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Sample records for educational disadvantages affecting

  1. Poverty, Delinquency, and Educational Attainment: Cumulative Disadvantage or Disadvantage Saturation? JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Lance

    Data from the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) were analyzed to test two competing hypotheses regarding how poverty affects the relationship between delinquency and educational attainment. The cumulative disadvantage perspective argues that poor youth suffer greater consequences for their involvement in delinquency than middle and…

  2. Institute in Consumer Education for Disadvantaged Adults. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Beatrice; And Others

    This two week professional development institute was designed to equip vocational education personnel for work with the disadvantaged. Participants (business educators and home economists) were expected to acquire basic understanding of the problems of disadvantaged adults; explore consumer education services now available to the poor; identify…

  3. Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

  4. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  5. Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

  6. Educational and Vocational Rehabilitation of Disadvantaged Handicapped Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshner, Saul S.; Snyderman, George S.

    Some 276 handicapped and socially disadvantaged youth aged 16 to 18, who were likely to drop out of high school, received rehabilitation services from the Philadelphia Jewish Employment and Vocational Service (JEVS) and the Board of Education. The services included intense vocational and personal evaluation, work adjustment training, individual…

  7. Disrupting Patterns of Educational Inequality and Disadvantage in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Pat; Jere, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the gap in educational provision for vulnerable learners in Malawi who are at risk of falling behind and dropping out of school due to irregular attendance. It draws on a study in high HIV-prevalence areas that explores the patterns of inequality and disadvantage that disrupt learning and uses this knowledge to design…

  8. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations. PMID:24183183

  9. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases over time. There was no statistically significant difference between cognitive functioning in both groups of children. No negative effects of pre-school education were identified. The results are in partial contradiction to other research and literature - specifically the outcome in cognitive functioning was unexpected. This can be attributed to limited number of participants. However we suppose that the results support the importance of pre-school education. Its impact could be further studied using longitudinal studies as well as focusing in more detail on the individual aspects of social exclusion and its effects on school readiness.

  10. Role of educational environment for students with health disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silanteva T.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the inclusive environment's support practices promoting to basic purposes of inclusive education, i.e., involvement of a bigger number of students with health disabilities into society. The article regards a number of supporting models, which prepare students for transition into an inclusive class, contribute to successful adaptation in the classroom and affect social relations of students as connected with the way they are perceived and accepted by other people. We analyzed the methodological foundation of inclusive education, drawing on theoretical underpinnings of the inclusive model, and tried to observe their coincidences with the concepts of cultural-historical approach in psychology.

  11. EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS: WHAT FORTY YEARS OF RESEARCH TELLS US

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Cheung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational te...

  12. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspec...

  13. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  14. Educators' motivation on integration of ICTs into pedagogy: case of disadvantaged areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agnes, Chigona; Wallace, Chigona; Zane, Davids.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using th [...] e technology for teaching and learning. Qualitative research approach was used to gather and analyse information from educators from randomly sampled schools located in disadvantaged areas in the Western Cape. The study has shown that educators' motivation to use technology for curriculum delivery could be impacted by satisfaction derived from using the ICTs, individual expectations, responsibility and a sense of achievement experienced when using the technologies.

  15. "Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwick, James

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with those in the…

  16. Some Solutions to Vocational Education Problems of Minority, Disadvantaged and Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Vernon; Wulf, Kathleen

    Society must take steps to provide desirable employment for disadvantaged minority youth. Since vocational education is the largest of the public-supported training programs, it must be in the vanguard to ensure development of job and career opportunities for all citizens who want to work, especially racial and ethnic minorities, handicapped…

  17. Instructional Models for Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Educable Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Alice V.

    The study investigated three models--the traditional classroom reading instructional model, a one to one tutorial model, and a reading resource center model--for providing reading instruction to 110 disadvantaged inner city children in junior high school educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes. The effectiveness of programmed instructional…

  18. Does social disadvantage affect the validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1–3 Rahim Moineddin,1,4,5 Stephen W Hwang,3,6 Richard H Glazier1–3,4,51Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 3Centre for Research on Inner City Health, The Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 4Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, 5Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, 6Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education.Method: The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup.Results: Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting.Conclusion: The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates.Keywords: vulnerable populations, early detection of cancer, vaginal smears, Pap test, reproducibility of results, validity

  19. The challenge of educational disadvantage in a knowledge economy: a case study of Waterford crystal Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Senan

    2006-01-01

    The PhD research question ‘how can educationally disadvantaged employees gain the necessary qualifications to secure employability status and contribute to competitiveness in a knowledge based economy ’ is addressed through case study research using Waterford Crystal Ltd, an indigenous, manufacturing, exporting company from 1990-2006 as the context. Both the company and the economy paralleled the transformation of its manufacturing bases to compete in the global economy during this period...

  20. An Investigation of the Vocational Directors' Role and Responsibilities in the Delivery and Evaluation of Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Programs, as Perceived by the Local Administrator. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ivan E.; Oshima, Asahi

    A study assessed and compared perceptions of local vocational educators toward delivery and evaluation of vocational education programs for the disadvantaged and handicapped. Emphasis was on identifying factors affecting vocational education for the special needs population and areas of concern relative to these factors. A survey instrument was…

  1. Closing the Assessment Loop of Dental Health Education of Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona IONAS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the level of knowledge of a group of children from disadvantaged backgrounds regarding the prevention of teeth decay, after having participated in courses of dental health care. The study is based on 107 socially disadvantaged children. They have been applied questionnaires referring to the scope of the study. After having completed the courses in the dental health field and dental hygiene, the children became more aware of the importance of a proper tooth brushing (77.6% than they were before the educational program (66.3%. The number of children who acknowledged that the toothbrush is a personal property has increased in percent from 96.5% to 99.1%. After the first educational program they became more aware of the role of mouthwash (the percentage increased from 79.1 % to 91.5% and of the use of the dental floss (from 50% to 91.5%. Psychologically, a very useful procedure to make children aware of the importance of the oral hygiene is to highlight the loss of a beautiful smile (96% because of tooth decay or of extractions (72%. All the indicators measured have shown an increase in the knowledge level of dental health care. The knowledge level of the use of dental floss and mouthwash proved a statistically significant increase. The results we obtained showed that the knowledge gap between the use of dental floss and mouth wash observed at the beginning of the study was closed after just one educational lesson. At the end of our program we were able to create an assessment loop process that can offer enough feedback to the management team so as to deliver the most suitable dental healthcare education for the socially disadvantaged children.

  2. Educational Equity and Adequacy for Disadvantaged Minority Students: School and Teacher Resource Gaps toward National Mathematics Proficiency Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of educational inadequacy and inequity for disadvantaged minority students. It estimates desired national standards and examines interrelated gaps in key school-teacher resources and mathematics achievement by linking national education data sets (National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP], Common Core of…

  3. Can Vocational Education Improve the Wages of Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups? Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups?Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups?The Case of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, Shoshana; Ziderman, Adrian

    2001-01-01

    There is a considerable empirical literature which compares wage levels of workers who have studied at secondary vocational schools with wages of workers who took academic schooling. In general, vocational education does not lead to higher wages. However, in some countries where labor markets are characterized by employment growth, skill shortages and a good match between vocational skills and available jobs, the record of vocational schooling has been more positive. Israel constitutes a case...

  4. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. CALDER Working Paper No. 117

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Dunlop Velez, Erin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to UI earnings data and also to secondary education records. Our main findings can be…

  5. Is It Worth It? Postsecondary Education and Labor Market Outcomes for the Disadvantaged. Discussion Paper No. 1425-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Benjamin; Holzer, Harry J.; Velez, Erin Dunlop

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine a range of postsecondary education and labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on minorities and/or disadvantaged workers. We use administrative data from the state of Florida, where postsecondary student records have been linked to Unemployment Insurance (UI) earnings data and also to secondary education records.…

  6. EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS: WHAT FORTY YEARS OF RESEARCH TELLS US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cheung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational technology applications generally produced a positive, though modest, effect (ES=+0.16 in comparison to traditional methods. A marginally significant difference was found among four types of educational technology applications. Larger effect sizes were found with comprehensive models (ES=+0.23 and innovative technology applications (ES=+0.20. Effect sizes for supplemental programs and computer-managed learning were +0.15 and +0.12, respectively. The findings provide some suggestive evidence that approaches that integrated computer and non-computer instruction in the classrooms and innovative approaches are effective in improving student achievement. Differential impacts were also found by both substantive and methodological features.

  7. Facilitating the Transition of Disadvantaged Students into Postsecondary Occupational Education Programs: A Suggested Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Terrence F.; Brown, James M.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the problem of transition for disadvantaged students from secondary vocational programs to postsecondary programs, and recommends several components for a proposed system which may facilitate better transition. (CT)

  8. Effects of Virtual Education on Academic Culture: Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Renee N.; Arnold, Liz W.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived advantages and disadvantages of courses taught in online and face-to-face learning environments were explored for students taking an accounting and a data collection and analysis course. Both courses were taught in a face-to-face learning environment at the main or satellite campus. It was hypothesized that there would be…

  9. THE MAHILA SAMAKHYA PROGRAM: EMPOWERING EDUCATION FOR WOMEN’S EQUALITY IN INDIAN DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Barberillo Nualart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   In India the women’s movement and the government have done much to ameliorate women’s education and to build the gender gap. However, it is argued that India still has much gender inequalities embedded in society and, as a consequence, in education and that there is much work to be done in terms of implementation. An alternative form of education, the Mahila Samakhya Program, was launched in India in 1988 for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas and disadvantaged communities in order to achieve equality. The Mahila Sanghas or women’s collectives were created to provide a space for women and girls to meet, reflect, ask questions and express their thoughts. This article argues for the implementation of an empowering education, apart from the formal education, to help women and girls overcome inequalities especially in education. It aims to prove how this empowering education increases education for poor women in rural areas, especially for girls. It examines the quality and results of the existing Mahila Samakhya program analyzing the empowering process. The case study will be the Indian state of Bihar and two theories of empowerment will be applied.

  10. 78 FR 79221 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...and for the Migrant Education Program (MEP) Certificate...reflect, among other things, a new burden analysis...needed for postsecondary education and employment opportunities...Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official...84.011: Title I, Education of Migrant...

  11. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielA.Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  12. Funding Special Education by Total District Enrollment: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Several states and the federal government distribute aid for special education programs based primarily on total district enrollment and a fixed aid amount per student, a method called "census funding." In this policy brief, we address three questions to help policy makers, educators, and researchers better understand census-funding…

  13. Educational Achievement in Maori: The Roles of Cultural Identity and Social Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic…

  14. Using biomedical engineering and "hidden capital" to provide educational outreach to disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, John F; Scott, John M; Hoke, Jahkeen I; Ledet, Eric H

    2014-08-01

    A hands-on learning module called "Science of the Slam" is created that taps into the passions and interests of an under-represented group in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). This is achieved by examining the use of the scientific method to quantify the biomechanics of basketball players who are good at performing the slam dunk. Students already have an intrinsic understanding of the biomechanics of basketball however this "hidden capital" has never translated into the underlying STEM concepts. The effectiveness of the program is rooted in the exploitation of "hidden capital" within the field of athletics to inform and enhance athletic performance. This translation of STEM concepts to athletic performance provides a context and a motivation for students to study the STEM fields who are traditionally disengaged from the classic engineering outreach programs. "Science of the Slam" has the potential to serve as a framework for other researchers to engage under-represented groups in novel ways by tapping into shared interests between the researcher and disadvantaged populations. PMID:25571155

  15. Integración educativa de las personas con discapacidad en Latinoamérica / Educational integration of disadvantaged people in Latin America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosalinda, Romero; Paola, Lauretti.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La integración es un proceso continuo y progresivo cuya finalidad es incorporar al individuo con necesidades especiales a la comunidad, y constituye uno de los fenómenos de mayor trascendencia en la educación. El objetivo fue conocer el estado del arte de la integración educativa de las personas con [...] discapacidad en Latinoamérica. Se utilizó el método de investigación documental revisando las bases de datos y localizando 40 documentos: 14 investigaciones descriptivas, 13 fueron investigaciones de base teórica y 13 fueron incluidas en experiencias en el campo. Se vislumbró un movimiento en toda la región a favor de la integración de las personas con discapacidad, con las dificultades de orden económico que prevalecen en todos los contextos. Las experiencias en la práctica docente, a pesar de ser puntuales, representan el proceso donde la sensibilización y el acuerdo consensuado de todos los actores de la comunidad se considera eje fundamental. Abstract in english Integration is a continuous and progressive process, with the finality of incorporating the individual with special need into the community, and it represents a transcendental landmark in education. The objective was to know the state of the art of educational integration for disadvantaged people in [...] Latin America. The document investigation method was used, reviewing databases and finding 40 documents: 14 descriptive researches, 13 theoretical researches and 13 were included as field experiences. A movement was conceived for the whole region to favor the integration of disadvantaged people, with the difficulties of an economic nature that prevail in all the contexts. The experiences in teacher training, in spite of being specific, represent the process where sensibilization and consensual agreement of all the actors in the community are considered as the fundamental axis.

  16. Overcoming the educational disadvantages of poor children: How much do teacher preparation, workload, and expectations matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Aikens, Nikki

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews data on aspects of the learning environment most closely associated with successful development of early academic competence, compares children from low socioeconomic backgrounds to children with higher socioeconomic status (SES) on access to academically auspicious environments, and uses the findings to identify promising targets for social innovations aimed at improving the educational prospects of poor children. PMID:25822602

  17. Reconsidering Affirmative Action in Education as a Good for the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    Affirmative action in higher education remains a controversial topic in the US today, as it is tied in directly with citizens' varying conceptions of the larger society, and the importance of racial and other differences (in particular, socioeconomic class) in individual experiences and outcomes. This essay examines different arguments for and…

  18. Achievement Testing of Disadvantaged and Minority Students for Educational Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Michael J., Ed.; Green, Donald Ross, Ed.

    The following papers were delivered: Introductory Remarks, John W. Evans; An Evaluator's Perspective, Michael J. Wargo; Problems of Achievement Tests in Program Evaluation, Donald Ross Green; Diverse Human Populations and Problems in Educational Program Evaluation via Achievement Testing, Edmund W. Gordon; Critical Issues in Achievement Testing of…

  19. New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegría Majluf

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.

  20. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    DanielA.Hackman; LauraM.Betancourt

    2012-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier So...

  1. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auld Garry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style related to child feeding; b provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV; and c creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

  2. Promoting the Affective Domain within Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade Higher Education Institutions have experienced tremendous growth in enrollments. To meet this demand, many higher education institutions have embraced online education and its requisite technologies. Online education has matured, and studies focusing on the cognitive domain indicate that distance education is as effective as the…

  3. Education (of Children Affected by Fragile X Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Has FXS Halloween Season! Genetic Counselor Donate | Print Education Children whose development is affected by fragile X syndrome are eligible for special education services. Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities ...

  4. CKD in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-02-01

    The increased burden of CKD in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health-care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biologic predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expansion of the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased-donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of WKD 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to ESRD, by increased community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25635713

  5. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  6. A Case Study of an Affective Education Course in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Chiang; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the components of a framework for affective education implementation based on a positive psychology approach. A fifth grade class of 31 students in a public rural elementary school in Taiwan participated in a 13-week long affective education course that consisted of six units: Self-discovery, Love and…

  7. Perspectives in Theory: Anthology of Theorists affecting the Educational World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking, Misty M., Ed.; Collins, Brian, Ed.; Fernett, Laura, Ed.; Taylor, Barbara, Ed.; Sutton, Kathleen, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of research papers on theorists that affect the educational world are collected in this anthology. Twenty-one students, through the course of their education class, Social and Psychological Conditions of Learning--EDUC 320, researched and applied their knowledge in the elementary and secondary school environments. The contributing…

  8. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Efthymios Alepis; Virvou, M.; Kabassi, K.

    2009-01-01

    One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making th...

  9. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  10. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  11. Affective Component in the Education of the Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the need to include affective components in the education of gifted students considers: development of interpersonal and emotional intelligence, the need for an affective curriculum component, the role of the teacher to address the social and emotional needs of gifted students, and inclusion of affective learning in multidisciplinary…

  12. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  13. A Feel for Numbers: Affect, Data and Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between commensuration and affect in various contexts of education policy. Commensuration is the process through which disparate qualities are transformed into a common metric and is central to the production of performance data. The rise of governance through numbers in education has resulted in a…

  14. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  15. Are Non-Eligible Students Affected by Special Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans; Pettersen, Ivar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the academic performance of non-eligible students - in an institutional setting of full inclusion - are affected by special education resources. Special education resources are per definition provided in a compensatory manner, and are increasingly being targeted to misbehaving students. The hypothesis is thus that special education resources might dampen the negative externalities associated with misbehaving students, and thus work to improve the performance of non-elig...

  16. Toward an Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…

  17. The Mahila Samakhya Program: empowering education for women’s equality in indian disadvantaged communities and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Barberillo Nualart

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT   In India the women’s movement and the government have done much to ameliorate women’s education and to build the gender gap. However, it is argued that India still has much gender inequalities embedded in society and, as a consequence, in education and that there is much work to be done in terms of implementation. An alternative form of education, the Mahila Samakhya Program, was launched in India in 1988 for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas an...

  18. Youth, Arts and Education: Reassembling Subjectivity through Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey Moody, Anna

    2012-01-01

    How are the arts important in young people’s lives? Youth, Arts and Education offers a groundbreaking theory of arts education. Anna Hickey-Moody explores how the arts are ways of belonging, resisting, being governed and being heard. Through examples from the United Kingdom and Australia, Anna Hickey-Moody shows the cultural significance of the kinds of learning that occur in and through arts. Drawing on the thought of Gilles Deleuze, she develops the theory of affective pedagogy, which e...

  19. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  20. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  1. The Affective Politics of Hatred: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that using the notion of ambivalence in understanding ethnic hatred can be helpful to educators who struggle to address the pedagogical implications of students' feelings of hatred. It is suggested that, although hate feelings are difficult to change, unraveling the ambivalence in the affective politics of hatred creates…

  2. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  3. Pre-requisites for Teaching the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Vernon

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that there are six prerequisites to successful teaching in any inner city or disadvantaged school, and that these prerequisites must be the foundation upon which the educational philosophy of the school's teachers is based if programs in such schools are to have any impact on the educational development of the students. (Author/RK)

  4. Does Faculty Incivility in Nursing Education Affect Emergency Nursing Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Pamela

    Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.

  5. K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional development will continue through the 2013-2014 academic year. Formative assessment of the ongoing project indicates that students, teachers, parents and school administrators rank their experiences highly and that students are motivated to continue on the path to geoscience careers.

  6. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  7. Virtuous Subjects: A Critical Analysis of the Affective Substance of Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmsing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This essay invites social studies educators to consider critical theoretical insights related to affect, emotions, and feelings from what has been termed "the affective turn" in social sciences and humanities scholarship. Developments in theorizing affect and recent research in social studies education are related to affective elements…

  8. EURO – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Mursa, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of a single currency was considered one of the most important successes of the effort to unify the countries of the European Union. Obviously, a common currency has indisputable advantages, the most important being that of stimulating trade in countries that have joined the Eurozone. Meanwhile, the euro has several disadvantages, the most important being that the excessive centralization of monetary policy in the European Union. Moreover, the introduction of a single currency gen...

  9. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section...Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs §...

  10. Education Data in Conflict-Affected Countries: The Fifth Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montjourides, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Poor-quality, or completely absent, data deny millions of children the right to an education. This is often the case in conflict-ridden areas. The 2011 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (UNESCO 2011b) identified four failures that are holding back progress in education and damaging millions of children's lives: failures of protection,…

  11. The Missing Component in Computer Education: The Affective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Patricia Barthalow

    1984-01-01

    Because of the “computer revolution,” health-care professionals are being called upon in academic, continuing education, and on-site settings to teach computer education to students as well as other professionals. It has been demonstrated that education which includes the examination of attitudes, values, and feelings will reduce anxiety and increase interest towards the subject matter and will also help the student integrate the subject matter more effectively into his or her life. There...

  12. Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2010-01-01

    Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

  13. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  14. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…

  15. Educators and Students: A Look on Affectivity in High Ability/Giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete de Fátima Bastos Valentim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally cognitive development is the focus regarding high abilities/giftedness so affective development receives less attention from parents and educators. Based on this, the objective of this text is debating the importance of the gifted people’s affectivity. Methodology was a case study about a gifted student. Instruments were a questionnaire by Perez and Freitas (2012 to identify gifted adults’ indicators and a semi structured interview. Results point to the importance of paying attention on affective aspects of students’ development and the importance of educators’ formation to they teach gifted students in classroom. We consider neglecting affectivity is a possible source of negative consequences for gifted students in their adult life. Also the educator’s formation is not only the professional preparation but it includes personal preparation. Finally, the first thing educators need to do is identifying gifted students. It is necessary to know at least about high abilities to identify them.

  16. The Experimental Analysis of Behavior in the Education of Socially Disadvantaged Children and Youth (West Point Farms, New York, November 30-December 2, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Ferkauf Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

    This conference report consists of two presented papers and a selected bibliography. The paper by Joan Gussow, "Behavioral Management and Educational Goals," is concerned with operant conditioning as a theory of learning and an instructional method. Basing their methods on the work of B.F. Skinner, educators who are proponents of this theory…

  17. Does Tax Evasion Affect Unemployment and Educational Choice ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    While examining the macroeconomic effects of government taxand punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector generalequilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wagebargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choiceof education is determined endogenously. Job opportunities in an informalsector are available only to workers who choose not to acquirehigher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activitiesincreases the number of educated workers and reduces the number of unemployed workers. Considering welfare, we show it isoptimal to choose punishment rates so to more than fully counteractthe distortion created by the government's inability to tax theinformal sector.JEL-codes: H26, I21, J64Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, education, matching,unemployment.

  18. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mischo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for professional practice, and as education of early childhood teachers matters with regard to developmental outcomes of children, knowledge orientations of prospective early childhood teachers attending universities and attending vocational schools are investigated and compared. Knowledge orientations were assessed by means of a questionnaire. After propensity score matching of 402 beginners and 402 graduates, multilevel analyses indicate that scientific orientation at the end of teacher education was higher and subjective orientation was lower than at the beginning. Furthermore, scientific knowledge orientation of BA-students was higher, subjective orientation was lower than of students at professional schools. Implications of these results regarding education of early childhood teachers are discussed.

  19. How does education affect the earnings distribution in urban China?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    China's phenomenal growth is accompanied by both relatively low level of standards of living and high inequality. It is widely believe that investing in education could be an effective strategy to promote higher standards of living as well as to reduce inequality. However, little is known about whether this belief is empirically supported. To this end, we employ a recently developed distributional approach to estimate returns to education across the whole earnings distribution in urban China ...

  20. Examination of Factors Affecting Success of Singapore Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Faruk; Yazici, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Singapore is a country which attracts attention with the success it gains at the internationalstudent assessment tests like PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS in recent years. Success of Singaporeeducation system at the international student assessment tests which give information about theresults of educational policy and implementation, has aroused curiosity all over the world. Thesuccess factors of Singapore education system are important for many countries like Turkey whichimplements reform initiative...

  1. How Values in Education Affect Children's Environmental Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…

  2. Factors Affecting Native Hawaiian Student Persistence in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Dolwin Haunani Keanu

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the educational outcomes of 515 Native Hawaiian alumni who graduated between 1993 and 1995 from high schools throughout the State of Hawaii. The majority of students graduated from Kamehameha Schools, while the others received postsecondary financial aid from the Ke Alii Pauahi Foundation. Respondents were separated into two…

  3. Organizational Policy Issues Affecting Interdisciplinary Educational Research and Research Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Robert P.

    This paper is an attempt to pose some of the issues of organizational policy facing the university and its supporting agencies as it attempts to meet the problems of contemporary society, particularly as these problems focus on educational research and research training and demand interdisciplinarity in the process of their solution. Any…

  4. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal ...

  5. Does Education Affect Risk Aversion?: Evidence from the 1973 British Education Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seeun

    2014-01-01

    Individual risk attitudes are widely used in order to predict decisions regarding education. These uses of risk attitudes as a control variable for education decisions, however, have been criticized due to potential reverse causality. The causality between risk aversion and education is not clear, and it is hard to disentangle the different directions. We here investigate the causal effect of education on risk aversion by looking at the 1973 British Education Reform. With the educational refo...

  6. Simulation in university chemistry education : cognitive and affective aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Winberg, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    This thesis undertakes two main tasks; to explore, within the authentic educational context, variables that influence the quality and outcomes of the knowledge-constructing activity during the simulation exercise; and to find appropriate instruments and methods to measure these variables, processes and outcomes. Closed-ended tasks that provided a high degree of structure, i.e., supported students’ regulation of learning during the simulation exercise, were more beneficial for perceived improv...

  7. Governing the potentials of life? : interrogating the promises in affective educational leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe

    This article explores how educational leadership is increasingly becoming affective in order to cultivate what has been termed “the potentials” of pupils to meet the challenge of bringing schools into “the world class league”. The analysis draws upon the notion of governmentality and the ”affective turn”. It highlights four examples of affective educational leadership technologies as they appear in contemporary leadership handbooks in Denmark. 1) How school becomes the managed heart of society. This reshapes educational leadership as ontopower governing through ideas and materialities of perception and neurons. 2) How affectivity becomes synonymous with positive feelings, while more indeterminate parts of affectivity are neglected. 3) How educational leadership becomes a matter of governing the future through simulation and imagination. 4) How affective leadership is energized by a bio morality structured in a specific time and space. Such discourses tend to maintain the status quo rather than challenging the basic premises or create revolutions as promised. This article critically analyses these policy document and handbook versions of affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulties in keeping the promises made and by introducing the Massumian distinction between possibilities and potentiality. The conclusion states that the edifying nature of the technologies paradoxically overshadows the possibilities promised by the technologies.

  8. Does the structure of inpatient rounds affect medical student education?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Timothy W; Fowler, Karen E.; Sanjay Saint

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether the organization and structure of inpatient team rounds affects medical student perception of the overall quantity and quality of teaching on an inpatient general medicine service. Methods: A pilot project to improve inpatient care was launched at the Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VAAAHS). General medicine attending physicians involved in the pilot followed a "non-traditional" rounding structure (accentuating senior resident-run "wor...

  9. Legal Issues and Constraints Affecting Finance Reform for Education and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Tom

    This paper examines the federal and state constitutional and statutory issues that affect the capacity of governments to raise revenue for education and other children's services, including mandates and key legislation that limit revenues, expenditures, and borrowing. The paper is divided into three major sections: (1) legal issues affecting

  10. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged...CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program...may be on Optional Form 312, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation...

  11. Diacerein: Advantages and disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Evgenyevich Karateev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diacerein (DR is a medication from a group of symptomatic slow-acting agents (chondroprotectors, which has an original mechanism of action and is widely used in Russia and many countries in the world to treat osteoarthrosis (OA. The ability of DR to affect its major symptoms and progression has been shown in a series of well-organized clinical trials. However, the supervisory health bodies of the European Union have presently made a decision to restrict the use of DR, which is associated with the fact that the viewpoint of this drug's safety level has been changed. The case in point is gastrointestinal complications (diarrhea and hepatotoxic reactions, which may be caused by DR treatment. This review considers the results of the most known clinical trials of DR, gives basic data on its adverse reactions, and assesses prospects for using its new generic drugs.

  12. A study of professional nurses’ perceptions of factors affecting the process of client education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarzi Z

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 about inhibiting factors. We used Likert score to measure questions. Data analysis performed by SPSS software. Statistical test were Chi square, t test, variance analysis and correlation of variance. Results: The highest percentage of nurses (52.1% believed that enough attention is not being paid to facilitating factors such as considering patient education as priority in patient care, nurses being responsible for patient education, considering patient education as a criteria in nurses annual evaluation, importance of patient education for nurse administrators, having in-service education about patient teaching and having proper time, place and personnel for patient education. Majority of nurses (57.4% believed factors such as shortage of nurses, lack of proper place, time and patient motivation for receiving education, nurses and nurse administrators’ inattention to patient education and negative attitude of doctors toward patient education by nurses are inhibiting factors in process of education. Statistical tests showed a meaningful relation between demographic variables such as sex, clinical background, shift work and position and facilitating factors. There was also a meaningful relation between variables like working in more than one shift, having clinical experience of patient education and being evaluated for patient education during study of nursing and inhibiting factors. Conclusion: This study shows low level of facilitating factors for patient education in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science. To improve patient education in these hospitals it is necessary to improve facilitating factors.

  13. Turbulence in Intercultural Communication Education (ICE): Does It Affect Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Fred; Tournebise, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This article examines a rather neglected context of intercultural education: intercultural communication education (ICE). ICE can be found in different fields such as business, applied linguistics, intercultural communication and health education, amongst others. The authors start by reviewing the latest and ongoing changes…

  14. Is there a role for affect and emotion in entrepreneurship education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah

    Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a single case study to explore the role of affect in entrepreneurial learning. The study focuses on a learning activity involving the creation of a flashmob by the students, as well as the buildup to the flashmob, which included a Lego based exercise. The case study builds on a combination of observation data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the students’ learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created very different patterns of affect. We suggest that these differences are due to differnces in the space in which the learning activity occurs, and the temporal duration of the activity. Implications Our study suggests that entrepreneurship educators can and should seek to address the issue of affect in their teaching. We also provide evidence of how teachers can create learning-conducive platforms. Value/Originality The study bridges theoretical insight into the affective turn and empirical data from an entrepreneurship classroom. This results in useful descriptions of learning activities and the affects created both within and among the students. We also point to challenges and risks involved in leveraging affect in entrepreneurship teaching.

  15. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal obstacles to learning and employment, and demographic factors. Among 274 ABE/ASE students, those learners who made an education gain in 1 year significantly differed from those who did not in only a few dispositional or demographic variables; and by educational level they significantly differed in a wide variety of dispositional and demographic variables. These findings suggest researchable questions and programmatic considerations that may lead to future innovations that improve learner persistence. PMID:23734069

  16. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Responsible Management Education in Ghanaian Business Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Atakoa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Business schools have been criticized failing to acknowledge their role in educating responsible managers thatcould have helped in solving the recent financial crisis that affected corporate institutions. This has resulted in anumber of measures by most business schools in the areas of introduction of responsible management educationcourses. Nevertheless, the general view prevails that business schools as a whole are making only very littleprogress in addressing these critical issues on institutional level. The study therefore examines the key factorsaffecting the implementation of responsible management education in Ghanaian Business Schools.The study revealed that the most important factors affecting business schools authorities’ decisions in theimplementation of the concept of responsible management education were; financial constraints, tensionsbetween the university, business schools and national Accreditation Board (NAB. That is not all, but mostrespondents placed much emphasis on lack of learning environments to promote knowledge, skills and attitudesof students to become responsible business leaders as among the most critical factor affecting theimplementation of responsible management education.Past experience with a CSR agenda and size of the business school were recorded as the least critical factorsidentified as affecting successful implementation of responsible management education.

  17. Reform responses : how public management reforms affect managerial relations and loyalties in education

    OpenAIRE

    Noordegraaf, M.; Wit, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between professionals and managers in public domains are the subject of sharp controversies, especially in domains like education. According to public opinion, the rise of Managerialism has fuelled clashes between managers and professionals. In the past few years, academic research has mainly studied how management reforms affect professionals and their work. How managers, such as school managers, are affected has hardly been studied, however. This paper studies wheth...

  18. We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Helen Immordino-Yang; Antonio Damasio

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely learning, attention, memory, decision making, and social functioning, are both profoundly affected by and subsumed within the processes of emotion; we...

  19. The Role of Social Protection Programmes in Supporting Education in Conflict-Affected Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of social protection in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. In recent years, social protection has gained popularity as a mechanism to reduce poverty and vulnerability, in part by enabling households to better access and use basic services as a result of increased household income. In…

  20. Relationship between Affective Learning, Instructor Attractiveness and Instructor Evaluation in Videoconference-Based Distance Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Irem E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to reveal the results of a study in which the relationship between learners' perceptions of affective learning, instructors' attractiveness and instructor evaluations in a videoconference based distance education course was investigated. An online survey instrument was used to collect quantitative data. A series of Pearson…

  1. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  2. "Affective Eduscapes": The Case of Indian Students within Australian International Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluya, Gilbert; Probyn, Elspeth; Vyas, Shvetal

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the financial, cultural and governmental structures that frame international education as an important part of Appudurai's ethnoscapes of globalization. Developing the idea of affective eduscapes we analyse the lived experiences of Indian students. Drawing on interview material, we deconstruct the idea of "the Indian…

  3. "Affection in Education": Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the Politics of Greek Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal…

  4. Públicos e (des)vantagens em educação: escolas e famílias em interacção / Publics et (dés)avantages dans l'éducation: écoles et familles en interaction / Publics and (dis)advantages in education: schools and families in interaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Virgínio, Sá; Fátima, Antunes.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretendemos apresentar alguns resultados provisórios de uma investigação em curso centrada nos processos de regulação da educação. O estudo desenvolve-se num concelho do norte de Portugal (convencionalmente designado Vila Formosa), abarcando as escolas com oferta de ensino secundário, e [...] pretende esclarecer, um conjunto de questões envolvidas com a diversidade dos públicos escolares, orientações e práticas das escolas e estratégias das famílias. Os elementos que nos propomos apresentar decorrem da análise de uma parcela do material empírico recolhido na primeira fase do estudo e centram-se, no essencial, na articulação entre duas vertentes: i) lógicas e processos mobilizados pelas escolas nos momentos em que efectivam determinadas escolhas organizacionais (nomeadamente, quando procedem à constituição das turmas e à gestão de determinados recursos); ii) determinadas estratégias de investimento escolar das famílias (materializadas, por exemplo, em 'escolhas' diversas e no recurso a 'explicações'). Os dados preliminares da investigação em curso, sugerem, ainda que de uma forma não linear nem consolidada, estamos perante um acesso desigual a um bem fundamental - a educação -, sobretudo nas suas fileiras mais prestigiadas, desigualdade essa que parece penalizar sobretudo os grupos sociais que já sofrem de outros défices. Abstract in english In this text we intend to present some preliminary results of an inquiry in progress centred in the processes of regulation of education. The study is developed in one municipality of the north of Portugal (conventionally assigned Vila Formosa), including the schools that supply secondary education, [...] and it intends to clarify a set of questions envolved whit the diversity of school publics, families strategies and orientations and practices of schools. The elements that we intend to present result from the analysis of a parcel of the collected empirical material in the first phase of the study and they are focused, in the essential, over the articulation between two sources: i) logics and processes mobilized by the schools at the moment where they accomplish organizational choices (namely, when they proceed to the constitution of pupil groupings and the management of some resources); ii) some family strategies of school investment (materialized, for example, in "different choices" and the use of "private individualized lessons"). The preliminary data of the research, suggest that we are in presence of an unequal access to a basic good - education -, over all in its most privileged courses, inequality that seems to penalize those social groups that already suffer from other disadvantages.

  5. The disadvantage of combinatorial communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Lachmann, Michael; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2004-01-01

    Combinatorial communication allows rapid and efficient transfer of detailed information, yet combinatorial communication is used by few, if any, non-human species. To complement recent studies illustrating the advantages of combinatorial communication, we highlight a critical disadvantage. We use the concept of information value to show that deception poses a greater and qualitatively different threat to combinatorial signalling than to non-combinatorial systems. This additional potential for...

  6. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Garcia-Garcia; V., Jha.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predispo [...] sition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  7. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Garcia-Garcia; V., Jha.

    Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predispo [...] sition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  8. REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE ON TWO-YEAR COLLEGES AND THE DISADVANTAGED (STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, DELHI, JUNE 15-17, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUUSISTO, ALLAN A.

    THREE PRINCIPLES ARE BASIC TO THE JUNIOR COLLEGE ROLE IN EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--(1) THE COLLEGE MUST BE AVAILABLE TO ALL, (2) THE COLLEGE MUST MAKE A DEFINITE COMMITMENT TO EDUCATING DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS, AND (3) THE COLLEGE MUST HELP ITS ENROLLEES TO SUCCEED. DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, REPRESENTING 15 PERCENT OF THE CHILD POPULATION, ARE (1)…

  9. The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhan M IDRUS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at their individual pace, seek skills for individual development and at the same time, enables them to fulfill family responsibilities. An important element of distance education is the provision of the learner support system that provides students the access to learning resources and means of communication that would facilitate the array of educational activities and exposure to various other guidance and advisories. This paper reports on the study undertaken to elucidate the dimensions of the support system provided by the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM to its women learners that would have significant impact on their achievements. The factorial analysis conducted revealed that the role of the faculty is the main contributing factor affecting these achievements, followed by the provision of the intensive course, the electronic portal, video conferencing and to a much lesser extent, the existence of the regional centres. The implications of this study are discussed with the view of improving the support system provided by the institution and the need to put into action the necessary strategies to further improve the achievement of the women learners.

  10. Developmental changes in achievement motivation and affect in physical education: Growth trajectories and demographic differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-ntoumani, Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined changes in student achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and affective responses in secondary school physical education. Method: Greek junior high school students (N ¼ 394; 191 males and 203 females) responded to a multisection questionnaire twice a year from the ages of 12 to 15 years. Results: Multilevel modeling analyses showed significant linear decreases in perceptions of taskinvolving teacher climate, task and ego goal orienta...

  11. 'Affection in Education': Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the politics of Greek love

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Jc; Brooke, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how 'a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal or transcendental terms' was fashioned out of the discourse of Greek studies in 19th-century Oxford by Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde and the Uranian po...

  12. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Responsible Management Education in Ghanaian Business Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Atakoa

    2013-01-01

    Business schools have been criticized failing to acknowledge their role in educating responsible managers thatcould have helped in solving the recent financial crisis that affected corporate institutions. This has resulted in anumber of measures by most business schools in the areas of introduction of responsible management educationcourses. Nevertheless, the general view prevails that business schools as a whole are making only very littleprogress in addressing these critical issues on insti...

  13. The disadvantage of combinatorial communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Michael; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2004-11-22

    Combinatorial communication allows rapid and efficient transfer of detailed information, yet combinatorial communication is used by few, if any, non-human species. To complement recent studies illustrating the advantages of combinatorial communication, we highlight a critical disadvantage. We use the concept of information value to show that deception poses a greater and qualitatively different threat to combinatorial signalling than to non-combinatorial systems. This additional potential for deception may represent a strategic barrier that has prevented widespread evolution of combinatorial communication. Our approach has the additional benefit of drawing clear distinctions among several types of deception that can occur in communication systems. PMID:15556886

  14. By scrapping the Education Maintenance Allowance the Coalition government risks losing their opportunity to target entrenched problems of social mobility and educational disadvantage among pupils from deprived backgrounds in England

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In late 2010 the Coalition government announced that the Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) – a UK-wide scheme that offers weekly finance to students from low-income households who continue into post-compulsory further education – would come to an end in England after only 4 years of national availability to all 16-18 year olds. Joan Wilson finds that the scrapping of the scheme may work against the Coalition’s plans for social mobility.

  15. The level of hopelessness in the students of an occupational education center and affecting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Erhan Deveci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ?10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ?10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.

  16. Affecting Change in Architecture Education / Can We Do the Right Thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. Feldman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I am impressed but not surprised at how differently Tom, Richard and Iview the question of “affecting change in architectural education.” Tomtook on the more expansive issue of how the broader university might redefineitself through “design thinking” and “design thinkers’” leadership,while Richard gave a concise overview of long held aspirations forarchitectural education and the profession. And I took on architecture’srelationship to society, particularly concerned with “massive societalchanges.” All of us, however, appear to have faith in architecture’sability, using Richard’s words, to “make a difference.” It seems to methat relying on past and even present architecture education models isnot the best strategy.- - - -Change is both pervasive and evasive. In architectural education,evasive may arguably dominate. Although many aspects of change(or the potential therefore might serve as a basis for this discussion,change to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of buildings willbe selected as a case in point. There may be no single issue of greaterlong-term impact facing architectural education and the professions itserves.

  17. The Importance of Affective Containment during Unwelcome Educational Change: The Curious Incident of the Deer Hut Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Di; James, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…

  18. We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen Immordino-Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely learning, attention, memory, decision making, and social functioning, are both profoundly affected by and subsumed within the processes of emotion; we call these aspects emotional thought. Moreover, the evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests the hypothesis that emotion-related processes are required for skills and knowledge to be transferred from the structured school environment to real-world decision making because they provide an emotional rudder to guide judgment and action. Taken together, the evidence we present sketches an account of the neurobiological underpinnings of morality, creativity, and culture, all topics of critical importance to education. Our hope is that a better understanding of the neurobiological relationships between these constructs will provide a new basis for innovation in the design of learning environments.

  19. Determining Student Internet Addiction Levels in Secondary Education and the Factors that Affect It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile Ozdamli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of students in secondary education in North Cyprus and the factors that affect it. In this research, a survey method which provides a general universal judgment was used to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of such students. It has been found that 59.9% of the students are at low of becoming internet addicts, 20.7% of them are in the high risk category, 13.5% face no risk of addiction, while 5.9% are internet addicts. It was determined that as students’ internet usage hours increase, the risk of addiction increases.

  20. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  1. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  2. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)

  3. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  4. Paraprofessionals' Perceptions on Delivering Infant Feeding Lessons to Disadvantaged Mothers via a Self-Directed Computer-Supported Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Lisa R.; Horodynski, Mildred A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain paraprofessionals' perceptions regarding a self-directed computer-supported nutrition educational intervention to disadvantaged mothers of infants. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Three county extension programs in a Midwestern state, which serve disadvantaged families. Method: Sixteen paraprofessional…

  5. Exploring Patterns of Achievement and Intellectual Development among Academically Successful Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage-Lees, Pamela

    1997-01-01

    Explored the educational experiences of 21 academically successful women who were disadvantaged as children. Results indicate that resilient women who had endured stress as children often developed a highly advanced level of "emotional intelligence" or "interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence." Presents educational strategies for encouraging…

  6. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Sweden: A study of ESD within a transition affected by PISA reports

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Youngeun

    2013-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been called for playing a crucial role in integrating principles,values, and practices accorded with sustainable development. Holistic approach, ethical values, norm transitionand behavior changes are required to achieve the aim of ESD. However, while both external and internal impactsof the Swedish education system have affected its fundamental values and aims, core elements of ESD inSwedish curriculum were also influenced. This paper analyzes,...

  7. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Harding

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the ...

  8. 13 CFR 124.1009 - Who decides disadvantaged status protests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Who decides disadvantaged status protests? 124.1009 Section 124...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...124.1009 Who decides disadvantaged status protests? In response to a...

  9. Affectivity in educational context and in the teacher’s formation: mobilization, social participation and ethical-politics suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Melo de Mendonça

    Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.

  10. An investigation into the use of digital technology in adult education - how does it affect roles in adult education?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Henrietta Clare

    2013-01-01

    Adult education and further training in Ire land is currently undergoing reform. The VEC structure is now abolished and it has been rcplaced by Education and Training Boards. Meanwhile digital technology is also being integrated into adult education and bringing about changes of its own. This case study aimed primarily to examinc how thc use of digital tecliiJgy can impact on the roles of those involved ill adult education. In particular, thc focus of the S!!!bl was ~ ro les...

  11. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions: Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China.

  12. Manipulation of the Self-Determined Learning Environment on Student Motivation and Affect within Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Secondary physical education (PE) has become a popular area of inquiry because students are not meeting overarching goals of PE programs, are less motivated, and demonstrate negative affect while in class. As such, teachers and researchers are starting to examine pedagogical approaches that support student motivation as a means to alleviate some…

  13. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  14. Semblanzas de la línea de investigación: Dominio afectivo en educación matemática / Affective Domain in Mathematics Education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo, Martínez Padrón.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM) y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías [...] sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM. Abstract in english This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM) and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation o [...] f mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.

  15. On the Brink: How the Recession of 2009 Will Affect Post-Secondary Education. Canadian Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex; Dunn, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    With the global recession in full effect, post-secondary education in Canada is about to face some very significant challenges. The purpose of this report is to outline the likely main effects of this global recession on the Canadian post-secondary education (PSE) sector, as well as suggest a series of measures that governments can take to help…

  16. Factors Affecting the Integration of Information Literacy in the Teaching and Learning Processes of General Education Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therdsak Maitaouthong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.

  17. Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues, such as human-induced climate change, presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). First, climate science is complex and requires "systems thinking," or the ability to think and reason abstractly about emergent systems (Goldstone & Sakamoto, 2003). Appreciating the intricacies of complex systems and emergent processes has proven challenging for students (Chi, 2005). In addition to these challenges, there are specific misconceptions that may lead thinking astray on the issue of global climate change, such as the distinction between weather and climate (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). As an example, when students are asked about their views on climate change, they often recall individual storm events or very cold periods and use their personal experiences and recollections of short-term temperature fluctuations to assess whether the planet is warming. Beyond the conceptual difficulties, controversial topics offer another layer of challenge. Such topics are often embedded in complex socio-cultural and political contexts, have a high degree of uncertainty, and may be perceived by individuals as in conflict with their personal or religious beliefs (Levinson, 2006, Sinatra, Kardash, Taasoobshirazi, & Lombardi, 2011). Individuals are often committed to their own views on socio-scientific issues and this commitment may serve as a motivation to actively resist new ideas (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Individuals may also have strong emotions associated with their misconceptions (Broughton, Pekrun, & Sinatra, 2011). Negative emotions, misconceptions, and resistance do not make a productive combination for learning. Further, teachers who find human-induced climate change implausible have been shown to hold negative emotions about having to teach about climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation), which could affect how they present the topic to students. In this presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

  18. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  19. Glycogen loading: advantages but possible disadvantages.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharman, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    Carbohydrate loading enables an athlete to build up stores of muscle glycogen. Such raised levels increase work times and are therefore of real benefit to long-distance runners. It is unclear how frequently the regimen can be repeated with the same advantageous results. There are possible disadvantages in the regimen, and even dangers in older subjects.

  20. DETERMINING THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS HAVING UNDERGRADUATE TOURISM EDUCATION WITH THE DEPARTMENT BY MEANS OF THE METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION TREE

    OpenAIRE

    Hac? Mehmet Yildirim; Lütfi Atay

    2010-01-01

    Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism unde...

  1. The role of initial affective impressions in responses to educational communications: the case of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2014-06-01

    Emerging technologies promise potential benefits at a potential cost. Developers of educational communications aim to improve people's understanding and to facilitate public debate. However, even relatively uninformed recipients may have initial feelings that are difficult to change. We report that people's initial affective impressions about carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), a low-carbon coal-based electricity-generation technology with which most people are unfamiliar, influences how they interpret previously validated education materials. As a result, even individuals who had originally self-identified as uninformed persisted in their initial feelings after reading the educational communication-though perseverance of feelings about CCS was stronger among recipients who had originally self-identified as relatively informed (Study 1). Moreover, uninformed recipients whose initial feelings were experimentally manipulated by relatively uninformative pro-CCS or anti-CCS arguments persisted in their manipulated feelings after reading the educational communication, due to evaluating the educational communication in line with their manipulated impressions (Study 2). Hence, our results suggest that educational communications will have more impact if they are disseminated before people form strong feelings about the topic under consideration, especially if these are based on little to no factual understanding. PMID:24708355

  2. The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational

  3. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  4. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes? NBER Working Paper No. 14945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: Though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  5. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  6. Why America's disadvantaged communities need twenty-first century learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blenda J

    2006-01-01

    Current school reform efforts, emphasizing data and accountability, have shed additional light on racial and income-based inequities in education. To tackle this achievement gap, the discrepancies in the nation's educational system must be examined within the context of the increasing economic demand for higher skill levels. The author asserts that the education system is not educating all students to the levels necessary to fulfill America's quest for international excellence. Demonstrating the inadequacies of the current educational system, this chapter draws from Murnane and Levy's research emphasizing a need for new basic skills. The author cites Murnane and Levy's finding that up to half of all graduates leave high school without the skills necessary to compete in today's economy. Students are not getting enough out of school to succeed in the workforce. These data prompt the author's support for out-of-school-time programs. An opportunity gap exists when it comes to how children from various socioeconomic backgrounds spend their out-of-school time. Children from disadvantaged families experience much less enrichment, further contributing to the achievement gap. Quality after-school programs-not just "more school"-can fill this void, providing the enrichment and academic support needed to gain the skills required to succeed in the modern workforce. The Nellie Mae Education Foundation's Critical Hours: Afterschool Programs and Educational Success confirms the need for out-of-school-time programs by showing the relationship between an effective after-school program and academic success. Ultimately the after-school movement will reduce educational inequality, allowing today's youth to contribute to America's international competitiveness. PMID:17017256

  7. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…

  8. Arts Integration and the Success of Disadvantaged Students: A Research Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A. Helene

    2013-01-01

    Does arts integration contribute to student success for disadvantaged student populations? The introduction to this article compares students' academic performance and arts education in countries outperforming the United States on the recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading…

  9. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

  10. A Story of Conflict and Collaboration: Media Literacy, Video Production and Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…

  11. The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Curtis F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

  12. Inclusive Education in Spain: How Do Skills, Resources, and Supports Affect Regular Education Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiner, Esther; Cardona, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined regular education teachers' perceptions of inclusion in elementary and secondary schools in Spain and how these perceptions may differ depending on teaching experience, skills, and the availability of resources and supports. Stratified random sampling procedures were used to draw a representative sample of 336 general…

  13. General education versus vocational training: How do they affect individuallabour market performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Karasiotou, Pavlina

    2004-01-01

    Using the Panel Study of Belgian Households (PSBH, waves 4 to 10) we estimate the effects of education (initial and life-long, general and vocational) on incomes, labour supply and unemployment. This allows for a decomposition of the economic returns of education on earnings in two parts; one attributed on wages and one on employment time. The sample includes individuals 18-65 who have completed initial education at school or university, who are at the labour market and receive income from wo...

  14. Home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon, Andrew; Gayton, William F; Brown, Melissa; Steinroeder, William; Johnson, Carrie

    2007-06-01

    Occurrence of the home field disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing data on penalty shots from 1983-2004. This datum was used as it does not involve physical contact for only the player taking the penalty shot is involved in the outcome. As a result, inhibition of anxiety associated with physical contact should not occur, and diffusion of responsibility would not occur since only the shooter is involved. Analysis indicated the player who took the penalty shot did not make significantly fewer shots at home than in away games. The result did not support hypotheses about roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey. PMID:17879659

  15. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  16. Does Education Affect Individual Well-Being? Some Italian Empirical Evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Giambona; Mariano Porcu; Isabella Sulis

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the last European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), this paper focuses on the measurement of well-being and on its association with education. EU-SILC survey gives information on several aspects of people’s daily life (i.e. housing, labour, health, education, finance, material deprivation and possession of durables) allowing a multi-dimensional approach to the study of well-being, poverty and social exclusion. For our aims we have consi...

  17. Institutional factors that affect black South African students' perceptions of early childhood teacher education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M G, Steyn; Teresa, Harris; C G, Hartell.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of th [...] em enrol in this particular programme at a historically white university. Through a qualitative, case study approach the reasons for the low enrolment and completion rates were investigated. Participants mentioned that recruitment for this programme, particularly in rural areas should be improved. They also pointed out the higher prestige of other career options, the linguistic challenges they face, the cost of university education and early teacher education in particular, as well as access to transport and resources as barriers to recruitment and retention. Their recommendations for higher enrolment rates included the use of black students to recruit in rural and in township areas, increased funding for bursaries, and more culturally sensitive pedagogies in early childhood teacher education.

  18. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Disadvantaged business status. 19.304 Section 19.304 Federal...PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to...

  19. 75 FR 25815 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ...RIN 2105-AD75 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements...administration of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program...provisions to foster small business participation and improve post-award...regulations.gov and follow the online instructions for...

  20. 76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...program, but disadvantage in the DBE program...understood as relative disadvantage (i.e., relative to owners and businesses in the economy...and the small business DBE program element...put the database online. The rule...

  1. American Council on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Council on Education, headed by David Ward (the former Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin), "seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on key higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives." To this end, their Web site is a vast repository of papers, research initiatives, and newsletters that will assist those persons working in higher education administration, or those with a general interest in trends within American universities and colleges. The main page contains links to the Council's different working units, such as the Center for Adult Learning, the Center for Policy Analysis, and the International Initiatives office. While many of the publications listed within these respective offices are available for purchase, users will also find helpful working papers available at no charge, such as "Crucial Choices: How Students' Financial Decisions Affect Their Academic Success" and "Gender Equity in Higher Education: Are Male Students at a Disadvantage?"

  2. The science of memory - and how it should affect design of games for outside education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again. With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in education, great memories can now be shaped on the go. And of course we need memory to learn. Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for historical reasons, all this useful knowledge rarely reaches teachers or designers of educational games.

  3. Protecting the Development of 5-11-Year-Olds from the Impacts of Early Disadvantage: The Role of Primary School Academic Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Hall, James; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not more effective schools can successfully mitigate the impacts of early disadvantage upon educational attainment remains uncertain. We investigated 2,664 children aged 6-11 years and measured their academic skills in English and maths along with self-regulation at 6, 7, and 11. Experiencing multiple disadvantages before age 5 strongly…

  4. A Course on Gender Equity in Education: Does It Affect Gender Role Attitudes of Preservice Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Feyza Tantekin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if a semester-long course on gender equity in education has an impact on the attitudes of preservice teachers toward gender roles. To this end, a pretest-posttest analysis is carried out in a state university in Ankara, Turkey, employing a sample of 133 preservice teachers; 33 of whom had taken the course…

  5. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  6. Higher Education Budget Cuts: How Are They Affecting Students? Report 09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    The public higher education systems have received significant budget cuts in the 2009-10 fiscal year, with the University of California (UC) receiving $813 million less than in 2007-08, California State University (CSU) receiving $625 million less, and the community college system receiving $812 million less. It is important to understand the…

  7. Contextual Factors Affecting Learning in Laos and the Implications for Information Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Daniel G.; Gorman, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method: Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools.…

  8. On the Aesthetic Difficulties of Research on Sex Education: Toward a Methodology of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlos, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from an ongoing, three-year qualitative study of how adolescents, teachers, and peer sexual health educators interpret the language of abstinence and represent the emotional meanings that enliven sexuality and sexual health. The paper demonstrates how conflicts of thinking and relationality emerge from aesthetic narratives about…

  9. ROLE OF ICT EDUCATION FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Beena [Research Scholar; Dr. Madhu Mathur [Dean , Faculty of Education

    2012-01-01

    Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Information and communications are closely linked to power and the ability to affect change. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer etc. Socially the majorities of Indian women are still tradition bound and are in disadvantageous position. ICTs are emerging as a powerful tool for women empowerment in a developing count...

  10. Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

  11. The "Lord of the Rings": Affective Approaches to Teaching Literature. DRICE (Development & Research in Confluent Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aaron

    This paper was intended to be read to a class or group of people who will in turn respond to the directions given in the paper. It is an attempt to merge the affective and cognitive experiences of literature in order to provide a more meaningful experience while studying J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy, "The Lord of the Rings." The directions are to…

  12. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction and Their Correlation with Educational Standards among Dental Assistants

    OpenAIRE

    JAZAIRY, Yousra H. AL; Halawany, Hassan Suliman; HUSSAINAN, Nawaf AL; MAFLEHI, Nassr AL; ABRAHAM, Nimmi Biju; JACOB, Vimal

    2014-01-01

    A disparity exists in the educational qualifications of dental assistants working in various public and private institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of professional and personal characteristics on job satisfaction among dental assistants. A cross-sectional survey was performed among dental assistants using a 24-item self-administered questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between over...

  13. Factors that Affect the Decision of Refugee and Immigrant Students to Pursue Higher Education in Tennessee: The Case of Egyptian, Somali, Kurdish and Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebriel, Mengistu H.

    2011-01-01

    Refugee and immigrant students face challenges in pursuing higher education. This study examined factors that affect the decision of refugees and immigrant students to pursue higher education in Tennessee. The factors included cultural capital these students acquire from their parents and families; cultural difference they have with the mainstream…

  14. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended…

  15. The Effects of Ecology-Based Summer Nature Education Program on Primary School Students' Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Affect and Responsible Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of ecology-based nature education program on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, environmental affect, and responsible environmental behavior. A total number of 64 elementary school students including 26 females and 38 males who participated in summer natural education organized…

  16. Aspects affecting the success of self-education of university teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burianová Mária

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A paper deals with the issue of lifelong learning of elementary school teachers, secondary-school teachers and university lecturers. The attention is focused on main competences related with acquiring digital competence and competence learn to teach. ICT has become a strong means for simplifying of self-studying attitude. The skills in this area are necessary for quality improvement of life of individuals. The ICT processes stimulated searching of new approaches for more effective achievement of educational goals in the field of education. An accredited training program ,supported by e-learning in LMS Moodle surroundings, was created and verified in practice by staff members of Department of Computer Sciences FPV UKF in Nitra. A specialized teaching modul was focused on self-studying of teachers in the area of ICT and multimedia with a goal of achieving a higher degree of digital competences. The core contribution consists of questions how many teachers responded to a challenge and what results achieved those who completed education.

  17. Factors affecting the current status of transfusion medicine education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Vernon J; Nel, Marietjie M; Hay, John F

    2013-12-01

    Education in transfusion medicine, aimed at clinical transfusion practice, is limited in most South African pre- and postgraduate medical training programs. A number of local and global factors impact on the need for and provision of transfusion medicine education programs in South Africa, which are discussed in this paper. A perspective is provided on the effects of issues such as global versus local training need, blood safety, appropriate use of blood in resource-restrained environments, the presence or absence of national blood policies, standardization of training, medical migration and workforce diversity. Harnessing support for the development of training programs for medical doctors and new opportunities for developing a career in transfusion medicine are discussed. Commentary is also provided on online learning, social networking and integration of modern paradigms of learning, such as screencasting and online learning, into teaching programs. This article should provide anyone in medical education or program development, in particular in the field of transfusion medicine, with an indication of the factors that should be considered when embarking on such an endeavor. PMID:23743009

  18. Unequally distributed psychological assets: are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health. PMID:25671665

  19. Southern Africa: AIDS-affected children face systemic discrimination in accessing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005, Human Rights Watch (HRW) conducted an investigation in Kenya, South Africa and Uganda to document AIDS-affected children's experiences of inequality and neglect in the school system. HRW found, consistent with previous research, that the sickness of one or both parents due to HIV/AIDS led many children withdraw from school to perform household labour or offset lost family income. Parental death often led to abandonment, discrimination within extended and foster families, and emotional trauma that interfered with school performance. PMID:16544404

  20. Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Satoru; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of a bet-hedging system is an important problem in fluctuating environments. However, the adaptability of preferential dispersal is not yet known. We have investigated preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems using a discrete-time stochastic matrix model, in which each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with a temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth was derived by mean-field approximation. We clarified the effect of the time correlation of environments and found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or when the sensitivity of preference is superlinear.

  1. Reproduction of Gender Gaps throughout the Entrepreneurial Career: Disadvantages and Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; SchØtt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Gender gaps pervade human activity. But little is known about forces reshaping gaps across career phases, from education to running a business. The purpose of this study is to account for gender gaps owing to a lack of education and training. Such gaps may accumulate over one’s entrepreneurial career and widen or narrow due both to environmental forces that reconfigure the gap across career phases and to the gendering of competencies and benefits from education and training. Methodology – A representative sample of 110,689 adults around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Gender-related effects were ascertained by odds ratios estimated by hierarchical modelling, controlling for country and attributes of individuals. Findings – Education and entrepreneurial training, both during and after formal schooling, are highly beneficial in developing competencies and during career phases – i.e. intending to start a business, starting a business, and running a business. Early gaps in human capital are reproduced as gaps in careers, and continuous disadvantages in the environment repeatedly widen gaps throughout a person’s entrepreneurial career. That said, gender gaps are reduced slightly over time as women gain greater benefit from training than men. Implications for research – The cumulative effects of early gender gaps in education and training call for research on gendered learning, and recurrent gender effects across career phases call for research on gendering in micro-level contexts such as networks and macro-level contexts such as institutions. Implications for policy and education – Understanding the gendering of human capital and careers has implications for policy and education aimed at developing human resources, especially for mobilising women. The finding that women gain greater benefit than men from training is informative for policies that foster gender equality and empower women pursuing careers. Originality/value – Conceptualising the entrepreneurial career as a sequence of several stages enables the assessment of gender gaps owing to initial disadvantages in education and to recurrent disadvantages on the career path.

  2. VENTAJAS Y DESVENTAJAS DEL BILINGÜISMO / ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BILINGUALISM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Ardila.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las personas bilingües tienen que coordinar dos sistemas lingüísticos. Esto implica algunas ganancias, pero también un costo. Las ganancias del bilingüismo incluyen: un incremento de la flexibilidad mental; una superioridad en el desarrollo de aquellas funciones cognitivas relacionadas con la atenci [...] ón y la inhibición; el uso de una cantidad mayor de estrategias cognoscitivas en la solución de problemas; un aumento de la llamada conciencia metalingüística; y una habilidad mayor de comunicación. Entre los costos del bilingüismo se menciona: cierto retraso aparente en la adquisición del lenguaje; una interferencia entre ambos sistemas fonológicos, léxicos y gramaticales; y un posible decremento en el vocabulario en las dos lenguas. Se concluye que existe una gran variabilidad de experiencias lingüísticas en las personas bilingües y un gran número de variables afecta su ejecución en diferentes tareas intelectuales. Abstract in english The fact that bilingual individuals have to coordinate two linguistic systems implies both advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages are an increase in mental flexibility; a greater development of cognitive functions related to attention and inhibition; the use of a larger number of cogni [...] tive strategies for the solution of problems; an increase in the so-called metalinguistic consciousness; and a better ability to communicate. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages of bilingualism are an apparent delay in language acquisition; interference between the two phonological, lexical, and grammatical systems; and a possible decrease in vocabulary in both languages. The article concludes that bilingual persons display a great variety of linguistic experiences and that a large number of variables affect their performance in different intellectual tasks.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...regulations concerning social and economic disadvantage...and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I...ethnic prejudice or cultural bias within American...individual qualities. Social disadvantage must stem...disadvantaged; (B) Personal experiences of substantial and...

  4. Factors affecting the intention of providers to deliver more effective continuing medical education to general practitioners: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbotham Nick

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective types of CME; and to design a survey instrument which can be used to test the applicability of Triandis' model of social behaviour to the provision of CME to general practitioners. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 11 Australian providers of CME for interviews and a random sample of 25 providers for the pilot test. Open-ended interviews structured on Triandis' theory were performed with key informants who provide CME to GPs. These were used to develop a pilot survey instrument to measure the factors affecting intention, resulting in a revised instrument for use in further research. Results There was a broad range of factors affecting providers' intention to deliver more effective forms of CME identified, and these were classifiable in a manner which was consistent with Triandis' model. Key factors affecting providers' intention were the attitude toward CME within organisations and the time and extra work involved. Conclusions We identified a range of potential factors influencing the intention of providers to provide more effective forms of CME, in all categories of Triandis model. Those interested in increasing the choice of more effective CME activities available to GPs may need to broaden the methods used in working with providers to influence them to use more effective CME techniques. The interview material and questionnaire analysis of the pilot survey support the use of Triandis model. Further research is needed to validate Triandis'model for the intention to deliver more effective forms of CME. Such research will inform future strategies aimed at increasing the amount and choice of effective CME activities available for GPs.

  5. Education majors' expectations and reported experiences with inquiry-based physics: Implications for student affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.

    2013-06-01

    To address a perennial need to provide K-8 teachers with a solid foundation in science, there are many physics content courses throughout the United States. One such course is Physics and Astronomy for Teachers (PAT), which relies heavily on active-learning strategies. Although PAT is successful in teaching physics content, students sometimes report dissatisfaction with the course. Such instances of poor affect are worrisome because they may influence how teachers present science in their own classrooms. Therefore, this study investigates students’ affect in terms of their pedagogical expectations and potential personal learning outcomes with respect to PAT. Two sections of PAT, each containing approximately 40 students, were observed. Students in those sections were surveyed, and a sample were interviewed (N=10). An analysis of the data in terms of an expectancy violation framework shows that while students’ expectations regarding the hands-on and interactive components of PAT were met, they received substantially fewer lectures, class discussions, and opportunities to make class presentations than they had expected, even after they had been presented with the course syllabus and informed about the specific nature of the course. Additionally, students expected PAT to be more directly linked with their future teaching careers and therefore expected more opportunities to practice teaching science than they reported receiving. This investigation serves as a case study to provide insight into why students are sometimes frustrated and confused when first encountering active-learning classes, and it implies that instructors should be cognizant of those feelings and devote resources toward explicit orientation that emphasizes the purpose of the course and reasons behind their pedagogical choices.

  6. Lesson from Canada's Universal Care: socially disadvantaged patients use more health services, still have poorer health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David A; Stukel, Therese; Chong, Alice; Henry, David

    2011-02-01

    Lower socioeconomic status is commonly related to worse health. If poor access to health care were the only explanation, universal access to care should eliminate the association. We studied 14,800 patients with access to Canada's universal health care system who were initially free of cardiac disease, tracking them for at least ten years and seven months. We found that socially disadvantaged patients used health care services more than did their counterparts with higher incomes and education. We also found that service use by people with lower incomes and less education had little impact on their poorer health outcomes, particularly mortality. Countries contemplating national health insurance cannot rely on universal health care to eliminate historical disparities in outcomes suffered by disadvantaged groups. Universal access can only reduce these disparities. Our findings suggest the need to introduce large-scale preventive strategies early in patients' lives to help change unhealthy behavior. PMID:21289349

  7. A Reflection on The Aesthetic Experience and Its Affection in Moral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ansary

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aesthetic is the branch of philosophy that is discussed about the perception issues including beauty, such as aesthetic experience. John Dewey as a natural philosopher, shared the twentieth century with the possibility of an empirically grounded ethics. There is much to learn from Dewey about how to proceed in an aesthetic experience in quire about morality, so it is important to explore the relation between Dewey's ethics and his aesthetic experience. This essay with analytical method is an effort to explore this relation. The result showed that Aesthetic experience, response to the demand of feeling in difference situation. Therefore, factors of artistic this experience such as feeling, imagination, compassion are the essential components of morality that complete the experience, understanding, and meaning of morality in the people. Moreover aesthetic experience and moral education are inseparable.  One of the criticize in this theory is that aesthetic experience is still new and practical application is rare and lacks of a strong theoretical structure.

  8. "Disadvantaged Learners": Who Are We Targeting? Understanding the Targeting of Widening Participation Activity in the United Kingdom Using Geo-Demographic Data from Southwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil; Hatt, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the definition of the appropriate target group for widening participation activities advanced by the Higher Education Funding Council for England in their "Targeting Disadvantaged Learners" advice to Aimhigher and higher education providers. This definition includes components of area deprivation and higher education

  9. Affective Imagination in Science Education: Determining the Emotional Nature of Scientific and Technological Learning of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

  11. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  12. Advantages and disadvantages of storage with surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available

  13. Nutrition habits of Physical Education and Sport High School students of Afyon Kocatepe University and factors affected the the nutrition habits

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus Y?ld?r?m; ?rfan Y?ld?r?m; Yunus Tortop

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habit...

  14. The factors affecting the use and integration of information communications technology in an Irish adult education and training centre: a case study approach.

    OpenAIRE

    O Shaughnessy, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    ICT use in the classroom is very important to provide the opportunities for adult students to learn in this information communications technology (ICT) age. Studying the barriers to the use of ICT in education may assist teachers to overcome these barriers and have successful integration of ICT in the future. The purpose of this case study was to examine the factors affecting the use and integration of ICT in an Irish Adult Education and Training Centre (AETC). This study investigates the ...

  15. The Elementary Teacher and the Disadvantaged: Bug in a Tub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Paul W.

    1965-01-01

    The national mandate to "teach the disadvantaged" child requires specific preservice and inservice teacher preparation. The classroom teacher in particular will need to make a firm, deliberate commitment to improve the instruction of the disadvantaged pupils already in his class. However, there are interwoven limitations imposed by the…

  16. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  17. Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Gertrude

    Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged

  18. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  19. Estudantes com desvantagens econômicas e educacionais e fruição da universidade / Les etudiants defavorises sur le plan economique et educationnel et le profit qu'ils tirent de l'universite / Students with economical and educational disadvantages and fruition of the university

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Mesquita de, Almeida.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute os principais resultados de uma investigação que teve como objetivo apreender a utilização dos recursos e espaços da Universidade de São Paulo por um grupo de estudantes com desvantagens econômicas e educacionais. A partir de uma revisão crítica da bibliografia nacional e estrangeira [...] sobre a trajetória de estudantes provindos das camadas populares que chegam ao ensino superior e da interpretação dos dados empíricos coligidos, reflete-se sobre o que esses alunos, efetivamente, aproveitam da estrutura propiciada pela universidade. Os alvos da investigação voltam-se para verificar como ocorreu o processo de socialização no ambiente familiar; a reconstrução da trajetória de ingresso e o trânsito no ambiente universitário mediante a apreensão do cotidiano, da adaptação à linguagem acadêmica, da realização dos afazeres, além do contato com indivíduos de origem similar bem como de outros estratos sociais. A pesquisa utilizou a metodologia qualitativa, operacionalizada em duas fases: grupos focais e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com o objetivo de refinar as principais categorias surgidas. Espera-se contribuir na reflexão sobre os debates atuais em torno da inclusão social no ensino superior ao integrar à análise do acesso à universidade, uma discussão sobre a efetiva permanência, onde o foco passa a ser um estudo mais pormenorizado das diferenças na qualidade da educação recebida pelos diversos segmentos sociais presentes na universidade pública. Abstract in english This text discusses the main results of an investigation that had as its objective to understand the use of the resources and spaces of the University of São Paulo by a group of students with economical and educational disadvantages. Starting from a critical revision of the national and foreign bibl [...] iography on the path of students stemming from society's poorer layers that arrive at higher education and of the interpretation of the empiric data gathered, a reflection is made about what those students effectively take of the structure propitiated by the university. The investigation aims to verify how the socialization process happened in the family atmosphere; as well as how happened the reconstruction of the entrance path and the traffic in the academical atmosphere through the understanding of daily life, the adaptation to the academic language, the accomplishment of academic tasks, besides the contact with individuals of similar origin as well as from other social strata. The research used the qualitative methodology through two phases: focal groups and semi-structured interviews with the objective of refining the main categories to appear. This paper hopes to contribute in the reflection on the current debates around the social inclusion in the higher education through integrating a discussion on the effective permanence to the analysis of the access to the university, where the focus becomes a more detailed study of the differences in the quality of the education received by the several present social segments in the public university.

  20. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  1. Clinical education and training: Using the nominal group technique in research with radiographers to identify factors affecting quality and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather t the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues

  2. Multiple Disadvantages? The Earnings of Asian Women Computer Scientists in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the earnings of an under-researched group: Asian women in computer science, in the United States (U.S.. I distinguish three subsets of college-educated Asian female computer scientists working full time in the U.S.: 1 U.S.-born, U.S.-educated Asian Americans, 2 Asian-born, U.S.-educated Asian immigrants, and 3 Asian-born, Asian-educated Asian immigrants. Results from multivariate regression and quantile regressions (at the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles show that U.S.- and Asian-educated Asian immigrant women earn less on average (at the mean level and at the 10th, 50th, and/or 75th percentile levels than their white male counterparts. Only Asian American women do not earn less than their white male counterparts at any level. Further analysis reveals that Asian immigrant women earn less due to their gender, but not because of a combination of their gender and race. Neither the immigrant women’s birthplace or the origin of their degree further disadvantage their earnings. The lack of multiple disadvantages may be explained by white women earning less than expected, but not Asian immigrant women earning more than expected. Suggestions for further research are discussed.

  3. "The Luggage that isn't Theirs is Too Heavy…":Understandings of Orphan Disadvantage in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Short, Susan E

    2012-02-01

    In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans' differential disadvantage?Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach. PMID:22865946

  4. “The Luggage that isn’t Theirs is Too Heavy…”:Understandings of Orphan Disadvantage in Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E.; Short, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans’ differential disadvantage? Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach. PMID:22865946

  5. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education

  6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Survey Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J. Bruce; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Because several legitimate survey techniques are available, the higher education institutional advancement officer must compare available methods and decide which ones to use for each survey task. Three methods available (the personal interview, the telephone interview, and the mail questionnaire) are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  7. Soil Stabilization Using Lime: Advantages, Disadvantages and Proposing a Potential Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehaj Taha Jawad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an overview of previous studies on lime (quick and hydrated -treated soil. Lime is the oldest traditional stabilizer used for soil stabilization. The mechanism of soil-lime treatment involves cation exchange, which leads to the flocculation and agglomeration of soil particles. The high pH environment then causes a pozzolanic reaction between the free Ca+2 cations and the dissolved silica and alumina. Lime-treated soil effectively increases the strength, durability and workability of the soil. Such treatment also improves soil compressibility. A fluctuation behavior was observed on the influence of lime on soil permeability. However, the factors affecting the permeability of the soil-lime mixture should be extensively studied. Nonetheless, lime treatment has a number of inherent disadvantages, such as carbonation, sulfate attack and environment impact. Magnesium oxide/hydroxide are thus proposed as a suitable alternative stabilizer to overcome at least some of the disadvantages of using lime in soil stabilization.

  8. The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the students? parent; related to the parent?s socio-economic background and their involvement strategies in their children?s education at home. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent?s involvement. The findings of this study indicated that most parents from the low socioeconomic background claimed that they showed high involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child?s education success. However, the education level, employment status, and income among the the parents fom the lower socioeconomic background affect their understanding and their knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child?s education. As a result, there is a lack among these children in terms of good skills, behaviour and values which are extremely important for their academic success.

  9. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an outreach initiative to provide disadvantaged youth with an intensive academic research experience. To offer an effective internship for these underrepresented youth, one needs to develop a comprehensive program that addresses the students' academic, professional, and personal needs.

  10. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  11. Relative advantages and disadvantages of protein binding assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies and biological binder proteins are the two major types of macromolecules which are used for competitive ligand binding radioassays. The relative advantages or disadvantages of the biological binder proteins are discussed in this paper

  12. Re-examining the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey. PMID:21667767

  13. Disadvantaged Rural Health ? Issues and Challenges: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chillimuntha, Anil K.; Thakor, Kumudini R.; Mulpuri, Jeremiah S.

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Acces...

  14. Disadvantages of Linguistic Origin: Evidence from Immigrant Literacy Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Isphording, Ingo Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

  15. 76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...small disadvantaged businesses (SDBs) to self-represent...small disadvantaged businesses were certified by the...13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both...12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, dated September...small disadvantaged business subcontractors...

  16. 13 CFR 124.1010 - What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? 124.1010 Section 124...DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification...What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? (a) General....

  17. Revisiting the Gramscian Legacy on Counter-Hegemony, the Subaltern and Affectivity: Toward an Emotional Pedagogy of Activism in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Michalinos Zembylas

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the org...

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ENROLLMENT AND THE RETENTION OF STUDENTS AT PRIMARY EDUCATION IN ANDHRA PRADESH – A VILLAGE LEVEL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    There is an imperative need to change the education pattern to achieve universal primary education in India. Even after 60 years of Independence, India faces obstacles in providing Education For All. This study was conducted in a primary school of Errabelly village of Karimnager district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The study revealed that children dropped out of school so as to assist in household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of b...

  19. Socio-cultural contexts affecting the export of education: the case of Finnish primary schools and the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Hadid, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The Finnish education system is known as one of the best performing systems in the world. This has raised a significant international interest, making the export of the Finnish know-how in education a good business opportunity. This thesis considers the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a target market for the export of Finnish primary education and analyzes the business environment particularly from socio-cultural aspects to shed more light on what to consider ahead before venturing in that area...

  20. Disadvantages of applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. Wierzbicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assumptions of this study were an attempt to identify lacquer coating disadvantages. Samples of the parts with disadvantages were prepared with the use of microtome and then viewed on an optical microscope. The defects have been described and the causes of their formation have been identified.Findings: The paper shows the examples of common disadvantages of polymer coatings’ application in automotive industry.Research limitations/implications: In automotive industry, they are often used as a substrate - metals or other materials. The description and identification of disadvantages of coatings on these substrates requires further study.Practical implications: The identification of disadvantages of the applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate allows to eliminate them. Through the improvement and generation of new technologies of coating industry as a major supplier to the very large automotive industry, the industry will continue to thrive, grow and maintain its economical competitiveness in the global marketplace.Originality/value: Applications of multilayer polymer coatings in automotive industry are rarely described in literature - especially the application on polymers substrate. The description and identification for the emergence of the most frequent reasons of lacquer disadvantage is a novelty in this article.

  1. HIV/AIDS Education and Behaviour Change:Contextual factors that affect translation of knowledge into action among in-school adolescents in rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Komunda, Rodney Noel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...

  2. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Factors Affecting the Educational Use of ICT in Technology-Rich Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Antoni; Meneses, Julio; Sigales, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the main factors that influence teachers' decision-making regarding the educational use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in technology-rich classrooms. Method: We collected data from 278 teachers in Catalonia (Spain) working in eight primary and secondary education

  4. Challenges to Affirmative Action Race Conscious College Admissions Policies Affecting the Affordability of Higher Education for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sky Lark, Taj'ullah

    2012-01-01

    The instability of the U.S. economy and its competitiveness in the global market has lead to increase request for investment in Higher Education programs. There exists a rising awareness among scholars of how inextricably education is tied to the strength of the economy, the well being of its populace, as well as the importance of a diversified…

  5. How Income Contingent Loans Could Affect the Returns to Higher Education: A Microsimulation of the French Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtioux, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms of…

  6. What We Call What We Do Affects How We Do It: A New Nomenclature for Simulation Research in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Morin, Marie-Paule; Giannoulakis, Konstantine; Koh, Jansen; Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid technological advances and concern for patient safety have increased the focus on simulation as a pedagogical tool for educating health care providers. To date, simulation research scholarship has focused on two areas; evaluating instructional designs of simulation programs, and the integration of simulation into a broader educational

  7. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…

  8. The Affective (Re)Production of Refugee Representations through Educational Policies and Practices: Reconceptualising the Role of Emotion for Peace Education in a Divided Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In…

  9. Contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação / Contributions from Henri Wallon to the relationship between cognition and affectivity in education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurino Lima, Ferreira; Nadja Maria, Acioly-Régnier.

    Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição [...] no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo. Abstract in english This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synt [...] hesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.

  10. Contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação Contributions from Henri Wallon to the relationship between cognition and affectivity in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurino Lima Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo.This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.

  11. Building Capacity for Disaster Resiliency in Six Disadvantaged Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Salvesen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster plans almost always do not benefit from the knowledge and values of disadvantaged people who are frequently underrepresented in disaster planning processes. Consequently, the plans are inconsistent with the conditions, concerns, and capabilities of disadvantaged people. We present an approach to community-based participatory planning aimed at engaging marginalized and distrustful communities to build their capacity to be more disaster resilient. We review the experiences of six disadvantaged communities under the Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD project. The EPD effort revealed several critical implications: recruit a diverse set of participants for inclusive collaboration; provide analytical tools to co-develop information and empower people; employ coaches to organize and facilitate sustainable community change; design a bottom-up review process for selection of strategies that holds communities accountable; and build capacity for implementation of strategies.

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study. PMID:23071800

  13. Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15–21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who w...

  14. Spanish-Language Home Visitation to Disadvantaged Latino Preschoolers: A Means of Promoting Language Development and English School Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Mann

    2014-01-01

    This study reports five years of a school readiness intervention called “HABLA” (Home Based Activities Building Language Acquisition), designed to increase and enrich speech and literacy activities in the homes of economically and educationally disadvantaged Latino families with children between the age of 2 and 4. A team of trained home visitors provided two years of a 23-week program of visitation in which they met with parent(s) and child twice weekly. Both...

  15. Parent education project. III: Increasing affection and responsivity in developmentally handicapped mothers: component analysis, generalization, and effects on child language.

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, M. A.; Case, L; Rincover, A; Towns, F; Betel, J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a parent training program consisting of verbal instruction, modeling, and feedback on the affection and responsivity of 3 developmentally handicapped mothers towards their children. The results indicated the following: First, the training package increased maternal physical affection, praise, and imitation of child vocalizations. These parenting skills increased to levels found in comparison groups of nonhandicapped mothers. Second, the training package was more ef...

  16. Participating in Synchronous Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hrastinski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing need for education since the workforce of today is expected to be highly educated and continuously learn. Distance education is a powerful response to meet the growing need for education. Online education, here concisely defined as distance education mediated online, is the most common type of distance education. It mainly relies on asynchronous communication although it is well known that many students regard the lack of synchronous communication as disadvantageous. Th...

  17. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-08-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p = 0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p = 0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p < 0.0001), low educational level (p = 0.05), and lower income (p = 0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  18. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  19. Social Stability and Health: Exploring Multidimensional Social Disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social ...

  20. The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

    Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

  1. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

  2. Open Source Approach in Software Development - Advantages and Disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Jovica ?urkovi?; Vuk Vukovi?; Lazar Rakovi?

    2008-01-01

    The works points to open source approach in software development, which has recorded important results since its beginning. Thanks to it, we are able to use the software representing the fruit of this approach. The work also points to the characteristics of open source approach through the prism of advantages and disadvantages.

  3. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  4. Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yukti

    2012-01-01

    This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

  5. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  6. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; SchØtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs. Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.

  7. Seeking help for depression from family and friends: A qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282 including emotional support (n = 154, informational support (n = 93, companionship support (n = 36 and instrumental support (n = 23. Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72, the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62, the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49, their accessibility (n = 36, and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30. The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53, inappropriate support (n = 45, the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32 and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20 and the relationship (n = 18. Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers.

  8. Factors Affecting Employment Success and Quality of Life: A One Year Follow-up of Students in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Richard T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-eight high-school special education students were surveyed after graduation concerning their work history, career roles, involvement with social agencies, life satisfaction, and career skill ratings. Approximately 50 percent of the group were competitively employed, mostly part time. Subjective quality of life was not related to any…

  9. Bullying Affects More than Feelings: The Long-Term Implications of Victimization on Academic Motivation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Jones, Adena; Fursa, Sophie; Byrket, Jacqueline S.; Sly, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow students. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child progresses in school, more…

  10. Afetar e sensibilizar na educação: uma proposta transdisciplinar = To affect and sensitize in education: a transdisciplinary proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Martins Oliveira Magalh?es

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A proposta complexa e transdisciplinar abre novas perspectivas para o campo educacional. Essas perspectivas procuraram religar o conhecimento à vida, reorientando os processos de formação para que se valorize a constituição de um sujeito sensível e afetivo. A vocação transdisciplinar institui novas práticas pedagógicas formadoras de uma razão-afetivo-sensível, capaz de promover uma visão mais integrada do ser humano. Nesta concepção de educação, o processo ensino-aprendizagem supera o processo lógico e intelectual, torna-se um processo dinâmico, coerente, dialógico e criativo. Promover a proposta transdisciplinar na formação docente passa pela vivência de formar pessoas que tornarão nossa experiência no mundo mais cooperativa, amorosa e solidariamente compreendida.A complex and transdisciplinary proposal opens new perspectives in the educational field. Such perspectives seek to reconnect knowledge to life, by redirecting educational processes towards encouraging the creation of sensitive and emotional individuals. A transdisciplinary vocation establishes new pedagogical practices, forming an affectivesensitive-reason, capable of promoting a more integrated vision the human being. In this conception of education, the teaching-learning process surpasses the logical and intellectual process and becomes a dynamic, coherent, dialogic and creative process.To promote a transdisciplinary proposition in teacher training means experiencing the fact of educating people, who will make our experience in the world more cooperative, loving and solidly understood.

  11. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to obtain a…

  12. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

  13. Targeted versus Mixed Preschools and Kindergartens: Effects of Class Composition and Teacher-Managed Activities on Disadvantaged Children's Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika; Elbers, Ed; Hoofs, Huub; Leseman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, longitudinal cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to determine the effects of (a) socioeconomically mixed preschool and kindergarten classrooms, (b) the implementation of an education program aiming to accelerate socioeconomically disadvantaged children's emergent academic skills, and (c) the amount of teacher-managed…

  14. Vocational Evaluation of the Culturally Disadvantaged; A Comparative Investigation of the JEVS [Jewish Employment and Vocational Service] System and a Model-Based System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolsky, Julian M.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the overall effectiveness of a vocational education system designed specifically for a culturally disadvantaged population (in this case the Jewish Employment and Vocational Service (JEVS) System) with a model-based system incorporating the techniques and procedures normally employed by vocational…

  15. Match of Inputs and Outputs of Higher Education to Local Market in Mafraq Governorate: Perceived Students’ Performance Affect by Geographical Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Al-Awawdeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human capital and economic growth is highly acclimatized by the quality anddistribution of education in the labor force. However, to realize this issue it is important to focus on the base ofeducation at the school level. There is evidence that environmental positions affect students’ performance. Thestudy was conducted using field research. Interviews and surveys were conducted with 229 administers locatedat three directorates of the North Badia region. Subjects were selected using stratified random sampling. Resultsindicated that education at Mafraq Governorate lacks quality and quantity of supply as it is located away fromurban centers. Over all perceived performance was affected differently in the three directorates of North Badia;the highest perceived performance was in Central Mafraq and the least in Northeast Badia. Geographicallocation is associated with: number of students at Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Ninth Elementarygrades; number of students at Eleventh Grade Literature, Computer, Nursing stream, and number of sections atEleventh grade Scientific, Literature, Computer, and Vocational streams; and with number of Physics andAthletics teachers. It is negatively associated with number of students at Twelfth grade scientific stream. Thereshould be emphasis of joining schools together.

  16. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program : VIDA status report 1. Design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs. This VIDA Report 1 presents the design and methods used in the inclusive ECEC intervention program. TWO MODEL PROGRAMS Two model programs are introduced: the VIDA Basis program and the VIDA+ parental program. Both programs consist of education and training of VIDA staff by means of three elements: presentation of theoretical and empirical knowledge of children’s learning and wellbeing; education, including giving staff the opportunity to refl ect on their own experiences when working with socially disadvantaged children at their center; and, fi nally, training on how to renew practices at local level on the basis of VIDA program guidelines. The aim of the fi rst program (VIDA Basis) is to support children’s learning and well-being and particularly support socially disadvantaged children, i.e. these children’s socioemotional development and learning through inclusive efforts. The aim of the second program is the same kind of improvement of children’s development butin this program parents are involved in the activities too (VIDA+ program). Thus, the two model programsare similar in that they both direct attention to children in general and disadvantaged children’s well-being and learning particular; however they differ in that VIDA+ particularly directs attention to fi nding new methods for involving parents. INTERVENTION: EDUCATION AND IMPLEMENTATION The aim of the VIDA programs is to enhance the innovative competences of managers and daycare teachers with regard to improving the learning and wellbeing of children. The objective of the VIDA educational programs is to improve the way in which staff works with renewing everyday practices in terms of early efforts for socially disadvantaged children. The two model programs are based on recent evidence-based knowledge and, specifi cally for the VIDA+program, the Danish Clearinghouse of Education has made a research review of effective intervention programs that include parental involvement (see Appendix I). A range of materials and tools have thus been developed for the VIDA educational program, including guidelines for working with children’s learning and well-being through social inclusion. The program builds on three perspectives: 1) a resourceoriented and asset perspective on socially disadvantaged children as children with potential (not defi cit), 2) a learning perspective that views participants in the program (children, teachers and parents) as active, refl ective learners, and 3) an organizational learning perspective (staff qualifi cation in the entire daycare center). The VIDA education and training sessions thus build on methods that improve professionals’ ability to convert scientifi c knowledge into practice through knowledge sharing and innovative experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit) knowledge in order to improve the efforts for children. The role of managers is important as they ar

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Seda Yucel, A.

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  18. Disadvantages of applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzbicki, ?.; Kulesza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assu...

  19. Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    ALINA T. CHICO?; ALINA E. HUZUI; ROBERT C. STOICULESCU

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was sh...

  20. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSC?NESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  1. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra MUSC?NESCU

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  2. Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated ...

  3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  4. Personal Encounter and Affective Links: "Pilot Guidance" and the Relational Nurturing Process in Education Encuentro y Vinculación Afectiva: Pilotaje y Proceso de Nutrición Relacional en Educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Vaquer Chiva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions represent the special setting for teenagers´ socialization and development in Spain. The concern for some disruptive phenomenon which take place within the educational setting draws the attention to investigate the aspects of the educational relationship that contribute positively to students´ development and learning. From a qualitative research design, according to the criteria of theoretical sampling proposed in the methodology of qualitative data analysis of the «Grounded Theory», twenty-three individual interviews were done to secondary school parents, teachers and students. The achieved results allow to suggest the «encounter» between student and teacher, with its respective acceptance and mutual appreciation, as a central issue that enables affective link and the practice of "pilot guidance". The emergence of the basic social process referred as «relational nurturing» implies that affective support and an instructional guide empower educational and personal growth. The "pilot guidance" function, both with individuals and in class, constitutes the center of the educational relationship fostering the students´ full growth.Los centros educativos constituyen el marco preferente de socialización y desarrollo de los adolescentes en España. La preocupación por algunos fenómenos disruptivos que se producen en el marco educativo dirige la atención a investigar los aspectos de la relación educativa que contribuyen de forma positiva al desarrollo y aprendizaje del alumnado. A partir de un diseño de investigación cualitativa, siguiendo los criterios de muestreo teórico propuestos en la metodología de análisis cualitativo del "Grounded Theory", se realizaron veintitrés entrevistas individuales a padres/madres, profesorado y alumnado de educación secundaria. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer el "encuentro" entre la persona del alumno y del profesor, con su correspondiente aceptación y reconocimiento mutuo, como factor central que posibilita la vinculación afectiva y el ejercicio del pilotaje entre el profesor y el alumno. La emergencia de la "nutrición relacional" como proceso social básico, implica que el crecimiento personal y educativo se potencia a través del apoyo afectivo y de guía en el aprendizaje. La función del pilotaje educativo, tanto individual como de aula, conforma el centro de la relación educativa y contribuye al desarrollo pleno del alumnado.

  5. 48 CFR 19.305 - Protesting a representation of disadvantaged business status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...representation of disadvantaged business status. 19.305 Section 19.305 Federal...PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.305...representation of disadvantaged business status. (a) This section applies to...

  6. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

  7. Exploring Educational Use of Blogs in U.S. Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: As one of the Web 2.0 tools, blogs are widely used in US education. This paper gives a brief overview of blogs such as advantages, disadvantages, and major software for creating blogs, and then it reviews some EduBlogs, its usage, and examples in US education. The purpose is to motivate more educators to use blogs in teaching and…

  8. The Survey of Viewpoint of Teleworkers in Department of Information Processing about Advantages and Disadvantages of Teleworking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tahavori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Information and communication technology has had effects on the different aspects of living, like working ways. One of these effects is to work anywhere, far away office and without geographical limitation. This working method has advantages and disadvantages that can affect on its performance and contituity in organizations and offices. This article reviewed shortly the literature of teleworking and the advantages and disadvantages of teleworking, then surveyed the viewpoint of teleworkers in department of information processing in National Libray and Archives of I.R. of Iran. The results showed that teleworking had benefits and porblems in this department and despite of that fact (especially weakness in techonogical infrastructs, all of teleworkers in research population (100% tended continue teleworking. Teleworkers had a high satisfaction of teleworking (5/53.

  9. Nutrition habits of Physical Education and Sport High School students of Afyon Kocatepe University and factors affected the the nutrition habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Tortop

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6 and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High School have inadequate knowledge on nutrition and nutrition education, they often skip meal and most of them have two meals ?n a day. A very low proportion of them have regular breakfast.In addition, it was seen that students who have good economic status and lived in the dormitory and believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast and regular nutrition.

  10. The "Representative Bureaucracy" in Education: Educator Workforce Diversity, Policy Outputs, and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Kern, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Bureaucratic representation--the idea that a governmental organization is better situated to serve its clients when its employee composition reflects that of its client population--has received considerable scholarly attention in the study of public institutions in the fields of political science and public administration. In a wide variety of…

  11. Disadvantaged Rural Health ? Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ?upside-down? perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location?allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  12. FarmacOft: software educativo para la farmacología contra las afecciones oftalmológicas / FarmacOft: educational software for pharmacology against ophthalmological affections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilys, Martínez Torres; Michel, Sierra Leyva; Keilym, Artiles Martínez; Yaquelin, Martínez Chávez; Ailin, Anoceto Martínez; Lelys, Navarro Aguirre.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el uso adecuado de fármacos contra las afecciones oculares es un contenido esencial en la asignatura Farmacología II de tercer año de Medicina. Objetivo: diseñar un software educativo sobre el uso de fármacos contra las afecciones oculares. Métodos: se realizó una investigación cualitati [...] va en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara en el curso 2013-2014. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción para la interpretación y procesamiento de la información y los referentes teóricos del tema; empíricos: análisis documental de los programas y orientaciones metodológicas, y la encuesta en su modalidad de cuestionario a estudiantes para diagnosticar los conocimientos adquiridos sobre la prescripción y uso racional de medicamentos contra las afecciones oftalmológicas y en forma de entrevista a informantes clave. Resultados: en el programa no se contempla la farmacología contra las afecciones oftalmológicas ni se establecen suficientes nexos interdisciplinares desde una perspectiva integradora para consolidar las habilidades de los alumnos en este campo; no hay bibliografía especializada sobre el tema ni medios de enseñanza en formato digital para estos contenidos; por lo que se diseñó un software educativo utilizando la herramienta de CrheaSoft con una combinación de elementos visuales. Conclusiones: el software proporciona un material educativo didáctico de consulta y de apoyo a la docencia en Farmacología II, facilita la motivación y permite que los estudiantes construyan el conocimiento sobre la aplicación de medicamentos contra afecciones oftalmológicas. Fue valorado por los especialistas como pertinente, útil y factible por su cientificidad y carácter pedagógico. Abstract in english Background: the appropriate use of drugs against ocular affections is an essential content in the subject Pharmacology II of the third year of Medicine. Objective: to design educational software on the use of drugs against ocular affections. Methods: it was carried out a qualitative research work in [...] Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2013-2014. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction for the processing and interpretation of information and the theoretical foundations of the topic; empiric: documental analysis of the programs and methodological orientations, and the survey in questionnaire modality was applied to the students to diagnose the acquired knowledge on the prescription and rational use of medications against ocular affections and an interview was applied to key informants. Results: the pharmacology against ocular affections is not contemplated in the program and there aren´t settle down enough interdisciplinary connections from an integrative perspective to consolidate the abilities of the students in this field; there is not specialized bibliography on the topic neither teaching means in digital format for these contents; that´s why an educational software was designed using the tool of CrheaSoft with a combination of visual elements. Conclusions: the software provides a didactic educational material of consultation and support to teaching in Pharmacology II, it facilitates the motivation and it allows the students to build knowledge on the application of medications against ocular affections. It was valued by the specialists as pertinent, useful and feasible for its scientific and pedagogic character.

  13. Revisiting the Gramscian Legacy on Counter-Hegemony, the Subaltern and Affectivity: Toward an Emotional Pedagogy of Activism in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalinos Zembylas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic intellectual in relation to his views about the unity of reason and emotion offer points of departure for activism, especially small acts of everyday life that often go unnoticed. Finally, Gramsci’s concern with the emotional potential of subaltern subjects shows how important it is to consider subaltern passions as political resources that challenge hegemonic conditions and formulate strategic counter-hegemonic responses.

  14. EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND THE INHUMAN CONDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FROST, JOE L.

    SINCE THE DEFICITS OF THE DISADVANTAGED INDIVIDUAL ARE USUALLY INDUCED BY HIS ENVIRONMENT, IT IS ONLY THROUGH A POSITIVE MANIPULATION OF HIS TOTAL ENVIRONMENT THAT THESE DEFICITS CAN BE REMOVED. DISADVANTAGED GROUPS LIVE IN A WORLD ISOLATED FROM THE CULTURAL MAINSTREAM AND ARE, THUS, ALIENATED FROM THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AND FROM MIDDLE-CLASS…

  15. A summer academic research experience for disadvantaged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

  16. Theories of Communications in Managing Industrial Enterprises: Advantages and Disadvantages ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????: ???????????? ? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertychko Tetiana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out the problem of sharp necessity of increase of effectiveness of communication processes at Ukrainian enterprises. It justifies a necessity to study the existing developments of Ukrainian and foreign scientists in this field. It conducts analysis of main theories of communication in managing industrial enterprises. It studies main definitions of the “communication process” notion, and establishes stages of this process in general and at an enterprise in particular. It studies evolution of models of the communication process, starting with the very first ones and finishing with the modern ones. It reveals their advantages and disadvantages. It establishes that the main disadvantage of these models is insufficient accountability of factors of practical and economic efficiency of the communication process. It analyses modern channels of the communication process from the point of view of origination and degree of use at enterprises. It justifies advantages of some channels of the communication process over the other ones. It identifies prospects of further studies.? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? «??????? ????????????», ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ???? ? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????. ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????.

  17. Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Howard; Jude Butcher; Luke Egan

    2010-01-01

    In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is buil...

  18. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  19. Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

    2014-07-01

    Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

  20. Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

  1. O imperativo do afeto na educação infantil: a ordem do discurso de pedagogas em formação / The imperative of affect in early childhood education: the order of discourse of undergraduate education students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Saballa de, Carvalho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que teve como foco de análise a problematização dos discursos sobre afeto docente presentes em relatórios de um estágio realizado em turmas de Educação Infantil por 30 acadêmicas de Pedagogia em fase de conclusão do curso. O objetivo do artigo é probl [...] ematizar como os discursos sobre afeto se constituem enquanto imperativos que inventam e regulam os modos de exercício docente. O campo de estudos no qual se fundamentou a pesquisa foi o dos estudos culturais e dos estudos desenvolvidos por Michel Foucault. A metodologia consistiu na análise do discurso foucaultiana, por meio da qual foram destacadas as regularidades e inflexões presentes nos relatórios. Estes foram escritos a partir de elementos recordatórios, como fotos, planejamentos e demais registros das acadêmicas. A análise evidenciou a assunção da afetividade como um imperativo profissional associado a um processo de generificação da docência. A partir da pesquisa, concluiu-se que os significados do afeto no exercício da docência só existem como resultados inacabados de processos que tratam de nomeá-lo e conformá-lo. Por essa razão, se for assumida a perspectiva de que os discursos que tomam o afeto como imperativo docente presentes nos relatórios analisados são produzidos pelas práticas sociais, pelas relações de poder e pelo tipo de lógica disciplinar que os operacionaliza, é possível desnaturalizá-los e reinventá-los, experimentando outros modos de agir e de pensar o exercício da docência na Educação Infantil. Abstract in english This article presents the results of a study that focused on the problematization of the discourses on teacher affect present in reports of an internship in early childhood education classes of 30 Education students nearing graduation. The aim of this paper is to discuss how discourses on affect bec [...] ome imperatives that invent and regulate the ways of teaching. The research was based on cultural studies and the studies developed by Michel Foucault. Its methodology consisted of Foucauldian discourse analysis, through which regularities and inflections found in the reports were highlighted. These reports were written using memory aids such as photos, plans, and other records of the students. The analysis evidenced the assumption of affection as a professional imperative associated with a process of gendering of teaching. From the research, it was concluded that the meanings of affect in the teaching profession only exist as unfinished results of processes that deal with naming it and shaping it. For this reason, if one assumes the perspective that the discourses that take affect as a teacher imperative, as the ones present in the reports analyzed, are produced by social practices, by the relations of power and type of disciplinary logic that operationalizes such discourses, it is possible to denaturalize them and reinvent them, experimenting with other ways of acting and thinking of teaching in early childhood education.

  2. Using Environmental Scans in Educational Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Terry F.; Pearson, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Presents advantages and disadvantages of environmental scanning for assessing the context of professional continuing education. Provides a checklist for evaluating the quality and usefulness of information sources. Addresses the ethics of scanning. (SK)

  3. Risk Determination in Projects. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Stochastic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lepadatu

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a comparative study about the principal stochastic methods that is used in Project Management. Risk determination is a mustfor every Project Manager worldwide, but the methods have, of course, advantages and disadvantages. Further, many Project Managers work withdeterministic methods, but they see only the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. In Subject of this paper it is Risk determination inprojects. The advantages and disadvantages of stochastic methods. Choosing th...

  4. Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, A.B; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations b...

  5. Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The affective domain can significantly enhance, inhibit or even prevent student learning. The affective domain includes factors such as student motivation, attitudes, perceptions and values. Teachers can increase their effectiveness by considering the affective domain in planning courses, delivering lectures and activities, and assessing student learning. This module contains information and resources for incorporating the affective domain into teaching.

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Rodriguez-Granillo, Bibiana Rubilar, Gaston Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo E Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

  7. Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA T. CHICO?

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was shaped in relation to different socio-economic and socio-cultural policies that determined the creation of a polarisation between north and south or between centre and periphery which were subject to numerous socio-urban inversions during the communist and post-communist eras. Hence, life in a large metropolis is vulnerable to inequalities appearing within the urban pattern that intensifies, in some cases, towards residential segregation. The historical-geographical analysis of vectors behind clusters of sensitive areas in the 20th and 21st centuries strengthens the importance of social cohesion measures in the future urban policies and territorial planning.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: disadvantages and possible benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, Genesia; Masullo, Ugo; Passarelli, Stefania; Filosa, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    We review here some recent data about Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the housekeeping X-linked gene encoding the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a NADPH-producing dehydrogenase. This enzyme has been popular among clinicians, biochemists, geneticists and molecular biologists because it is the most common form of red blood cell enzymopathy. G6PD deficient erythrocytes do not generate NADPH in any other way than through the PPP and for this reason they are more susceptible than any other cells to oxidative damage. Moreover, this enzyme has also been of crucial importance in many significant discoveries; indeed, G6PD polymorphisms have been instrumental in studying X-inactivation in the human species, as well as in establishing the clonal nature of certain tumors. G6PD deficiency, generally considered as a mild and benign condition, is significantly disadvantageous in certain environmental conditions like in presence of certain drugs. Nevertheless, G6PD deficiency has been positively selected by malaria, and recent knowledge seems to show that it also confers an advantage against the development of cancer, reduces the risk of coronary diseases and has a beneficial effect in terms of longevity. PMID:23534950

  9. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital. PMID:22184876

  10. [Early post-partum discharges: benefits, disadvantages and implementation methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkane, N

    2015-02-01

    Early post-partum discharges (EPD) are a hot topic. Already widely practised in many European countries this procedure, was promoted by the government for a decade, requested by representatives of Midwive organisations, desired by some patients, but also criticized by the Academy of Medicine. Well organized and with an obligatory control and follow-up, EPD could help with the management of the shortage of maternity beds and hence increase the satisfaction of the patients. The procedure could even be a way to effectively implement a town-hospital network, something, which has many other benefits. However this procedure is not without potential dangers: lower quality of care, financial risks for the department, and especially a significant increase of the workload of the hospital staff. The main objective of this paper is to detail the benefits and disadvantages of EPD for maternities and to propose an organizational basis if EPD is the procedure of choice. A participatory methodology is essential when using this procedure, due to the important participation of different categories of staff involved in hospital discharge (administrative, medical and paramedical staff) and to exclude complications when certain specifications are not followed or misunderstood. PMID:25201020

  11. Taxation for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas H.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides a basic understanding of the mechanics of the various taxes used to raise money for education, the extent to which these taxes are utilized, the way they interrelate, and the criteria that can be used when judging their relative advantages and disadvantages. The chapter opens with…

  12. Is social capital perceived as a source of competitive advantage or disadvantage for family firms? An exploratory analysis of CEO perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    DE MASSIS, ALFREDO VITTORIO; KOTLAR, JOSIP; FRATTINI, FEDERICO

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological perspectives suggest that executives’ perceptions do matter when it comes to predict the outcomes of strategic processes, little research has dealt with CEO perceptions in family firms. In this article we focus on the social capital resources of family firms and investigate which resources are perceived as competitive (dis)advantages and which factors affect the differences in perceptions among family firms’ CEOs. We rely on a multiple case study that involved seven...

  13. Determinants of user satisfaction in internet use among socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged groups: The role of digital access and government policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Younghoon; Siew Fan Wong; Park, Myeong-cheol

    2014-01-01

    Digital divide is one of the most concerning issues today. It positions those who 'have-no' access to technology at disadvantage socially and economically. The key to reduce digital divide is to provide access to basic technology and information content. This study explored the role of government policy support in affecting digital access which in turns determining user satisfaction toward Internet use. A large data set that was provided by the Korea Information Society Development Institute ...

  14. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  15. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

  16. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  17. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  18. Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

  19. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  20. Information Services to the Disadvantaged Person: A Challenge for Information Professionals in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butdisuwan, Sujin

    This paper considers the provision of library and information services to disadvantaged persons in Thailand and focuses on the need to provide appropriate staff training to library staff working with these groups. The results of a number of specific projects are used as illustrative examples. The paper begins with an overview of the disadvantaged

  1. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  2. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T P, Maforah; S, Schulze.

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in [...] discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education). Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

  3. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Prucha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153 in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107 completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39% strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%. Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.

  4. Parenting predictors of cognitive skills and emotion knowledge in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1 year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1 year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  5. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  6. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  7. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Maforah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education. Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

  8. FAIR VALUE IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Škoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.

  9. Development of Nuclear Energy in Ukraine. Necessity, Advantages and Disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to current projections of economic development of Ukraine, domestic consumption of electricity will grow from the present level of 190 billion kWh / year to about 280 billion kWh / year in 2030, which determines the prospects of the electricity industry development. Alternative ''green'' energy sources - solar, wind and small hydropower can develop only within a commercially reasonable considering temporary ''green'' tariff, which is far above the rates for traditional sources. According to prognoses the share of ''green'' energy sources in Ukraine in 2030 will not exceed 10-15% regardless of their environmental appeal. The updated nuclear energy development strategy by 2030 will save the share of nuclear electricity generation at the achieved level about half of total domestic electricity production. Development of nuclear power generation in the period to 2030 provides: increase the safety of the operating NPP; efficiency increase of existing nuclear power plants (up to 85% in terms of the basic mode of operation); continued of NPP units operation for 20 years over time, provided the original design; completion of the units 3,4 Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in 2017; construction and commissioning prior to 2027 three new nuclear power units the total capacity to 3.5 GW on new NPP site; beginning in 2022-2029 years construction of new nuclear reactors at sites of existing nuclear power plants to replace existing units that will be decommissioned after 2030; implementation of the units preparation to decommissioning after an additional period of operation; improvement of infrastructure support and development of nuclear power generation. In the article analyzes the necessity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy in Ukraine in the Updated Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2030.(author).

  10. Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

  11. Mathematics Textbook Transformation and Instructional Intervention for Disadvantaged Elementary School Students: Changes in Mathematics Achievements and Goal Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chieh Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine changes in the mathematics achievements and goal orientations among disadvantaged students after instructional intervention in textbook transformation and instructional intervention for disadvantaged students. There were eight disadvantaged students in this instructional intervention. Factor analysis, MANOVA, and covariance analysis were used in data analysis. Several important findings were discovered. First, prior to instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientations of disadvantaged students were no different from those of other students, but their mathematics achievements were lower than those of others. Second, after instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientation of disadvantaged students became higher. Finally, after instructional intervention, the mathematics achievements of disadvantaged students became higher, too

  12. Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to students…

  13. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  14. Brief Report. Educated Adults Are Still Affected by Intuitions about the Effect of Arithmetical Operations: Evidence from a Reaction-Time Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakoussi, Xenia; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intuitions about the effect of operations, e.g., "addition makes bigger" and "division makes smaller", are still present in educated adults, even after years of instruction. To establish the intuitive character, we applied a reaction time methodology, grounded in dual process theories of reasoning. Educated

  15. Integrating Design Disciplines: Understanding the Potential for and Factors Affecting the Success of Interdisciplinary Design Education for Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tae Seo

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…

  16. A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

  17. The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the ...

  18. Risk Determination in Projects. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Stochastic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Lepadatu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study about the principal stochastic methods that is used in Project Management. Risk determination is a mustfor every Project Manager worldwide, but the methods have, of course, advantages and disadvantages. Further, many Project Managers work withdeterministic methods, but they see only the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. In Subject of this paper it is Risk determination inprojects. The advantages and disadvantages of stochastic methods. Choosing the theme of this paper is not randomly, it continues a series of articlespublished for strengthen of scientific research in the Doctorate studies that I followed since 2005.

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.35 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender...102-117.35 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? (a) It is an advantage to use GSA's tender...

  20. GLOBALISATION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MANUFACTURER

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Manolic?; Teodora Roman

    2012-01-01

    Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but...

  1. An Investigation of the Perceptual - Motor Ability of Small Town and Rural Disadvantaged Children. Final Report, Wisconsin CORD Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, James F.

    The Purdue Perceptual-Motor Survey, a standardized test of perceptual-motor ability, was administered to 98 disadvantaged rural 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th graders. Comparisons between the mean scores of the disadvantaged sample and the norm group, and within the group of disadvantaged children, were made on the basis of both the total test scores and…

  2. Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children / Desarrollo de la inteligencia en niños en edad preescolar con desventajas socioeconómicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sefa, Bulut.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos factores influyen en el desarrollo intelectual de niños en edad preescolar con desventajas socioeconómicas. El desarrollo de la inteligencia es un concepto multidimensional que está determinado por factores biológicos, sociales y ambientales. Sin embargo, en la presente revisión únicamente [...] se analizan y discuten los aspectos sociales y ambientales. Algunos de los factores que presentan profundos efectos en el desarrollo cognitivo son los siguientes: la estimulación del medio ambiente, las actitudes de los padres, la edad materna y la educación. Se ejemplifican también algunos programas de prevención e intervenciones exitosas encaminadas al enriquecimiento del desarrollo cognitivo infantil. Parece que los programas de intervención temprana en el segundo y tercer año de la vida infantil tienen efectos fundamentales en el desarrollo cognitivo de aquellos niños con ciertas desventajas. Es claro que el aprendizaje se inicia con el nacimiento. Algunos estudios longitudinales mostraron que el periodo más efectivo para la intervención es durante la niñez temprana. Aquellos niños que han estado en programas de estancias y jardines infantiles han mantenido estos logros en la adolescencia y en la edad adulta. Algunos de estos beneficios incluyen puntuaciones elevadas en pruebas de IQ, mejores calificaciones en pruebas de puntuación y mejores habilidades en lectura y matemáticas, mayor número de logros educacionales, mayor número de títulos universitarios y un menor número de problemas psicológicos y de salud mental. Por tanto, la investigación en programas tempranos de alta calidad proporciona múltiples ventajas en forma personal, así como para la sociedad en su conjunto. Activistas sociales, psicólogos y consejeros deberían hacer un mayor esfuerzo para modificar las políticas gubernamentales y la asignación de fondos. Abstract in english The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social [...] and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.

  3. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    15 Commerce and Foreign Trade...false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage...Section 1400.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade...4 Evidence of social or economic...

  4. Business planning innovative projects: the essence of technology, advantages and disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Knyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.

  5. 48 CFR 53.302-312 - Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.302-312 Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. ER26JY00.003 ER26JY00.004 [65 FR...

  6. 78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...Title I--Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY...rulemaking regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments based on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice...

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results g...

  8. Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Amy H. Herring; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal S...

  9. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Coral Gartner; Kim Gussy; Pauline Ford; Anton Clifford

    2013-01-01

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support...

  10. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with you...

  11. Neighborhood Disadvantage, High Alcohol Content Beverage Consumption, Drinking Norms, and Drinking Consequences: A Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-webb, Rhonda; Karriker-jaffe, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use can cause significant harm. We examined the relationships between neighborhood disadvantage, consumption of high-alcohol-content beverages (HACB), drinking norms, and self-reported drinking consequences using data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (N?=?9,971 current drinkers) and the 2000 Decennial Census. We hypothesized that (1) individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods would report more negative drinking consequences than individuals living in more aff...

  12. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of...

  13. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-01-01

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist such services to achieve optimal population impact among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:25848739

  14. Blueprint for Establishing an Effective Postbaccalaureate Medical School Pre-Entry Program for Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Alan W.; Broussard, Larry G.

    2003-01-01

    The structure, experiences, and results of the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine's Postbaccalaureate Reapplicant Program are used as a case study to construct a blueprint for returning 85-90 percent of program participants to shortage areas while increasing minority student admissions. This success rate has been achieved through…

  15. Speaking Back to Educational Policy: Why Social Inclusion Will Not Work for "Disadvantaged" Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John

    2010-01-01

    The Labor government in Australia has recently embarked on an extremely ambitious program of social inclusion for the most marginalized groups in society. Drawing upon the approach of "policy scholarship" this paper examines some federal government "policy texts" to describe what has occurred and asks questions about what is meant by the social…

  16. GLOBALISATION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MANUFACTURER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Manolic?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but the views are so diverse and contradictory that it still is not reached even a universally accepted definition. Perhaps it is the so controversial topic that makes him so attractive. If some persons believe that the phenomenon of globalization ends before reaching its peak, others consider that the current situation is just the beginning of an era in which there are no boundaries.

  17. Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Qingyang

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176Lu (IRL) continues to be exploited. In this paper, research literatures about IRL in PET detectors are reviewed. Details about the adverse effects of IRL to PET and their solutions, as well as the useful applications are presented and discussed.

  18. Technology Explosion and Its Impact on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Dogan; Varank, Ilhan

    Despite the fact that computers, as opposed to other technologies such as television and radio, have significantly impacted education from several perspectives, a consensus about the effectiveness of computer use in education has not been reached among the researchers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of…

  19. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the difficulties anatomy education in Pakistan is facing. The article highlights the concern about how the changes to the traditional curriculum decreases the quality of education medical students are receiving. Issues discussed are the advantages/disadvantages of PBL learning, lack of trained faculty, lack of cadaver access among others.

  20. Children in Relation: Rethinking Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubeck, Sally

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the promulgation of guidelines, used in directing early childhood education and based on universalist assumptions, places racial, ethnic, and linguistic "minority" children and parents at a disadvantage and contributes to the very processes that early childhood educators seek to remedy. It concludes that poor scholastic performance is…

  1. The Flipped Classroom in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…

  2. Effects of Interventional Educational Program in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Estebsari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Aim: Physical activity is one of lifestyle components. 2010 report of health people indicates that physical activity in young people is a high priority of health. A youth attends to maintenance self physical activity till adulthood, since lifestyle is forming mainly in this period. Insufficient physical activity and inactivity with unhealthy nutrition causes chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, ostheoporoses , etc.Materials and Methods: This study was an interventional educational upon female school students in Tonkabon in 2008 in two groups, intervention and control (each group 300. Data gathering tools included demographic, knowledge/attitude and practice assessment questionnaires. First knowledge ,attitude and practice of whole students was assessed.Then the interventional educational programe: 8 hours education (weekly sessions, every session one hour, lecture, question and answer ,pamphelet, and movies about advantages and disadvantages of physical activity and the nessecity of continuing till the future was done. After two month of intervention ,two groups were compared in knowledge,attitude and practice.The data were analized with SPSS and STATA.Results: After the intervention, there was a significant increase in mean of knowledge, attitude and practice, in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.05. Educational intervention caused 15 score on knowledge ,5 score on attitude and 1.6 score on practice improvement. Among effective factors variable Such as :mothers literacy and fathers job affected knowledge ,and level of literacy affected attitude , and mothers education affected practice of student.Discussion and Conclusion: Physical activity is one of the lifestyle components and in young people is a high priority of health. This study shows that Educational intervention caused improvement on knowledge attitude, and practice.

  3. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  4. Continuing Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibl, H. J.; Bartz, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides an analysis of continuing education in West Germany. Discusses the pluralistic nature of financing, the corporate sponsorship, and internal versus external educational activities. Presents advantages and disadvantages, reasons, and criteria for selecting either internal or external methods of continuing education. (JM)

  5. Decentralization of Education: Demand-Side Financing. Directions in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry A.; Ariasingam, David L.

    Central governments' supply-side expansions of schooling have not equally benefited all members of society, especially girls, indigenous peoples, tribal groups, disadvantaged minorities, and the poor. Public spending on education is often inefficient, higher education is subsidized at primary education's expense, and costs are becoming…

  6. ROLE OF ICT EDUCATION FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Beena [Research Scholar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Information and communications are closely linked to power and the ability to affect change. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer etc. Socially the majorities of Indian women are still tradition bound and are in disadvantageous position. ICTs are emerging as a powerful tool for women empowerment in a developing country like India. The sample size of the research was 200 by no. of trainees and 30 by no of instructors of different Governmental and Nongovernmental Organizations of Jaipur district. Researcher used random sampling technique to select the sample for the study. The data was collected with the help of self constructed questionnaire. The analysis of mean and graphical representation used for the analysis of data indicated that the Age group, Marital status, Educational level had significant effect on different variable of women empowerment like Self confidence, Self awareness, Independence and Feeling of freedom. The study can be used to create awareness among women for betterment of their live. This research concluded that the information and communication technology empower a women in various areas like social, educational, personal, psychological, political, technological and economical.

  7. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  8. Perceiving Racial/Ethnic Disadvantage and Its Consequences for Self-Esteem among Asian-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Spencer-Rodgers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to test experimentally (vs. correlationally whether perceiving racial/ethnic disadvantageleads to lower self-esteem among Asian-Americans. We manipulated perceived disadvantage by havingAsian-American college students recall and write about experiences in which they were personallydisadvantaged because of their race/ethnicity, and examined the effects of perceiving disadvantage on variousoutcome measures, including racial/ethnic identity, racial/ethnic salience (the number of ethnic identitiesparticipants listed on the Twenty Statements Test, and self-esteem. Consistent with experimental research withother racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States, the self-esteem of Asian-Americans was unharmed byrecalling and describing past incidents of racially-based disadvantage.

  9. Developmental outcomes of economically disadvantaged adolescents in Hong Kong: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Tsui, Pik-fong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between economic disadvantage and adolescent and developmental outcomes as well as perceived family qualities in 3580 Secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes include positive youth development constructs, problem behavior and drug taking behavior, whereas perceived family qualities include perceived family interaction and parental parenting. Generally speaking, poor and non-poor adolescents differ in terms of overall positive youth development and family life quality. Although adolescents experiencing poverty do not display significant differences from non-poor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and psychosocial competencies, adolescents with economic disadvantage show lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than do those without economic disadvantage. PMID:23446936

  10. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units : does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-GrØn, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.

  11. Afetividade, cognição e educação: ensaio acerca da demarcação de fronteiras entre os conceitos e a dificuldade de ser do homem Affectivity, cognition and education: essay about the demarcation of borders between concepts and the difficulty of being human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Simonato Sant'Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se discutir os conceitos afetividade e cognição, e suas implicações na educação. Parte-se da ideia de que a diferença entre humanos e demais seres decorre da necessidade de aprender a ser; ou seja, das dificuldades de ser do homem, advindas desse exercício, e não o emprego puro e simples da racionalidade. Schopenhauer apresenta a hipótese de que as noções de tempo e espaço são resultado da sensibilidade e percepção acerca, respectivamente, dos fenômenos do movimento e das relações das coisas no mundo. Infere-se, então, que das relações estabelecidas ao longo de suas trajetórias existenciais entre as coisas e seres nascem os afetos, ou seja, os modos como as coisas (ou seres afetam ou são afetadas em suas diversas manifestações. A tese deste ensaio sugere que a razão nada mais é do que a afetividade formatada ao modo humano: a resultante do sentido existencial entrecruzado à realidade. Logo não haveria supremacia da cognição em detrimento da afetividade, por serem um e mesmo fenômeno: o do entendimento da realidade; baseando-se nos afetos sentidos e percebidos pelo sujeito. Tal premissa pode contribuir com o pensamento educacional ao (reintegrar a afetividade e a cognição, ao contrário do que se vem praticando: um privilégio exacerbado da educação racionalista. Essa (reintegração pode ocorrer pela conjunção da Arte, da Filosofia e da Psicologia, o que, de certo modo, defende a Pedagogia Waldorf, de Rudolf Steiner.The goal of this article is to discuss the concepts of affectivity and cognition, and their implications to education. The main idea is that, what really differentiates mankind from the other forms of life is not the simple use of rationality, but rather originates from the necessity of learning to be, that is, man's difficulty of being. A hypothesis by philosopher Schopenhauer presents the notions of time and space as being a result of human sensibility and perceptions about the movement and the relationship among elements in the world, respectively. As such, it is inferred that, affects are originated from these established relations; that is, how things or beings affect or are affected in their different manifestations. The thesis of this essay defends the possibility of reason being the affective root between the existential feelings and reality. Therefore, there would be no supremacy of the cognitive aspects granted by rationality in regards to affective aspects, inasmuch as they are the same phenomenon: the knowledge, which is built on interpretations of reality - interpretations based on affects felt and acknowledged by an individual. Such premise could contribute to education by integrating affectivity and cognition, as opposed to the common exacerbated privilege of rational education. Such integration can be accomplished by the integration of Art, Philosophy and Psychology, which in a way supports the Waldorf Pedagogy, by Rudolf Steiner.

  12. Afetividade, cognição e educação: ensaio acerca da demarcação de fronteiras entre os conceitos e a dificuldade de ser do homem / Affectivity, cognition and education: essay about the demarcation of borders between concepts and the difficulty of being human

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René Simonato, Sant' Ana; Helga, Loos; Márcia Cristina, Cebulski.

    Full Text Available Busca-se discutir os conceitos afetividade e cognição, e suas implicações na educação. Parte-se da ideia de que a diferença entre humanos e demais seres decorre da necessidade de aprender a ser; ou seja, das dificuldades de ser do homem, advindas desse exercício, e não o emprego puro e simples da ra [...] cionalidade. Schopenhauer apresenta a hipótese de que as noções de tempo e espaço são resultado da sensibilidade e percepção acerca, respectivamente, dos fenômenos do movimento e das relações das coisas no mundo. Infere-se, então, que das relações estabelecidas ao longo de suas trajetórias existenciais entre as coisas e seres nascem os afetos, ou seja, os modos como as coisas (ou seres) afetam ou são afetadas em suas diversas manifestações. A tese deste ensaio sugere que a razão nada mais é do que a afetividade formatada ao modo humano: a resultante do sentido existencial entrecruzado à realidade. Logo não haveria supremacia da cognição em detrimento da afetividade, por serem um e mesmo fenômeno: o do entendimento da realidade; baseando-se nos afetos sentidos e percebidos pelo sujeito. Tal premissa pode contribuir com o pensamento educacional ao (re)integrar a afetividade e a cognição, ao contrário do que se vem praticando: um privilégio exacerbado da educação racionalista. Essa (re)integração pode ocorrer pela conjunção da Arte, da Filosofia e da Psicologia, o que, de certo modo, defende a Pedagogia Waldorf, de Rudolf Steiner. Abstract in english The goal of this article is to discuss the concepts of affectivity and cognition, and their implications to education. The main idea is that, what really differentiates mankind from the other forms of life is not the simple use of rationality, but rather originates from the necessity of learning to [...] be, that is, man's difficulty of being. A hypothesis by philosopher Schopenhauer presents the notions of time and space as being a result of human sensibility and perceptions about the movement and the relationship among elements in the world, respectively. As such, it is inferred that, affects are originated from these established relations; that is, how things or beings affect or are affected in their different manifestations. The thesis of this essay defends the possibility of reason being the affective root between the existential feelings and reality. Therefore, there would be no supremacy of the cognitive aspects granted by rationality in regards to affective aspects, inasmuch as they are the same phenomenon: the knowledge, which is built on interpretations of reality - interpretations based on affects felt and acknowledged by an individual. Such premise could contribute to education by integrating affectivity and cognition, as opposed to the common exacerbated privilege of rational education. Such integration can be accomplished by the integration of Art, Philosophy and Psychology, which in a way supports the Waldorf Pedagogy, by Rudolf Steiner.

  13. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  14. Education for a New Era: Stakeholders' Perception of Qatari Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellili-Cherif, Maha; Romanowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a qualitative research study that explores principal, teacher, and parent perceptions with regard to Qatar's education reform, Education for a New Era (EFNE) launched in 2004. The study focuses on the effects of the reform on each group, their perceived advantages and disadvantages of the reform, and the…

  15. A more subtle set of information in corporate annual reports for disadvantaged stakeholderds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christo J, Cronjé.

    Full Text Available The traditional corporate annual report consists of two types of disclosures, that is, mandatory and contextual disclosures. The research problem focuses on the issue whether full disclosure in corporate annual reports could entail mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of [...] information for disadvantaged stakeholders. To solve the research problem, use was mainly made of a literature review dealing with certain aspects of decision-useful financial reporting. The literature review was complemented by exploratory empirical research. It was found that full disclosure in corporate annual reports could consist of mandatory and contextual disclosures as well as a more subtle set of information for disadvantaged stakeholders.

  16. Continuing Education and Development of Employees in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Sirkova, M.; Ali Taha, V.; Ferencova, M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the reality of implementation of the continuing education and practices in Slovak business environment. Questionnaire survey was a tool for obtaining primary data. The survey examines the complex of continuing education and practices in Slovak businesses such as what forms, methods and techniques of education are used in education and training. The paper presents partial results of the survey concerning the advantages/disadvantages of education and ...

  17. Project R-3, San Jose, California. Model Programs, Compensatory Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    In 1967-68, the San Jose Unified District, in cooperation with the Education Division of the Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., implemented a special program for disadvantaged, underachieving, eighth-grade students. The primary objective of the program was to improve the motivation and achievement of disadvantaged students by providing special…

  18. A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children / Uno studio della Carta del Benessere, in bambini socialmente svantaggiati

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Massimo, Musicco; Rosalia Azzaro, Pulvirenti; Sabina, Gainotti; Carlo, Petrini; Chiara, Riccio; Bruno, Silvestrini.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attenda [...] nce and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

  19. Considerações sobre o ensino médico no Brasil: consequências afetivo-emocionais nos estudantes / Considerations on medical education and its affective and emotional impact on medical students in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Bernadete, Gonçalves; Ana Maria Teresa, Benevides-Pereira.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Faz-se uma revisão não exaustiva da evolução do ensino médico no Brasil desde sua origem, passando pelas inúmeras reformas praticadas, que buscam melhorar a formação técnica dos estudantes. Chama-se a atenção para o fato de nessas reformas nunca terem sido referidas questões como o bem-estar e a saú [...] de mental dos alunos. O curso de Medicina sempre foi considerado estressante, mas a preocupação com esse aspecto é recente na história. Alguns estudos tentam identificar a fase do curso mais estressante, e a maioria indica a primeira série do ciclo clínico. Outros tentam apontar os fatores mais responsáveis pelo estresse, buscando-os nas características dos alunos e do curso. São apontados os diagnósticos mais frequentes citados na literatura e sugestões para minimizar esse processo no âmbito das escolas médicas. Abstract in english This article provides a non-exhaustive review of the evolution in medical education in Brazil since its origins, touching on the various curricular reforms that have sought to improve medical students' technical training. Interestingly, such reforms have never addressed the students' mental health a [...] nd well-being. Medical training has always been considered stressful, but real concern over this aspect is recent. Some studies have attempted to identify the most stressful phase in medical education, and most point to the first year of clinical training. Others seek to identify the most important stress factors, among course-related and individual student characteristics. The study highlights the most frequent diagnoses cited in the literature and provides suggestions to minimize this process in the medical school setting.

  20. Educational Policy Research: Progress, Puzzles, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Murnane

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvant...

  1. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of…

  2. 48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...disadvantaged business. (2) It...are in Japan, China, the Philippines...Pacific Islands (Republic of Palau...Cambodia), Taiwan, Burma, Thailand...Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall...management and daily business are controlled...the field of operation in which...

  3. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  4. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Gartner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting, psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence. Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  5. Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Using detailed longitudinal data for the state of California, this paper estimates the effect of year-round school calendars on nationally standardized test performance of traditionally disadvantaged students. The student subgroups studied in this paper are: low socioeconomic status, limited English proficiency, Hispanic and Latino, and African…

  6. The Don Bosco Way to Train Disadvantaged Youth. Discussion Paper No. 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashek, R. W.

    Founded by Don Bosco in 1859 in Turin, Italy, the Salesian Society helps disadvantaged youth in over 100 countries, according to 1991 data. Salesians operate technical training institutes and run numerous informal shops and training courses within their schools, orphanages, street children shelters, and youth centers. The institutes are financed…

  7. Private Sector Training of the Economically Disadvantaged: Key Elements of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Mark; Juelich, Mike

    This study analyzes private sector training programs that benefit economically disadvantaged (CETA-eligible) persons. Information on ten private sector training programs in seven states (Iowa, Florida, Maryland, California, Kansas, Mississippi, and New York) collected from a mailed eleven-page questionnaire, a follow-up telephone interview, and…

  8. Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

  9. Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Disadvantaged Children: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia P.

    In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…

  10. A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth

    A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

  11. Treatment Effects of a Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Economically Disadvantaged New Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Jones, Anne; Guo, Shenyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment effects of a relationship skills and family strengthening intervention for n = 726 high-risk, disadvantaged new parents. Method: Hierarchical linear modeling and regression models were used to assess intervention treatment effects. These findings were subsequently verified…

  12. Massachusetts One-Stop Career Centers: Job Placement for Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrundola, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the services provided to students' participating in career preparation programs (e.g., career counseling, mentoring, apprenticeships, work-based learning, or GED programs) provided by the Massachusetts One-Stop Career Centers. A study conducted by the President's Task Force for Disadvantaged Students (2003) found that…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  14. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  15. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  16. Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2012-01-01

    Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

  17. STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

  18. Mass Media Sources for Breast Cancer Information: Their Advantages and Disadvantages for Women with the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E.; Bath, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    This 1997 study explored in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning disease-related mass media information. Results of focus group discussions indicate advantages and disadvantages of mass media information, and its impact upon individuals may depend on their disease status. Suggests implications for mass media…

  19. Language Attitudes of Urban Disadvantaged Female Students in India: An Ethnographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti

    2008-01-01

    This paper qualitatively documents and analyses the attitudes and identities of female students from the urban disadvantaged social class towards English and Hindi in the city of New Delhi. These attitudes include not only instrumental views of English but also the impression that it creates a new personality for an individual. English is part of…

  20. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  1. Proven commercial reactor types: an introduction to their principal advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the principal advantages and disadvantages of the five types of proven commercial reactors. A description of each class of commercial reactor (light water, gas-cooled, and heavy water) and their proven reactors is followed by a comparison of reactor types on the basis of technical merit, economics of operation, availability of technology, and associated political issues. (author)

  2. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross Grade Level Collaboration to Improve Collegial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fidelia

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have connected student achievement to teacher collaboration; however, there is a paucity of studies conducted on how teachers use identified advantages and disadvantages of cross grade level collaboration to improve collegial interactions to achieve better student performance, professional development, teacher effectiveness, and job…

  4. Language and Disadvantage: A Comparison of the Language Abilities of Adolescents from Two Different Socioeconomic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is recognized that children from areas associated with socioeconomic disadvantage are at an increased risk of delayed language development. However, so far research has focused mainly on young children and there has been little investigation into language development in adolescence. Aims: To investigate the language abilities of…

  5. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  6. End User Computing at a South African Technikon: Enabling Disadvantaged Students To Meet Employers' Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Cecille

    A two-phase study examined the skills required of competent end-users of computers in the workplace and assessed the computing awareness and technological environment of first-year students entering historically disadvantaged technikons in South Africa. First, a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) panel of nine representatives of local business and…

  7. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

  8. Disadvantaged Young People Accessing the New Urban Economies of the Post-Industrial City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine current and evolving supply side transition policy initiatives in the light of (a) particular demand side needs of urban young people classified as those most disadvantaged and potentially marginalized; and (b) the emerging realities of accessing and operating within particular examples of high value-added…

  9. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  10. Ethnic identity, perceptions of disadvantage, and psychosis: findings from the ÆSOP study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Many studies have shown that rates of psychosis are elevated in the Black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK. One important, but relatively less researched explanation of these high rates may be social adversity associated with acculturation processes. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group subjected to social disadvantage may exert adverse effects on individuals from BME groups. Using data from a large epidemiological case-control study of first-episode psychosis, we aimed to investigate whether strong ethnic identification is a factor contributing to the excess of psychosis in BME groups compared with the White British, after adjustment for perceptions of disadvantage. All cases with a first episode of psychosis presenting to specialist mental health services within tightly defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK, and geographically matched community controls were included in the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one\\'s own ethnic group. Analysis was performed on data from 139 cases and 234 controls. There was evidence that, as levels of ethnic identification increased, the odds of psychosis increased in the BME but not in the White British group, independent of potential confounders. However, the association between strong ethnic identity and psychosis in BME individuals was attenuated and non-significant when controlled for perceived disadvantage. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group may be a potential contributory factor of the high rates of psychosis in the BME population, the effects of which may be explained by perceptions of disadvantage.

  11. Cumulative cancer risk from air pollution in Houston: disparities in risk burden and social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Marko, Dritana; Sexton, Ken

    2008-06-15

    Air toxics are of particular concern in Greater Houston, home to one of the world's largest petrochemical complexes and a quarter ofthe nation's refining capacity. Much of this complex lies along a navigable ship channel that flows 50 miles from east of the central business district through Galveston Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. Numerous communities, including both poor and affluent neighborhoods, are located in close proximity to the 200 facilities along this channel. Our aim is to examine the spatial distribution of cumulative, air-pollution-related cancer risks in Houston and Harris County, with particular emphasis on identifying ethnic, economic, and social disparities. We employ exposure estimates from NATA-1999 and census data to assess whether the cumulative cancer risks from air toxics in Houston (and Harris County) fall disproportionately on certain ethnicities and on the socially and economically disadvantaged. The cancer risk burden across Harris County census tracts increases with the proportion of residents who are Hispanic and with key indicators of relative social disadvantage. Aggregate disadvantage grows at each higher level of cancer risk. The highest cancer risk in Harris County is concentrated along a corridor flanking the ship channel. These high-risk neighborhoods, however, vary markedly in relative disadvantage, as well as in emission source mix. Much of the risk they face appears to be driven by only a few hazardous air pollutants. Results provide evidence of risk disparities from hazardous air pollution based on ethnicity and social disadvantage. At the highest levels of risk the pattern is more complex, arguing for a neighborhood level of analysis, especially when proximity to high-emissions industries is a substantial contributor to cumulative cancer risk. PMID:18605549

  12. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.55 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender...102-117.55 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender...Using a rate tender is an advantage when you: (1)...

  14. Disadvantaged Neighborhood Influences on Depression and Anxiety in Youth with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus: How Life Stressors Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Elkington, Katherine S.; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2011-01-01

    Children living with perinatal HIV illness (PHIV+) disproportionately reside in disadvantaged neighborhoods and contend with persistent mental health challenges. This study examined the influences of disadvantaged residential neighborhood on anxiety and depression, and potential resources that buffer against internalizing problems when youths were…

  15. Self-Instruction through Reading: The Keller Plan. ASME Medical Education Booklet No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoward, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the Keller Plan in medical education are reviewed. The author's advice is based in part on his experience using the method in a course in histology at the University of Dundee, Scotland. (LBH)

  16. Análise descritiva da afetividade nos professores em formação na faculdade de ciências da educação da Universidade de Granada / Descriptive analysis of affectivity in teachers on training in the Faculty of Education Sciences at the University of Granada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Álvarez, Rodríguez; Manuel Fernández, Cruz.

    Full Text Available Este artigo centra-se na análise descritiva dos valores afetivos dos estudantes de Ensino e Pedagogia da Faculdade de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Granada, no ano lectivo de 2004/2005. Começamos por apresentar um breve quadro referencial sobre o conceito de afetividade, assinalando alguma [...] s particularidades relativas aos sentimentos e às emoções para, em seguida, passarmos a expor com mais pormenor as características da nossa investigação e alguns resultados gerais; finalmente, concluímos o nosso estudo com uma análise detalhada sobre o sentimento, o amor, a felicidade e a emoção na formação de professores. Abstract in english This articles deals with a descriptive analysis of the affective of the pedagogy and teaching profession students’ values of the faculty of Education Sciences at the University of Granada in the course 2004- 2006. First we present a brief referential frame on the concept of affectivity, pointing out [...] some characteristics about feelings and emotions, then we go deeply on the characteristics of our research and some general results so as to finally focus in the specific analysis of feeling, love , happiness and emotion in the teachers’ formation processes

  17. In the Margins: Minority Education in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimzade E.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews separate education for ethnic minorities in two Central Asian countries - Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Students and teachers from minority and majority groups in each country were asked 1 whether separate schools for minorities persevered minority cultural identity and 2 whether such schools undercut equal educational opportunities for minority students. Analysis indicates that in some political, social and educational contexts separation puts minority youth at a disadvantage, which in turn keeps them from fully integrating into society. Redressing this situation requires a commitment to guaranteeing rights and full citizenship for minorities. This paper explores how separate school systems deepen ethnic and political divisions in society rather than promote equality and equity. It begins with a number of questions. How much emphasis do current education reform initiatives put on equity and equality in minority schools? What is the balance between economic and civic imperatives in the education policy process in the two countries? What are the main features of post-transition phase in education and how it affects separate education? As mentioned in the foreword of this issue, data analyzed for this study was collected under the auspices of the “Divided Education, Divided Citizens” project, which was conducted in seven post-socialist countries. This article concentrates on separate schooling for different ethnic and linguistic groups and issues related to the civil enculturation of minorities in two Central Asian countries, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Study participants from minority and majority language-track schools in each country were asked to observe whether separate schools for minority ethnicities served to preserve culture or instead undercut equal educational opportunity. Pervious investigations have found that education plays a fundamental role in shaping individuals’ perceptions of their own ethnicity. Korostelina (2008 in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005 found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.

  18. Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, David S.; Sampson, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and neighborhood disadvantage. Moreover, virtually no research on the effect of a criminal record has examined the ‘‘black box’’ of mediating mech...

  19. Characteristics of educational policies from the perspective of interculturality

    OpenAIRE

    Trif, Letitia

    2011-01-01

    The European Council's Recommendation relating to teacher training in education for intercultural understanding, highlights the fact that the purpose of international education, which is above intercultural education, is to develop the sense of social responsibility and solidarity with disadvantaged groups and induce respect for the principle of equality in daily behaviour. The essence of the intercultural education system is represented by ensuring authentic cultural interactions, free from ...

  20. Audit of administration of the Department of Energy`s small disadvantaged business program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-19

    The audit of this program at 5 DOE Management and Operating contractors disclosed that this program did not fully meet the intent of the Small Business Act and its implementing regulations. Vendors of questionable eligibility (not owned and managed by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals) received awards from each of these contractors. Also, small disadvantaged businesses did not always receive the ``maximum practicable opportunity`` to participate, as two contractors concentrated awards among a select few of the available vendors. Further, two contractors made awards to vendors that were brokers, inconsistent with the ``regular dealer`` requirements as defined in the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. This report includes recommendations designed to improve this program (management generally concurred).

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of a risk - based regulatory requirement (the experience in Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has its own nuclear regulations, which include a risk-based criterion curve for the licensing of nuclear installations. This requirement, established in the early '70s, must be fulfilled with a PSA study. It has been applied to several installations, and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed in the paper through several examples. The main disadvantage is a somehow large amount of PSA work that needs to be performed for the licensing of a nuclear installation. The main advantage is the effective risk reduction that can be achieved by retrofitting the risk-based lessons learned into the design teams (not only for design of systems and components, but also for design of operation, testing and maintenance schemes). (author)

  2. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF DIPLOMACY IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Plavšin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. The new technology as potential source of propaganda and vulgarization is described. Finally, although there are disadvantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies, it is concluded the advantages surpass the disadvantages. The new technologies raise the democratization of diplomacy for a general well-fair and have a tendency to reduce hard power and to strengthen soft power.

  3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MODERN LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY FOR SOIL MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Kvasni?ka

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory devices. This is particularly important for soft materials, since their permeability could vary within several orders of magnitude depending on the variation of void ratio. The article presents advantages and disadvantages of the flow-pump method performed in a modified triaxial cell and hydraulic oedometer, in comparison with conventional constant head and falling head methods. The specimens were prepared from the waste stone dust, which is the product of final dimension stone processing.

  4. 77 FR 16244 - Request for Comments on the Update of the Scholarships for Disadvantaged Students Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ...a program providing education or training in allied...registered dieticians, and occupational therapy and physical therapy...by the Department of Education (Pub. L. 105-244, Part F, The Higher Education Act of 1965 as...

  5. 78 FR 52467 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved November...requires, among other things, that a State's...Register. Free Internet access to the official...to States for the Education of Children...

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a hyphenated technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria

    2003-11-14

    A general overview of the advancements and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) hyphenated with other analytical techniques is given from a practical point of view. Details on the advantages and disadvantages of the hyphenation of NMR with liquid chromatography as LC-NMR and also with mass spectrometry as LC-MS-NMR are demonstrated with two examples. Current developments of NMR with other analytical separation techniques, especially with capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) are discussed.

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Slapa Rafal; Jakubowski Wieslaw; Slowinska-Srzednicka Jadwiga; Szopinski Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR), applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers) was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed wi...

  8. Economic Disadvantage in Central and Eastern Europe: What difference does social assistance make?

    OpenAIRE

    Avram, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyses the impact of social assistance programs on poverty, broadly construed as economic disadvantage, in eight Central and East European countries during the mid-2000s. It does that by examining cross-national & cross-temporal variation program features and specificities to identify patterns of association with outcomes of interest such as poverty levels, individual long-term income, earnings and assets. The main data source used throughout the study is the 2007 longitud...

  9. Race, Gender, and Chains of Disadvantage: Childhood Adversity, Social Relationships, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2014-01-01

    We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans’ Changing Lives, N=3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adul...

  10. A Separate Personal Income Tax Collection System For Alberta: Advantages and Disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Province of Alberta has been a participant in the Tax Collection Agreements (TCAs) with the Federal Government covering the personal income tax since their inception in 1962. Under the terms of this agreement, the Federal Government undertakes to collect the Alberta personal income tax at no charge provided that the Government of Alberta agrees to levy its tax within a commonly agreed framework. This paper provides an assessment of the overall advantages and disadvantages ...

  11. THE VAT SCHEME UPON COLLECTION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    MARU?A BECA

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the provisions, the main advantages and disadvantages of the VAT scheme upon collection, adopted by the Romanian Government in order to help the economy and to collect more money to the state budget. The VAT payment to the state budget upon collection was requested frequently by businessmen, and over the years there were some other legislative proposals such as this that never materialized. According to the VAT scheme upon collection, the firm that issues the invoice wil...

  12. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham Heather; MacKay Fiona; Morrison Caroline; Scoular Anne; MacIntyre Kate; Sloan Heather; Gillies Michelle; Shaw Rebecca; Harkins Christopher; Docherty Paul; MacIntyre Paul; Findlay Iain N

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Hav...

  13. Advantages and disadvantages of application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages are detailed, moreover special interference effects of the examined elements are evaluated. The detection limits of different ICP-MS instruments are compared. As a result of our research work various solutions are proposed for multielement analysis (e.g. Se, I, Co, As, Te, Cd, Pb and Cr) of the above various samples to reach more accurate and more precise results using ICP-MS instrument

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2013-01-01

    Although social disorganization theory hypothesizes that neighborhood characteristics influence youth delinquency, the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent substance use and racial/ethnic differences in this relationship have not been widely investigated. The present study examines these issues using longitudinal data from 1,856 African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). The results ind...

  15. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three ba...

  16. Correlates of substance abuse treatment completion among disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche Sonja; Myers Bronwyn J; Adam Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with ...

  17. Training disadvantaged youth in Latin America: evidence from a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, O.; Kugler, A.; Meghir, C.

    2008-01-01

    Youth unemployment in Latin America is exceptionally high, as much as 50% among the poor. Vocational training may be the best chance to help unemployed young people at the bottom of the income distribution. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized training program for disadvantaged youth introduced in Colombia in 2005 on the employment and earnings of trainees. This is one of a couple of randomized training trials conducted in developing countries and, thus, offers a unique oppor...

  18. Parental Imprisonment, the Prison Boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    WILDEMAN, CHRISTOPHER

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has focused on how imprisonment transforms the life course of disadvantaged black men, researchers have paid little attention to how parental imprisonment alters the social experience of childhood. This article estimates the risk of parental imprisonment by age 14 for black and white children born in 1978 and 1990. This article also estimates the risk of parental imprisonment for children whose parents did not finish high school, finished high school only, or attended c...

  19. The Nomadisation of worklife:advantages and disadvantages of mobile telework

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Steinar

    2000-01-01

    In this dissertation I have focused on mobile telework. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of teleworking compared to îtraditionalî home-based telework? I have seen this both from an employer and an employee perspective. The methods I used are a) a review of relevant telework literature, and b) qualitative interviews with sixteen mobile teleworkers employed by five different sales-oriented organisations. Very little academic research is done on mobile telework in particu...

  20. Skills, capabilities and inequalities at school entry in a disadvantaged community

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Orla; McEntee, Louise; McNamara, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s skills and capabilities begin early in life and can have detrimental effects on future success in school. The present study examines the relationships between school readiness and sociodemographic inequalities using teacher reports of the Short Early Development Instrument in a disadvantaged urban area of Ireland. It specifically examines socioeconomic (SES) differences in skills within a low SES community in order to investigate the role of relative d...

  1. Quantifying the advantages and disadvantages of pre-placement genetic screening

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, K.; Poole, J.; Rawbone, R.; Coggon, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Tests of genotype may enable workers at unusual risk of future ill-health to be identified. Using them to select for employment, however, entails gains and losses to employers and employees. Ensuring a fair balance between the rights and obligations of each group requires a value judgement, but the advantages and disadvantages to interested parties must first be quantified in a meaningful way.

  2. Advantages and disadvantages regarding usage of wireless systems in a warehouse setting

    OpenAIRE

    Brobeck, Stefan; Kalozcy, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Mobile computing and wireless systems are becoming more common as wireless technology evolves. Many authors argue that wireless systems can provide advantages and value to organisations, such as increased efficiency and effectiveness. Literature also shows that wireless systems especially suits companies within the logistics industry. However, some authors also highlight disadvantages regarding these solutions, for example insufficient security. The purpose of this thesis is to present advant...

  3. Seeking help for depression from family and friends: A qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths Kathleen M; Crisp Dimity A; Barney Lisa; Reid Russell

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respo...

  4. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assau...

  5. Process Evaluation of a Psychosocial Intervention Addressing Women in a Disadvantaged Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Rima Nakkash; Loulou Kobeissi; Zeina Ghantous; Maya Abou Saad; Brigitte Khoury; Nasser Yassin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents the process evaluation of a community-based randomized psycho-social trial aimed to enhance reproductive and mental health outcomes of disadvantaged women living in the southern suburb of Beirut-Lebanon. Process evaluation of public health interventions involves the monitoring and documentation of interventions’ implementation to allow for better understanding of planned outcomes and of intervention effectiveness.

  6. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN THE EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA RUSALI; CAMELIA GAVRILESCU

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the Romanian agricultural and food products performance on the foreign markets, applying the classification method by the main categories of products that had positive or negative trade balance, reveals the competitive advantages and disadvantages respectively of the agri-food trade, at the level of traded groups of products. The yearly variations of exports, imports and trade balance indicate a fluctuating evolution of the agri-food foreign trade, both in correlation with the...

  7. Hard hardfacing by welding in the manufacture of valves; Problem Cobalt, alternatives, advantages, disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloys of recharge usually used in the field of the valves are base alloys cobalt (stellite), but in the field of nuclear power plants, due to radioactive activation of the cobalt, there is a growing trend to replace these alloys with other calls cobalt free . In this paper we will explore the most frequent and will be deducted the relevant advantages and disadvantages of these, in comparison with base alloys cobalt. (Author)

  8. Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women

    OpenAIRE

    CAREY, MICHAEL P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

    1997-01-01

    This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that t...

  9. Iron deficiency anemia in 1-year-old children of disadvantaged families in Montreal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, F.; Gray-donald, K.; Mongeon, M.; Di Tommaso, S.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among 1-year-old infants of disadvantaged families in Montreal as well as certain predictors of this condition. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Five poorest health districts in Montreal. PARTICIPANTS: Infants 10 to 14 months of age were identified from registration lists of births from May 1988 to August 1989. Those whose mother had less than 11 years of schooling and a family income below the government-defined low-income cutof...

  10. Are short normal children at a disadvantage? The Wessex growth study.

    OpenAIRE

    Downie, A. B.; Mulligan, J.; Stratford, R. J.; Betts, P. R.; Voss, L. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether short stature through childhood represents a disadvantage at around 12 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal non-intervention study of the physical and psychological development of children recruited from the community in 1986-7 after entry into primary school at age 5-6 years; this is the second psychometric assessment made in 1994-5 after entry into secondary school at age 11-13 years. SETTING: Southampton and Winchester health districts. SUBJECTS: 106 short normal child...

  11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yalda Mousazadeh; Ali Jannati; Hossein Jabbari Beiramy; Mohammad AsghariJafarabadi; Ali Ebadi

    2013-01-01

    Background:Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pressures especially cost cutting and search for cost-effective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods: The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsi...

  12. Crime, Employment and Social Welfare: an Individual-level Study on Disadvantaged Males

    OpenAIRE

    Mesters, Geert; Geest, Victor; Bijleveld, Catrien

    2014-01-01

    We test economic and sociological theories for the relationship between employment and crime, where social welfare is used as an identifying mechanism. We consider a sample of disadvantaged males from The Netherlands who are observed between ages 18 and 32 on a monthly time scale. We simultaneously model the offending, employment and social welfare variables using a dynamic discrete choice model, where we allow for state dependence, reciprocal effects and time-varying unobserved heterogeneity...

  13. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Influences of the Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…

  14. The Migration of Highly Educated Asians: Brain Drain Boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The heavy migration of highly educated Asians to the United States since the early 1970s is examined, noting advantages and disadvantages to the countries of origin and to the United States as well as the historical, educational, and economic factors causing this migration. It is concluded that, despite considerable loss, developing countries do…

  15. Education Reform and Content: The Long View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric Donald, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of early childhood education, such as that in Project Follow Through, shows the superiority of explicit skill instruction for the acquisition of basic reading skills. But these early gains do not eventuate in significant progress in reading achievement in later grades, especially among disadvantaged youth. This is not for…

  16. Four Educational Myths that Stymie Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Joan F.; Sloat, Elizabeth A.; Willms, J. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Four myths that underlie persistent, but ineffective, practices in early literacy education are analyzed in this article. Such analysis is essential because literacy disadvantage ultimately is an issue of equity--a matter of social justice. Research shows that these practices can be refuted and that optimal early literacy outcomes are possible for…

  17. Preschool Education System in Turkey: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Sevda

    1993-01-01

    Describes Turkey's preschool system and discusses the outcomes of (1) an investigation of the effects of social class and preschool center type on child and staff behaviors; and (2) a project to develop an intervention model for disadvantaged environments, while comparing the impact of educational preschools, custodial preschools, and home care on…

  18. Higher Education Reform for Quality Higher Education Management in the 21st Century: Economic, Technological, Social, and Political Forces Affecting Higher Education. Proceedings of the 1999 Six-Nation Summit (Hiroshima, Japan, September 20-21, 1999). RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    This publication presents proceedings from a 1999 conference on higher education reform and quality that involved six countries: China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States. The first section, "Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Project," presents "Summary of the Progress of the Higher Education Research Project and…

  19. Pratique d'apprentissage en ligne aux etudes superieures (Online Learning for Higher Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Online learning requires new approaches to teaching and learning. At the University of Montreal, 28 graduate students in education and adult students specializing in educational technology attended an experimental distance education course. Students identified advantages and disadvantages of online learning/teaching and reflected on how the course…

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.50 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly...102-117.50 What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly... (a) The FAR is an advantage to use when: (1)...

  1. The Reciprocal and Correlative Relationship Between Learning Culture and Online Education: A Case from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani K Hamdan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to build on the insights of educators regarding the relationship between culture and online learning. More specifically, this paper aims to explore the ways in which students’ culture of learning is changing as a result of the introduction of various modes of online learning. It also aims to explore the ways in which culture and cultural values affect the application and success of online-learning strategies. Particular attention is directed to learners’ perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of online communication. The paper is based on primary data drawn from undergraduate female students’ responses regarding how online education is changing their learning culture and how their culture is influencing online education. Sixty-seven undergraduate Saudi female students participated in the survey. The literature in the field of online and distance education is explored to help answer these questions. The participants indicated that online education helped them to challenge some cultural norms, enhance their learning culture, and improve their communication skills.

  2. Integrating technology education concepts into China's educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Faxian

    The problem of this study was to develop a strategy for integrating technology education concepts within the Chinese mathematics and science curricula. The researcher used a case study as the basic methodology. It included three methods for collecting data: literature review, field study in junior and senior secondary schools in America and China, and interviews with experienced educators who were familiar with the status of technology education programs in the selected countries. The data came from the following areas: Japan, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, China, and five states in the United States: Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New York. The researcher summarized each state and country's educational data, identified the advantages and disadvantages of their current technology education program, and identified the major concepts within each program. The process determined that identified concepts would be readily acceptable into the current Chinese educational system. Modernization of, industry, agriculture, science and technology, and defense have been recent objectives of the Chinese government. Therefore, Chinese understanding of technology, or technology education, became important for the country. However, traditional thought and culture curb the implementation of technology education within China's current education system. The proposed solution was to integrate technology education concepts into China's mathematics and science curricula. The purpose of the integration was to put new thoughts and methods into the current educational structure. It was concluded that the proposed model and interventions would allow Chinese educators to carry out the integration into China's education system.

  3. Disadvantaged family background and depression among young adults in the United States: the roles of chronic stress and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2015-02-01

    Although several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that having a disadvantaged family background is a risk factor for subsequent symptoms of depression, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms that explain this long-term relationship. Thus, this study uses US national longitudinal data and integrates social stress theory with the life course perspective by focusing on two mediating mechanisms-the chronic stress of poverty and self-esteem during the transition to adulthood. Results reveal that self-esteem largely mediates the inverse relationship between parental education and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. However, the inverse relationship between parental occupational prestige and depressive symptoms among young adults is not mediated by self-esteem, but rather long durations of poverty across 16?years. Overall, these findings suggest that different components of family socioeconomic status can leave a lasting imprint on mental health via the self-concept and the chronic stress of poverty throughout the journey to adulthood. PMID:24123986

  4. Intervención educativa para disminuir las afectaciones producidas por la lipemia en el envío de plasma para fraccionamiento / Educational intervention to reduce the affections caused by lipemia in delivery of plasma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angelina, Leyva Diviú; Ana R, Sariol Matías; Gricel, Rosquete López; José I, Larquin Comet.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el Banco de sangre provincial cuenta, entre sus principales prioridades, con el envío a la Industria médico farmacéutica de la materia prima fundamental para la obtención de medicamentos utilizados en el tratamiento de numerosas afecciones médicas, en aras de mejorar la salud de nuestra [...] población. Objetivo: disminuir las bajas de plasma producidas por lipemia y aplicar un plan de acciones para minimizar estas afectaciones Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y de intervención educativa en el Banco de Sangre de la provincia de Camagüey, desde julio de 2007 a diciembre de 2008. Resultados: se obtuvo como resultado la disminución de las bajas por lipemia para su envío a la planta de hemoderivados para su utilización. Conclusiones: la aplicación del plan de acciones produjo una disminución notable de las bajas en el segundo semestre del 2008. Abstract in english Background: the provincial Blood Bank has among its main priorities, the delivery to the medical pharmaceutical Industry of the fundamental raw material for obtaining medications used in the treatment of numerous medical affections, for improving our population's health. Objective: to reduce the dro [...] ps of plasma caused by lipemia and to apply a plan of actions to minimize these affections Method: a descriptive and an educational intervention study in the Blood Bank of Camagüey province was carried out, from July 2007 to December 2008. Results: as result was obtained the decrease of drops by lipemia for its delivery to the hemoderivative plant for its use. Conclusions: the application of the plan of actions produced a remarkable decrease of the drops in the second semester of the 2008.

  5. Issues and Challenges for Higher Education Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Rensleigh, Chris

    2003-01-01

    The end of 'Apartheid' in 1994 left Higher Education in South Africa with an unfair divide with two distinct groups, the so-called Historically Disadvantage Institutions (HDIs) and the ones that benefited from the ideology. This divide is still visible after eight years of democracy. In the South Africa context the term 'Higher Education' is predominately used to refer to learning that takes place in universities and technikons. Numerous challenges like the depreciating currency (an effectiv...

  6. The Gold Standard Programme : smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.

  7. Transplant commercialism and organ trafficking: The Declaration of Istanbul with special relevance to disadvantaged populations living with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Adeera; Muller, Elmi; Alrukhaimi, Mona; Naicker, Saralah; Tibbel, Annika

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a historical perspective on organ trafficking and transplant commercialism, an overview of the Declaration of Istanbul [1, 2], and an update on current state. We highlight the importance of this problem pertaining to disadvantaged populations living with or at risk for kidney disease. It was presented during the Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations Satellite Symposium of the World Congress of Nephrology in Hong Kong 2013 (www.theisn.org). PMID:25725249

  8. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reising, Michelle M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptom...

  9. Calculation of the thermal disadvantage factor for a reactor cell with anisotropic scattering by the Fn method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F sub(N) method is used for the calculation of the thermal disadvantage factor in reactor cells with anisotropic scattering in the moderator. Numerical results were obtained for several reactor cells and compared with the results obtained by other methods. The results confirmed the physical conclusion, that the higher order terms in the expansion of the scattering law have an insignificant effect on the thermal disadvantage factor. (E.G.)

  10. Promoting Physical Activity and Reducing Sedentary Behavior in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: A Qualitative Study of What Women Want

    OpenAIRE

    Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Since women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to be physically inactive and engage in higher levels of sedentary behavior than women living in more advantaged neighborhoods, it is important to develop and test the feasibility of strategies aimed to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst this high-risk target group. Thirty-seven women (aged 19–85) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood, and five key stakeholders, received a suite...

  11. Undermining the principle of concentration? EU development policies and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of the EU structural funds to assisted regions might have been à priori distorted by either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions over their most cost-effective allocation. A little correlation between expenditure and socio-economic disadvantage, by undermining the principle of concentration, might have reduced the impact of the EU structural funds on economic and social cohesion. The empirical analysis shows that the sources of disadvantage a...

  12. Undermining the Principle of Concentration? European Union Regional Policy and the Socio-economic Disadvantage of European Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions about the most cost-effective allocation of the funds, the sources of structural disadvantage are more spatially concentrated than the funds devoted to compensating this disadvantage and reveals a weak ...

  13. How do family firm CEOs perceive their competitive advantages and disadvantages? Empirical evidence from the transportation industry

    OpenAIRE

    Massis, Alfredo Vittorio; Kotlar, Josip; Cassia, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the CEOs' perceptions of potential competitive advantages and disadvantages deriving from the unique bundle of resources that arises from the interaction between the family and the business systems. We rely on a multiple case study that involved seven family firms operating in the transportation industry. The case study analysis shows that a number of advantages and disadvantages are commonly perceived by family business CEOs in relation to different categories of resource...

  14. Existence of Structural Disadvantage among socio-religious groups: Is it a reality? An Analysis of Indian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dsouza, Alwin; Singh, Sudershan; Ranjan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The labour market in India has been segmented into a formal and informal sector. More than 85% of the labour force is engaged in the informal sector. Since the informal sector does not follow labour laws such as provisions of minimum wage and social security, there is enough scope for differential treatment against certain weaker sections of society. We term this differential treatment as structural disadvantage. In this paper, we find that structural disadvantage against ST/SC Hindus relativ...

  15. Affective Learning: Environmental Ethics and Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel P.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion of home economics as a discipline which should focus on its affective foundations, covers the following areas: Affective context of home economics education, the adequacy of the home economics value complex for coping with environmental problems, and toward an acceptable environmental ethic. (SH)

  16. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.

  17. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied

  18. Attending to the outcome of others: disadvantageous inequity aversion in male capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grace E

    2008-09-01

    Brosnan and de Waal [Nature 425:297-299, 2003] reported that capuchin monkeys responded negatively to unequal reward distributions between themselves and another individual when comparing their own rewards with that of their partner. It was suggested that social emotions provided the underlying motivation for such behavior and that this inequity aversion is specific to the social domain. However, alternative hypotheses such as the "frustration effect" or the "food expectation hypothesis" may provide more parsimonious explanations for Brosnan and de Waal's [Nature 425:297-299] results, while others have argued that these findings are not congruent with the Fehr-Schmidt inequity aversion model cited by the authors. The claim that inequity aversion behavior is specific to the social domain has also been questioned, as primates also develop expectations about rewards in the absence of partners, and react negatively when those expectations are violated. In this study, a modified Dictator game was used to investigate whether capuchins would exhibit either disadvantageous inequity aversion behavior or reference-dependent expectancy violation in social and nonsocial conditions, respectively. When given the choice between an equitable and an inequitable outcome, the subjects showed disadvantageous inequity aversion behavior, choosing the equitable outcome significantly more in the social condition. In the nonsocial condition, however, subjects did not show negative expectancy violation resulting from the formation of reference-dependent expectations, choosing the equitable outcome at chance levels. These results suggest that capuchins attend to differential payoffs and that they are averse to inequity, which is disadvantageous to themselves. PMID:18521838

  19. Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15-21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who were not employed at wave 2 (n=422) using nearest-neighbor matching on baseline factors within propensity score calipers on factors including marijuana use, sex while high, pregnancy risk, and socioeconomic status. We compared employed and non-employed teens on risk behaviors including marijuana use, sex while high or drunk, and a biomarker for semen exposure in the past 14 days. Employed teens were 44% as likely to say that their boyfriend is their primary spending money source and 43% as likely to be emotionally abused, but these benefits did not persist after employment ended. Six months after employment, employed respondents reported using marijuana 57% more often and had sex while drunk or high 2.7 times as frequently. Women who were employed at both waves 2 and 3 were 17% as likely to have their boyfriend as a primary source of spending money and 13% more likely to graduate high school, but they used marijuana twice as often, alcohol 1.6 times as often, had 1.6 times as many sexual partners, and had sex while high or drunk 2.3 times as often. Female teens who work may avoid potentially coercive romantic relationships, but they may buy drugs or alcohol with their earnings. PMID:25221451

  20. Adherence barriers and facilitators for cervical screening amongst currently disadvantaged women in the greater Cape Town region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle De Abreu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer amongst women, and black African women have the highest risk of developing this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of South African women do not adhere to recommended regular cervical screening.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions, experiences and knowledge regarding cervical screening of disadvantaged women in two informal settlements in South African urban areas.Method: The Health Belief Model (HBM provided a theoretical framework for this study. Four focus groups (n = 21 were conducted, using questions derived from the HBM, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The ages of the women who participated ranged from 21 to 53 years.Results: The analysis revealed lack of knowledge about screening as a key structural barrier to treatment. Other structural barriers were: time, age at which free screening is available, and health education. The psychosocial barriers that were identified included: fear of the screening procedure and of the stigmatisation in attending screening. The presence of physical symptoms, the perception that screening provides symptom relief, HIV status, and the desire to know one’s physical health status were identified as facilitators of cervical screening adherence.Conclusion: This knowledge has the potential to inform healthcare policy and services in South Africa. As globalisation persists and individuals continue to immigrate or seek refugee status in foreign countries, increased understanding and knowledge is required for successful acculturation and integration. Developed countries may therefore also benefit from research findings in developing countries.

  1. A reflection on perspectives on multiculturaiity in South African higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Lategan, Laetus O. K.

    1998-01-01

    The South African higher education system is facing dramatic new changes. One of the most challenging issues is that of multiculturaiity. Multiculturaiity in higher education exists next to other challenges such as a new National Qualifications Framework; quality assurance initiatives; an Act on Higher Education in which a New social and academic role is given to higher education; the massification of the university system; increased access to higher education by former disadvantaged students...

  2. Disadvantages and Tendencies of Development of the Personal Income Tax in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaburova Dinara Vladimirovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the personal income tax in Russia, its disadvantages and tendencies of development. Tax burden on wages in Russia is compared with the tax burden on wages in France. The comparison is made by such parameters as the type of scale, tax rates, amount of contributions to the social funds and amount of tax deductions. This research indicated that it is necessary to reform the personal income tax in Russia. In this case improvement of social and demographic situation can be achieved and legalization of incomes increased.

  3. Integrated management systems. Advantages and disadvantages; difficulties and recommendations in the process of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Wysoki?ska-Senkus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations are constantly looking for methods to improve their efficiency and to guarantee them a competitive advantage, sustainable profitable growth and ability to survive in a turbulent environment. An increasing popularity of implementation of certified management systems has been noticed. The most often integrated management system are eg. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 18001. The paper presents the conditions for the implementation of an integrated management system (IMS, the characteristics of the most integrated management systems, the advantages and disadvantages of integration and the difficulties in the implementation of IMS and recommendations regarding the effectiveness of the integration of IMS.

  4. Ethics and equity in research priority-setting: stakeholder engagement and the needs of disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Rana, Sangeeta; Karimkhani, Chante; Welch, Vivian; Armstrong, Rebecca; Pottie, Kevin; Dellavalle, Robert; Dhakal, Purushottam; Oliver, Sandy; Francis, Damian K; Nasser, Mona; Crowe, Sally; Aksut, Baran; Amico, Roberto D

    2015-01-01

    A transparent and evidence-based priority-setting process promotes the optimal use of resources to improve health outcomes. Decision-makers and funders have begun to increasingly engage representatives of patients and healthcare consumers to ensure that research becomes more relevant. However, disadvantaged groups and their needs may not be integrated into the priority-setting process since they do not have a "political voice" or are unable to organise into interest groups. Equitable priority-setting methods need to balance patient needs, values, experiences with population-level issues and issues related to the health system. PMID:25797432

  5. Reproductive health and domestic violence: are the poorest women uniquely disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Sunita; Johnson, Kiersten

    2006-05-01

    We use Demographic and Health Survey data from Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti to compare women in different poverty and violence categories in terms of their experience of selected reproductive health outcomes. "Poor" women are those who belong to the bottom quintile of households arrayed according to a widely accepted asset-based wealth index. The results suggest that women who are both poor and have experienced violence are not unique in their reproductive health disadvantage. In particular, for all three reproductive health outcomes we consider the negative association with having experienced violence cuts across all women, poor and wealthy. PMID:16889130

  6. LA DOCENCIA ONLINE: VENTAJAS, INCONVENIENTESY FORMA DE ORGANIZARLA / TEACHING ONLINE: ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND FORM OF ORGANIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Virginia, PARDO IRANZO.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available a la presencia del profesor en clase para enseñar han ido apareciendo nuevos sistemas. En el presente artículo analizamos uno de ellos: la enseñanza online, las ventajas que tiene, sus inconvenientes y como estructurarla. [...] Abstract in english ABSTRACT: In Spain the way of teaching is changing. Change that occurred in the US and other countries more than two decades ago. In this paper we analyze a new system of teaching: e-learning, the advantages, disadvantages and how to structure it. [...

  7. THE VAT SCHEME UPON COLLECTION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARU?A BECA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the provisions, the main advantages and disadvantages of the VAT scheme upon collection, adopted by the Romanian Government in order to help the economy and to collect more money to the state budget. The VAT payment to the state budget upon collection was requested frequently by businessmen, and over the years there were some other legislative proposals such as this that never materialized. According to the VAT scheme upon collection, the firm that issues the invoice will pay the VAT only when collecting, and the firm that receives the invoice may deduct VAT only on the payment moment.

  8. Afetos positivos e negativos em professores de diferentes níveis de ensino / Positive and negative affects of teachers from different educational levels / Afectos positivos y negativos en profesores de diferentes niveles de enseñanza

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula Porto, Noronha; Mariana Palladino, Delforno; Lariana Paula, Pinto.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou comparar afetos positivos e negativos de professores dos diversos níveis de ensino. Participaram 101 professores, com idade média de 39,3 anos (DP = 9,8), sendo 83,2% (n=84) do sexo feminino. Utilizou-se a Escala de Afetos Zanon- EAZ. Os professores foram cooptados no pró [...] prio local de trabalho, e as aplicações ocorreram tanto individual quanto coletivamente. Para efetivação das análises recorreu-se à ANOVA, por analisar perfis de medidas repetidas. Como um dos resultados mais relevantes, observou-se que os afetos positivos estiveram mais presentes na amostra em questão. Também foi verificado que os educadores de creche apresentaram menos afetos positivos que os demais, fato que pode ter sido influenciado por singularidades percebidas pelos participantes como, por exemplo, as relacionadas à remuneração, à carga horária e ao plano de carreira. Não foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao sexo, e à faixa etária. Observou-se a necessidade de desenvolver mais estudos sobre esta temática. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo tuvo el objetivo de comparar afectos positivos y negativos de profesores de diversos niveles de enseñanza. Participaron de la investigación 101 profesores - de los cuales 83,2% (n=84) eran del sexo feminino, con edad promedio de 39,3 años (SD=9,8). El instrumento utilizado fue la Escala [...] de Afectos Zanon-EAZ. Entre los resultados más relevantes se observó que los afectos positivos estuvieron más presentes en la muestra. También se verificó que los educadores de guardería presentaron menos afectos positivos que los demás profesores. Este factor puede haber sido influenciado por singularidades percibidas por los participantes, relacionadas, por ejemplo, a la remuneración, carga horaria y plan de carrera. No fueron encontradas diferencias en cuanto al sexo, a la edad y a la franja etaria. Se observou la necesidade de realizar más estudios sobre esta temática. Abstract in english In this study we aim at comparing positive and negative affects of teachers from different educational levels. 101 teachers participated in this study, being 83.2% (n=84) female with an average age of 39.3 years (SD=9.8). The instrument used was the Escala de Afetos Zanon - EAZ. Teachers were co-opt [...] ed in the workplace, and the applications occurred both individually and collectively. In order to carry out the analysis, we used ANOVA method, by analyzing profiles of repeated measurements. Among the most relevant results, it was observed that positive affects were more present in the sample in question. We also found that educators from Kindergarten had less positive affect than others, a factor that may have been influenced by singularities perceived by the participants, for example relating to remuneration, working hours and career plan. No differences were found regarding gender and age group. We argue that further studies on this issue are necessary.

  9. Towards Sensor-Free Affect Detection in Cognitive Tutor Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Wixon, Michael; Kalka, Jessica; Wagner, Angela Z.; Salvi, Aatish; Aleven, Vincent; Kusbit, Gail W.; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Rossi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the usefulness of affect detection for educational software has become clear. Accurate detection of student affect can support a wide range of interventions with the potential to improve student affect, increase engagement, and improve learning. In addition, accurate detection of student affect could play an essential role in…

  10. Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age. PMID:24811288

  11. DISADVANTAGES AND HEALTH THREATS GENERATED BY GENETICALLY MODIFIED EDIBLE ORGANISMS – A FARMERS VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Madhavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive article from observations and logical deductions of experience. How genetical modifications is performed is also being explained. The main purpose is to increase the yield and also to attract the consumers. Listing of edible plants and herbal plants are also described along with medicinal and nutritional plants. Genetical modification is a turmoil created among the well adopted primary and secondary producers. Many more disadvantages are also discussed in the view of farmers. Researchers are requested to probe the effect of these genetically modified organisms over human health. Health threats and disorder such as metabolic disorders and carcinogenic effects as stated by oncologists are also discussed. Health is to be considered as a prime point in genetical modifications. In any body system even a small genetical modification will alter the whole system of the body. Listing of disadvantage is not to criticize but to make the process really healthy by doing real researchers over the after math of the introduction of a new genetically modified organism.

  12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Mousazadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pressures especially cost cutting and search for cost-effective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods: The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsizing, Hospital Restructuring, Staff Downsizing, Hospital Merging, Hospital Reorganization and the Persian equivalents. Resulted 815 articles were studied and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles were selected for analysis. Results: Five hospital downsizing methods were identified during searching. These methods were reducing the number of employees and beds, outsourcing, integration of hospital units, and the combination of these methods. The most important benefits were cost reduction, increasing patient satisfaction, increasing home care and outpatient services. The most important disadvantage included reducing access, reducing the rate of hospital admissions and increasing employees’ workload and dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Each downsizing method has strengths and weaknesses. Using different methods of downsizing, according to circumstances and applying appropriate interventions after implementation, is necessary for promotion.

  13. O lugar do afetivo no desenvolvimento da criança: implicações educacionais / The place of affective on child development: educational implications / El lugar del afectivo en el desarrollo del niño: implicaciones educativas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Aparecida Valderramas, Gomes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, de natureza teórica, tem por objetivo analisar algumas proposições da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural acerca do psiquismo humano, notadamente no que tange à constituição dos processos afetivos na relação com o desenvolvimento infantil. Para tanto, reúne alguns princípios da filosofia spin [...] osiana que fundamentaram o pensamento de Vigotski sobre os afetos e postula que, para essa escola da psicologia, na base da formação humana se encontram a experiência social e a relação sujeito-objeto, elementos constitutivos dos processos cognitivo e afetivo. As análises desenvolvidas ao longo do texto indicam que os mediadores sociais - signos e instrumentos - subsidiam a formação da atividade e da consciência num processo que legitima a origem histórica e social das funções afetivas. O artigo pretende evidenciar o papel da escola como um espaço privilegiado de acesso aos conhecimentos capazes de transformar os modos de pensar, sentir e agir das crianças por meio dos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem. Abstract in spanish Este estudio, de naturaleza teórica, tiene como objetivo analizar algunas proposiciones de la psicología Histórico-Cultural acerca del psiquismo humano, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la constitución de los procesos afectivos en la relación con el desarrollo infantil. Para ello, reúne algunos [...] principios de la filosofía spinozista que fundamentaron el pensamiento vigotskiano sobre los afectos y postula que, para esta escuela de la psicología, en la base de la formación humana se encuentran la experiencia social y la relación sujeto-objeto, constitutivas de los procesos cognitivos y afectivos. Los análisis desarrollados a lo largo del texto indican que los mediadores sociales - signos e instrumentos - subvencionan la formación de la actividad y de la conciencia en un proceso que legitima el origen histórico y social de las funciones afectivas. El artículo pretende evidenciar el papel de la educación escolar como un espacio privilegiado de acceso a los conocimientos capaces de transformar las formas de pensar, sentir y actuar de los niños por medio de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study, of theoretical nature, aims to analyse some propositions of Historic and Cultural psychology about human psyche, especially regarding the constitution of affective processes in relation to child development. Therefore, brings together some principles of Spinozist philosophy that underlie [...] the Vigotskian thought about affections and postulates that, for this school of psychology, on the basis of human development are the social experience and subject-object relation, constitutive of cognitive and affective processes. The analyses developed over the text indicate that social mediators - signs and instruments - subsidize the formation of activity and consciousness in a process that legitimizes the historic and social origin of affective functions. The paper aims to highlight the role of education as a privileged place of access to knowledge capable of transforming ways of thinking, feeling and acting of children through the processes of teaching and learning.

  14. Psychological determinants of the intention to educate patients about benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Wolde, Geeske Brecht; Dijkstra, A; Van Empelen, P.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Zitman, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective General practitioners and pharmacists do not properly educate their patients about the disadvantages of benzodiazepines. In order to increase and improve education, this study will investigate which psychological factors (i.e., beliefs, outcome expectation, social norm and self-efficacy) predict the intention to educate. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in which 339 general practitioners and 149 pharmacists in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Results Th...

  15. Savings education: Learning the value of self-control.

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Hutton; James M. Holmes

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a funded school-based allowance and savings program targeted at economically disadvantaged students with poor educational outcomes to help poor children develop less present-biased time preference patterns so as to increase student effort and skills acquisition, avoid the pitfalls that pave the path of adolescence and move from poverty to middle class status as adults. Time orientation is associated with low educational investments, poor educational outcomes, out-of wedl...

  16. USGS Education Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USGS Education Collection provides scientific data and activities about natural resources, natural hazards, geospatial data and issues that affect quality of life. As an outreach project, it provides access to online material and educational resources that may be useful to K-12 educators and college instructors. Many resources can be used directly in the classroom: lessons, labs, demonstrations or as resources for teacher education, curriculum development and for student research.

  17. Research on Globalization and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Research on globalization and education involves the study of intertwined worldwide discourses, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies. The four major theoretical perspectives concerning globalization and education are world culture, world systems, postcolonial, and culturalist. The major global educational

  18. Educational Policy Research: Progress, Puzzles, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Murnane

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses three topics. The first concerns the reasons that American education, which served the United States so well for the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, is not adequate today, and is especially not successful in providing disadvantaged children with the skills they need to escape poverty. The second concerns lessons from policy analyses about the efficacy of alternative approaches to improving American education, especially the education of its most disadvantaged children. I will make the case that research provides encouraging evidence on several policy approaches. At the same time, the research reveals puzzles that I believe we need to take seriously in thinking about future research to inform the design of the next round of policies. Finally, I suggest some directions for policy research that come from taking seriously puzzles in the evidence.

  19. 'n Voorlopige impakstudie van 'n vennootskapsprojek tussen universiteit, skole en die privaat sektor: hoop vir benadeelde studente danksy mentorskappe / A preliminary impact study of a university, school and private sector partnership project: hope for disadvantaged students through mentorships

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael, le Cordeur.

    Full Text Available Successful access to higher education for black students in particular remains a challenge to all tertiary institutions in South Africa. This is the opinion of Prof. Russel Botman, Rector of Stellenbosch University (SU). It is therefore of concern that the SU strategic framework document (SU 2010a) [...] states that the increase in our country's student population projected by the National Commission for Higher Education in 1997 (DBO 1997) has not been attained. This is in contrast with the University's vision for the future, which commits itself to an academic institution of excellence and a respected knowledge partner that contributes towards the development of South Africa and welcomes a diversity of people and ideas. But according to a report by the Centre for Higher Education Transformation (CHET)¹ little demographic transformation had occurred in respect of who participates in higher education. This is an indication that black students' chances of gaining access to university have in fact decreased. Despite this authorities continue to insist that the percentage of black students in public higher-education institutions be increased. The Ministry's vision is of a transformed, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist system of higher education that will promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education (DBO 1997). The Vice-Rector of SU (Fourie 2009b:16) expands on this: "Besides the moral-ethical considerations, pressure is also being placed on universities by higher education policy to diversify their student and staff compositions and to remove measures that could exclude certain groupings". Stellenbosch University is thus under pressure to align its diversity profile with the transformation goals set by the government, as proclaimed in the White Paper on Higher Education of1997. At the same time the University also experiences pressure from the broader community to answer to the call of alleviating poverty in disadvantaged communities (SU 2010a). However, the standard of teaching in previously disadvantaged schools in the surrounding areas is such that very few students qualify to further their studies at university level. The question therefore is what the University can do to draw students that will rise to these challenges. In his response the University announced a strategy referred to by the current vice-chancellor (Botman 2007) as a "pedagogy of hope". This seems to have been inspired by the neo-Marxist Brazilian educationalist Paulo Friere'spublication Pedagogy of the oppressed (1970). According to this strategy the University will search for and exploit opportunities that will lead to "the farm owner's daughter and the farm worker's son sitting in the same class" (Botman 2007). This gave rise to initiatives such as the Rachel's Angels Schools Partnership Project, which is based on the principles of community interaction.² The project aims to build the capacity of promising students from disadvantaged communities with the aid of a mentorship programme. This will enable them to bridge the gap between school and university successfully. This article presents an overview of the project as well as a report on its impact. The educational theories which underpin the Rachel's Angels project can be considered to be constructivist in nature, founded upon a philosophy that is student centred and based on a view in which knowledge is not absolute, but is actively constructed by the student. The study aims to establish whether the project has achieved the desired outcomes. If employed successfully, SU will give effect to its transformation agenda, which includes increased participation by a diverse corps of students, willingness to react to social and economic needs and growing cooperation between higher education institutions and all sectors of society. The results of the impact study indicate that, despite growing pains, the project has already made a meaningful contribution in building the capacity of disadvantaged stude

  20. Do congenital prosopagnosia and the other-race effect affect the same face recognition mechanisms?

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Esins; Johannes Schultz; Isabelle Bülthoff

    2014-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race effect, a disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both affect face recognition abilities. Are the same face processing mechanisms affected in both situations? To investigate this question, we tested three groups of 21 participants: German congenital prosopagnosics, South Korean participants and German controls in three different tasks involving faces and objects. First we tested all part...

  1. Characterization of Multicultural Values: Affective Impact of Writing Extensive Journals in a University-Level Course

    OpenAIRE

    Taekhil Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The highest educational objective of affective domain is characterization, which refers to the level of character development where individuals’ behaviors and values remain consistent. Because the educational objectives of affect are categorically different from cognitive educational objectives, an alternative pedagogical conceptualization that integrates teaching, learning, and evaluating aspects of character development is essential in multicultural education. The current action research...

  2. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  3. Video/Videoconferencing in Support of Distance Education. Knowledge Series: A Topical, Start-Up Guide to Distance Education Practice and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilborne, Linda; MacGibbon, Peter

    This document provides a start-up guide to video and videoconferencing in distance education. The first section provides and introduction to video technologies for distance education, including advantages and disadvantages. The second section covers traditional videoconferencing, including equipment and costs, videoconferencing tips, room and…

  4. AN UMBRELLA OF THREE EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS - ONE EACH IN--OVERTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE, WEWAHITCHKA, FLORIDA, WHEELER COUNTY, GEORGIA. THE RURAL EDUCATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Atlanta, GA.

    UNDER THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE DANFORTH AND NOYES FOUNDATIONS, A CONSORTIUM OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, ORGANIZATIONS, AND AGENCIES HAVE COLLABORATED IN AN EFFORT TO IMPROVE THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF DISADVANTAGED YOUTHS IN SPECIFIED RURAL AREAS. SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT ARE--(1) EFFECTIVELY INTERVENE SO THAT A CYCLE OF…

  5. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marteleto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers' selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father's presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate.

  6. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV in Visceral Embolization: Report of 50 Placements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We describe our initial clinical experience in artificial embolization with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV (VP IV), a further development of the Vascular Plug family already in routine use. Methods: Results from 50 embolization procedures conducted with the VP IV in 44 patients are summarized. Results: All 50 embolizations were successful, although two required the technique to be modified because of problems with jamming of the screw thread and thus with disconnection of the plug. This was associated with large branching angles. Conclusions: With experience, the VP IV can be used safely and effectively, and it expands the spectrum of possible embolizations in interventional radiology. Its greatest disadvantage is its relatively poor positional controllability.

  7. On the temporal and functional origin of L2 disadvantages in speech production: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElinRunnqvist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large amount of psycholinguistic research devoted to the issue of processing differences between a first and a second language, there is no consensus regarding the locus where these emerge or the mechanism behind them. The aim of this article is to briefly examine both the behavioral and neuroscientific evidence in order to critically assess three hypotheses that have been put forward in the literature to explain such differences: the weaker-links, executive control and post-lexical accounts. We conclude that (a while all stages of processing are likely to be slowed down when speaking in an L2 compared to an L1, the differences seem to originate at a lexical stage; and (b frequency of use seems to be the variable mainly responsible for these bilingual processing disadvantages.

  8. Remedial self-fulfilling prophecy: two field experiments to prevent Golem effects among disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, O B; Eden, D

    2000-06-01

    The Pygmalion effect is a self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) in which raising leader expectations boosts subordinate performance. Although attempts to produce Pygmalion effects have been successful repeatedly among men, attempts to produce Pygmalion effects with female leaders have yielded null results. Also, only 1 experiment has demonstrated the Golem effect (i.e., negative SFP in which low leader expectations impair subordinate performance). In 2 field experiments testing the SFP hypothesis among women leading disadvantaged women, experimental leaders were led to believe that their trainees had higher than usual potential. In reality, the trainees had been assigned randomly. Manipulation checks confirmed that the treatment raised leader expectations toward experimental trainees. Analysis of variance of performance detected the predicted SFP effects in both experiments. These were the first-ever experimental confirmations of SFP among women as leaders. PMID:10900813

  9. 'On the Uses and Disadvantages of History' for Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose a critical investigation of the founding assumptions for the legitimacy of the (internationally accepted) geological disposal option through a reading of Nietzsche's second untimely meditation 'On the uses and disadvantages of history for life'. In particular, we propose an interpretation of some of the central concepts in this text - History, the present, discourses and attitudes towards the past, etc. - and investigates in particular the effects of the confrontation between the Nietzschean concept of 'active forgetting' and present practices in the management of medium- and high-level long-lived radioactive waste (cat. B and C). Furthermore, we argue that this untimely meditation comes at a timely moment, i.e. at a time when modernity's way of dealing with waste could be undergoing a major transformation. The paper ends with some reflections on our nuclear inheritance and its link with nuclear power of the future (Gen IV) inspired by Nietzsche

  10. Advantages and disadvantages of sulfur passivation of InAs/GaSb superlattice waveguide photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the influence of ammonium sulfide (NH4)2S passivation on waveguide based mid-infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors (2–5 µm wavelength) has been studied. The current–voltage characteristics for reverse as well as for forward bias of passivated samples have been examined. The advantages of this have been the reduction of the reverse leakage current and the increase of zero bias resistance. As a disadvantage the decrease of the photoresponsivity after sulfur passivation has been found. Furthermore, it has been observed that the passivation solution does not only passivate the surface of GaSb, but it also reacts with entire GaSb layers and can destroy the devices

  11. [The benefits and disadvantages of crying. Tears from a medical historical viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, I

    2009-07-01

    Tears and crying as a genuine expression of human feelings have aroused the attention of artists and literati for many centuries, but the medical principles have only received little attention for a long time. In this article the developing explanation and the various interpretations of this phenomenon will be demonstrated in combination with their dependence on the respective knowledge of anatomy and physiology. The antique conception of the lacrimal apparatus and the significance of tears in the Middle and Baroque Ages with respect to the history of salvation will also be discussed as well as the search for the lacrimal organ and the mechanical interpretation of lacrimation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Moreover, the discussion on the benefits and disadvantages of tears will be followed and the new turn which led to the explanation of the phenomenon under the influence of the theory of evolution will be emphasized. PMID:19572135

  12. From 'troublemakers' to problem solvers : Designing with youths in a disadvantaged neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Martin Severin; Pfeiffer Petersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and reflexions of a design practitioner working in the field of community development. The case illustrates how participatory design processes can contribute to social change. The paper tells a story of design process where youths from a local school in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the suburbs of Copenhagen, designed and constructed colourful and imaginative dustbins to handle problems with local littering. The project was successful in creating an increased local awareness of waste management and reducing the amount of litter. However, the more important but less tangible result of the design process was the change it produced in the social relations in the neighbourhood. By giving them the opportunity to work as designers, the process contributed to a shift in the image of the youths from one of 'troublemakers' to a positive image of collaborative problem solvers.

  13. Bridging the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children: Why should we be concerned with executive functions in the South African context?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caroline, Fitzpatrick.

    Full Text Available Reducing the economic and social burden associated with poor academic achievement represents an urgent concern in South Africa. Increasingly research suggests that child characteristics in kindergarten play an important role in charting courses towards academic success and educational attainment by [...] early adulthood. Although math and reading skills are important predictors of later achievement, executive function skills which underlie children's ability to focus attention and become autonomous, selfdirected learners also play a key role in later adjustment to school. Disadvantaged children perform more poorly on tests of achievement and executive functions. Furthermore, executive functions have been found to partially account for the relationship between socioeconomic status and later achievement. It is possible to target executive functions in at-risk children using specific interventions. These programs are generally cost-effective. It is proposed that increasing efforts towards promoting executive functions in preschool-aged children represents a promising strategy for reducing economically based disparities in the education and eventual life chances of individuals.

  14. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors responsible for these differences and the implications for population health research and policy. PMID:25353164

  15. Advantages and disadvantages of the animal models v. in vitro studies in iron metabolism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y; Díaz-Castro, J

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Special molecules have evolved for iron acquisition, transport and storage in soluble, nontoxic forms. Studies about the effects of iron on health are focused on iron metabolism or nutrition to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. These studies are focused in two main aspects: (1) basic studies to elucidate iron metabolism and (2) nutritional studies to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementation to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental models commonly used as well as the methods that are more used in studies related to iron. In vitro studies have used different parts of the gut. In vivo studies are done in humans and animals such as mice, rats, pigs and monkeys. Iron metabolism is a complex process that includes interactions at the systemic level. In vitro studies, despite physiological differences to humans, are useful to increase knowledge related to this essential micronutrient. Isotopic techniques are the most recommended in studies related to iron, but their high cost and required logistic, making them difficult to use. The depletion-repletion of hemoglobin is a method commonly used in animal studies. Three depletion-repletion techniques are mostly used: hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological values (RBV) and metabolic balance, which are official methods of the association of official analytical chemists. These techniques are well-validated to be used as studies related to iron and their results can be extrapolated to humans. Knowledge about the main advantages and disadvantages of the in vitro and animal models, and methods used in these studies, could increase confidence of researchers in the experimental results with less costs. PMID:23790319

  16. Education, education, education

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Education is a recurring theme of our 60th anniversary year, as I was reminded last week when we had a visit from the winners of the Spanish schools competition launched with the Prince of Asturias Award prize money (see here).   Young people are always remarkable in their curiosity and inventiveness, and this was very clear in all the submissions for the competition. I was most impressed with the six winners, but have to give a special mention to the youngest, Sofía Isabella Villamizar Villegas, who at just seven years of age made a lovely video explaining the Higgs mechanism by analogy to moving a balloon with and without static charge through a field of suspended strips of paper. It was not only charming, but also very effective as analogies go. The Spanish visit came in the middle of judging to find a winner of the Beamline for Schools competition, which closed at the end of March having received almost 300 proposals for experiments from schools all over the world. These vary ...

  17. ADVANTAGES ADN DISADVANTAGES OF E-LEARNING IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT / Reflexe vývoje výhod a nevýhod e-learningu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egerová Dana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-learning in the context of its advantages and disadvantages. The first part presents brief survey of the changing views of this topic. The next part gives an overview of the advantages and disadvantages from the different points of view. Finally, attention is paid to e-learning emerging issues and key trends influenced advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.P?edložený ?lánek se zabýva e-learningem v kontextu jeho výhod a nevýhod. Úvodní ?ást p?edkladá stru?ným exkurz do vývoje zpracování dané problemati­ky. Nasleduje vlastní p?ehled s odkazy na zdroje a dis­kusní témata. Pozornost je v?nována rovn?ž aktuálním záležitostem a aktivitám, které v sou?asné dob? m?ní e-learning a dopl?ují a inovují seznam položek výhod a ne­výhod e-learningu.

  18. A Discussion on the Ecological Balance and Sustainable Development of Higher Vocational Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Lan

    2009-01-01

    With the development of economy and progress of society, the viewpoints of ecological balance and sustainable development have extended to lots of other fields. Educational ecologicalization and sustainable development are becoming more and more important day by day. As a type of higher education, higher vocational education has not only unique developmental advantages but also many disadvantage factors. Basing on the clarification of connotation of education ecologicalization and analysis of...

  19. For the Love of Music: The Influence of After-School Music Programs on the Academic and Non-Cognitive Development of Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    A variety of recent research has shown that the academic achievement gap has been growing between low- and middle-income students. Socioeconomic status has proven to have a large influence on academic attainment as well as the educational opportunities that a child is offered. This paper argues that, because poverty significantly affects children…

  20. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…