilégio exacerbado da educação racionalista. Essa (re)integração pode ocorrer pela conjunção da Arte, da Filosofia e da Psicologia, o que, de certo modo, defende a Pedagogia Waldorf, de Rudolf Steiner. Abstract in english The goal of this article is to discuss the concepts of affectivity and cognition, and their implications to education. The main idea is that, what really differentiates mankind from the other forms of life is not the simple use of rationality, but rather originates from the necessity of learning to [...] be, that is, man's difficulty of being. A hypothesis by philosopher Schopenhauer presents the notions of time and space as being a result of human sensibility and perceptions about the movement and the relationship among elements in the world, respectively. As such, it is inferred that, affects are originated from these established relations; that is, how things or beings affect or are affected in their different manifestations. The thesis of this essay defends the possibility of reason being the affective root between the existential feelings and reality. Therefore, there would be no supremacy of the cognitive aspects granted by rationality in regards to affective aspects, inasmuch as they are the same phenomenon: the knowledge, which is built on interpretations of reality - interpretations based on affects felt and acknowledged by an individual. Such premise could contribute to education by integrating affectivity and cognition, as opposed to the common exacerbated privilege of rational education. Such integration can be accomplished by the integration of Art, Philosophy and Psychology, which in a way supports the Waldorf Pedagogy, by Rudolf Steiner.
Afetividade, cognição e educação: ensaio acerca da demarcação de fronteiras entre os conceitos e a dificuldade de ser do homem Affectivity, cognition and education: essay about the demarcation of borders between concepts and the difficulty of being human
René Simonato Sant'Ana
Full Text Available Busca-se discutir os conceitos afetividade e cognição, e suas implicações na educação. Parte-se da ideia de que a diferença entre humanos e demais seres decorre da necessidade de aprender a ser; ou seja, das dificuldades de ser do homem, advindas desse exercício, e não o emprego puro e simples da racionalidade. Schopenhauer apresenta a hipótese de que as noções de tempo e espaço são resultado da sensibilidade e percepção acerca, respectivamente, dos fenômenos do movimento e das relações das coisas no mundo. Infere-se, então, que das relações estabelecidas ao longo de suas trajetórias existenciais entre as coisas e seres nascem os afetos, ou seja, os modos como as coisas (ou seres afetam ou são afetadas em suas diversas manifestações. A tese deste ensaio sugere que a razão nada mais é do que a afetividade formatada ao modo humano: a resultante do sentido existencial entrecruzado à realidade. Logo não haveria supremacia da cognição em detrimento da afetividade, por serem um e mesmo fenômeno: o do entendimento da realidade; baseando-se nos afetos sentidos e percebidos pelo sujeito. Tal premissa pode contribuir com o pensamento educacional ao (reintegrar a afetividade e a cognição, ao contrário do que se vem praticando: um privilégio exacerbado da educação racionalista. Essa (reintegração pode ocorrer pela conjunção da Arte, da Filosofia e da Psicologia, o que, de certo modo, defende a Pedagogia Waldorf, de Rudolf Steiner.The goal of this article is to discuss the concepts of affectivity and cognition, and their implications to education. The main idea is that, what really differentiates mankind from the other forms of life is not the simple use of rationality, but rather originates from the necessity of learning to be, that is, man's difficulty of being. A hypothesis by philosopher Schopenhauer presents the notions of time and space as being a result of human sensibility and perceptions about the movement and the relationship among elements in the world, respectively. As such, it is inferred that, affects are originated from these established relations; that is, how things or beings affect or are affected in their different manifestations. The thesis of this essay defends the possibility of reason being the affective root between the existential feelings and reality. Therefore, there would be no supremacy of the cognitive aspects granted by rationality in regards to affective aspects, inasmuch as they are the same phenomenon: the knowledge, which is built on interpretations of reality - interpretations based on affects felt and acknowledged by an individual. Such premise could contribute to education by integrating affectivity and cognition, as opposed to the common exacerbated privilege of rational education. Such integration can be accomplished by the integration of Art, Philosophy and Psychology, which in a way supports the Waldorf Pedagogy, by Rudolf Steiner.
Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.
This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:24244085
This study deals with the principal advantages and disadvantages of the five types of proven commercial reactors. A description of each class of commercial reactor (light water, gas-cooled, and heavy water) and their proven reactors is followed by a comparison of reactor types on the basis of technical merit, economics of operation, availability of technology, and associated political issues. (author)
This review is an exploration into whether classroom methods similar to those applied by K-12 teachers are valid for adults and can be successfully applied to classrooms for disadvantaged adults: specifically, journal writing as a tool for improving learning and classroom relationships. The literature dispels the myth that teaching adults differs…
Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…
Isaacs, Julia B.
Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…
Doyle, Orla; Finnegan, Sarah; McNamara, Kelly A.
Although differential ratings by multiple informants are an important issue in survey design, few studies test the degree of difference between informants. This study examined differences in caregiver and teacher ratings of school readiness of children from a disadvantaged urban community in Ireland. School readiness was assessed using the Short…
Vogelwiesche, Uta; Grob, Alexander; Winkler, Britta
In a voluntary tutor-based training program, socially disadvantaged adolescents acquired basic computer skills. Two training groups were compared: one group was instructed by adolescents, the other by adults. Both groups achieved comparable results in a final test. The tutees' learning results did not differ with respect to their initial…
This paper qualitatively documents and analyses the attitudes and identities of female students from the urban disadvantaged social class towards English and Hindi in the city of New Delhi. These attitudes include not only instrumental views of English but also the impression that it creates a new personality for an individual. English is part of…
Center, Yola; Freeman, Louella; Robertson, Gregory
An evaluation of Schoolwide Early Language and Literacy (SWELL) was undertaken in New South Wales, Australia, using a sample of 366 disadvantaged kindergarten students. Participants outperformed controls on pseudo-word decoding and reading connected text at the end of kindergarten, and on invented spelling and reading measures midway through first…
Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael
Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. This study substantially broadens the existing evidence on access to effective teaching by examining access in 29 geographically dispersed school districts over the 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 school…
Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…
Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…
Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.
Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…
Gillooly, William B.; Thomas, Charles L.
An experiment employing a 2x2x3 factorial design sought to determine the extent to which socially disadvantaged elementary school students' unfamiliarity with some terms in a verbal subsection of a group intelligence test may account for their relatively poor performance on such tests. Training was provided so as to attempt improvement in these…
Matrundola, Lisa A.
This study investigated the services provided to students' participating in career preparation programs (e.g., career counseling, mentoring, apprenticeships, work-based learning, or GED programs) provided by the Massachusetts One-Stop Career Centers. A study conducted by the President's Task Force for Disadvantaged Students (2003) found that…
Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag
This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of…
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.
Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…
Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…
Capper, Colleen A.
Three case studies investigated the school day of disadvantaged rural students with severe disabilities. Subjects were severely disabled girls, living in families with no income other than public assistance, and attending elementary or middle school in three poor rural school districts. A constant comparative method of single and cross-site data…
...to its small disadvantaged business (SDB) program. DATES: Effective Date: November...businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB status to prime contractors in good faith...businesses were certified by the SBA as SDB firms. DoD, GSA, and NASA received...
...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the...evaluated based on: (1) The extent to which SDB concerns are specifically identified to...2) The extent of the commitment to use SDB concerns in the performance of the...
Gray, Lois A.; Guthrie, Larry F.
The Word Meaning section of the Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A, was questioned as a true measure of the capabilities of culturally disadvantaged children. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test with a test in which as many objects as possible were renamed to coincide with the language of the students…
Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.
The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent-child relationship quality,…
Houtz, John C.; Feldhusen, John F.
The authors hypothesize that the concreteness of the mode of item presentation would influence the subjects' performance on the Purdue Elementary Problem Solving Inventory. Results suggest that the variables of degree of disadvantage and ethnic background are sometimes more relevant than the mode in which the content is presented. (HMV)
Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther
Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…
Ma, Lai Ping Florence
The Native English Teachers (NETs) Scheme has been in place for over 20 years in secondary schools in Hong Kong and yet how students perceive these teachers is under-researched. This article reports a study which analyses student perceptions of the advantage and disadvantages of learning English from NETs and their non-native counterparts, local…
Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare
We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. PMID:23473655
Colmar, Susan Hilary
Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…
Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine
Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109
Rosenblum, Yeshayahu; Markovits, Arieh
Two types of bioloby textbooks were tested by 232 culturally disadvantaged seventh grade students in Israel. The reading material was written in either scientific prose or a longer narrative style. Reading ability was similar for all subjects. Reading comprehension and student preferences were measured. (GDC)
Boser, Richard A.
The paradigms for teaching technology education are changing. Technology education teachers and curriculum experts recommend a variety of differing instructional approaches such as self-paced modules, interdisciplinary methodology, and problem solving to inform students about technology and its affects on society. These instructional approaches all have their advantages and disadvantages. Gloeckner (1990), Thode (1989), and others have argued that self-paced modular instruction is an appropriate method that best accommodates diversity in both learning styles and learning levels. Others (Illinois State Board of Education, 1992; Wicklein, Hammer, Balistreri, DeVore, Scherr, Boudreau & Wright, 1991) suggest that technology is interrelated to other disciplines and that students need to see the connection between math, science, technology, social studies, and English; therefore, teachers should use interdisciplinary instruction. Other educators, DeLuca (1992) and James (1991), plead the case for problem-centered instruction as an authentic way to focus on the development of students' higher-level cognitive skills. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators
Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.
Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…
The adoption of a criterion-referenced assessment system and the resulting disadvantages of this form of evaluation for the college general education program are discussed, including problems in identifying assessment validation procedures. (RAO)
Stoward, Peter J.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Keller Plan in medical education are reviewed. The author's advice is based in part on his experience using the method in a course in histology at the University of Dundee, Scotland. (LBH)
Despite increasing levels of work-family conflict (WFC) among North Americans, few scholars examine the broader contexts in which these conflicts occur. I address this gap by examining how the neighborhood of residence impacts WFC, with a focus on social inequality and disadvantage across neighborhoods. I hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage may impact WFC directly-by introducing ambient stressors that inhibit individuals from successfully balancing competing domain demands, and indirectly-by undermining the psychological resources that would combat the harmful effects of disadvantaged contexts. Using individual and census-level data from Canada, I consider both objective and subjective measures of neighborhood disadvantage and find that, overall, individuals in more disadvantaged neighborhoods are worse off because these contexts increase WFC, while reducing the psychological resources that would otherwise buffer these deleterious effects. However, some of these associations vary by gender. I discuss the broader implications of these findings for neighborhood effects and WFC research. PMID:25592939
Full Text Available This article reviews separate education for ethnic minorities in two Central Asian countries - Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Students and teachers from minority and majority groups in each country were asked 1 whether separate schools for minorities persevered minority cultural identity and 2 whether such schools undercut equal educational opportunities for minority students. Analysis indicates that in some political, social and educational contexts separation puts minority youth at a disadvantage, which in turn keeps them from fully integrating into society. Redressing this situation requires a commitment to guaranteeing rights and full citizenship for minorities. This paper explores how separate school systems deepen ethnic and political divisions in society rather than promote equality and equity. It begins with a number of questions. How much emphasis do current education reform initiatives put on equity and equality in minority schools? What is the balance between economic and civic imperatives in the education policy process in the two countries? What are the main features of post-transition phase in education and how it affects separate education? As mentioned in the foreword of this issue, data analyzed for this study was collected under the auspices of the “Divided Education, Divided Citizens” project, which was conducted in seven post-socialist countries. This article concentrates on separate schooling for different ethnic and linguistic groups and issues related to the civil enculturation of minorities in two Central Asian countries, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Study participants from minority and majority language-track schools in each country were asked to observe whether separate schools for minority ethnicities served to preserve culture or instead undercut equal educational opportunity. Pervious investigations have found that education plays a fundamental role in shaping individuals’ perceptions of their own ethnicity. Korostelina (2008 in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005 found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.
The European Council's Recommendation relating to teacher training in education for intercultural understanding, highlights the fact that the purpose of international education, which is above intercultural education, is to develop the sense of social responsibility and solidarity with disadvantaged groups and induce respect for the principle of equality in daily behaviour. The essence of the intercultural education system is represented by ensuring authentic cultural interactions, free from ...
Tian Zhang; Man Liu; Yuxia Chen
Teaching is a complex system; the reform of teaching methods is very important in education. The teaching methods in traditional schooling education had many disadvantages; it can not satisfy the requirements for professional education. Along with the progress in the professional education, it is necessary to analyze and grasp the characteristics of the teaching methods, abide by the principle of the teaching method reform carefully and build up the scientific teaching methods to satisfy the ...
P. Sri Jothi
Full Text Available The great Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a destructive tsunami which devastated coastal communities bordering the Indian Ocean, killing thousands of people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, the Maldives, Malaysia, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen and Kenya. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history. In India, the death toll and damages were severe, particularly along the southern and eastern coastal regions. Subsequently, central and state government authorities in the state of Tamilnadu - one of the most severely stricken regions - took immediate measures for tsunami preparedness and rehabilitation. The media played a major role in this effort by communicating to the public information related to the science and technology facts of tsunami hazards and to ways of mitigating their impact with better understanding and preparedness. Through its superior ability to communicate effectively information, the media became the role model in helping people make decisions for their own welfare. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the media’s role in the post-rehabilitation efforts and particularly in improving the status of affected women of the north Chennai region, who were forced to migrate from Ernavour and Ennore, in Chennai district, in the India state of Tamilnadu, by providing them science and technology communication.
Full Text Available In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. The new technology as potential source of propaganda and vulgarization is described. Finally, although there are disadvantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies, it is concluded the advantages surpass the disadvantages. The new technologies raise the democratization of diplomacy for a general well-fair and have a tendency to reduce hard power and to strengthen soft power.
Robin, Brett N; Lubowitz, James H
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) femoral socket techniques have distinct advantages and disadvantages when considering the following techniques: transtibial, anteromedial portal, outside-in, and outside-in retroconstruction. There is no one perfect technique and we have an incomplete understanding of anatomical, biomechanical, isometry, stability, and clinical outcomes. Our primary focus is transtibial technique for creating the ACL femoral socket. Advantages include less invasive, isometric graft placement, stable Lachman exam, and minimal graft impingement with the tunnel and notch. Disadvantages include nonanatomic vertical graft placement that can cause rotational instability and positive pivot shift, interference screw divergence, graft-tunnel length mismatch, femoral socket constraint, posterior cruciate ligament impingement, and a short, oblique tibial tunnel that may undermine the medial plateau in an attempt to achieve anatomic ACL reconstruction. PMID:24951951
Christo J, Cronjé.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The traditional corporate annual report consists of two types of disclosures, that is, mandatory and contextual disclosures. The research problem focuses on the issue whether full disclosure in corporate annual reports could entail mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of [...] information for disadvantaged stakeholders. To solve the research problem, use was mainly made of a literature review dealing with certain aspects of decision-useful financial reporting. The literature review was complemented by exploratory empirical research. It was found that full disclosure in corporate annual reports could consist of mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of information for disadvantaged stakeholders.
Bensimon, Estela Mara; Neumann, Anna
This report examines the usefulness of leadership teams in higher education based on study results involving 15 institutions of higher education located throughout the United States. In chapters 1 and 2 the concept of the "leadership team" is introduced by means of: (1) a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of teamwork; and (2) a…
The present study analyses the impact of social assistance programs on poverty, broadly construed as economic disadvantage, in eight Central and East European countries during the mid-2000s. It does that by examining cross-national & cross-temporal variation program features and specificities to identify patterns of association with outcomes of interest such as poverty levels, individual long-term income, earnings and assets. The main data source used throughout the study is the 2007 longitud...
Baird, J.; Cooper, C.; Margetts, Bm; Barker, M.; Inskip, Hm
Observational evidence suggests that improving the diets of women of child-bearing age from disadvantaged backgrounds might be an important component of public health strategies aimed at reducing the burden of chronic disease in their offspring. The development of an intervention to improve the nutrition of young women needs to be informed by a systematic collation of evidence. Such a systematic collation of evidence from systematic reviews of interventions directed at changing health behavio...
Vanderbilt-adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.
The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent–child relationship quality, measured in early childhood, were all significantly associated with a composite measure tapping low levels of antisocial behavior and high levels o...
Ossip-klein, Deborah J.; Fisher, Susan; Diaz, Sergio; Quin?ones, Zahira; Sierra, Essie; Dozier, Ann; Mcintosh, Scott; Guido, Joseph; Winters, Paul; Diaz, Omar; Armstrong, Latoya
The Dominican Republic (DR) is a tobacco-growing country and tobacco control efforts have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in 6 economically disadvantaged DR communities (2 small urban, 2 peri-urban, 2 rural; half were tobacco-growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each (total N=1048) and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health ...
Doyle, Orla; Mcentee, Louise; Mcnamara, Kelly
Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s skills and capabilities begin early in life and can have detrimental effects on future success in school. The present study examines the relationships between school readiness and sociodemographic inequalities using teacher reports of the Short Early Development Instrument in a disadvantaged urban area of Ireland. It specifically examines socioeconomic (SES) differences in skills within a low SES community in order to investigate the role of relative...
Md Nurul Huda; Kazi Shahnoor Alam; Harun-Ur-Rashid,
The prevalence of kidney disease, particularly diabetic and hypertensive kidney disease is increasing rapidly specially in the disadvantageous group of population throughout the world. A cross sectional survey was carried out at certain selected slum areas of Mirpur in Dhaka city of Bangladesh over the period from July 2003 to June 2005, and a total of participants ranging from 15 to 65 years were studied. The analysis discovered that 4.1% of the participants were diabetic, 11.6% were hyperte...
Maddison Ralph; Pearce Jamie R
Abstract Background There is growing recognition that the urban built environment influences physical activity at the population level, although the effects on disadvantaged groups are less well understood. Using the examples of open/green space and street connectivity, this paper explores whether enhancements to the built environment have potential for addressing physical activity-related health inequalities among M?ori, Pacific and low income communities in New Zealand. Method A high-level...
The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three ba...
This is a descriptive article from observations and logical deductions of experience. How genetical modifications is performed is also being explained. The main purpose is to increase the yield and also to attract the consumers. Listing of edible plants and herbal plants are also described along with medicinal and nutritional plants. Genetical modification is a turmoil created among the well adopted primary and secondary producers. Many more disadvantages are also discusse...
In this dissertation I have focused on mobile telework. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of teleworking compared to îtraditionalî home-based telework? I have seen this both from an employer and an employee perspective. The methods I used are a) a review of relevant telework literature, and b) qualitative interviews with sixteen mobile teleworkers employed by five different sales-oriented organisations. Very little academic research is done on mobile telework in particu...
Maforah, T. P.; Schulze, S.
The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structure...
In this paper the advantages and disadvantages are detailed, moreover special interference effects of the examined elements are evaluated. The detection limits of different ICP-MS instruments are compared. As a result of our research work various solutions are proposed for multielement analysis (e.g. Se, I, Co, As, Te, Cd, Pb and Cr) of the above various samples to reach more accurate and more precise results using ICP-MS instrument
Abdallah, A.M. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Inshas (Egypt). Reactors Dept.)
An analytical expression for calculating the disadvantage factor in a heterogeneous slab cell is derived by solving the one-speed neutron transport equation using a one-term scattering kernel (isotropic scattering). The expression derived is based on the method of spatial expansion developed by Pomraning and Clark. The numerical results appear to be very good compared with the other high-order approximate and exact methods.
Dobransky-fasiska, Deborah; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Pincus, Harold Alan; Castillo, Enrico; Lee, Brenda E.; Walnoha, Adrienne L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte
Reaching disadvantaged adults who need mental health care is challenging, partly because of mistrust of institutions, cultural insensitivity, and stigma. Researchers from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic and leaders of 11 non–mental health community organizations formed a partnership to improve depression care, especially for elders and individuals from difficult-to-reach racial and ethnic minority groups. The overarching goal is to reduce disparities by providing and improving care...
Palmer, K.; Poole, J.; Rawbone, R.; Coggon, D.
Background: Tests of genotype may enable workers at unusual risk of future ill-health to be identified. Using them to select for employment, however, entails gains and losses to employers and employees. Ensuring a fair balance between the rights and obligations of each group requires a value judgement, but the advantages and disadvantages to interested parties must first be quantified in a meaningful way.
Slapa Rafal; Jakubowski Wieslaw; Slowinska-Srzednicka Jadwiga; Szopinski Kazimierz
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR), applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers) was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed wi...
Griffiths Kathleen M; Crisp Dimity A; Barney Lisa; Reid Russell
Abstract Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respo...
Attanasio, O.; Kugler, A.; Meghir, C.
Youth unemployment in Latin America is exceptionally high, as much as 50% among the poor. Vocational training may be the best chance to help unemployed young people at the bottom of the income distribution. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized training program for disadvantaged youth introduced in Colombia in 2005 on the employment and earnings of trainees. This is one of a couple of randomized training trials conducted in developing countries and, thus, offers a unique oppor...
Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.
Although social disorganization theory hypothesizes that neighborhood characteristics influence youth delinquency, the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent substance use and racial/ethnic differences in this relationship have not been widely investigated. The present study examines these issues using longitudinal data from 1,856 African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The results ind...
The Province of Alberta has been a participant in the Tax Collection Agreements (TCAs) with the Federal Government covering the personal income tax since their inception in 1962. Under the terms of this agreement, the Federal Government undertakes to collect the Alberta personal income tax at no charge provided that the Government of Alberta agrees to levy its tax within a commonly agreed framework. This paper provides an assessment of the overall advantages and disadvantages ...
Alwash, Rafi; Mccarthy, Mark
Accidents in the home to children under 5 in a multiracial population with a high level of social disadvantage were studied by interviewing at home the parents of 402 children attending the accident department of a west London hospital during one year. The parents' country of birth, whether they were employed, and their housing conditions were recorded using the definitions of the 1981 census. Four ethnic groups (British (183 children), Asian (127), Caribbean (61), and other (31)) were identi...
Ehlert, Christoph; Kluve, Jochen; Schaffner, Sandra
While high rates of youth unemployment are a severe problem in most European countries, the program evaluation literature shows that disadvantaged youths constitute a group that is particularly difficult to assist effectively. As innovative measures are thus needed, we evaluate a German pilot program that targets low-skilled young unemployed and combines three components: a) individual coaching, b) classroom training and c) temporary work. Using an ex-post quasi-randomization approach, our an...
Abbotts, J; Williams, R; Ford, G
In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of the population is of significant Irish descent. In this study, excess of physical and mental health problems and disability have previously been reported for those of Catholic background, particularly in the eldest cohort (aged 56 in 1988), and have not been fully explained by health-related behaviour. In this paper, we examine a number of key health measures, namely self-assessed health, number of symptoms in the month prior to interview, sadness or depression, disability and lung function, and various indicators of socio-economic position (head of household social class, main source of income, car ownership, housing tenure and school-leaving age), which all show Catholic disadvantage. Using longitudinal results from the 723 respondents who completed interviews both at sweeps one (1988) and three (1995), it is estimated that about half of the morbidity excess amongst middle-aged Catholics in Glasgow can be explained by socio-economic disadvantage. The health and socio-economic position of white minorities and disadvantaged religious minorities like Catholics in Scotland should be monitored by a co-ordinated information strategy. PMID:11266057
Chinese Education and Society, 2008
This is a policy that aims at improving teaching practices in rural schools in China. Normal university students are encouraged to participate in educational aid work in disadvantaged schools as a fulfillment of their teaching internship. The policy supports the policies of free compulsory education for rural school issued in the past. In…
Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009
This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request focused on research-supported vocabulary interventions for middle elementary students. Limited vocabulary is an important factor in underachievement of children in disadvantaged homes. Children with larger vocabularies find reading easier, read more widely, and do better in school (Lubliner & Smetana,…
In U.S. schools, art education at many levels focuses predominantly on Western European art. Art created by other ethnic groups is ignored in survey courses and confined to infrequent electives. Art students of color often feel disadvantaged when having their work critiqued. (SK)
Despite significant increases in spending on child care and education during the last decade, PISA scores suggest that educational performance remains static, uneven and strongly related to parents' income and background. Better educational performance could improve labour market outcomes, raise growth, lower the consequences of a disadvantaged…
Examines Vietnamese educational reforms of the 1990s, aimed at modernizing education to support Vietnam's wide-ranging market reforms. Discusses the structure of preschool through higher education; the cluttered lower secondary school curriculum, rigidly tied to textbook content and teacher training; rural disadvantage and lesser access to…
The problem of this study was to develop a strategy for integrating technology education concepts within the Chinese mathematics and science curricula. The researcher used a case study as the basic methodology. It included three methods for collecting data: literature review, field study in junior and senior secondary schools in America and China, and interviews with experienced educators who were familiar with the status of technology education programs in the selected countries. The data came from the following areas: Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, China, and five states in the United States: Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York. The researcher summarized each state and country's educational data, identified the advantages and disadvantages of their current technology education program, and identified the major concepts within each program. The process determined that identified concepts would be readily acceptable into the current Chinese educational system. Modernization of, industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense have been recent objectives of the Chinese government. Therefore, Chinese understanding of technology, or technology education, became important for the country. However, traditional thought and culture curb the implementation of technology education within China's current education system. The proposed solution was to integrate technology education concepts into China's mathematics and science curricula. The purpose of the integration was to put new thoughts and methods into the current educational structure. It was concluded that the proposed model and interventions would allow Chinese educators to carry out the integration into China's education system.
Amani K Hamdan
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to build on the insights of educators regarding the relationship between culture and online learning. More specifically, this paper aims to explore the ways in which students’ culture of learning is changing as a result of the introduction of various modes of online learning. It also aims to explore the ways in which culture and cultural values affect the application and success of online-learning strategies. Particular attention is directed to learners’ perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of online communication. The paper is based on primary data drawn from undergraduate female students’ responses regarding how online education is changing their learning culture and how their culture is influencing online education. Sixty-seven undergraduate Saudi female students participated in the survey. The literature in the field of online and distance education is explored to help answer these questions. The participants indicated that online education helped them to challenge some cultural norms, enhance their learning culture, and improve their communication skills.
Full Text Available Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88, this study examines educational aspirations and postsecondary access and choice by students in urban, suburban, and rural schools. In addition, this study raises issues with the methods in postsecondary educational research by using students in different grades (8th, 10th, and 12th grades as baseline populations to compare educational outcomes. The results indicated that students in urban schools were comparatively disadvantaged in the early years in schooling in terms of postsecondary access but appeared to be enrolled in postsecondary institutions at similar percentages as their suburban counterparts, if they made it to later years in K-12 schooling. For those students in urban schools who went to college, higher percentages were enrolled in private institutions and four-year colleges. Students in rural schools were consistently disadvantaged in postsecondary aspirations and enrollment, compared to students in other schools.
Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Haynes, Michele; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie
BackgroundUnlike leisure time physical activity, knowledge of the socioeconomic determinants of active transport is limited, research on this topic has produced mixed and inconsistent findings, and it remains unknown if peoples¿ engagement in active transport declines as they age. This longitudinal study examined relationships between neighbourhood disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and walking for transport (WfT) during mid- and early old-age (40 ¿ 70 years). Three questions were addressed: (i) which socioeconomic groups walk for transport, (ii) does the amount of walking change over time as people age, and (iii) is the change socioeconomically patterned?MethodsThe data come from the HABITAT study of physical activity, a bi-annual multilevel longitudinal survey of 11,036 residents of 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia. At each wave (2007, 2009 and 2011) respondents estimated the duration (minutes) of WfT in the previous 7 days. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived index comprising 17 different socioeconomic components, and individual-level socioeconomic position was measured using education, occupation, and household income. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression.ResultsThe odds of being defined as a `never walker¿ were significantly lower for residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but significantly higher for the less educated, blue collar employees, and members of lower income households. WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons. Average minutes of WfT declined for all neighbourhoods and most socioeconomic groups; however, the declines were significantly steeper for the retired and members of low income households.ConclusionsDesigning age-friendly neighbourhoods might slow or delay age-related declines in WfT and should be a priority. Steeper declines in WfT among residents of low income households may reflect their poorer health status and the impact of adverse socioeconomic exposures over the life course. Each of these declines represents a significant challenge to public health advocates, urban designers, and planners in their attempts to keep people active and healthy in their later years of life. PMID:25492854
...2010-07-01 false Are there any disadvantages to using the commuted rate method...Rules § 302-7.14 Are there any disadvantages to using the commuted rate method...and temporary storage? Yes. The disadvantages to using the commuted rate...
...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...
Lategan, Laetus O. K.
The South African higher education system is facing dramatic new changes. One of the most challenging issues is that of multiculturaiity. Multiculturaiity in higher education exists next to other challenges such as a new National Qualifications Framework; quality assurance initiatives; an Act on Higher Education in which a New social and academic role is given to higher education; the massification of the university system; increased access to higher education by former disadvantaged students...
The F sub(N) method is used for the calculation of the thermal disadvantage factor in reactor cells with anisotropic scattering in the moderator. Numerical results were obtained for several reactor cells and compared with the results obtained by other methods. The results confirmed the physical conclusion, that the higher order terms in the expansion of the scattering law have an insignificant effect on the thermal disadvantage factor. (E.G.)
Massis, Alfredo Vittorio; Kotlar, Josip; Cassia, Lucio
This paper explores the CEOs' perceptions of potential competitive advantages and disadvantages deriving from the unique bundle of resources that arises from the interaction between the family and the business systems. We rely on a multiple case study that involved seven family firms operating in the transportation industry. The case study analysis shows that a number of advantages and disadvantages are commonly perceived by family business CEOs in relation to different categories of resource...
Chantelle De Abreu
Full Text Available Background: In South Africa cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer amongst women, and black African women have the highest risk of developing this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of South African women do not adhere to recommended regular cervical screening.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions, experiences and knowledge regarding cervical screening of disadvantaged women in two informal settlements in South African urban areas.Method: The Health Belief Model (HBM provided a theoretical framework for this study. Four focus groups (n = 21 were conducted, using questions derived from the HBM, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The ages of the women who participated ranged from 21 to 53 years.Results: The analysis revealed lack of knowledge about screening as a key structural barrier to treatment. Other structural barriers were: time, age at which free screening is available, and health education. The psychosocial barriers that were identified included: fear of the screening procedure and of the stigmatisation in attending screening. The presence of physical symptoms, the perception that screening provides symptom relief, HIV status, and the desire to know one’s physical health status were identified as facilitators of cervical screening adherence.Conclusion: This knowledge has the potential to inform healthcare policy and services in South Africa. As globalisation persists and individuals continue to immigrate or seek refugee status in foreign countries, increased understanding and knowledge is required for successful acculturation and integration. Developed countries may therefore also benefit from research findings in developing countries.
Full text: Introduction: Computed tomography urography is among the fastest growing imaging directions, indications of which continue to change. Radiation dose is one of its main disadvantages. There are a number of literary publications regarding how to reduce radiation dose: by voltage, by mA or by reducing the number of phases. What you will learn: We present the initial experience in the diagnosis of non-malignant kidney disease with three low-dose study protocol: a standard low dose, low dose and low dose introduced by us. Our research is based on three groups of patients. The first of 36 men and 22 women viewed with repetitive low-dose protocol: 120 kV / 219 effective milliampere. The second and third group of 16 men and 9 women, respectively: 100/ 163 and 80/115 . Discussion: There have been a number of studies to reduce the radiation dose that is considered one of the main disadvantages of computed tomography urography. Reducing mA (? 30 mAs), leads to the radiation dose similar to that of an overview abdominal radiography. Reducing of 140 kV to 120, reducing the dosage of the skin by about 33 % and decreasing it to 80 kilovolts, the result is about 70 %. Another technology to reduce radiation exposure is by reducing the number of phases of the study, but studies have shown that the removal of the native phase is not desirable. Conclusion: We believe that computed tomography urography is a detailed study that should be applied in certain clinical indications. Its major disadvantage is the radiation dose. Images obtained with low-dose protocols are newly comparable image quality to the standard, but with much lower radiation exposure
Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine
Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (pbrand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299
Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied
Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.
The experiences of Poland in educational testing are reviewed from 1918 to 1990. Trends affecting the future of educational testing in Poland are considered. Current economic and political conditions in Eastern Europe may keep educational testing in a relatively minor position as more vital national needs are addressed. (SLD)
Questions of disarmament and the legitimacy of the nation-state system should be the core of peace education and should comprise a major aspect of citizenship education. The approach to peace education should be cognitive and affective, intellectual and political, and should be initiated in the early elementary years. (Author/KC)
Full Text Available This article presents the provisions, the main advantages and disadvantages of the VAT scheme upon collection, adopted by the Romanian Government in order to help the economy and to collect more money to the state budget. The VAT payment to the state budget upon collection was requested frequently by businessmen, and over the years there were some other legislative proposals such as this that never materialized. According to the VAT scheme upon collection, the firm that issues the invoice will pay the VAT only when collecting, and the firm that receives the invoice may deduct VAT only on the payment moment.
Cilla, G.; Perez-trallero, E.; Marimon, J. M.; Erdozain, S.; Gutierrez, C.
The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a group of socially and economically disadvantaged Spanish gypsy children was compared to that of a group of non-gypsy middle-class children. The study included 438 children, 73 gypsies (38 girls and 35 boys, mean age 8.5 years, age range 2-16 years) and 365 non-gypsy controls, randomly selected by age. The presence of anti-HAV was investigated using ELISA. Among the gypsy children, 82% had antibodies to HAV compared with 9.3% of the ch...
Virginia, PARDO IRANZO.
Full Text Available a la presencia del profesor en clase para enseñar han ido apareciendo nuevos sistemas. En el presente artículo analizamos uno de ellos: la enseñanza online, las ventajas que tiene, sus inconvenientes y como estructurarla. [...] Abstract in english ABSTRACT: In Spain the way of teaching is changing. Change that occurred in the US and other countries more than two decades ago. In this paper we analyze a new system of teaching: e-learning, the advantages, disadvantages and how to structure it. [...
Yaburova Dinara Vladimirovna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the personal income tax in Russia, its disadvantages and tendencies of development. Tax burden on wages in Russia is compared with the tax burden on wages in France. The comparison is made by such parameters as the type of scale, tax rates, amount of contributions to the social funds and amount of tax deductions. This research indicated that it is necessary to reform the personal income tax in Russia. In this case improvement of social and demographic situation can be achieved and legalization of incomes increased.
The therapeutic patient education is an absolute necessity in the management of chronic diseases including diabetes. This discipline promotes personal autonomy to live optimally, to achieve personal and professional projects, despite the constraints of the disease and treatments. The DAWN2 study demonstrates the systemic effects of this disease that goes beyond simple glycemic control. The biopsychosocial dimension needs to be better explored. Other assessment tools should be used to better manage these patients. Exploring the health literacy and numeracy are other tools that can explore the problems for socially disadvantaged patients. The main goal is development of patient capabilities and his environment for the development of the human person. PMID:25004769
Ross, Catherine E.; Masters, Ryan K.; Hummer, Robert A.
The positive associations between education and health and survival are well established, but whether the strength of these associations depends on gender is not. Is the beneficial influence of education on survival and on self-rated health conditioned by gender in the same way, in opposite ways, or not at all? Because women are otherwise disadvantaged in socioeconomic resources that are inputs to health, their health and survival may depend more on education than will men’s. To test this h...
Gabel, S. L.; Curcic, S.; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, K.; Albee, L.
Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into disproportionality in special education, defined as the over- or under-representation of particular ethnic groups in such programs, shows that this, too, h...
Hutton, Patricia A.; Holmes, James M.
This article proposes a funded school-based allowance and savings program targeted at economically disadvantaged students with poor educational outcomes to help poor children develop less present-biased time preference patterns so as to increase student effort and skills acquisition, avoid the pitfalls that pave the path of adolescence and move from poverty to middle class status as adults. Time orientation is associated with low educational investments, poor educational outcomes, out-of wedl...
Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge. PMID:23986365
Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C
This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age. PMID:24811288
Full Text Available Background:Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pressures especially cost cutting and search for cost-effective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods: The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsizing, Hospital Restructuring, Staff Downsizing, Hospital Merging, Hospital Reorganization and the Persian equivalents. Resulted 815 articles were studied and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles were selected for analysis. Results: Five hospital downsizing methods were identified during searching. These methods were reducing the number of employees and beds, outsourcing, integration of hospital units, and the combination of these methods. The most important benefits were cost reduction, increasing patient satisfaction, increasing home care and outpatient services. The most important disadvantage included reducing access, reducing the rate of hospital admissions and increasing employees’ workload and dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Each downsizing method has strengths and weaknesses. Using different methods of downsizing, according to circumstances and applying appropriate interventions after implementation, is necessary for promotion.
Ley, Clemens; Leach, Lloyd; Barrio, María Rato; Bassett, Susan
This study aimed to analyse the physical health effects of a community based 10-week physical activity programme with people living with HIV. It was developed, implemented and evaluated in a disadvantaged community in South Africa. A pre-post research design was chosen. Major recruitment and adherence challenges resulted in a small sample. Among the 23 participants who took part in both baseline and final testing, compliant participants (n = 12) were compared to non-compliant participants (n = 11). Immunological (CD4, viral load), anthropometric (height, weight, skinfolds and waist to hip ratio), muscular strength (h1RM) and cardiopulmonary fitness (time on treadmill) parameters were measured. The compliant and non-compliant groups were not different at baseline. Muscular strength was the parameter most influenced by compliance with the physical activity programme (F = 4.516, p = 0.047). Weight loss and improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness were restricted by the duration of the programme, compliance and influencing factors (e.g. nutrition, medication). The increase in strength is significant and meaningful in the context, as the participants' goals were to look healthy and strong to avoid HIV related stigma. The improvements in appearance were a motivational factor, especially since the changes were made visible in a short time. Practical implications for health promotion are described. More research contextualised in disadvantaged settings is needed. PMID:25555097
Full Text Available This is a descriptive article from observations and logical deductions of experience. How genetical modifications is performed is also being explained. The main purpose is to increase the yield and also to attract the consumers. Listing of edible plants and herbal plants are also described along with medicinal and nutritional plants. Genetical modification is a turmoil created among the well adopted primary and secondary producers. Many more disadvantages are also discussed in the view of farmers. Researchers are requested to probe the effect of these genetically modified organisms over human health. Health threats and disorder such as metabolic disorders and carcinogenic effects as stated by oncologists are also discussed. Health is to be considered as a prime point in genetical modifications. In any body system even a small genetical modification will alter the whole system of the body. Listing of disadvantage is not to criticize but to make the process really healthy by doing real researchers over the after math of the introduction of a new genetically modified organism.
Afetos positivos e negativos em professores de diferentes níveis de ensino / Positive and negative affects of teachers from different educational levels / Afectos positivos y negativos en profesores de diferentes niveles de enseñanza
Ana Paula Porto, Noronha; Mariana Palladino, Delforno; Lariana Paula, Pinto.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou comparar afetos positivos e negativos de professores dos diversos níveis de ensino. Participaram 101 professores, com idade média de 39,3 anos (DP = 9,8), sendo 83,2% (n=84) do sexo feminino. Utilizou-se a Escala de Afetos Zanon- EAZ. Os professores foram cooptados no pró [...] prio local de trabalho, e as aplicações ocorreram tanto individual quanto coletivamente. Para efetivação das análises recorreu-se à ANOVA, por analisar perfis de medidas repetidas. Como um dos resultados mais relevantes, observou-se que os afetos positivos estiveram mais presentes na amostra em questão. Também foi verificado que os educadores de creche apresentaram menos afetos positivos que os demais, fato que pode ter sido influenciado por singularidades percebidas pelos participantes como, por exemplo, as relacionadas à remuneração, à carga horária e ao plano de carreira. Não foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao sexo, e à faixa etária. Observou-se a necessidade de desenvolver mais estudos sobre esta temática. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo tuvo el objetivo de comparar afectos positivos y negativos de profesores de diversos niveles de enseñanza. Participaron de la investigación 101 profesores - de los cuales 83,2% (n=84) eran del sexo feminino, con edad promedio de 39,3 años (SD=9,8). El instrumento utilizado fue la Escala [...] de Afectos Zanon-EAZ. Entre los resultados más relevantes se observó que los afectos positivos estuvieron más presentes en la muestra. También se verificó que los educadores de guardería presentaron menos afectos positivos que los demás profesores. Este factor puede haber sido influenciado por singularidades percibidas por los participantes, relacionadas, por ejemplo, a la remuneración, carga horaria y plan de carrera. No fueron encontradas diferencias en cuanto al sexo, a la edad y a la franja etaria. Se observou la necesidade de realizar más estudios sobre esta temática. Abstract in english In this study we aim at comparing positive and negative affects of teachers from different educational levels. 101 teachers participated in this study, being 83.2% (n=84) female with an average age of 39.3 years (SD=9.8). The instrument used was the Escala de Afetos Zanon - EAZ. Teachers were co-opt [...] ed in the workplace, and the applications occurred both individually and collectively. In order to carry out the analysis, we used ANOVA method, by analyzing profiles of repeated measurements. Among the most relevant results, it was observed that positive affects were more present in the sample in question. We also found that educators from Kindergarten had less positive affect than others, a factor that may have been influenced by singularities perceived by the participants, for example relating to remuneration, working hours and career plan. No differences were found regarding gender and age group. We argue that further studies on this issue are necessary.
The Talent Search program provides Federal financial assistance in the form of discretionary grants to to help youth from disadvantaged backgrounds complete secondary education and enroll in and complete programs of postsecondary education; and to publicize the availability of, and facilitate the application for, student financial assistance for persons who seek to pursue postsecondary education.......
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working in education in India are professional resource centers and innovators able to reach children who are educationally disadvantaged. The Indian government could improve the effectiveness of primary education by increasing its collaboration with NGOs. India has an arduous task ahead to provide good quality…
'n Voorlopige impakstudie van 'n vennootskapsprojek tussen universiteit, skole en die privaat sektor: hoop vir benadeelde studente danksy mentorskappe / A preliminary impact study of a university, school and private sector partnership project: hope for disadvantaged students through mentorships
Michael, le Cordeur.
Full Text Available Successful access to higher education for black students in particular remains a challenge to all tertiary institutions in South Africa. This is the opinion of Prof. Russel Botman, Rector of Stellenbosch University (SU). It is therefore of concern that the SU strategic framework document (SU 2010a) [...] states that the increase in our country's student population projected by the National Commission for Higher Education in 1997 (DBO 1997) has not been attained. This is in contrast with the University's vision for the future, which commits itself to an academic institution of excellence and a respected knowledge partner that contributes towards the development of South Africa and welcomes a diversity of people and ideas. But according to a report by the Centre for Higher Education Transformation (CHET)¹ little demographic transformation had occurred in respect of who participates in higher education. This is an indication that black students' chances of gaining access to university have in fact decreased. Despite this authorities continue to insist that the percentage of black students in public higher-education institutions be increased. The Ministry's vision is of a transformed, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist system of higher education that will promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education (DBO 1997). The Vice-Rector of SU (Fourie 2009b:16) expands on this: "Besides the moral-ethical considerations, pressure is also being placed on universities by higher education policy to diversify their student and staff compositions and to remove measures that could exclude certain groupings". Stellenbosch University is thus under pressure to align its diversity profile with the transformation goals set by the government, as proclaimed in the White Paper on Higher Education of1997. At the same time the University also experiences pressure from the broader community to answer to the call of alleviating poverty in disadvantaged communities (SU 2010a). However, the standard of teaching in previously disadvantaged schools in the surrounding areas is such that very few students qualify to further their studies at university level. The question therefore is what the University can do to draw students that will rise to these challenges. In his response the University announced a strategy referred to by the current vice-chancellor (Botman 2007) as a "pedagogy of hope". This seems to have been inspired by the neo-Marxist Brazilian educationalist Paulo Friere'spublication Pedagogy of the oppressed (1970). According to this strategy the University will search for and exploit opportunities that will lead to "the farm owner's daughter and the farm worker's son sitting in the same class" (Botman 2007). This gave rise to initiatives such as the Rachel's Angels Schools Partnership Project, which is based on the principles of community interaction.² The project aims to build the capacity of promising students from disadvantaged communities with the aid of a mentorship programme. This will enable them to bridge the gap between school and university successfully. This article presents an overview of the project as well as a report on its impact. The educational theories which underpin the Rachel's Angels project can be considered to be constructivist in nature, founded upon a philosophy that is student centred and based on a view in which knowledge is not absolute, but is actively constructed by the student. The study aims to establish whether the project has achieved the desired outcomes. If employed successfully, SU will give effect to its transformation agenda, which includes increased participation by a diverse corps of students, willingness to react to social and economic needs and growing cooperation between higher education institutions and all sectors of society. The results of the impact study indicate that, despite growing pains, the project has already made a meaningful contribution in building the capacity of disadvantaged stude
Research on globalization and education involves the study of intertwined worldwide discourses, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies. The four major theoretical perspectives concerning globalization and education are world culture, world systems, postcolonial, and culturalist. The major global educational…
Chief academic officers of public universities in Texas were asked to comment on trends affecting general education on their campuses. The role of academic departments in furthering--and inhibiting--changes in general education curricula is analyzed. (PP)
O lugar do afetivo no desenvolvimento da criança: implicações educacionais / The place of affective on child development: educational implications / El lugar del afectivo en el desarrollo del niño: implicaciones educativas
Cláudia Aparecida Valderramas, Gomes.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo, de natureza teórica, tem por objetivo analisar algumas proposições da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural acerca do psiquismo humano, notadamente no que tange à constituição dos processos afetivos na relação com o desenvolvimento infantil. Para tanto, reúne alguns princípios da filosofia spin [...] osiana que fundamentaram o pensamento de Vigotski sobre os afetos e postula que, para essa escola da psicologia, na base da formação humana se encontram a experiência social e a relação sujeito-objeto, elementos constitutivos dos processos cognitivo e afetivo. As análises desenvolvidas ao longo do texto indicam que os mediadores sociais - signos e instrumentos - subsidiam a formação da atividade e da consciência num processo que legitima a origem histórica e social das funções afetivas. O artigo pretende evidenciar o papel da escola como um espaço privilegiado de acesso aos conhecimentos capazes de transformar os modos de pensar, sentir e agir das crianças por meio dos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem. Abstract in spanish Este estudio, de naturaleza teórica, tiene como objetivo analizar algunas proposiciones de la psicología Histórico-Cultural acerca del psiquismo humano, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la constitución de los procesos afectivos en la relación con el desarrollo infantil. Para ello, reúne algunos [...] principios de la filosofía spinozista que fundamentaron el pensamiento vigotskiano sobre los afectos y postula que, para esta escuela de la psicología, en la base de la formación humana se encuentran la experiencia social y la relación sujeto-objeto, constitutivas de los procesos cognitivos y afectivos. Los análisis desarrollados a lo largo del texto indican que los mediadores sociales - signos e instrumentos - subvencionan la formación de la actividad y de la conciencia en un proceso que legitima el origen histórico y social de las funciones afectivas. El artículo pretende evidenciar el papel de la educación escolar como un espacio privilegiado de acceso a los conocimientos capaces de transformar las formas de pensar, sentir y actuar de los niños por medio de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study, of theoretical nature, aims to analyse some propositions of Historic and Cultural psychology about human psyche, especially regarding the constitution of affective processes in relation to child development. Therefore, brings together some principles of Spinozist philosophy that underlie [...] the Vigotskian thought about affections and postulates that, for this school of psychology, on the basis of human development are the social experience and subject-object relation, constitutive of cognitive and affective processes. The analyses developed over the text indicate that social mediators - signs and instruments - subsidize the formation of activity and consciousness in a process that legitimizes the historic and social origin of affective functions. The paper aims to highlight the role of education as a privileged place of access to knowledge capable of transforming ways of thinking, feeling and acting of children through the processes of teaching and learning.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With surveys suggesting that exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol intake is commonplace, the health and social impact of modifying intake on a population level is potentially considerable. If public health interventions are to be successfully implemented, it is first important to identify correlates of such behaviours, including socioeconomic disadvantage. This was the aim of the present study. Methods Population-representative cohort study of 576 men from the West of Scotland. Data on life course socioeconomic position were collected in 1988 (at around 55 years of age. Alcohol consumption patterns (detailed seven day recall and problem drinking (CAGE questionnaire were ascertained in 1990/2 (at around 59 years of age. A relative index of inequality was computed to explore the comparative strength of different indicators of social circumstances from different periods of the life course. Results Socioeconomic adversity in both early life and in adulthood was related to an increased risk of exceeding the weekly and daily alcohol guidelines, with adult indicators of socioeconomic position revealing the strongest associations. Of these, material indicators of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood – car ownership, housing tenure – were marginally more strongly related to heavy alcohol intake and problem drinking than education, income and occupational social class. A substantial proportion of the influence of early life deprivation on alcohol intake was mediated via adult socioeconomic position. Similar results were apparent when problem drinking was the outcome of interest. Conclusion In men in this cohort, exposure to disadvantaged social circumstances across the lifecourse, but particularly in adulthood, is associated with detrimental patterns of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in late middle age.
This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…
Rudolph, Kara E; Wand, Gary S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Glass, Thomas A; Marques, Andrea H; Duncko, Roman; Merikangas, Kathleen R
The association between neighborhood conditions and cortisol is rarely studied in children or adolescents and has been hampered by small sample size and racial/ethnic and geographic homogeneity. Our objective was to estimate the association between neighborhood disadvantage and salivary cortisol levels in a large, geographically and racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Salivary cortisol was collected before and after an interview administered in the adolescent's home. We used a propensity score approach to match adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods with those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods to create two similar groups based on the time and day of cortisol collection as well as demographic characteristics. Adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods had higher pre-interview cortisol levels and steeper rates of decline in cortisol levels over the course of the interview than similar adolescents in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. This bolsters the evidence base suggesting that place may influence the stress response system. PMID:24367996
Imbalanced literacy? How a US national educational policy has affected English learners and their teachers / Disparidad en la Alfabetización? Cómo la política nacional afecta a estudiantes y docentes de Inglés
Full Text Available El aprendizaje y la enseñanza son siempre afectados por los contextos educativos y sus políticas desde las políticas de aula de clase que establecen los docentes, hasta las políticas que establecen las escuelas, las organizaciones, los distritos, estados y/o el país. ¿Cómo se implementa la política [...] a nivel local? ¿Cómo afecta dicha política las necesidades y realidades de docentes y estudiantes? ¿Cómo el escuchar las preocupaciones de los maestros puede contribuir a validar las críticas a la política? Este artículo descubre la pertinencia de estas preguntas en la política de educación conocida como No Child Left Behind (NCLB). A través de las perspectivas y experiencias de seis maestros de inglés en tres escuelas públicas de un distrito escolar en el noroeste de los Estados Unidos se narran las incidencias de esta política. Aunque las preocupaciones de los maestros son frecuentemente vistas como simples anécdotas, estas pueden ofrecer información valiosa sobre las debilidades de las políticas y/o de los programas. En la dicotomía entre los mundos de la política y la práctica, este artículo resalta la necesidad crítica de atender tanto a la política como a la práctica. Abstract in english Learning and teaching are always affected by institutional contexts and their policies, ranging from the classroom policies that teachers establish or enact-tacitly or explicitly, to the larger rings of policy set by schools, organizations, districts, states, and/or country. How is policy enacted on [...] a local level? How does such policy affect the needs and realities of students and teachers? How does listening to teacher concerns contribute to valid critiques of policy? This article addresses those questions as they pertain to the US education policy known as No Child Left Behind (NCLB). It is told through the perspectives and experiences of six English language teachers in three public schools in one urban school district in the Northeastern United States. Although teachers' concerns are often dismissed as anecdotal, they can offer valuable insights into the weaknesses of policies and/or programs. In the often, dichotomous worlds of policy and practice, this story highlights the critical need to attend to both.
In this paper we propose a critical investigation of the founding assumptions for the legitimacy of the (internationally accepted) geological disposal option through a reading of Nietzsche's second untimely meditation 'On the uses and disadvantages of history for life'. In particular, we propose an interpretation of some of the central concepts in this text - History, the present, discourses and attitudes towards the past, etc. - and investigates in particular the effects of the confrontation between the Nietzschean concept of 'active forgetting' and present practices in the management of medium- and high-level long-lived radioactive waste (cat. B and C). Furthermore, we argue that this untimely meditation comes at a timely moment, i.e. at a time when modernity's way of dealing with waste could be undergoing a major transformation. The paper ends with some reflections on our nuclear inheritance and its link with nuclear power of the future (Gen IV) inspired by Nietzsche
D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa
It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950
Full Text Available The present study is focused on one of the most important steps in embryo technology evaluating embryo quality. During three years, we have conducted embryo transfer experiments on sheep. The evaluation of embryo quality was made using morphologic methods. We have evaluated embryos immediately after recovery (surgical methods recovery or after throwing of frozen embryo under a optical microscope were used for evaluation. International Embryo Transfer Society standards for embryo quality classification. There are four grades of quality: excellent, good, medium and poor. The morphological method’s advantages are: it is very fast, not so expensive and does not require excessive embryo manipulation. Disadvantages of this method are: grading is subjective, depending on the experience of the evaluator, metabolic, genetic or epigenetic disorders of embryos are not detectable.
After the decision to shut-down the 10 MW ASTRA Reactor the question arises how the decommissioning shall be performed, whether it shall be realized after a prolonged cooling-down period or in a predominantly rapid way. In the public generally the opinion is prevalent that the decommissioning of a reactor expands over a long period of time. In the IAEA Technical Documents three decommissioning phases are distinguished separated by a few months to several decades. In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of a rapid decommissioning and dismantling are discussed and compared to each other. It becomes apparent that a rapid decommissioning without substantial time periods between the individual decommissioning phases results in lower costs with high probability in lower exposure of the personal involved. The time for the decommissioning is estimated to be about 6 years after the last reactor operation. (orig.)
Purpose: We describe our initial clinical experience in artificial embolization with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV (VP IV), a further development of the Vascular Plug family already in routine use. Methods: Results from 50 embolization procedures conducted with the VP IV in 44 patients are summarized. Results: All 50 embolizations were successful, although two required the technique to be modified because of problems with jamming of the screw thread and thus with disconnection of the plug. This was associated with large branching angles. Conclusions: With experience, the VP IV can be used safely and effectively, and it expands the spectrum of possible embolizations in interventional radiology. Its greatest disadvantage is its relatively poor positional controllability.
Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David
Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains, which should be considered when developing strategies to promote physical activity amongst women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. PMID:20362380
Liaño, F; Tenorio, M T; Rodríguez-Mendiola, N; Ponte, B
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered to be a potential cause for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD); on the other hand, CKD predisposes to AKI. The lack of adequate epidemiological data makes it difficult to determine if AKI induces CKD in less developed countries. The etiology of AKI in rich populations, in whom sophisticated surgery, interventional radiology and oncology treatments are usually the cause of AKI, is very different from that of disadvantaged populations, where the origin of AKI is associated with endemic infections, obstetric problems, poisons, toxins and natural disasters. Any conclusions extrapolated from these two settings should be treated with caution. Moreover, people living in disadvantaged conditions are usually much younger than those in rich areas and this age factor could facilitate total recovery of renal function after AKI if treatment based on an adequate supply of water, rehydration and anti-infectious measures were provided. In the small segment of the population of less developed countries having an income per capita similar to that observed in the developed countries, the long-term outcome of AKI should also be expected to be similar. New data coming from two single centers analyzing only the long-term outcome of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) patients, with a normal or near normal renal function prior to the AKI episode, coincide in reporting a requirement for chronic dialysis among the surviving patients of 2%. If these data are confirmed, the importance of AKI as cause of CKD should be reconsidered, both in developed and less developed countries. PMID:20979971
Laurin, Kristin; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Kay, Aaron C
Five studies support the hypothesis that beliefs in societal fairness offer a self-regulatory benefit for members of socially disadvantaged groups. Specifically, members of disadvantaged groups are more likely than members of advantaged groups to calibrate their pursuit of long-term goals to their beliefs about societal fairness. In Study 1, low socioeconomic status (SES) undergraduate students who believed more strongly in societal fairness showed greater intentions to persist in the face of poor performance on a midterm examination. In Study 2, low SES participants who believed more strongly in fairness reported more willingness to invest time and effort to achieve desirable career outcomes. In Study 3, ethnic minority participants exposed to a manipulation suggesting that fairness conditions in their country were improving reported more willingness to invest resources in pursuit of long-term goals, relative to ethnic minority participants in a control condition. Study 4 replicated Study 3 using an implicit priming procedure, demonstrating that perceptions of the personal relevance of societal fairness mediate these effects. Across these 4 studies, no link between fairness beliefs and self-regulation emerged for members of advantaged (high SES, ethnic majority) groups. Study 5 contributed evidence from the World Values Survey and a representative sample (Inglehart, Basañez, Diez-Medrano, Halman, & Luijkx, 2004). Respondents reported more motivation to work hard to the extent that they believed that rewards were distributed fairly; this effect emerged more strongly for members of lower SES groups than for members of higher SES groups, as indicated by both self-identified social class and ethnicity. PMID:21058869
Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; von Bartheld, Christopher S; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H
The number of cells comprising biological structures represents fundamental information in basic anatomy, development, aging, drug tests, pathology and genetic manipulations. Obtaining unbiased estimates of cell numbers, however, was until recently possible only through stereological techniques, which require specific training, equipment, histological processing and appropriate sampling strategies applied to structures with a homogeneous distribution of cell bodies. An alternative, the isotropic fractionator (IF), became available in 2005 as a fast and inexpensive method that requires little training, no specific software and only a few materials before it can be used to quantify total numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in a whole organ such as the brain or any dissectible regions thereof. This method entails transforming a highly anisotropic tissue into a homogeneous suspension of free-floating nuclei that can then be counted under the microscope or by flow cytometry and identified morphologically and immunocytochemically as neuronal or non-neuronal. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method and provide researchers with guidelines for choosing the best method for their particular needs. IF is as accurate as unbiased stereology and faster than stereological techniques, as it requires no elaborate histological processing or sampling paradigms, providing reliable estimates in a few days rather than many weeks. Tissue shrinkage is also not an issue, since the estimates provided are independent of tissue volume. The main disadvantage of IF, however, is that it necessarily destroys the tissue analyzed and thus provides no spatial information on the cellular composition of biological regions of interest. PMID:25740200
Janina Esins; Johannes Schultz; Isabelle Bülthoff
Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race effect, a disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both affect face recognition abilities. Are the same face processing mechanisms affected in both situations? To investigate this question, we tested three groups of 21 participants: German congenital prosopagnosics, South Korean participants and German controls in three different tasks involving faces and objects. First we tested all part...
BP neural network algorithm has one of the most important algorithms in intelligence field for its powerful nonlinear mapping ability and many other advantages. But BP neural network algorithm has the disadvantages such as low convergence which limits the application of the algorithm. The paper improves the original BP neural network algorithm through Fourier basis function and uses it to evaluate university innovation education. First the disadvantages and...
Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre
We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…
Chappell, Timothy P.
The digital divide between students who have access to and skills with information technology resources and those who do not is growing wider. This dissertation documents a quantitative study on the effect and relationship between age, gender, ethnicity and low economic status on students' access to computers and the Internet, as well as…
Auld Garry; Coleman Gayle; Baker Susan; Horodynski Mildred A; Lindau Joel
Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a communit...
West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Frazier, Kimberly N.; Kelley, Erin
Urban schools are faced with challenges such as low academic performance, increased incidents of violence, lack of parental engagement with educators, and school personnel burnout. Wraparound counseling is a holistic prevention tool that combines the best practices of counseling and special education for use in the school setting. (Contains 1…
A variety of recent research has shown that the academic achievement gap has been growing between low- and middle-income students. Socioeconomic status has proven to have a large influence on academic attainment as well as the educational opportunities that a child is offered. This paper argues that, because poverty significantly affects children…
Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn
Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…
This paper considers the role of social capital in the aspirations for higher education of a group of socially disadvantaged girls. Drawing on data from a longitudinal, ethnographic case study of an underperforming secondary school, the paper considers current conceptualisations of social capital and its role in educational ambitions. The paper…
Leu, Donald J.; Candoli, I. Carl
A report of a study conducted for the Chicago Public School System on the feasibility of the cultural-educational park answering the educational needs of the community. The concept is defined and its historical development traced, its advantages, disadvantages and evaluative criteria are noted, and finally, specific recommendations are made. A…
As Canadian provinces cut funding for education, the shortfall is made up by parent fundraising, donations, or private partnerships. Equitable access to education is undermined because schools with better parent fundraisers, more effective principal wheeler-dealers, and more-advantaged populations have more resources, while disadvantaged children…
This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…
Powell, Justin J. W.
Over the past two hundred years in the United States and Germany, special educational systems have been institutionalized to facilitate access to learning opportunities for children with disabilities, difficulties, and disadvantages. Originally heralded as innovative, the positive views of these mainly segregating and separating educational…
This publication explores the variety of notions that exist regarding the diversity of higher education. It favors efforts to keep differences of quality and function within higher education in check, thus ensuring chances for socially and economically disadvantaged students to share common experiences with others and facilitating a…