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1

Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes  

Science.gov (United States)

This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the great…

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

2004-01-01

2

Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?  

Science.gov (United States)

While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

2012-01-01

3

Educational Disadvantage and Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the influence of education on smoking status in a cohort (n = 316) of pregnant women who were smokers at the time they learned of the current pregnancy. Subjects were participants in clinical trials examining the efficacy of monetary-based incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. In multivariate analyses, educational achievement was a robust predictor of smoking status upon entering prenatal care, of achieving abstinence antepartum among those still smoking...

Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

2009-01-01

4

Red Dirt Thinking on Educational Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

When people talk about education of remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, the language used is often replete with messages of failure and deficit, of disparity and problems. This language is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait…

Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam

2013-01-01

5

Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

Marks, Gary N.

2011-01-01

6

Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

"Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic…

National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

2008-01-01

7

78 FR 79221 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...December 27, 2013 Part IV Department of Education...Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program; Proposed Rule Federal Register...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 200 RIN 1810-AA99...

2013-12-27

8

Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

9

Montessori for the Disadvantaged: An Application of Montessori Educational Principles to the War on Poverty.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is devoted to a number of original articles on the application of the Montessori method for the education of the disadvantaged. The development of the method, its specific advantages for disadvantaged youngsters, special features of Montessori education, and integration into certain viewpoints about child development, learning, and…

Orem, R.C., Ed.

10

Intervention programme: a supported learning programme for educationally disadvantaged students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apartheid system of social engineering in South Africa enforced the segregation of racial groups. It lasted for 50 years, and had an impact on every aspect of society. It particularly affected the education system, resulting in inferior primary and secondary teaching of black learners. Ten years after the dissolution of apartheid, the consequences are still being felt in tertiary institutions. This legacy presents a challenge to South African medical schools, especially at a time of curriculum transformation. This paper describes how the issues of social and educational discrepancies are being addressed at the University of Cape Town. PMID:16147773

Alexander, Rachel; Badenhorst, Elmi; Gibbs, Trevor

2005-01-01

11

Advantages and Disadvantages of Greek Universities: Implications for Science Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines the present situation in Greek universities, their goals and characteristics, and the conditions under which these goals can be accomplished. The advantages and disadvantages and legislative framework and internal regulations of Greek universities are discussed. (Author/VWL)

Spyrou, Nicholas K.

1997-01-01

12

The educational quality of early school leavers and the cross-national variation of their income disadvantage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The average quality of available educational resources varies significantly across Europe. This not only affects school success and failure but also subsequent labour market outcomes. The main research question in this paper is to what extent this compositional variation among early school leavers (ESLrs) in particular can account for the cross-national variation of their income disadvantage relative to higher educated individuals. Findings from 3 consecutive years of cross-sectional data (EU...

Alphen, Stan

2009-01-01

13

EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS: WHAT FORTY YEARS OF RESEARCH TELLS US  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational te...

2013-01-01

14

Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence – early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborho...

Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

15

Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap  

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Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspec...

2002-01-01

16

Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

Raffo, Carlo

2011-01-01

17

"Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with those in the…

Urwick, James

2011-01-01

18

Prospects for the Future: The Use of Participatory Action Research to Study Educational Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a…

James, Emily Alana

2005-01-01

19

Does social disadvantage affect the validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education. Method The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup. Results Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting. Conclusion The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates.

Lofters, Aisha K; Moineddin, Rahim; Hwang, Stephen W; Glazier, Richard H

2013-01-01

20

Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: A Case Study of Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…

Ishimine, Karin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Special Strategies for Educating Disadvantaged Children. Urban and Suburban/Rural. Second Year Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume presents second year findings from a 3-year project that collected case study data on 10 promising strategies for educating disadvantaged children. The study occurred at 25 urban or suburban/rural sites. Participating schools had Chapter 1 programs or were eligible for Chapter 1. The sample included students in grades 1, 3, and 9 who…

Stringfield, Sam; Millsap, Mary Ann; Winfield, Linda; Brigham, Nancy; Yoder, Nancy; Moss, Marc; Nesselrodt, Pamela; Schaffer, Eugene; Bedinger, Sam; Gamse, Beth

22

The Teachability Index: Can Disadvantaged Students Learn? Education Working Paper 6  

Science.gov (United States)

Student "teachability"--the advantages and disadvantages that students bring to school--is often offered as an excuse for educational failure. Many claim that students are less teachable than they used to be, and that reforms cannot meaningfully improve student achievement due to problems like poverty and social dysfunction. This study measures…

Greene, Jay P.; Forster, Greg

2004-01-01

23

The Silent Politics of Educational Disadvantage and the National Anti-Poverty Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational disadvantage is an essentially contested, political concept. At the same time there is a "phoney consensus" surrounding the issue, i.e., policy debates on the topic often fail to reflect this contestation. This lack of awareness of the political context to the debate is evident in relation to the targets and measures set for addressing…

Tormey, Roland

2010-01-01

24

Does social disadvantage affect the validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1–3 Rahim Moineddin,1,4,5 Stephen W Hwang,3,6 Richard H Glazier1–3,4,51Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 3Centre for Research on Inner City Health, The Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 4Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, 5Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, 6Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education.Method: The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup.Results: Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting.Conclusion: The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates.Keywords: vulnerable populations, early detection of cancer, vaginal smears, Pap test, reproducibility of results, validity

Lofters AK

2013-01-01

25

The challenge of educational disadvantage in a knowledge economy: a case study of Waterford crystal Ltd  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The PhD research question ‘how can educationally disadvantaged employees gain the necessary qualifications to secure employability status and contribute to competitiveness in a knowledge based economy ’ is addressed through case study research using Waterford Crystal Ltd, an indigenous, manufacturing, exporting company from 1990-2006 as the context. Both the company and the economy paralleled the transformation of its manufacturing bases to compete in the global economy during this period...

Cooke, Senan

2006-01-01

26

An Investigation of the Vocational Directors' Role and Responsibilities in the Delivery and Evaluation of Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Programs, as Perceived by the Local Administrator. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study assessed and compared perceptions of local vocational educators toward delivery and evaluation of vocational education programs for the disadvantaged and handicapped. Emphasis was on identifying factors affecting vocational education for the special needs population and areas of concern relative to these factors. A survey instrument was…

Valentine, Ivan E.; Oshima, Asahi

27

The Teacher Education Curriculum and the World of Work: A Study of Teachers of Disadvantaged Children in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

A key element in the current attempt to actualise the goals of the Dakar Framework of Action for Education for All in Nigeria is the broadening of access to education for disadvantaged groups. These groups include: nomadic pastoralists; migrant fishermen; and out-of-school children and youth. Special educational programs are being provided for…

Umar, Abdurrahman

2006-01-01

28

Minimally supervised multimodal exercise to reduce falls risk in economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, ?2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 ?2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility. PMID:22952201

Almeida, Taís L; Alexander, Neil B; Nyquist, Linda V; Montagnini, Marcos L; Santos A, C S; Rodrigues G, H P; Negrão, Carlos E; Trombetta, Ivani C; Wajngarten, Mauricio

2013-07-01

29

Philippines: Summary Report. Mapping out Disadvantaged Groups in Education. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

Science.gov (United States)

The Civil Society Network for Education Reforms (E-Net Philippines), a network of organizations pushing for Education for All, believes that years of underinvestment and neglect of the public education system have caused the country's dismal education performance. This critique provided a framework for engaging with DepEd and the Legislature,…

de Guzman, Sylvia

2007-01-01

30

Stories about care: Women in a historically disadvantaged community infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Black women in previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa carry the burden of triple oppression: (a the social engineering policies synonymous with apartheid have marginalised women economically and socially; (b patriarchy, embedded in cultural and religious discourses, has rendered women voiceless and powerless and (c HIV/AIDS targets the most vulnerable: women and children. The authors describe a research experience in Atteridgeville, a historically disadvantaged community in South Africa, with a family of women infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS, about their experiences of care and or the lack thereof. A narrative approach offers useful ideas to facilitate a process in which African women in historically challenged communities can speak out about their experiences of care and or the lack of care.

Julian C. Müller

2009-11-01

31

Fundamental resource dis/advantages, youth health and adult educational outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies find lasting effects of poor youth health on educational attainment but use young samples and narrow life course windows of observation to explore outcomes. We apply a life course framework to three sets of Health and Retirement Study birth cohorts to examine early health status effects on education and skills attainment measured late in life. The older cohorts that we study were the earliest recipients of U.S. policies promoting continuing education through the GI Bill, community college expansions and new credentials such as the GED. We examine a wide range of outcomes but focus on GEDs, postsecondary school entry and adult human capital as job-related training. We find that older U.S. cohorts had considerable exposure to these forms of attainment and that the effects of youth health on them vary by outcome: health selection and ascription group effects are weak or fade, respectively, in outcomes associated with delayed or adult attainment. However, poorer health and social disadvantage in youth and barriers associated with ascription carry forward to limit attainment of key credentials such as diplomas and college degrees. We find that the human capital - health gradient is dynamic and that narrow windows of observation in existing studies miss much of it. National context also matters for studying health-education linkages over the life course. PMID:24267756

Elman, Cheryl; Wray, Linda A; Xi, Juan

2014-01-01

32

EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS: WHAT FORTY YEARS OF RESEARCH TELLS US  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational technology applications generally produced a positive, though modest, effect (ES=+0.16 in comparison to traditional methods. A marginally significant difference was found among four types of educational technology applications. Larger effect sizes were found with comprehensive models (ES=+0.23 and innovative technology applications (ES=+0.20. Effect sizes for supplemental programs and computer-managed learning were +0.15 and +0.12, respectively. The findings provide some suggestive evidence that approaches that integrated computer and non-computer instruction in the classrooms and innovative approaches are effective in improving student achievement. Differential impacts were also found by both substantive and methodological features.

Alan Cheung

2013-03-01

33

At the Forefront: The Role of Women's Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, the role of women's community education in combating poverty and disadvantage in Ireland over the past 10 years was examined, and future directions for policy and practice were suggested. The following data collection approaches were used: literature and policy document reviews; case studies involving regional workshops with…

University Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Women's Education, Research and Resource Centre.

34

The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?  

Science.gov (United States)

In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (?g mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

2013-04-01

35

THE MAHILA SAMAKHYA PROGRAM: EMPOWERING EDUCATION FOR WOMEN’S EQUALITY IN INDIAN DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES AND RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT   In India the women’s movement and the government have done much to ameliorate women’s education and to build the gender gap. However, it is argued that India still has much gender inequalities embedded in society and, as a consequence, in education and that there is much work to be done in terms of implementation. An alternative form of education, the Mahila Samakhya Program, was launched in India in 1988 for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas and disadvantaged communities in order to achieve equality. The Mahila Sanghas or women’s collectives were created to provide a space for women and girls to meet, reflect, ask questions and express their thoughts. This article argues for the implementation of an empowering education, apart from the formal education, to help women and girls overcome inequalities especially in education. It aims to prove how this empowering education increases education for poor women in rural areas, especially for girls. It examines the quality and results of the existing Mahila Samakhya program analyzing the empowering process. The case study will be the Indian state of Bihar and two theories of empowerment will be applied.

Gemma Barberillo Nualart

2013-10-01

36

Effects of Virtual Education on Academic Culture: Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages  

Science.gov (United States)

The perceived advantages and disadvantages of courses taught in online and face-to-face learning environments were explored for students taking an accounting and a data collection and analysis course. Both courses were taught in a face-to-face learning environment at the main or satellite campus. It was hypothesized that there would be…

Jefferson, Renee N.; Arnold, Liz W.

2009-01-01

37

Does material disadvantage explain the increased risk of adverse health, educational, and behavioural outcomes among children in lone parent households in Britain? A cross sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone parent households in Britain

Spencer, N.

2005-01-01

38

Affective Development in University Education  

Science.gov (United States)

There seems to be an increasing requirement for university courses and programs to develop students' affective qualities (beliefs, values, dispositions and attitudes). This study explored the ways academics determined what the desirable qualities were for their particular disciplines and the pedagogical strategies and approaches they used to…

Grootenboer, Peter

2010-01-01

39

Stories about care : women in a historically disadvantaged community infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Black women in previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa carry the burden of triple oppression: (a) the social engineering policies synonymous with apartheid have marginalised women economically and socially; (b) patriarchy, embedded in cultural and religious discourses, has rendered women voiceless and powerless and (c) HIV/AIDS targets the most vulnerable: women and children. The authors describe a research experience in Atteridgeville, a historically disadvantaged community in S...

2004-01-01

40

Economically Disadvantaged Children's Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corresponding differences in children's socioemotional problems, parenting stress, and parents' human capital investments. These patterns appeared to be robust to observed and unobserved confounds. Various teacher qualifications and classroom practices were assessed as moderators of these family mediators, revealing teacher experience in grade level as a fairly consistent buffer against family-based risks for reading. PMID:20711417

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cut and Run: House Republicans' Education Plan Would Shortchange Disadvantaged Students and Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

In January Rep. John Kline (R-MN), chairman of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce, released two draft discussion bills to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or ESEA. The Student Success Act and the Encouraging Innovation and Effective Teachers Act would increase state and local control over education. In the…

Ayers, Jeremy; Miller, Raegen

2012-01-01

42

Children's Human Rights Education as a Counter to Social Disadvantage: A Case Study from England  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Children's rights education in schools has many social and educational benefits. Among them are a deeper understanding of rights and social responsibility, an improved school climate, and greater school engagement and achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children's rights education has the power to…

Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; Polegato, Jillian L.

2011-01-01

43

The Role of School Exclusion Processes in the Re-Production of Social and Educational Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

English education policy has increasingly focused on the need to intervene in an intergenerational cycle of poverty and low attainment. The accompanying policy discourse has tended to emphasise the impact of family background on educational outcomes. However, as the capacity of parents to secure positive educational outcomes for their children is…

Gazeley, Louise

2010-01-01

44

Educational Achievement in Maori: The Roles of Cultural Identity and Social Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic…

Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.

2008-01-01

45

Integración educativa de las personas con discapacidad en Latinoamérica / Educational integration of disadvantaged people in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La integración es un proceso continuo y progresivo cuya finalidad es incorporar al individuo con necesidades especiales a la comunidad, y constituye uno de los fenómenos de mayor trascendencia en la educación. El objetivo fue conocer el estado del arte de la integración educativa de las personas con [...] discapacidad en Latinoamérica. Se utilizó el método de investigación documental revisando las bases de datos y localizando 40 documentos: 14 investigaciones descriptivas, 13 fueron investigaciones de base teórica y 13 fueron incluidas en experiencias en el campo. Se vislumbró un movimiento en toda la región a favor de la integración de las personas con discapacidad, con las dificultades de orden económico que prevalecen en todos los contextos. Las experiencias en la práctica docente, a pesar de ser puntuales, representan el proceso donde la sensibilización y el acuerdo consensuado de todos los actores de la comunidad se considera eje fundamental. Abstract in english Integration is a continuous and progressive process, with the finality of incorporating the individual with special need into the community, and it represents a transcendental landmark in education. The objective was to know the state of the art of educational integration for disadvantaged people in [...] Latin America. The document investigation method was used, reviewing databases and finding 40 documents: 14 descriptive researches, 13 theoretical researches and 13 were included as field experiences. A movement was conceived for the whole region to favor the integration of disadvantaged people, with the difficulties of an economic nature that prevail in all the contexts. The experiences in teacher training, in spite of being specific, represent the process where sensibilization and consensual agreement of all the actors in the community are considered as the fundamental axis.

Romero, Rosalinda; Lauretti, Paola.

46

Redressing disadvantage and ensuring social cohesion: the role of distance education and elearning policies in the European Union 1957-2007  

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This paper analyses the development and implementation of the European Union's policies in distance higher education and elearning since the 1957 Treaty of Rome. Distance education emerged in the 1960s and 70s as an instrument at national level to redress disadvantage, and to provide flexible, high-quality and cost-effective access to higher education to adults who were unable, for geographical, employment or personal reasons, to attend on-campus. Analysis of EU policy documents and interview...

Mackeogh, Kay

2007-01-01

47

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

DanielA.Hackman

2012-10-01

48

Reconsidering Affirmative Action in Education as a Good for the Disadvantaged  

Science.gov (United States)

Affirmative action in higher education remains a controversial topic in the US today, as it is tied in directly with citizens' varying conceptions of the larger society, and the importance of racial and other differences (in particular, socioeconomic class) in individual experiences and outcomes. This essay examines different arguments for and…

Jackson, Liz

2008-01-01

49

Schools and Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

Smith, Emma

2011-01-01

50

Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010  

Science.gov (United States)

This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings…

Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

2014-01-01

51

The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style related to child feeding; b provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV; and c creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

Auld Garry

2011-07-01

52

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier So...

Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

2012-01-01

53

Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

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Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corres...

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

54

New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages Orientaciones innovativas en la evaluación y educación de niños en situación de desventaja sociocultural  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantages)and the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning a...

Alegría Majluf

2012-01-01

55

New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages Orientaciones innovativas en la evaluación y educación de niños en situación de desventaja sociocultural  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantages)and the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning a...

Alegría Majluf

2003-01-01

56

Education (of Children Affected by Fragile X Syndrome)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Behavior Problems Halloween Season! Genetic Counselor | Print Education Children whose development is affected by fragile X syndrome are eligible for special education services. Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities ...

57

Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

2012-01-01

58

Primary and Secondary Effects in the Explanation of Disadvantage in Education: The Children of Immigrant Families in France  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the prospective transition of immigrant and native students in France from lower to upper secondary school. Because they are more likely to be tracked to less prestigious (vocational) tracks, immigrant and immigrant-origin students are significantly disadvantaged at this key academic stage in comparison with the children of…

Boado, Hector Cebolla

2011-01-01

59

Temps educatius i rendiment acadèmic: desigualtats educatives en grups desfavorits The time devoted to education and academic performance: educational inequalities in disadvantaged groups Tiempos educativos y rendimiento académico: Desigualdades educativas en grupos desfavorecidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’objectiu d’aquest article és reflexionar sobre les aportacions teòriques i estudis empírics més rellevants en el panorama internacional que relacionen l’èxit educatiu dels estudiants de classes i/o grups desafavorits amb l’ús adequat dels temps educatius que van més enllà de l’horari escolar. Concretament dels temps (i per extensió també dels espais, projectes i actuacions desenvolupats per la institució escolar pública, per les famílies, per les organitzacions de la societat civil o per l’Administració en general sempre i quan tinguin una intenció educativa explícita i manifesta. També es farà èmfasi especial a l’hora de destacar quin tipus de relacions es produeixen entre aquestes esferes i quins agents les promouen. esmentarem algunes qüestions que formen part del debat actual, però tenim interès a centrar-nos tant en les responsabilitats familiars i escolars com en les dinàmiques de capital social que afecten l’èxit educatiu i que tenen per objectiu crear un projecte educatiu comú (o altament compartit que va més enllà de l’horari escolar. _____________________________________________ L’objectif de cet article est de réfléchir sur les contributions théoriques ainsi que les études empiriques les plus importantes dans le panorama international qui mettent en rapport le succès éducatif des élèves de classes et/ou les groupes défavorisés avec l’usage adéquat des temps éducatifs qui vont bien au-delà de l’horaire scolaire ; plus concrètement, des temps (et par extension aussi des espaces, des projets et des interventions développés par l’institution scolaire publique, par les familles, par les organisations de la société civile ou par l’administration en général dans tous les cas où ils ont une intention éducative explicite et manifeste. Il met aussi l’accent sur le type de relations qui se tissent entre ces différentes sphères et sur les agents qui les promeuvent. Nous mentionnons en outre quelques questions qui font partie du débat actuel, mais nous avons choisi de nous centrer aussi bien sur les responsabilités des familles et de l’école que sur les dynamiques de capital social qui affectent la réussite éducative et qui ont pour objectif de créer un projet éducatif commun (ou largement partagé qui va bien au-delà de l’horaire scolaire.This paper considers the most relevant theoretical and empirical studies at international level that relate the educational success of students in disadvantaged classes and/or groups with the appropriate use of time for education outside of school hours. Specifically, we focus on the time (and, by extension, the spaces, projects and activities that is dedicated to explicit and clear educational objectives by state schools, families, civil society organizations or the government in general. In addition, we highlight the kinds of relationships that form between these different spheres and the agents that promote them. We mention some issues that are part of the current debate. However, our main focus is family and school responsibilities and the dynamics of social capital that influence educational success and whose goal is to create a joint educational project (or one that is largely shared that goes beyond school hours.El objetivo de este artículo es indagar las aportaciones teóricas y estudios empíricos internacionalmente más relevantes que relacionan el éxito educativo de los estudiantes de clases y/o grupos desfavorecidos con el uso «adecuado» de los tiempos educativos que van más allá del horario escolar. Concretamente los tiempos (y por extensión también los espacios, proyectos y actuaciones desarrollados por la institución escolar pública, por las familias, por las organizaciones de la sociedad civil o por la Administración en general siempre y cuando tengan una intención educativa explícita y manifiesta. También se hará énfasis especial a la hora de destacar qué tipo de relaciones se producen entre estas esferas y qué agentes las promueven. Mencio

Jordi Feu

2011-12-01

60

Demographic Trends Affecting State Educational Planning: A Florida Example  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports work that studied past and future demographic trends and their impact on education in Florida, and presents a model for studying variables affecting enrollment. Numerous tables and graphs are included. (Author/IRT)

Chang, Martha J.

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Are Non-Eligible Students Affected by Special Education?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate whether the academic performance of non-eligible students - in an institutional setting of full inclusion - are affected by special education resources. Special education resources are per definition provided in a compensatory manner, and are increasingly being targeted to misbehaving students. The hypothesis is thus that special education resources might dampen the negative externalities associated with misbehaving students, and thus work to improve the performance of non-elig...

2013-01-01

62

Evaluating Resources for Disadvantaged Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stated purpose of these materials is to help educators accomplish four tasks: (1) identify "appropriate" instructional resources for disadvantaged students in vocational classes; (2) use an objective checklist to evaluate a resource's "usefulness" (a sample checklist is provided); (3) use criteria to evaluate a resource's "outstandingness" (a…

Hafen, Susan; DeGrey, Gwen-Ellen

63

Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

Sabia, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

64

Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

65

K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional development will continue through the 2013-2014 academic year. Formative assessment of the ongoing project indicates that students, teachers, parents and school administrators rank their experiences highly and that students are motivated to continue on the path to geoscience careers.

Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.

2013-12-01

66

Do EMO-operated Charter Schools Serve Disadvantaged Students? The Influence of State Policies  

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There is a paucity of research about how the policies enacted by states either foster or hinder charter schools’ service to disadvantaged students or how the characteristics of charter schools themselves affect this outcome. By combining data from the US Department of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey with data on the characteristics of state charter school policies, this article examines how different types of charter schools respond to the policy and market signals established by ...

Natalie Lacireno-Paquet

2004-01-01

67

SLEEP COMPLAINTS AFFECTING SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students. Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA’s in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

JamesFPagel

2010-11-01

68

Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

69

The Engagement in Schooling of Economically Disadvantaged Parents and Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study considers academic risk and resilience in the context of economic disadvantage, examining the associations among such disadvantage, parental involvement in education, and children's academic orientation in a sample of 489 inner-city families. Neither parents' nor children's engagement in the educational system was significantly…

Cooper, Carey E.; Crosnoe, Robert

2007-01-01

70

Confucian Thought Affecting Leadership and Organizational Culture of Korean Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines Confucian thought affecting leadership and organizational culture of Korean higher education in order to understand leadership behavior and ethical values in Korean higher education from a viewpoint of educational administration. The writer evaluates that most of educational administrators in Korean higher education prefer…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2001-01-01

71

Does the structure of inpatient rounds affect medical student education?  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To assess whether the organization and structure of inpatient team rounds affects medical student perception of the overall quantity and quality of teaching on an inpatient general medicine service. Methods: A pilot project to improve inpatient care was launched at the Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VAAAHS. General medicine attending physicians involved in the pilot followed a "non-traditional" rounding structure (accentuating senior resident-run "work rounds" while time for "attending rounds" focused on critical issues and teaching. The remainder kept the "traditional" rounding structure (entire team rounds on patients one-by-one. In a cross-sectional design, third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Michigan were surveyed after their rotation about their experience. Students were asked to rate their educational experience in 21 domains. Responses were evaluated by rounding structure. Results: A total of 90 students (59 responded. Across every domain surveyed, students rated the quantity and quality of teaching higher after experiencing "non-traditional" rounds. Statistically significant increases were seen in ratings for "teaching during rounds from senior resident", "teaching during rounds from attending", "sit-down teaching from attending", "overall amount/quality of teaching", and "overall improvement in internal medicine knowledge", among others. Conclusions: The organization and structure of inpatient rounds can significantly impact medical student education. Teaching physicians and medical school clerkship directors should consider this when organizing inpatient team workflow.

Timothy W. Bodnar

2013-05-01

72

Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Urban High School Students' Perceptions of Work within General Merchandise Retail Department Stores.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies the perceptions of urban disadvantaged 10th grade students toward employment in distributive education occupations within general merchandise department stores, and compares these perceptions with those held by urban 10th grade students not considered disadvantaged and with those already employed in department stores. Based…

Bennett, James Gordon, Jr.

73

Does tax evasion affect unemployment and educational choice?  

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To examine the macro economic effects of government tax and punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector general quilibrium model featuring matching frictions, heterogenous abilities and an informal sector with tax evasion. The choice of education is determined endogenously. Job opportunities in an informal sector are available only to workers who choose not to acquire higher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activities increases the number of educated worker...

Kolm, Ann-sofie; Larsen, Birthe

2004-01-01

74

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

75

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Science.gov (United States)

...entry into or advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...entering into or advancing in the business world. (A) Education. SBA...have produced impediments in the business world for members of the group...

2010-01-01

76

#The #importance of the affective aspects in the planning of the goals of aesthetic education  

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The paper deals with the cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects of the goals of aesthetic education in the theory and practice of pre-school and elementary school education. It points out the urge to account for the affective aspect in the formation of the goals of esthetic education. With this research, in which we also included pre-school teachers and those teaching the first grades of elementary school, we wished to produce an empirical study of the problems and particularities which...

Denac, Olga

2012-01-01

77

Educational Assessment's Lurking Lacuna: The Measurement of Affect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that affective outcomes should be addressed instructionally and that student affect should be assessed formally. How student affect should be measured is considered. It is suggested that self-report measures be used and that Likert-type inventories usually meet the needs of classroom teachers. (SLD)

Popham, W. James

1994-01-01

78

Does Tax Evasion Affect Unemployment and Educational Choice ?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While examining the macroeconomic effects of government taxand punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector generalequilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wagebargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choiceof education is determined endogenously. Job opportunities in an informalsector are available only to workers who choose not to acquirehigher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activitiesincreases the number of educated workers and reduces the number of unemployed workers. Considering welfare, we show it isoptimal to choose punishment rates so to more than fully counteractthe distortion created by the government's inability to tax theinformal sector.JEL-codes: H26, I21, J64Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, education, matching,unemployment.

Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

2003-01-01

79

Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1998-01-01

80

Governing the potentials of life? : interrogating the promises in affective educational leadership  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores how educational leadership is increasingly becoming affective in order to cultivate what has been termed â??the potentialsâ? of pupils to meet the challenge of bringing schools into â??the world class leagueâ?. The analysis draws upon the notion of governmentality and the â?affective turnâ?. It highlights four examples of affective educational leadership technologies as they appear in contemporary leadership handbooks in Denmark. 1) How school becomes the managed heart of society. This reshapes educational leadership as ontopower governing through ideas and materialities of perception and neurons. 2) How affectivity becomes synonymous with positive feelings, while more indeterminate parts of affectivity are neglected. 3) How educational leadership becomes a matter of governing the future through simulation and imagination. 4) How affective leadership is energized by a bio morality structured in a specific time and space. Such discourses tend to maintain the status quo rather than challenging the basic premises or create revolutions as promised. This article critically analyses these policy document and handbook versions of affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulties in keeping the promises made and by introducing the Massumian distinction between possibilities and potentiality. The conclusion states that the edifying nature of the technologies paradoxically overshadows the possibilities promised by the technologies.

Staunæs, Dorthe

 
 
 
 
81

A study of professional nurses’ perceptions of factors affecting the process of client education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 about inhibiting factors. We used Likert score to measure questions. Data analysis performed by SPSS software. Statistical test were Chi square, t test, variance analysis and correlation of variance. Results: The highest percentage of nurses (52.1% believed that enough attention is not being paid to facilitating factors such as considering patient education as priority in patient care, nurses being responsible for patient education, considering patient education as a criteria in nurses annual evaluation, importance of patient education for nurse administrators, having in-service education about patient teaching and having proper time, place and personnel for patient education. Majority of nurses (57.4% believed factors such as shortage of nurses, lack of proper place, time and patient motivation for receiving education, nurses and nurse administrators’ inattention to patient education and negative attitude of doctors toward patient education by nurses are inhibiting factors in process of education. Statistical tests showed a meaningful relation between demographic variables such as sex, clinical background, shift work and position and facilitating factors. There was also a meaningful relation between variables like working in more than one shift, having clinical experience of patient education and being evaluated for patient education during study of nursing and inhibiting factors. Conclusion: This study shows low level of facilitating factors for patient education in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science. To improve patient education in these hospitals it is necessary to improve facilitating factors.

Goudarzi Z

2004-05-01

82

New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages Orientaciones innovativas en la evaluación y educación de niños en situación de desventaja sociocultural  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.En el presente trabajo se describen los supuestos de la psicometría tradicional, no apropiada para niños que sufren de privación socio-cultural y las nuevas estrategias para la evaluación y educación de estos niños. Para una mejor comprensión de éstas se mencionará la orientación socio-cultural iniciada por Vygotsky, se destacara el concepto de Zona de Desarrollo Próximo,la evaluación Dinámica y el Aprendizaje Mediado, ampliado por Feuerstein y complementado por Coll respecto al Aprendizaje Significativo.

Alegría Majluf

2003-06-01

83

A study of professional nurses’ perceptions of factors affecting the process of client education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 abou...

Goudarzi Z; Khosravi Kh; Bahrani N; Vaskooii Kh; Valipourgavgany P; Ghoghaei S; Mosaviniasigari M; Khayatali M; Zahedi H; Basiri A

2004-01-01

84

Citizenship experiences of young migrants: optimism and disadvantages  

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This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation of migrant youngsters in education, in which an analysis of the experiences and perspectives on education and future labour market participation of migrant youngsters themselves are the central obj...

Gerritsen, D.

2012-01-01

85

Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Responsible Management Education in Ghanaian Business Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business schools have been criticized failing to acknowledge their role in educating responsible managers thatcould have helped in solving the recent financial crisis that affected corporate institutions. This has resulted in anumber of measures by most business schools in the areas of introduction of responsible management educationcourses. Nevertheless, the general view prevails that business schools as a whole are making only very littleprogress in addressing these critical issues on institutional level. The study therefore examines the key factorsaffecting the implementation of responsible management education in Ghanaian Business Schools.The study revealed that the most important factors affecting business schools authorities’ decisions in theimplementation of the concept of responsible management education were; financial constraints, tensionsbetween the university, business schools and national Accreditation Board (NAB. That is not all, but mostrespondents placed much emphasis on lack of learning environments to promote knowledge, skills and attitudesof students to become responsible business leaders as among the most critical factor affecting theimplementation of responsible management education.Past experience with a CSR agenda and size of the business school were recorded as the least critical factorsidentified as affecting successful implementation of responsible management education.

Alfred Atakoa

2013-09-01

86

Is there a role for affect and emotion in entrepreneurship education?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a single case study to explore the role of affect in entrepreneurial learning. The study focuses on a learning activity involving the creation of a flashmob by the students, as well as the buildup to the flashmob, which included a Lego based exercise. The case study builds on a combination of observation data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the studentsâ?? learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created very different patterns of affect. We suggest that these differences are due to differnces in the space in which the learning activity occurs, and the temporal duration of the activity. Implications Our study suggests that entrepreneurship educators can and should seek to address the issue of affect in their teaching. We also provide evidence of how teachers can create learning-conducive platforms. Value/Originality The study bridges theoretical insight into the affective turn and empirical data from an entrepreneurship classroom. This results in useful descriptions of learning activities and the affects created both within and among the students. We also point to challenges and risks involved in leveraging affect in entrepreneurship teaching.

Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah

87

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

...entry into or advancement in the business world because of the disadvantage...consider education, employment and business history, where applicable...entering into or advancing in the business world. (1) Education....

2009-10-01

88

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children's telomere length.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-04-22

89

Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

Sarpkaya, Ruhi

2010-01-01

90

Individual and School Factors Affecting Students' Participation and Success in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'…

Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

2008-01-01

91

Affective and Social Issues among High Achieving African American Students: Recommendations for Teachers and Teacher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines affective and social issues as well as needs among high achieving African American students, discussing higher achievers in terms of urban schooling, emotional and psychological experiences, exclusion and isolation, powerlessness, token status, and pigeonholing. Recommendations for teachers and teacher education focus on identifying and…

Milner, H. Richard

2002-01-01

92

Population Validity for Educational Data Mining Models: A Case Study in Affect Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced research methods such as educational data mining (EDM) have allowed researchers to effectively model a broad range of constructs pertaining to the student, moving from traditional assessments of knowledge to assessment of engagement, meta-cognition, strategy and affect. The automated…

Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Baker, Ryan; Gowda, Sujith; Heffernan, Neil; Heffernan, Cristina

2014-01-01

93

"Affection in Education": Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the Politics of Greek Love  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal…

Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher

2011-01-01

94

We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely…

Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Damasio, Antonio

2007-01-01

95

Title I--improving the academic achievement of the disadvantaged; Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)--assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities. Final regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary amends the regulations governing programs administered under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) (referred to in these regulations as the Title I program) and the regulations governing programs under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (referred to in these regulations as the IDEA program). These regulations provide States with additional flexibility regarding State, local educational agency (LEA), and school accountability for the achievement of a small group of students with disabilities whose progress is such that, even after receiving appropriate instruction, including special education and related services designed to address the students' individual needs, the students' individualized education program (IEP) teams (IEP Teams) are reasonably certain that the students will not achieve grade-level proficiency within the year covered by the students' IEPs. PMID:17520754

2007-04-01

96

Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes. PMID:23965029

Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

2014-01-01

97

The level of hopelessness in the students of an occupational education center and affecting factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ?10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ?10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.

Süleyman Erhan Deveci

2011-09-01

98

The Effect of Home Learning Kits on the Reading Readiness of Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kindergarten Home Learning Kit was developed to ameliorate the educational deficit of disadvantaged kindergarten children by providing toys and learning materials to work with in the home. Each of the eight sequential kits also contains an illustrated instructional letter to the parents. Two groups of 25 disadvantaged kindergarten children…

Scott, Mari Gumm

99

COLLIER COUNTY INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND YOUTH (NAPLES, AUGUST 1-12, 1966).  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS THE SPEECHES PRESENTED TO EDUCATORS AT A CONFERENCE ON DISADVANTAGED YOUTH OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA. THE SPEECHES ARE DIVIDED INTO SIX SECTIONS, DEALING WITH VARIOUS PROBLEMS FACED BY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. SPEECH TOPICS INCLUDE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH, SELF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, THE PROBLEMS OF GROWING UP AS A MEMBER OF A…

PITTMAN, KENNETH C.

100

Does the patients' educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?  

Science.gov (United States)

AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients’ knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients’ educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients’ medication knowledge and the pharmacists’ performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants’ education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications’ side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent knowledge of medication side effects compared to only 12.5% for those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications’ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M.; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Research on Critical Thinking Tendencies and Factors that Affect Critical Thinking of Higher Education Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysis in order to determine the effects of the dependent and independentvariables; frequency and percentage values, reliability, item factor analysis, KAISER-MEYER-OLKIN:measure of sampling adequacy test, Bartlett's test of sphericity using SPSS 18.0.

Ramazan Arslan

2014-04-01

102

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

103

Technical Training for the Disadvantaged.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-five representatives of business, federal and state government, and education participated in the conference designed to present the Training and Technology (TAT) Project at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Oak Ridge, Tennessee Y-12 plant as a model from which potential contracters might gain insight into the processes of formulating…

National Alliance of Businessmen, Washington, DC.

104

Tips for Teachers of the Disadvantaged.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of teaching materials, developed at an institute for training teachers of disadvantaged youth in rural (predominately Indian) schools, is provided in this handbook designed for teachers of disadvantaged youth. Ideas for bulletin boards are discussed in the first 25 pages of the document, followed by lesson plans (for kindergarten and…

Northeastern State Univ., Tahlequah, OK.

105

La educación de la afectividad en los escritos de Augusto Mijares / Education of affectivity in Augusto Mijares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es evidente que la afectividad es un elemento a tomar en cuenta en el proceso de educación. Algunas investigaciones recientes muestran la necesidad de armonizar la educación intelectual y la educación de la afectividad para alcanzar una mejor educación del carácter (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 200 [...] 4). En este sentido, puede resultar oportuno buscar antecedentes en los pensadores humanistas venezolanos. En esta investigación me pregunto: ¿Qué aportes ofrece Augusto Mijares a la educación de la afectividad? ¿Cuál es la caracterización de la afectividad del venezolano según A. Mijares? ¿Cuál es la propuesta de Mijares para educar mejor la afectividad en Venezuela? Para responder a estas preguntas sigo la metodología del Análisis del Discurso (Van Dijk, 1985; Bolívar, 1995). El corpus está formado por artículos de Mijares publicados en prensa, y los dos discursos de incorporación a las Academias de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, y Venezolana de la Lengua -correspondiente de la Real Academia Española-. Las categorías de análisis son los conceptos de afectividad, virtud de la constancia, educación y perfectibilidad del ser humano; estas categorías se definen desde la perspectiva del Romanticismo según Augusto Mijares. Las categorías se analizan principalmente en las descripciones de personajes históricos, venezolanos, que Mijares relata en sus escritos. Al final de este trabajo, encuentro que Mijares formuló una propuesta para la educación de la afectividad de los venezolanos, y es: Educar en la virtud de la constancia. Pareciera conveniente considerar hoy, en Venezuela, esta alternativa educativa como un medio para armonizar razón y afectividad. La propuesta de Mijares en este corpus invita a continuar profundizando el estudio de la educación de la afectividad en sus obras completas. Abstract in english Affectivity is a relevant element in the educational process. Multidisciplinary international research on character education shows the need for harmonizing intellectual education and the education of affectivity (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 2004). In order to find precedents to improve Venezuelan [...] education of affectivity, we must look to teachers that have made a mark in the nation's history. In this article, we explore the contributions of Mijares to the concept of education of affectivity, how he characterizes Venezuelan affectivity, and what is his proposal for improving Venezuelan education for affectivity. Mijares' proposal and his conception of the human being are studied within his Possitivist background and considering the effects of previous Romantic ideas. We conclude that Mijares states a viable alternative for the education of affectivity by educating in the virtue of constancy. It seems convenient to consider this educational alternative today in order to harmonize reason and affectivity.

María Jesús, NIETO; , OTERO.

106

Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)

2013-01-01

107

Do EMO-operated Charter Schools Serve Disadvantaged Students? The Influence of State Policies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a paucity of research about how the policies enacted by states either foster or hinder charter schools’ service to disadvantaged students or how the characteristics of charter schools themselves affect this outcome. By combining data from the US Department of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey with data on the characteristics of state charter school policies, this article examines how different types of charter schools respond to the policy and market signals established by state charter legislation, and the impact of such signals on the willingness and ability of charter schools to serve disadvantaged student populations. With a sample of 533 charter schools in 13 states, models are estimated to discern whether specific state policies and whether being managed by two types of for-profit educational management organizations (EMOs—large and small ones—encourages or discourages schools from enrolling low-income and minority students. The results suggest that certain policy characteristics are important for encouraging schools to serve low-income and minority students. Specifically, having multiple chartering authorities and requiring the transportation of students are important for explaining charter schools’ service to low-income and minority students. Being managed by a large-EMO was positively but not significantly related to charter schools enrollment of low-income and minority students. The results differed for small-EMO managed schools. Small-EMOs served significantly lower percentages of minority students. The results suggest that not all charter schools are the same and that policy design and organizational form matters for determining whom charter schools will serve.

Natalie Lacireno-Paquet

2004-06-01

108

The Gap between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students in Science Achievement in South African Secondary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

South Africa's education system is still deep in the throes of reform under its third Minister of Education since 1994. Poor communities, in particular those of rural Africans, bear the brunt of the past inequalities. The challenge was to explore the extent of the "gap" in students' scores by comparing the advantaged and disadvantaged communities…

Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa; Venter, Elsie

2008-01-01

109

Factors Affecting the Integration of Information Literacy in the Teaching and Learning Processes of General Education Courses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1) The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director o...

Therdsak Maitaouthong; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Yupin Tachamanee

2011-01-01

110

Education  

...peatlands. Having this information will enable them, in later years, to make informed choices and decisions that could affect peatlands.In Northern Ireland the provision of peatland education programmes at...

111

Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the ...

Harding, David J.

2009-01-01

112

Aspects of Teacher Education that Affect Student Success in Arizona Public High Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate what aspects of teacher education (if any affect student success. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of high- and low-performing urban and rural public high schools across Arizona. Quantitative variables that were researched include the level of degree a teacher attains, the route a teacher chooses to achieve certification, teachers’ attendance at core-subject related workshops, teacher mentoring, and teacher collaboration using data based information to drive decision-making. Qualitative research enabled teachers to state a valuable skill learned in college that promotes student success and to reveal what they felt their current school does to promote student success. A mixed methodology approach was used to analyze the data; quantitatively through regression analysis and qualitatively through coded themes.A detailed explanation was presented with accompanying data to support the statements. The results of this research support teacher mentoring and attendance at core subject related workshops as vehicles to promote student success. This dissertation provides information for policy makers, administrators, and teachers who are invested in promoting student success.

Faith Elizabeth Andreasen

2009-03-01

113

Semblanzas de la línea de investigación: Dominio afectivo en educación matemática Affective Domain in Mathematics Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM.This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation of mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.

Oswaldo Martínez Padrón

2007-06-01

114

Manipulation of the Self-Determined Learning Environment on Student Motivation and Affect within Secondary Physical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary physical education (PE) has become a popular area of inquiry because students are not meeting overarching goals of PE programs, are less motivated, and demonstrate negative affect while in class. As such, teachers and researchers are starting to examine pedagogical approaches that support student motivation as a means to alleviate some…

Perlman, Dana

2013-01-01

115

How Does Academic Ability Affect Educational and Labour Market Pathways in Canada. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 30  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), this paper provides an up-to-date description of educational and labour market pathways (or transitions) among Canadian youth. It also estimates the effect of academic abilities, measured by PISA math and reading scores, on such transitions. Descriptive statistics show that educational success…

Hansen, Jorgen

2010-01-01

116

Cultural, religious and socio-economic factors affecting sex education in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although professional pressure groups attempted to address the need for formal sex education in the 1970's, the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT) has successfully introduced sex education subjects into school programs. It has also been endorsed as a major resource by the Ministry of Health; however, the Ministry of Education has been backsliding recently on sex education and in general has not generated zealous supporters of sex education. Different attitudes and practices prevail. Sex education is not usually discussed in the home, but there is support for sex education in schools. Its importance is recognized. Turkish society tends to be conservative particularly among middle socioeconomic stratum. Upper classes tend to be more liberal, and lower classes perceive sexuality as the normal way of life. The term sex is associated with eroticism, sex education as sex techniques; so sexuality must fall within the confines of health education. Within the Muslim faith, views on sex support discussion of sexual issues with couples, for example, or among students of Islamic jurisprudence. According to Quaranic teachings, women have a right to a sex life, including divorce options if sexuality is not fulfilled. Misinterpretations of Quaranic teachings have hindered the effort to plan an appropriate sex education program. Islamic values are liberal in their support for family planning. The FPAT's objective is to change the image of sex education and eliminate the fear that established values will be challenged by sex education. PMID:12343170

Koral, S

1991-05-01

117

78 FR 68016 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...Department's Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...i.e., DBE and non-DBE quotes, DBE subcontracts) from...

2013-11-13

118

Whose education affects a child's nutritional status? From parents' to household's education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2) to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household membe...

2012-01-01

119

Do employment quotas explain the occupational choices of disadvantaged minorities in India?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article investigates the effects of a large-scale public sector employment quota policy for disadvantaged minorities (Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) in India on their occupational choices, as defined by skill level, during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that, first, the employment quota policy significantly affects the occupational structure of both disadvantaged minority populations. In response to the employment quotas, individuals belonging to the Scheduled Caste group are more ...

Howard, Larry L.; Prakash, Nishith

2011-01-01

120

Factors Affecting the Application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in Distance Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factors and problems associated with the growth of Information and Communication Technologies(ICTin developing countries and examine the Turkish distance Education System from the point of the factors such as cultural;political;economic;technological..The study,firstly,introduces some applications and problems of instructional technology and distance education in some developed countries and Turkey as a developing country;than examines Turkish distance education system,Open Education Faculty(OEF,from the points of factors such as cultural,political,economic and technological.

Salih USUN

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The role of initial affective impressions in responses to educational communications: The case of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging technologies promise potential benefits at a potential cost. Developers of educational communications aim to improve people's understanding and to facilitate public debate. However, even relatively uninformed recipients may have initial feelings that are difficult to change. We report that people's initial affective impressions about carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), a low-carbon coal-based electricity-generation technology with which most people are unfamiliar, influences how they interpret previously validated education materials. As a result, even individuals who had originally self-identified as uninformed persisted in their initial feelings after reading the educational communication-though perseverance of feelings about CCS was stronger among recipients who had originally self-identified as relatively informed (Study 1). Moreover, uninformed recipients whose initial feelings were experimentally manipulated by relatively uninformative pro-CCS or anti-CCS arguments persisted in their manipulated feelings after reading the educational communication, due to evaluating the educational communication in line with their manipulated impressions (Study 2). Hence, our results suggest that educational communications will have more impact if they are disseminated before people form strong feelings about the topic under consideration, especially if these are based on little to no factual understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24708355

Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2014-06-01

122

Comparing homeless smokers to economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared characteristics of homeless smokers and economically disadvantaged domiciled smokers (Dallas, TX; August 2011-November 2012). Although findings indicated similar smoking characteristics across samples, homeless smokers (n = 57) were exposed to more smokers and reported lower motivation to quit, lower self-efficacy for quitting, more days with mental health problems, and greater exposure to numerous stressors than domiciled smokers (n = 110). The sample groups reported similar scores on measures of affect, perceived stress, and interpersonal resources. Results may inform novel cessation interventions for homeless smokers. PMID:24148069

Businelle, Michael S; Cuate, Erica L; Kesh, Anshula; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E

2013-12-01

123

Factors Affecting the Standard of Female Education: A Case Study of Senior Secondary Schools in the Kassena-Nankana District  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the current factors affecting the standard of female education in the Kassena-Nankana district in Upper East Region of Ghana. Poverty, long-held negative attitudes about women's intellectual capabilities, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, examination failure in mathematics and science and the traditional division of household labour are among the many factors that continue to keep vast numbers of girls out of the classroom in the district and country as well.

Adetunde, I. A.; Akensina, Akampae P.

2008-01-01

124

Factors Affecting the Standard of Female Education: A Case Study of Senior Secondary Schools in the Kassena-Nankana District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the current factors affecting the standard of female education in the Kassena-Nankana district in Upper East Region of Ghana. Poverty, long-held negative attitudes about women's intellectual capabilities, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, examination failure in mathematics and science and the traditional division of household labour are among the many factors that continue to keep vast numbers of girls out of the classroom in the district and country as well.

I. A. Adetunde

2008-01-01

125

General Education vs Vocational Training : How do they Affect Individual Labour Market Performance ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the Panel Study of Belgian Households (PSBH, waves 4 to 10) we estimate the effects of education (initial and life-long, general and vocational) on incomes, labour supply and unemployment. This allows for a decomposition of the economic returns of education on earnings in two parts; one attributed on wages and one on employment time. The sample includes individuals 18-65 who have completed initial education at school or university, who are at the labour market and receive income from wo...

Karasiotou, Pavlina

2004-01-01

126

General education versus vocational training: How do they affect individuallabour market performance?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the Panel Study of Belgian Households (PSBH, waves 4 to 10) we estimate the effects of education (initial and life-long, general and vocational) on incomes, labour supply and unemployment. This allows for a decomposition of the economic returns of education on earnings in two parts; one attributed on wages and one on employment time. The sample includes individuals 18-65 who have completed initial education at school or university, who are at the labour market and receive income from wo...

Karasiotou, Pavlina

2004-01-01

127

Mathematics Creativity and the Socioeconomically Disadvantaged.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the relationships between mathematics, creativity, and the socioeconomically disadvantaged teenager. The aim is to ascertain better how to recognize the mathematically gifted student and then to pursue the question of how best to facilitate his or her learning of mathematics. Research and other literature are analyzed,…

Dance, R. A.; Higginson, W. C.

128

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

129

How Interethnic Marriages Affect the Educational Attainment of Children: Evidence from a Natural Experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The allocation of Moluccan immigrants across towns and villages at arrival in the Netherlands and the subsequent formation of interethnic marriages resemble a natural experiment. The exogenous variation in marriage formation allows us to estimate the causal effect of interethnic marriages on the educational attainment of children from such marriages. We find that children from Moluccan fathers and native mothers have a higher educational attainment than children from ethnic homogeneous Molucc...

Ours, J. C.; Veenman, J. M. C.

2008-01-01

130

How interethnic marriages affect the educational attainment of children: evidence from a natural experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The allocation of Moluccan immigrants across towns and villages at arrival in the Netherlands and the subsequent formation of interethnic marriages resemble a natural experiment. The exogenous variation in marriage formation allows us to estimate the causal effect of interethnic marriages on the educational attainment of children from such marriages. We find that children from Moluccan fathers and native mothers have a higher educational attainment than children from ethnic homogeneous Molucc...

Ours, Jan C.; Veenman, Justus

2008-01-01

131

Evaluation of a NAB-JOBS Training Program for Disadvantaged Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is directed to the question of whether an intervention strategy based on relatively concentrated amounts of basic education and on-the-job training is sufficient to make it possible for a large, non-union, private firm to assimilate disadvantaged females into its regular, blue-collar work force. It is concluded that the National…

Baum, John Franklin

132

Effective Schools for Discouraged and Disadvantaged Students: Rethinking Some Sacred Cows of Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses how to prevent discouragement in disadvantaged students. Because systems cause at-risk students to feel inadequate, the article suggests only systemic change can repair the problem. Too many students lose in the present reward-and-punishment evaluation system. Effective schools must make students believe they have equal educational…

Conrath, Jerry

1992-01-01

133

Arts Integration and the Success of Disadvantaged Students: A Research Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Does arts integration contribute to student success for disadvantaged student populations? The introduction to this article compares students' academic performance and arts education in countries outperforming the United States on the recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading…

Robinson, A. Helene

2013-01-01

134

American Council on Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Council on Education, headed by David Ward (the former Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin), "seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on key higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives." To this end, their Web site is a vast repository of papers, research initiatives, and newsletters that will assist those persons working in higher education administration, or those with a general interest in trends within American universities and colleges. The main page contains links to the Council's different working units, such as the Center for Adult Learning, the Center for Policy Analysis, and the International Initiatives office. While many of the publications listed within these respective offices are available for purchase, users will also find helpful working papers available at no charge, such as "Crucial Choices: How Students' Financial Decisions Affect Their Academic Success" and "Gender Equity in Higher Education: Are Male Students at a Disadvantage?"

2007-03-08

135

How Do Education and Training Affect a Country's Economic Performance? A Literature Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In policy debates, the U.S. education and training (ET) system is often blamed for the nation's eroding position in the world economy. Long-term international analysis reveals little evidence of deindustrialization or falling labor productivity. However, other industrial countries have caught up. Most economic research directly concerned with ET…

Sturm, Roland

136

Education Affects Attitudes of Physical Therapy Providers toward People with Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…

Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.

2012-01-01

137

A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

2012-01-01

138

Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

2003-01-01

139

Factor analysis of the most informative parameters affecting the efficiency of training wrestling students of physical education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comprehensively analyzed the various factors that affect the absorption of the students practical course in wrestling. The study involved 98 boys - 3rd year students of the Faculty of Physical Education, who begin the study of the course Combating and methods of teaching. Also, 32 students who are engaged in the struggle. The results of studies of anthropometric, physical, functional, ergonomics students. The input data for the factor analysis were the first 3-ranking figure, biomechanical, physical fitness and functional status, anthropometric. It is established that the content of the first most significant factors included biomechanical parameters that demonstrate the value of balance and coordination abilities of others.

Tkachenko S.V.

2013-04-01

140

Factors that Affect the Decision of Refugee and Immigrant Students to Pursue Higher Education in Tennessee: The Case of Egyptian, Somali, Kurdish and Mexican Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Refugee and immigrant students face challenges in pursuing higher education. This study examined factors that affect the decision of refugees and immigrant students to pursue higher education in Tennessee. The factors included cultural capital these students acquire from their parents and families; cultural difference they have with the mainstream…

Weldegebriel, Mengistu H.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Views of Effective Early Childhood Educators Regarding Systemic Constraints that Affect Their Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined 10 early childhood teachers' views regarding curricular trends for young children, their teaching practices, and systemic constraints affecting their teaching. Teachers were identified as advocates, resistors, or traditionalists. Systemic constraints identified included early academics, reading wars, and standardized testing. Teachers…

Adcock, Simrall Garber; Patton, Mary Martin

2001-01-01

142

Protecting the Development of 5-11-Year-Olds from the Impacts of Early Disadvantage: The Role of Primary School Academic Effectiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether or not more effective schools can successfully mitigate the impacts of early disadvantage upon educational attainment remains uncertain. We investigated 2,664 children aged 6-11 years and measured their academic skills in English and maths along with self-regulation at 6, 7, and 11. Experiencing multiple disadvantages before age 5 strongly…

Sammons, Pam; Hall, James; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

2013-01-01

143

Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

2013-09-01

144

A STUDY OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GIRL CHILDREN, AND THEIR TEACHING-LEARNING CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children are future leaders of tomorrow and mothers are guardians of the future, and the first aim of every family and society should be to raise healthy and productive individuals who are physically, psychologically, socially, and mentally well developed. These can be achieved through the education of the girl-child who is the mother of tomorrow. Objectives: 1. To study the factors affecting the educational development and teachinglearning conditions of the girl children. Sample: For the study four government primary schools of Nadiad Taluka of Gujarat have been selected a sample of 60 girl children has comprising of 30 rural and 30 urban areas and sample of 6 teachers has comprising of 3 rural and 3 urban areas. 20 parents constituted of 10 rural and 10 urban areas. Tools and Techniques: Socio-economic status by Dr. Neha Thakkar and interview schedules were constructed for collecting data from parents and teachers. Research Method: Survey method was used to conduct the study. Data Analysis: The data were analysed through percentages and content analysis was used for data analysis. Findings: 1. A large majority of the girl children have responded that they are discriminated unfavourably against their brothers. The schools are understaffed. Clerical work is taking lot of time of the teachers. 2. The teachers have been found dissatisfied with the present level of enrolment of the girl children. 3. The socio-economic factors have been found affecting the teaching learning conditions of the girl children.

DIPIKA R. CHAUDHARI

2012-11-01

145

“Don't affect the share price”: social media policy in higher education as reputation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including learning, teaching and assessment. This study considers the social media policies of 14 universities in the United Kingdom (UK that are currently in the public domain. It addresses some of the ways in which Higher Education Institutions (HEIs are responding to both the positive potential of social media as well as its perceived threats. Drawing inspiration, if not actual method, from critical discourse analysis, this study argues that marketisation has been the main policy driver with many social media policies being developed to promote university “brands” as well as protect institutional reputation. The creation and implementation of social media policies are therefore playing a role in helping universities manage both the risks and the benefits of social media in the context of an increasingly marketised Higher Education (HE environment in which protecting institutional reputation has become a priority. However, in the defence of the metaphorical institutional “share price”, some policies constrain both academic autonomy and the possibilities for innovation and risk-taking.

Tony McNeill

2012-08-01

146

Determinants of Turnover in NAB-JOBS Programs to Employ the Disadvantaged.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the individual, job related, and training variables that affected turnover in six NAB-JOBS Federally funded training programs for the disadvantaged. Three different sources of data were used. First, demographic and wage information was obtained on all trainees in five companies in order to run a regression analysis. Second, case…

Shlensky, Bertram Charles

147

Inequity in the Provision of Public Bus Service for Socially Disadvantaged Groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neo-classical economic doctrine dominating governmental policies shows its impact on recent transport policies, causing these policies; tend to base on demand and efficiency criteria instead of equity concerns. Public transit operating for remote areas is less cost-effective eventually leading to have a low level of service quality. In metropolitan areas of developing countries, a large part of socially disadvantaged and vulnerable groups live in outer suburban locations not in the inner-city. Transit equity evaluation is required by in order to consider the requirements of more vulnerable populations, as well as to foster equal benefits. The evaluation approach is based on highlighting the spatial distribution and clustering patterns of bus network and service as well as some disadvantaged social groups including unemployed, migrated, less educated, elderly, young, and disabled. The hypothesis is that vulnerable groups and economically disadvantaged communities receive a less than equal share of public bus services. The findings show that poor accessibility is associated both with low-income neighborhoods and with neighborhoods with disproportionately high populations of migrated, less-educated, unemployed and low-income groups. Modifications need to make in transport planning and policy system to achieve a better distribution of public transport services in hope of increasing level of service for minority groups and economically disadvantaged communities.

Ali Soltani

2011-09-01

148

A Reflection on The Aesthetic Experience and Its Affection in Moral Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Aesthetic is the branch of philosophy that is discussed about the perception issues including beauty, such as aesthetic experience. John Dewey as a natural philosopher, shared the twentieth century with the possibility of an empirically grounded ethics. There is much to learn from Dewey about how to proceed in an aesthetic experience in quire about morality, so it is important to explore the relation between Dewey's ethics and his aesthetic experience. This essay with analytical method is an effort to explore this relation. The result showed that Aesthetic experience, response to the demand of feeling in difference situation. Therefore, factors of artistic this experience such as feeling, imagination, compassion are the essential components of morality that complete the experience, understanding, and meaning of morality in the people. Moreover aesthetic experience and moral education are inseparable.  One of the criticize in this theory is that aesthetic experience is still new and practical application is rare and lacks of a strong theoretical structure.

Maryam Ansary

2012-09-01

149

Teach for Australia (TFA): Can It Overcome Educational Disadvantage?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…

Skourdoumbis, Andrew

2012-01-01

150

Early Childhood Education: The Disadvantaged Child: How Early is Early?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is influenced by many years of work in residential services for children in need. My experience has spanned the changing nature of residential care, from the group home model of the 1970 and 1980's - which provided long term care to children, apart from their family, with little or no family contact, - to the more individualised care offered in units today for children

1999-01-01

151

Factors affecting the intention of providers to deliver more effective continuing medical education to general practitioners: a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective types of CME; and to design a survey instrument which can be used to test the applicability of Triandis' model of social behaviour to the provision of CME to general practitioners. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 11 Australian providers of CME for interviews and a random sample of 25 providers for the pilot test. Open-ended interviews structured on Triandis' theory were performed with key informants who provide CME to GPs. These were used to develop a pilot survey instrument to measure the factors affecting intention, resulting in a revised instrument for use in further research. Results There was a broad range of factors affecting providers' intention to deliver more effective forms of CME identified, and these were classifiable in a manner which was consistent with Triandis' model. Key factors affecting providers' intention were the attitude toward CME within organisations and the time and extra work involved. Conclusions We identified a range of potential factors influencing the intention of providers to provide more effective forms of CME, in all categories of Triandis model. Those interested in increasing the choice of more effective CME activities available to GPs may need to broaden the methods used in working with providers to influence them to use more effective CME techniques. The interview material and questionnaire analysis of the pilot survey support the use of Triandis model. Further research is needed to validate Triandis'model for the intention to deliver more effective forms of CME. Such research will inform future strategies aimed at increasing the amount and choice of effective CME activities available for GPs.

Higginbotham Nick

2003-12-01

152

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

KlausFliessbach

2012-06-01

153

Improving Dietary Habits in Disadvantaged Women With HIV/AIDS: The SMART/EST Women’s Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a lack of information on whether brief nutrition education can succeed in improving longer-term dietary patterns in disadvantaged populations with HIV/AIDS. In the SMART/EST II Women’s Project 466 disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS were randomized to one of four groups and received a two-phase training consisting of a coping skills/stress management and nutrition education provided either in a group or individually. At baseline the majority of participants had excessive fat and suga...

2006-01-01

154

Can technology assist the disadvantaged student? : a case study at University of Limpopo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overwhelming majority of students entering the Historically Disadvantaged Institutions (HDIs) of Higher Learning in South Africa have not had any exposure to ICTs (computers) when they first start their education. This study examined the level of students ICT use and the extent that it was influenced by their cultural and motivational background. It then examined the instances where academic performance could be attributed to ICT use.

2010-01-01

155

Can technology assist the disadvantaged student? : a case study at University of Limpopo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overwhelming majority of students entering the Historically Disadvantaged Institutions (HDIs) of Higher Learning in South Africa have not had any exposure to ICTs (computers) when they first start their education. This study examined the level of students’ ICT use and the extent that it was influenced by their cultural and motivational background. It then examined the instances where academic performance could be attributed to ICT use. While the role of technology was clearly found to b...

2010-01-01

156

Disability and disadvantage: selection, onset, and duration effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the economic disadvantage experienced by disabled persons of working-age using data from the British Household Panel Survey. We argue that there are three sources of disadvantage among disabled persons: pre-existing disadvantage among those who become disabled (a selection effect), the effect of disability onset itself, and the effects associated with remaining disabled post-onset. We show that employment rates fall with disability onset, and continue to fall the longer a ...

Jenkins, Stephen P.; Rigg, John A.

2003-01-01

157

Disability and disadvantage: selection, onset and duration effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the economic disadvantage experienced by disabled persons of working-age using data from the British Household Panel Survey. We argue that there are three sources of disadvantage among disabled persons: pre-existing disadvantage among those who become disabled (a ¿selection¿ effect), the effect of disability onset itself, and the effects associated with remaining disabled post-onset. We show that employment rates fall with disability onset, and continue to fall the longe...

Jenkins, Stephen P.; Rigg, John A.

2003-01-01

158

Newer antiepileptic drugs: advantages and disadvantages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective for partial seizures and infantile spasms, but visual field defects are limiting its use. Lamotrigine has a wide spectrum, needs to be prescribed with care. Gabapentin is unlikely to cause adverse effects, but has relatively poor efficacy. Topiramate is widely effective, but can be poorly tolerated. Tiagabine is relatively untried in childhood epilepsies. The use of felbamate is restricted to severe refractory epilepsies. Stiripentol can be effective in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Zonisamide has a special place in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Levetiracetam, remacemide and oxcarbazepine have been used mainly for partial seizures: further studies of their roles in other circumstances are required. PMID:11504596

Wallace, S J

2001-08-01

159

Disadvantages of wind power; Ulemper med vindkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the author, most environmentalists and politicians have been so eager to prohibit emission of carbon dioxide that they have been blind to all the disadvantages of wind power, not least to the fact that the planned development will spoil our coastal landscapes. Technical and economical considerations show that there is really no hope for wind power. There is little energy per volume unit in air at atmospheric pressure in the form of normal wind. This is why wind turbines have to be so large even for the 2 - 3 MW types. Steam turbines and generators in thermal power plants based on oil, gas or coal may have a performance that is 500 times as large. The larger the 'mills' the slower they run, 20 - 30 rpm. A single gas power generator on the ground, well protected, in an easily accessible building, may produce as much as 1500 large wind power generators which are situated in highly exposed places, relatively inaccessible on top of tall towers in very tough areas along the coast. Reliability is an important issue. The author, a retired professor of electric power technology, deals with many important issues.

Andersen, Odd W.

2005-07-01

160

Advantages and disadvantages of storage with surveillance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

Tedesco, Juan Carlos

162

Multiple Disadvantages? The Earnings of Asian Women Computer Scientists in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the earnings of an under-researched group: Asian women in computer science, in the United States (U.S.. I distinguish three subsets of college-educated Asian female computer scientists working full time in the U.S.: 1 U.S.-born, U.S.-educated Asian Americans, 2 Asian-born, U.S.-educated Asian immigrants, and 3 Asian-born, Asian-educated Asian immigrants. Results from multivariate regression and quantile regressions (at the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles show that U.S.- and Asian-educated Asian immigrant women earn less on average (at the mean level and at the 10th, 50th, and/or 75th percentile levels than their white male counterparts. Only Asian American women do not earn less than their white male counterparts at any level. Further analysis reveals that Asian immigrant women earn less due to their gender, but not because of a combination of their gender and race. Neither the immigrant women’s birthplace or the origin of their degree further disadvantage their earnings. The lack of multiple disadvantages may be explained by white women earning less than expected, but not Asian immigrant women earning more than expected. Suggestions for further research are discussed.

Yu Tao

2010-06-01

163

Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

Bask, Miia

2011-01-01

164

Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?  

Science.gov (United States)

A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

2010-01-01

165

How Community Development Programmes Can Foster Re-Engagement with Learning in Disadvantaged Communities: Leadership as Process  

Science.gov (United States)

Family and community capacity building projects in Tasmania are attempting to address the disadvantage of communities marginalised by socio-economic and other influences. Collaborations between the projects, community members and groups, and education and training organisations, have resulted in a leadership process which has fostered reengagement…

Millar, Pat; Kilpatrick, Sue

2005-01-01

166

DETERMINING THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS HAVING UNDERGRADUATE TOURISM EDUCATION WITH THE DEPARTMENT BY MEANS OF THE METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION TREE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism undergraduate programs where they are registered. With this purpose, a questionnaire was performed on 1734 students. The method of classification tree was used in determining the factors affecting students’ satisfaction. As a result of the classification tree analysis, it was observed that the variable, which affected students’ satisfaction most, was the job considered to be done after graduation and that this was followed by sufficiency of job opportunities after graduation, whether the department was chosen after researching or not, whether one can be a good manager with the education received from the department or not, and whether the courses included current subjects or not, respectively.

Hac? Mehmet Yildirim

2010-04-01

167

The prospects of fostering entrepreneurial praxes by school leadership at historically disadvantaged schools in the Sedibeng area / Malefane Johannes Lebusa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study departs from the notion that historically disadvantaged schools are in a position where they face many challenges regarding their education service delivery. Among other challenges, these schools experience a shortage of both educational and infrastructural resources. Consequently, the past number of years has seen these schools loosing learners to historically advantaged schools. Many of these schools, however, manage to produce good results and attain good reputations. They thus ...

Lebusa, Malefane Johannes

2007-01-01

168

Multiple disadvantages among older citizens: what a multidimensional measure of poverty can show.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the newly created Freedom Poverty Measure, a multidimensional measure of poverty, it can be seen that there were 534,700 individuals who were in freedom poverty, who had either poor health or poor education in addition to having low incomes. This multidimensional disadvantage would not normally be captured by single measures of poverty, such as income poverty measures. Men were significantly less likely to be in freedom poverty than women (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74, p poverty increased with age, with those older than 85 being 2.3 times more likely to be in freedom poverty than those aged 65 to 69 years (95% CI: 1.73-3.11, p disadvantaged older people should take a multidisciplinary approach, addressing health inequalities in particular, not just low income. PMID:23216346

Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N

2012-01-01

169

"The Luggage that isn't Theirs is Too Heavy…":Understandings of Orphan Disadvantage in Lesotho.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans' differential disadvantage?Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach. PMID:22865946

Goldberg, Rachel E; Short, Susan E

2012-02-01

170

Socio-cultural contexts affecting the export of education: the case of Finnish primary schools and the United Arab Emirates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Finnish education system is known as one of the best performing systems in the world. This has raised a significant international interest, making the export of the Finnish know-how in education a good business opportunity. This thesis considers the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a target market for the export of Finnish primary education and analyzes the business environment particularly from socio-cultural aspects to shed more light on what to consider ahead before venturing in that area...

Hadid, Rima

2013-01-01

171

Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independen...

Qadir Farah; Khan Murad M; Medhin Girmay; Prince Martin

2011-01-01

172

A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

Beshers, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

173

Relative advantages and disadvantages of protein binding assays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antibodies and biological binder proteins are the two major types of macromolecules which are used for competitive ligand binding radioassays. The relative advantages or disadvantages of the biological binder proteins are discussed in this paper

1982-09-02

174

Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

175

How Income Contingent Loans Could Affect the Returns to Higher Education: A Microsimulation of the French Case  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms of…

Courtioux, Pierre

2012-01-01

176

Disadvantages of linguistic origin: Evidence from immigrant literacy scores  

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This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

Isphording, Ingo Eduard

2013-01-01

177

Contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação / Contributions from Henri Wallon to the relationship between cognition and affectivity in education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição [...] no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo. Abstract in english This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synt [...] hesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.

Aurino Lima, Ferreira; Nadja Maria, Acioly-Régnier.

178

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation...Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance is adapted...regulations concerning social and economic disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR...

2009-10-01

179

49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?  

Science.gov (United States)

...What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation...What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1) You must rebuttably...

2010-10-01

180

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. 1400.4 Section 1400.4 ...4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of...should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of the...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

What we call what we do affects how we do it: a new nomenclature for simulation research in medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid technological advances and concern for patient safety have increased the focus on simulation as a pedagogical tool for educating health care providers. To date, simulation research scholarship has focused on two areas; evaluating instructional designs of simulation programs, and the integration of simulation into a broader educational context. However, these two categories of research currently exist under a single label-Simulation-Based Medical Education. In this paper we argue that introducing a more refined nomenclature within which to frame simulation research is necessary for researchers, to appropriately design research studies and describe their findings, and for end-point users (such as program directors and educators), to more appropriately understand and utilize this evidence. PMID:23559018

Haji, Faizal A; Hoppe, Daniel J; Morin, Marie-Paule; Giannoulakis, Konstantine; Koh, Jansen; Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J H

2014-05-01

182

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-10-01

183

Building Capacity for Disaster Resiliency in Six Disadvantaged Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disaster plans almost always do not benefit from the knowledge and values of disadvantaged people who are frequently underrepresented in disaster planning processes. Consequently, the plans are inconsistent with the conditions, concerns, and capabilities of disadvantaged people. We present an approach to community-based participatory planning aimed at engaging marginalized and distrustful communities to build their capacity to be more disaster resilient. We review the experiences of six disadvantaged communities under the Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD project. The EPD effort revealed several critical implications: recruit a diverse set of participants for inclusive collaboration; provide analytical tools to co-develop information and empower people; employ coaches to organize and facilitate sustainable community change; design a bottom-up review process for selection of strategies that holds communities accountable; and build capacity for implementation of strategies.

David Salvesen

2010-12-01

184

Mentoring, educational services, and incentives to learn: What do we know about them?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews recent studies on the effectiveness of services and incentives offered to disadvantaged youth. We focus our analysis on three types of interventions: mentoring, educational services, and financial rewards. The objective of this article is threefold. First, we explain alternative theoretical points of view in favor (or against - when applicable) each of these interventions. Then, we discuss how recent empirical work has affected that view, and we summarize the latest finding...

2010-01-01

185

Using Social Network Analysis to Examine How Perceived Beliefs Affect Service Quality in Public Higher Education Institutions  

Science.gov (United States)

In business, educational, and other organizations, team members often connect with one another in informal groups in order to fill certain needs (Accel-Team, 2006). Such needs include the ability to connect with others who share worldviews, opinions, or beliefs. When social network analysis (SNA) or concept mapping is used to examine interpersonal…

Robinson-Neal, Andree

2009-01-01

186

Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011 and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD post hoc test was used and it was determined that in organizational culture, the mean of student than the other two groups, in empowering, the mean of employees than other groups, in the motivational factors, the mean of student than another groups and in the way of managing, the mean of employees than other two groups are different. Finally, using the technique of TOPSIS, factors affecting productivity of faculty were ranked. The results showed that the components of empowerment, environmental conditions, organizational culture, leadership method (management and motivational factors are most important in enhancing the productivity of faculty members of Ardebil universities, respectively.

Delshad Namin Shirin

2013-12-01

187

Parent education project. III: Increasing affection and responsivity in developmentally handicapped mothers: component analysis, generalization, and effects on child language.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the effects of a parent training program consisting of verbal instruction, modeling, and feedback on the affection and responsivity of 3 developmentally handicapped mothers towards their children. The results indicated the following: First, the training package increased maternal physical affection, praise, and imitation of child vocalizations. These parenting skills increased to levels found in comparison groups of nonhandicapped mothers. Second, the training package was more ef...

Feldman, M. A.; Case, L.; Rincover, A.; Towns, F.; Betel, J.

1989-01-01

188

Does making upper secondary school more comprehensive affect dropout rates, educational attainment and earnings? Evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the mid-20th century many OECD countries have discarded their previous selective schools systems, in which students early on were separated between academic and vocational tracks, in favor of more comprehensive schools. The effects of these reforms have generally been difficult to evaluate and their consequences for students' educational and labor market outcomes remain disputed. This paper evaluates the effects of the introduction of a more comprehensive upper secondary school system i...

Hall, Caroline

2009-01-01

189

San Fernando Valley State College Teacher Education Project in Compensatory Education (Elementary).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Elementary Teacher Education Project in Compensatory Education was instituted in 1967-68 at San Fernando Valley State College for the purpose of preparing teachers to work effectively with the disadvantaged at the elementary school level. Main features of the program included student teaching and intern teaching in disadvantaged urban areas;…

San Fernando Valley State Coll., Northridge, CA.

190

78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications  

Science.gov (United States)

...should register at least five business days before the date of the...entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation...i.e., DBE and non-DBE quotes, DBE subcontracts) from the...of this notice at least five business days prior to the date of...

2013-09-18

191

Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?  

Science.gov (United States)

The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

2011-01-01

192

Misperceptions of Motivation of Economically Disadvantaged Employees in Work Settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessed the cross-cultural perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors for three sets of role relationships between employers and economically-disadvantaged job trainees. Results suggest that job trainees perceived the role of a superordinate as being more punitive, more deceitful, and less friendly than the employers thought would be…

Smith, Althea; Chemers, Martin M.

1981-01-01

193

Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

Medhin Girmay

2011-09-01

194

Personal Encounter and Affective Links: "Pilot Guidance" and the Relational Nurturing Process in Education Encuentro y Vinculación Afectiva: Pilotaje y Proceso de Nutrición Relacional en Educación  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Educational institutions represent the special setting for teenagers´ socialization and development in Spain. The concern for some disruptive phenomenon which take place within the educational setting draws the attention to investigate the aspects of the educational relationship that contribute positively to students´ development and learning. From a qualitative research design, according to the criteria of theoretical sampling proposed in the methodology of qualitative data analysis of the «Grounded Theory», twenty-three individual interviews were done to secondary school parents, teachers and students. The achieved results allow to suggest the «encounter» between student and teacher, with its respective acceptance and mutual appreciation, as a central issue that enables affective link and the practice of "pilot guidance". The emergence of the basic social process referred as «relational nurturing» implies that affective support and an instructional guide empower educational and personal growth. The "pilot guidance" function, both with individuals and in class, constitutes the center of the educational relationship fostering the students´ full growth.Los centros educativos constituyen el marco preferente de socialización y desarrollo de los adolescentes en España. La preocupación por algunos fenómenos disruptivos que se producen en el marco educativo dirige la atención a investigar los aspectos de la relación educativa que contribuyen de forma positiva al desarrollo y aprendizaje del alumnado. A partir de un diseño de investigación cualitativa, siguiendo los criterios de muestreo teórico propuestos en la metodología de análisis cualitativo del "Grounded Theory", se realizaron veintitrés entrevistas individuales a padres/madres, profesorado y alumnado de educación secundaria. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer el "encuentro" entre la persona del alumno y del profesor, con su correspondiente aceptación y reconocimiento mutuo, como factor central que posibilita la vinculación afectiva y el ejercicio del pilotaje entre el profesor y el alumno. La emergencia de la "nutrición relacional" como proceso social básico, implica que el crecimiento personal y educativo se potencia a través del apoyo afectivo y de guía en el aprendizaje. La función del pilotaje educativo, tanto individual como de aula, conforma el centro de la relación educativa y contribuye al desarrollo pleno del alumnado.

Antonio Vicente Vaquer Chiva

2011-07-01

195

New Career for the Disadvantaged in Human Service (An Innovative Work-Training Effort Combining Social Rehabilitation and Occupational Change). Report of a Social Experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the program was to train disadvantaged youth and adults for new careers in human services in the helping professions of health, education, welfare, and recreation. The project was designed as an innovative work-training effort combining soc...

1970-01-01

196

School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans' school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration. PMID:20107622

Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

2009-09-01

197

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

198

Profiles of Leadership in Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen well known figures, with a common interest in disadvantaged learners, are interviewed. Many are respected members of educational institutions with expertise in teacher unions, undergraduate education, school reform, achievement gaps, research universities, preschool education at home, and teacher training. The authors of…

Goldberg, Mark F.

199

The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative…

Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.

2006-01-01

200

The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative recognition, are used, the effects seem to contradict a low-frequency advantage in memory. Four experiments are presented to support the claim that in ad...

Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Does social disadvantage affect the validity of self-report for cervical cancer screening?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aisha K Lofters,1–3 Rahim Moineddin,1,4,5 Stephen W Hwang,3,6 Richard H Glazier1–3,4,51Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 3Centre for Research on Inner City Health, The Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 4Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, 5Dalla Lana School of Public Health, ...

Ak, Lofters; Moineddin R; Sw, Hwang; Rh, Glazier

2013-01-01

202

Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity ...

Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.

1982-01-01

203

Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies cond...

Beibei Yuan; Xu Qian; Sarah Thomsen

2013-01-01

204

ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

Alexandra MUSC?NESCU

2013-01-01

205

Neutron disadvantage factors in heavy water and light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number od heavy water and light water reactor cells are analyzed in this paper by applying analytical methods of neutron thermalization. Calculations done according to the one-group Amouyal-Benoist method are included in addition. Computer codes for ZUSE Z-23 computer were written by applying both methods. The obtained results of disadvantage factors are then compared to results obtained by one-group P3 approximation and by multigroup K7-THERMOS code

1966-01-01

206

Rural-urban migratión in Bolivia: Advantages and disadvantages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of rural-urban migration, and shows that the costs of increased urbanization (crime, pollution, congestion, etc) in Bolivia are rather small compared to the costs experienced in other Latin American countries. The benefits, on the other hand, may be large. Encouraging rural-urban migration may be one of the cheapest ways of reducing poverty in Bolivia because it is so much cheaper to provide basic services like electricity, piped water, sc...

2002-01-01

207

Health improvement for disadvantaged people in Nepal – an evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken. Methods A random selection of Village Development Committees and households, within the eight Districts where participation and a Rights-based Approach had been promoted specifically by local NGOs were compared with similar villages and households in...

Rana Ram B; Ghimire Rabindra; Shah Mahendra B; Kumal Tirtha; Whitley Elise; Baker Ian A

2012-01-01

208

Nutrition habits of Physical Education and Sport High School students of Afyon Kocatepe University and factors affected the the nutrition habits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6 and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High School have inadequate knowledge on nutrition and nutrition education, they often skip meal and most of them have two meals ?n a day. A very low proportion of them have regular breakfast.In addition, it was seen that students who have good economic status and lived in the dormitory and believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast and regular nutrition.

Yunus Tortop

2011-03-01

209

General design of a technical assistance program to help DOE/prime contractor buyers in doing business with small disadvantaged businesses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.

Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

1986-04-01

210

75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department...the methodology and process used to establish their overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal...existing program waiver process offers the recipient...transportation, Minority business, Reporting and...

2010-02-03

211

Multiple disadvantaged statuses and health: the role of multiple forms of discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The double disadvantage hypothesis predicts that adults who hold more than one disadvantaged status may experience worse health than their singly disadvantaged and privileged counterparts. Research that has tested this thesis has yielded mixed findings due partly to a failure to examine the role of discrimination. This article uses data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (N = 2,647) to investigate the relationship between multiple disadvantaged statuses and health, and whether multiple forms of interpersonal discrimination contribute to this association. The results suggest that multiply disadvantaged adults are more likely to experience major depression, poor physical health, and functional limitations than their singly disadvantaged and privileged counterparts. Further, multiple forms of discrimination partially mediate the relationship between multiple stigmatized statuses and health. Taken together, these findings suggest that multiply disadvantaged adults do face a "double disadvantage" in health, in part, because of their disproportionate exposure to discrimination. PMID:24578393

Grollman, Eric Anthony

2014-03-01

212

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Science.gov (United States)

...from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia...consider education, employment and business history...education. (B) Employment. SBA considers such...terms and conditions of employment; retaliatory or discriminatory...in the Small Business Act; and (iii)...

2009-01-01

213

Learning of the Disadvantaged and School Climate. Publication No. 89.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Israel, efforts to narrow the cognitive and social gap between pupils have been directed toward integration through structural changes in the educational system, along with expected changes in the educational process. This study analyzes the relationships between the school climate and the different educational outcomes for students in various…

Inbar, Dan; Resh, Nura

214

The Project Onderwijs en Sociaal Milieu (The Project Education and Social Environment).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rotterdam City Council's Project "Education and Social Environment" was established to improve the educational environment for disadvantaged children in two workinq class neighborhoods in Rotterdam, Netherlands. First, the problems of educationally disadvantaged children are discussed. Next, the planning, organizational, and developmental…

Rotterdam School Advisory Service (Netherlands).

215

[Advantages and disadvantages of cervical esophageal anastomosis using a stapler].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of cervical anastomosis of the oesophagus by means of stapler according to the following criteria: 1. difficulty of implementation, 2. immediate results--fistulae, 3. long-term results--stenoses, 4. costs. The authors operated, using a stapler, 26 patients who developed in four instances /15.4%/ a fistula. By comparison with a retrospective group of 21 patients with eight fistule /38%/ where the anastomosis was sutured manually, they found that by using a stapler the number of complications declined. A disadvantage is the high price of staplers. PMID:8629182

Král, V; Neoral, C; Aujeský, R

1995-12-01

216

Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars aimed at increasing the levels of expenditure. Though, one may agree or disagree with the methods and findings of the author, hopefully the paper highlight the complexity of the issue at hand, and the need to understand the institutional deficiencies and allocative inefficiencies in government expenditure on education.

Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.

2009-05-01

217

Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is buil...

Peter Howard; Jude Butcher; Luke Egan

2010-01-01

218

Theories of Communications in Managing Industrial Enterprises: Advantages and Disadvantages ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????: ???????????? ? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article marks out the problem of sharp necessity of increase of effectiveness of communication processes at Ukrainian enterprises. It justifies a necessity to study the existing developments of Ukrainian and foreign scientists in this field. It conducts analysis of main theories of communication in managing industrial enterprises. It studies main definitions of the “communication process” notion, and establishes stages of this process in general and at an enterprise in particular. It studies evolution of models of the communication process, starting with the very first ones and finishing with the modern ones. It reveals their advantages and disadvantages. It establishes that the main disadvantage of these models is insufficient accountability of factors of practical and economic efficiency of the communication process. It analyses modern channels of the communication process from the point of view of origination and degree of use at enterprises. It justifies advantages of some channels of the communication process over the other ones. It identifies prospects of further studies.? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? «??????? ????????????», ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ???? ? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????. ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????.

Tertychko Tetiana

2013-07-01

219

O imperativo do afeto na educação infantil: a ordem do discurso de pedagogas em formação / The imperative of affect in early childhood education: the order of discourse of undergraduate education students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que teve como foco de análise a problematização dos discursos sobre afeto docente presentes em relatórios de um estágio realizado em turmas de Educação Infantil por 30 acadêmicas de Pedagogia em fase de conclusão do curso. O objetivo do artigo é probl [...] ematizar como os discursos sobre afeto se constituem enquanto imperativos que inventam e regulam os modos de exercício docente. O campo de estudos no qual se fundamentou a pesquisa foi o dos estudos culturais e dos estudos desenvolvidos por Michel Foucault. A metodologia consistiu na análise do discurso foucaultiana, por meio da qual foram destacadas as regularidades e inflexões presentes nos relatórios. Estes foram escritos a partir de elementos recordatórios, como fotos, planejamentos e demais registros das acadêmicas. A análise evidenciou a assunção da afetividade como um imperativo profissional associado a um processo de generificação da docência. A partir da pesquisa, concluiu-se que os significados do afeto no exercício da docência só existem como resultados inacabados de processos que tratam de nomeá-lo e conformá-lo. Por essa razão, se for assumida a perspectiva de que os discursos que tomam o afeto como imperativo docente presentes nos relatórios analisados são produzidos pelas práticas sociais, pelas relações de poder e pelo tipo de lógica disciplinar que os operacionaliza, é possível desnaturalizá-los e reinventá-los, experimentando outros modos de agir e de pensar o exercício da docência na Educação Infantil. Abstract in english This article presents the results of a study that focused on the problematization of the discourses on teacher affect present in reports of an internship in early childhood education classes of 30 Education students nearing graduation. The aim of this paper is to discuss how discourses on affect bec [...] ome imperatives that invent and regulate the ways of teaching. The research was based on cultural studies and the studies developed by Michel Foucault. Its methodology consisted of Foucauldian discourse analysis, through which regularities and inflections found in the reports were highlighted. These reports were written using memory aids such as photos, plans, and other records of the students. The analysis evidenced the assumption of affection as a professional imperative associated with a process of gendering of teaching. From the research, it was concluded that the meanings of affect in the teaching profession only exist as unfinished results of processes that deal with naming it and shaping it. For this reason, if one assumes the perspective that the discourses that take affect as a teacher imperative, as the ones present in the reports analyzed, are produced by social practices, by the relations of power and type of disciplinary logic that operationalizes such discourses, it is possible to denaturalize them and reinvent them, experimenting with other ways of acting and thinking of teaching in early childhood education.

Carvalho, Rodrigo Saballa de.

220

The impact of HIV/AIDS on children's educational outcome: a critical review of global literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of children losing one or both parents to HIV/AIDS has continued to rise in the past decade, with most of them being school-aged children. This study reviews global literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS (e.g., parental HIV-related illness or death) on children's schooling. Systematic review procedures generated 23 studies for examination. Existing studies show educational disadvantages among children affected by AIDS in various educational outcomes, including school enrollment and attendance, school behavior and performance, school completion, and educational attainment. A number of individual and contextual factors potentially moderate or mediate the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's education. These factors include gender of child, pattern of parental loss (maternal vs. paternal vs. dual), living arrangement (relationship with caregivers, gender of the household head), and household poverty. Current literature indicates limitations in number and scope of existing studies and in educational outcome measurements. There is a lack of studies with longitudinal design and data collection from multiple sources (e.g., students, teachers, caregivers), and a lack of studies on the relationship between psychosocial well-being of children affected by AIDS and their educational outcomes. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate both individual and contextual factors for children affected by AIDS in various regions. More efforts are needed to design and implement culturally appropriate and context-specific approaches to improve the educational outcomes of children affected by AIDS. PMID:22519300

Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Sherr, Lorraine

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Higher education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last five years higher education research in Germany seems to be in a significant upturn. This is a side effect partly of the obvious boom of empirical educational research in general and partly of the reform movement that has affected the German higher education system since middle of the 1990s. The demand for data in the field of higher education will increase considerably in future. The available data infrastructure for higher education research in Germany consists of two comple...

Wolter, Andra?

2009-01-01

222

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Yaping Chen

2013-07-01

223

Materials and Ideas: Affective Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Classroom techniques and material usage can change student attitudes and the concept that American society, and American schools as a microcosm of that society have become one in which to be real, to extend oneself for others is the exception, not the rule. (JB)

Sipher, Roger

1973-01-01

224

Social stability and health: exploring multidimensional social disadvantage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social stability is an understudied construct in public health that offers a useful framework for understanding social disadvantage across multiple domains. This study investigated prevalence and patterns of cooccurrence among a hypothesized set of social stability characteristics (housing, residential transition, employment, income, incarceration, and partner relationship), evaluated the possibility of underlying subgroups of social stability, and investigated the association between social stability and health outcomes. Data were from comprehensive interviews with primarily African-American low income urban women and their female social network members (n?=?635) in Baltimore. Analysis included exploratory statistics, latent class analysis, and latent class regression accounting for clustered data using Stata and Mplus software. Social stability characteristics cooccurred in predictable directions, but with heterogeneity. Respondents had an average of three stability characteristics (S.D.: 1.4). Latent class analysis identified two classes of social stability: low (25%) and high (75%), with the higher class less likely to experience each of the included indicators. In controlled models, higher social stability was significantly correlated with social network characteristics and neighborhood integration. Higher social stability was independently associated with reduced risk of chronic illness (AOR: 0.54, 95% C.I.: 0.31, 0.94), mental illness history (AOR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.39), and current depressive symptoms (AOR: 0.35, 95% C.I.: 0.22, 0.57). The current set of social stability characteristics appears to represent a single construct with identifiable underlying subgroups and associated health disparities. Findings suggest a need for comprehensive policies and programs that address structural determinants of cooccurring social disadvantage and help to mitigate the likely spiral effect of instability experiences. PMID:22131164

German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A

2012-02-01

225

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003-2010 (n = 55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55 % of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2 % lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

Mendez, Dara D; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H; Amutah, Ndidi N; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M

2014-07-01

226

Education  

...Education Institute of Physics institute,physics,iop,policy,consultations This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site you agree to our ... IOP Institute of Physics For physics bull; For physicists bull; For all Home News About us Contact us Calendar MyIOP Search ...on proposed GCE AS and A Level Subject Content for Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Psychology. 20 December 2013 SCORE's response (PDF, ...A response to the Welsh Government on behalf of the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry and the Society of Biology....

227

Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

Song, Steve

2011-01-01

228

An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of the Staff Development Model and the Research-Based Assessment Plan in Improving the Identification of Gifted Economically Disadvantaged Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource.\tThis monograph discusses a project involving 246 teachers that investigated a Staff Development Model (SDM) and a Research-Based Assessment Plan (RAP) for their potential to improve the identification and education of gifted students from economically disadvantaged families, some of whom have limited proficiency in the English language. The concept of giftedness as a psychological construct defined by a basic set...

1995-01-01

229

Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). No...

Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

2010-01-01

230

The Influence of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Perceived Disapproval on Early Substance Use Initiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study examined the role of neighborhood disadvantage, perceived caregiver disapproval, and perceived peer disapproval in early initiation of substance use in a sample of 126 aggressive 9th graders (66% male; 79% African American). Findings suggested that perceived caregiver and peer disapproval as well as neighborhood disadvantage were associated with early substance use initiation. However, when associations were simultaneously examined, neighborhood disadvantage was the only fac...

Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

2009-01-01

231

Continuity and change in pathways to young adult disadvantage: results from a British birth cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A life-course account of the pathways to adult social exclusion for children born in 1958 is explored. We identify the pervasive childhood factors, associated with a wide range of adult disadvantage, and specific life-course domain antecedents. Childhood disadvantage has more powerful legacies for women than for men: pathways to social exclusion are gendered. Experiences of disadvantage between ages 16 and 23 relate as closely to outcomes at age 33 as at age 23. The excess legacy of childhood...

Hobcraft, John

2003-01-01

232

Advantages and disadvantages of fixed exchange rate: Lithuania‘s case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Master‘s thesis main advantages and disadvantages of Fixed Exchange Rate were distinguished, analyzed their impact on Lithuania‘s economy and evaluated whether a common currency with the euro-zone countries would be useful. In the first part of the paper the main Exchange Rate Regime advantages and disadvantages were identified, main developments of Lithuania’s monetary policy and optimum currency area were overviewed. The impact of fixed exchange rate advantages and disadvantage...

2013-01-01

233

Business planning innovative projects: the essence of technology, advantages and disadvantages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.

2012-01-01

234

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvantagesof accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach.Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by thekeywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health careand Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria.From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages anddisadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were comparedon these.Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO fromUSA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia,New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: qualityimprovement, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confidence,effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards,information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders,agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government.Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have definedfrom a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA ofCanada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programssuch as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accreditationprograms were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision forany country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specificobjectives and needs.

Andrew J. Wilson

2011-07-01

235

Operation of roof pond systems, considering its advantages and disadvantages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. The roof pond system is a passive solar system which gathers heat from the sun and can distribute it to the living space to cool it or heat it by changing the operating cycle. Although not recent, this method has not been widely implemented due to certain limitations and the aim of this paper is to assess the different advantages and disadvantages of this system over other passive solar heating systems. This study showed that a roof pond has a low impact on the building, provides controllable energy delivery and variations in indoor temperature are low; however it requires an active solar system as a backup and vegetation can limit sunlight penetration. This study highlighted that the efficiency of the roof system pond depends on climate conditions and that it is best suited to lower latitude and low humidity areas.

Noohi, Samira; Rezaei, Davood [Faculty of engineering, Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: noohi.sam@gmail.com, email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir

2011-07-01

236

The Adequacy of Traveller Education in Northern Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues facing Travellers, including those associated with education are often linked to social exclusion, widespread disadvantage and discrimination (Reynolds, McCartan, and Knipe 2003). The Office for Standards in Education (Office for Standards in Education 1999) referred to Gypsy Traveller pupils as "the most at risk in the education…

Hamilton, Jennifer; Bloomer, Fiona; Potter, Michael

2012-01-01

237

Federalism, Equity, and the Distribution of Federal Education Grants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partly because of the rise of block grants, federal distribution mechanisms raise the issues of federal control and distributional equity in elementary-secondary grant programs. Data--drawn from such major programs as aid for education of the disadvantaged, aid for education of the handicapped, vocational education, and bilingual education--were…

Barro, Stephen M.

238

Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans. Final report, March 1, 1984--November 30, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

1992-12-01

239

What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

2011-01-01

240

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage exacerbates the intergenerational transmission of substance dependence. Among 3056 community-based young adults (18-22 years, 2007), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7.3%) was doubled in the presence of combined parental alcohol dependence and socioeconomic disadvantage.

Melchior, Maria; Choquet, Marie; Le Strat, Yann; Hassler, Christine; Gorwood, Philip

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

242

Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

2013-01-01

243

Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

Barnett, Melissa A.

2008-01-01

244

The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

2007-01-01

245

Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and behavioural problems from late childhood into early adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Study objective: This study investigates whether neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage may contribute to child behavioural and emotional problems, beyond the effects of parental socioeconomic status. It also examines the influence of neighbourhood disadvantage on changes in the frequency of behavioural problems from late childhood into early adolescence.

Schneiders, J.; Drukker, M.; Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.; Os, J.; Nicolson, N.

2003-01-01

246

Project P-BLISS: An Experiment in Curriculum for Gifted Disadvantaged High School Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

How can high schools counteract deterrents to achievement that disadvantaged students face? "Project P-BLISS: Problem-Based Learning in the Social Sciences" presents "hidden" disadvantaged gifted students with a curriculum that first captures their interest and challenges them to realize their true potential. (MLH)

Gallagher, Shelagh A.

2000-01-01

247

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

248

A Career and Learning Transitional Model for Those Experiencing Labour Market Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…

Cameron, Roslyn

2009-01-01

249

FAIR VALUE IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.

Miroslav Škoda

2012-01-01

250

Development of Nuclear Energy in Ukraine. Necessity, Advantages and Disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to current projections of economic development of Ukraine, domestic consumption of electricity will grow from the present level of 190 billion kWh / year to about 280 billion kWh / year in 2030, which determines the prospects of the electricity industry development. Alternative ''green'' energy sources - solar, wind and small hydropower can develop only within a commercially reasonable considering temporary ''green'' tariff, which is far above the rates for traditional sources. According to prognoses the share of ''green'' energy sources in Ukraine in 2030 will not exceed 10-15% regardless of their environmental appeal. The updated nuclear energy development strategy by 2030 will save the share of nuclear electricity generation at the achieved level about half of total domestic electricity production. Development of nuclear power generation in the period to 2030 provides: increase the safety of the operating NPP; efficiency increase of existing nuclear power plants (up to 85% in terms of the basic mode of operation); continued of NPP units operation for 20 years over time, provided the original design; completion of the units 3,4 Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in 2017; construction and commissioning prior to 2027 three new nuclear power units the total capacity to 3.5 GW on new NPP site; beginning in 2022-2029 years construction of new nuclear reactors at sites of existing nuclear power plants to replace existing units that will be decommissioned after 2030; implementation of the units preparation to decommissioning after an additional period of operation; improvement of infrastructure support and development of nuclear power generation. In the article analyzes the necessity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy in Ukraine in the Updated Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2030.(author).

2012-06-03

251

Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of historically disadvantaged primary schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically disadvantaged schools are mostly in a position where they cannot easily practise entrepreneurial customs like innovation, proactiveness and risktaking. However, some of these schools perform well under similar circumstances and show strong entrepreneurial inclinations. In fact, in research conducted in 2006, Lebusa and Xaba found that there were very strong prospects of fostering entrepreneurial customs at historically disadvantaged schools. It was found that schools were already practising innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking, albeit unintentionally. We report on the practice of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking at historically disadvantaged schools. Case examples of three successful entrepreneurial historically disadvantaged primary schools are presented. Results indicate novel and innovative ventures undertaken at these schools and clearly indicate that some historically disadvantaged schools are indeed entrepreneurially oriented.

Mgadla Xaba

2010-01-01

252

Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of historically disadvantaged primary schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Historically disadvantaged schools are mostly in a position where they cannot easily practise entrepreneurial customs like innovation, proactiveness and risktaking. However, some of these schools perform well under similar circumstances and show strong entrepreneurial inclinations. In fact, in resea [...] rch conducted in 2006, Lebusa and Xaba found that there were very strong prospects of fostering entrepreneurial customs at historically disadvantaged schools. It was found that schools were already practising innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking, albeit unintentionally. We report on the practice of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking at historically disadvantaged schools. Case examples of three successful entrepreneurial historically disadvantaged primary schools are presented. Results indicate novel and innovative ventures undertaken at these schools and clearly indicate that some historically disadvantaged schools are indeed entrepreneurially oriented.

Mgadla, Xaba; Macalane, Malindi.

253

A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

2007-01-01

254

Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0·035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

255

Mammography screening on healthy women - advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies from USA, the Netherlands and Sweden demonstrate that mamography screening reduces breast cancer mortality in women aged 50 to 74. Younger women do not profit. The results of mammography screening has never been compared with those of an organized health education programme for promoting self examination. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of mammography for screening purpose must be scrutinized. The consequences of false positive tests are at best anxiety, at worst needless breast operations. An estimate of such consequences for the female population in Oslo is presented

1986-01-01

256

Early care and education for children in immigrant families.  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial and growing share of the population, immigrant children are more likely than children with native-born parents to face a variety of circumstances, such as low family income, low parental education, and language barriers that place them at risk of developmental delay and poor academic performance once they enter school. Lynn Karoly and Gabriella Gonzalez examine the current role of and future potential for early care and education (ECE) programs in promoting healthy development for immigrant children. Participation in center-based care and preschool programs has been shown to have substantial short-term benefits and may also lead to long-term gains as children go through school and enter adulthood. Yet, overall, immigrant children have lower rates of participation in nonparental care of any type, including center-based ECE programs, than their native counterparts. Much of the participation gap can be explained by just a few economic and sociodemographic factors, the authors find. To some extent, the factors that affect disadvantaged immigrant children resemble those of their similarly disadvantaged native counterparts. Affordability, availability, and access to ECE programs are structural barriers for many immigrant families, as they are for disadvantaged families more generally. Language barriers, bureaucratic complexity, and distrust of government programs, especially among undocumented immigrants, are unique challenges that may prevent some immigrant families from taking advantage of ECE programs, even when their children might qualify for subsidies. Cultural preferences for parental care at home can also be a barrier. Thus the authors suggest that policy makers follow a two-pronged approach for improving ECE participation rates among immigrant children. First, they note, federal and state ECE programs that target disadvantaged children in general are likely to benefit disadvantaged immigrant children as well. Making preschool attendance universal is one way to benefit all immigrant children. Second, participation gaps that stem from the unique obstacles facing immigrants, such as language barriers and informational gaps, can be addressed through the way publicly subsidized and private or nonprofit programs are structured. PMID:21465856

Karoly, Lynn A; Gonzalez, Gabriella C

2011-01-01

257

Brains over brawn: experience overcomes a size disadvantage in fish social hierarchies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Life experiences can alter cognitive abilities and subsequent behavior. Here we asked whether differences in experience could affect social status. In hierarchical animal societies, high-ranking males that typically win aggressive encounters gain territories and hence access to mates. To understand the relative contributions of social experience and physical environment on status, we used a highly territorial African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, that lives in a dynamic lek-like social hierarchy. Astatotilapia burtoni males are either dominant or submissive and can switch status rapidly depending on the local environment. Although dominant males are innately aggressive, we wondered whether they modulated their aggression based on experience. We hypothesized that as males mature they might hone their fighting tactics based on observation of other males fighting. We compared males of different ages and sizes in distinctly different physical environments and subsequently tested their fighting skills. We found that a size difference previously thought negligible (<10% body length) gave a significant advantage to the larger opponent. In contrast, we found no evidence that increasing environmental complexity affected status outcomes. Surprisingly, we found that males only a few days older than their opponents had a significant advantage during territorial disputes so that being older compensated for the disadvantage of being smaller. Moreover, the slightly older winners exploited a consistent fighting strategy, starting with lower levels of aggression on the first day that significantly increased on the second day, a pattern absent in younger winners. These data suggest that experience is an advantage during fights for status, and that social learning provides more relevant experience than the physical complexity of the territory. PMID:24436381

Alcazar, Rosa M; Hilliard, Austin T; Becker, Lisa; Bernaba, Michael; Fernald, Russell D

2014-05-01

258

PROJECT SUMMER '67, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH--AN EVALUATION.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE LOS ANGELES CITY JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT CONDUCTED A 6-WEEK EXPERIMENT FOR THREE GROUPS OF UNDEREDUCATED YOUTH--(1) 50 WITH LOW HIGH SCHOOL GRADES, (2) 51 FROM BILINGUAL HOMES AND ALSO WITH LOW GRADES, AND (3) 51 ADMITTED TO COLLEGE BUT UNABLE TO MAINTAIN A C AVERAGE. AMONG THE PROGRAM'S 10 OBJECTIVES WERE (1) REFINING CERTAIN TEACHING…

GOLD, BENJAMIN K.

259

Educational reform and disadvantaged students : are they better off or worse off?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the effects of increased academic standards on both average achievement levels and on equality of opportunity. The five policies evaluated are: (1) universal Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems, (2) voluntary curriculum-based external exit exam systems with partial coverage such as New York State Regents exams in 1992, (3) state minimum competency graduation tests, (4) state defined minimums for the total number of courses students must take and pass to get a high ...

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran

2004-01-01

260

History of Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Allostatic Load in Later Life  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a growing interest in understanding how the experience of socioeconomic status (SES) adversity across the life course may accumulate to negatively affect the functioning of biological regulatory systems important to functioning and health in later adulthood. The goal of the present analyses was to examine whether greater life course SES adversity experience would be associated with higher scores on a multi-system allostatic load (AL) index of physiological function in adulthood. Data...

Gruenewald, Tara L.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Hu, Perry; Stein-merkin, Sharon; Crandall, Carolyn; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Seeding Literacy: Adult Educators Research Their Practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents five reports that represent research conducted by adult educators. "Supporting Adult Educators in Researching Their Practice" (Janelle Davis, Jean Searle) presents results of four action research projects related to developing literacies for disadvantaged groups or groups with special needs. "Towards Mutual Benefits:…

Davis, Janelle; Searle, Jean

262

Effects of Teaching with Mosston's Command, Practice, and Reciprocal Styles on Affective Reactions of Sixth-Grade Students toward Physical Education Lessons  

Science.gov (United States)

This study deals with the effects of teaching based on Mosston and Ashtworth's reciprocal style on primary school sixth-grade students' attitudes toward physical education lessons. The study used a pretest-posttest control group design on 37 students from two sixth-grade classes at Demirlibahce primary school, Ankara, Turkey. The study lasted 14…

Yoncalik, Oguzhan; Yetim, A. Azmi; Senel, Omer

2009-01-01

263

Factors Affecting the State Anxiety Level of Higher Education Students in Macau: The Impact of Trait Anxiety and Self-Esteem  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…

Cheung, Hoi-Yan

2006-01-01

264

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...socially or economically disadvantaged includes but is not limited to: (1) Statistical profile outlining the national income level and standard of living enjoyed by members of the group in comparison to the income level and standard of...

2010-01-01

265

Urban area disadvantage and physical activity: a multilevel study in Melbourne, Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To estimate variation between small areas in the levels of walking, cycling, jogging, and swimming and overall physical activity and the importance of area level socioeconomic disadvantage in predicting physical activity participation.

Kavanagh, A.; Goller, J.; King, T.; Jolley, D.; Crawford, D.; Turrell, G.

2005-01-01

266

Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives To determine the impact on teenage pregnancy of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the United Kingdom.

Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann

2009-01-01

267

41 CFR 102-117.55 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? 102-117...55 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? (a) Using... (b) Using a rate tender may be a disadvantage when: (1) You have...

2009-07-01

268

41 CFR 102-117.35 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service...35 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service...and damage claims. (b) It is a disadvantage to use GSA's tender of service...

2009-07-01

269

A survey of the perceptions of previously disadvantaged South Africans on taxation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article investigates the perceptions prevalent amongst previously disadvantaged South Africans on taxation. A need identified in this study is that of more knowledge regarding tax systems, the implementation thereof and the utilization of revenue received from taxation. The South African Government has the opportunity to empower previously disadvantaged South Africans, by providing information sessions to them regarding taxation. Another important point proven from this study is that pre...

Oberholzer, Ruanda

2005-01-01

270

Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of historically disadvantaged primary schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically disadvantaged schools are mostly in a position where they cannot easily practise entrepreneurial customs like innovation, proactiveness and risktaking. However, some of these schools perform well under similar circumstances and show strong entrepreneurial inclinations. In fact, in research conducted in 2006, Lebusa and Xaba found that there were very strong prospects of fostering entrepreneurial customs at historically disadvantaged schools. It was found that schools were already...

2010-01-01

271

Consequences of Socioeconomic Disadvantage across Three Generations: Parenting Behavior and Child Externalizing Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study considered the intergenerational consequences of experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage within the family of origin. Specifically, the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage experienced during adolescence on the timing of parenthood as well as the association between early parenthood and risk for harsh parenting and emerging child problem behavior was evaluated. Participants included 154 3-generation families, followed prospectively over a 12-year period. Results indicated...

Scaramella, Laura V.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna L.; Conger, Rand D.

2008-01-01

272

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results g...

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

273

Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal S...

Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

2009-01-01

274

Telecommuting: Implications for Business Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advantages to telecommuting are flexibility, control, productivity, morale, quality of life, and, for employers, access to a wider skill pool. Disadvantages are frustration, isolation, sweatshop potential, and resentment of co-workers. Business education should emphasize keyboarding, telecommunications, time management, and communication skills in…

Holmquist, Donna; Risk, Shirley

1991-01-01

275

The Utopia of Science Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this forum I expand on the ideas I initially presented in "Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities" by responding to the comments provided by Matthew Weinstein, Francis Broadway and Sheri Leafgren. Focusing on their notion of utopias and superheroes, I ask us to reconsider…

Castano, Carolina

2012-01-01

276

Can Education Compensate for Society?  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

Pring, Richard

2011-01-01

277

Educational Change in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this article is to discuss the possibility of adapting the suggestions by Hargreaves and Shirley (2009) in their book "The Fourth Way." This paper will discuss the topic of educational change and reform through three main points. First, it will review the most important advantages and disadvantages that characterize the…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

2014-01-01

278

Neighborhood Effects on Educational Attainment: A Multilevel Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents results of a study of neighborhood effects on educational attainment in Scotland. Reports a significant negative association between deprivation in the home neighborhood and educational attainment. Concludes that policies to alleviate educational disadvantage must focus on social deprivation in the society at large and not just on…

Garner, Catherine L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

1991-01-01

279

Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

2012-01-01

280

Using Elderly Educators to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used elderly educator method for increasing rate of return of fecal occult blood sampling in colorectal screening among 171 socioeconomically disadvantaged older persons. Two methods using elderly educators had overall response rate of more than 60%. Found statistically significant difference between two methods that used elderly educators and two…

Weinrich, Sally P.; And Others

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime.

Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

2014-01-01

282

Dyads affected by chronic heart failure : a randomised study evaluating effects of education and psychosocial support to patients and their partners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Chronic heart failure (HF) may cause great suffering for both patients and their partners. High marital quality with sufficient emotional support has been found to influence long-term survival in patients with chronic HF. However, emotional reactions of burden, stress and depression have been found to be associated with the partner’s new role. Psychosocial support, and patients-partner education is usually not included in standard chronic HF care despite recommendations in inter...

A?gren, Susanna; Evangelista, Lorraine; Hjelm, Carina; Stro?mberg, Anna

2012-01-01

283

GLOBALISATION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MANUFACTURER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but the views are so diverse and contradictory that it still is not reached even a universally accepted definition. Perhaps it is the so controversial topic that makes him so attractive. If some persons believe that the phenomenon of globalization ends before reaching its peak, others consider that the current situation is just the beginning of an era in which there are no boundaries.

Adriana Manolic?

2012-12-01

284

41 CFR 102-117.50 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP...50 What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP...requirement. (b) The FAR may be a disadvantage when you: (1) Cannot...

2010-07-01

285

Schools for health, education and development: a call for action.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, the World Health Organization, together with United Nations and international organization as well as experts, met to draw upon existing evidence and practical experience from regions, countries and individual schools in promoting health through schools. The goal of the meeting was to identify current and emerging global factors affecting schools, and to help them respond more effectively to health, education and development opportunities. At the meeting, a Statement was developed describing effective approaches and strategies that can be adopted by schools to promote health, education and development. Five key challenges were identified. These described the need to continue building evidence and capturing practical experience in school health; the importance of improving implementation processes to ensure optimal transfer of evidence into practice; the need to alleviating social and economic disadvantage in access to and successful completion of school education; the opportunity to harness media influences for positive benefit, and the continuing challenge to improve partnerships among different sectors and organizations. The participants also identified a range of actions needed to respond to these challenges, highlighting the need for action by local school communities, governments and international organizations to invest in quality education, and to increase participation of children and young people in school education. This paper describes the rationale for and process of the meeting and the development of the Statement and outlines some of the most immediate efforts made to implement the actions identified in the Statement. It also suggests further joint actions required for the implementation of the Statement. PMID:19039034

Tang, Kwok-Cho; Nutbeam, Don; Aldinger, Carmen; St Leger, Lawrence; Bundy, Donald; Hoffmann, Anna Maria; Yankah, Ekua; McCall, Doug; Buijs, Goof; Arnaout, Said; Morales, Sofialeticia; Robinson, Faye; Torranin, Charuaypon; Drake, Lesley; Abolfotouh, Mostafa; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Meresman, Sergio; Odete, Cossa; Joukhadar, Abdul-Halim; Avison, Claire; Wright, Cream; Huerta, Franscico; Munodawafa, Davison; Nyamwaya, David; Heckert, Karen

2009-03-01

286

Diet and social disadvantage: the 'Medical Home' improves nutrition in childhood and diminishes likelihood of disease in adult life.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well appreciated that malnutrition in early life has an adverse impact on the overall health of adults. In this review, we address the impact of malnutrition, social disadvantages, and poverty on the lives of children. An integrated response to these difficulties associated in the lives of children, families and the communities in which they live - the "Medical Home" - is suggested as a means to promote health for all ages. The four types of malnutrition delineated by the World Health Organization are discussed, as are differences between "socioeconomic status" and "social gradient." The latter construct is more meaningful from a health care standpoint as differences within each of the socioeconomic groupings are greater than differences between them. Poverty affects food choices with a profound impact on nutritional status. This review suggests how providing a "Medical Home" can improve dietary habits, improve overall nutrition and prevent disease. PMID:21820827

Karp, Robert J; Shlomovich, Mark; Bruno, Laura

2011-10-01

287

Civic Returns to Higher Education: A Note on Heterogeneous Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

American educational leaders and philosophers have long valued schooling for its role in preparing the nation’s youth to be civically engaged citizens. Numerous studies have found a positive relationship between education and subsequent civic participation. However, little is known about possible variation in effects by selection into higher education, a critical omission considering education’s expressed role as a key mechanism for integrating disadvantaged individuals into civic life. I...

Brand, Jennie E.

2010-01-01

288

Mesa Public Schools Project Alpine: Outdoor Education Program for Educationally Deprived.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purposes and objectives are set forth for this outdoor education program designed to concentrate on the educationally disadvantaged. Selection procedures, letters and forms utilized, and daily schedules are included. Segments of the program evaluated are nature studies, nature crafts, food preparation and clean-up, recreation, budget, and…

Palmer, Norman J.; Ellsworth, Reed L.

289

Education for a New Era: Stakeholders' Perception of Qatari Education Reform  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports the results of a qualitative research study that explores principal, teacher, and parent perceptions with regard to Qatar's education reform, Education for a New Era (EFNE) launched in 2004. The study focuses on the effects of the reform on each group, their perceived advantages and disadvantages of the reform, and the…

Ellili-Cherif, Maha; Romanowski, Michael

2013-01-01

290

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.Keywords: delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic disadvantaged, neigborhood, health policy

Aremu O

2011-07-01

291

Civic Education: What Schools Can Do to Encourage Civic Identity and Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The timeliness of civic education for American youth is discussed. Particular attention is given to the history of calls for civic education, the state of civic education in schools today, particularly those serving youth in disadvantaged contexts, and the specific ways in which schools can better address the civic education needs of contemporary…

Youniss, James

2011-01-01

292

Gendered motivational processes affecting high school mathematics participation, educational aspirations, and career plans: a comparison of samples from Australia, Canada, and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United States (Ns = 358, 471, 418, respectively) in Grades 9/10 at Time 1 and Grades 11/12 at Time 2. The 3 samples came from suburban middle to upper-middle socioeconomic backgrounds, primarily of Anglo-European descent. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed stereotypic gender differences in educational and occupational outcomes only among the Australian sample. Multigroup structural equation models identified latent mean differences where male adolescents held higher intrinsic value for math in the Australian sample and higher ability/success expectancy in both North American samples. Ability/success expectancy was a key predictor in the North American samples, in contrast to intrinsic value in the Australian sample. Attainment/utility ("importance") values were more important for female adolescents' career choices, except in the Australian sample. Findings are interpreted in relation to gender socialization practices, degree and type of early choice, and specialization across settings. Implications are discussed for long-term math engagement and career selection for female and male adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22468566

Watt, Helen M G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Morris, Zoe A; Durik, Amanda M; Keating, Daniel P; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

2012-11-01

293

Afetividade, cognição e educação: ensaio acerca da demarcação de fronteiras entre os conceitos e a dificuldade de ser do homem Affectivity, cognition and education: essay about the demarcation of borders between concepts and the difficulty of being human  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Busca-se discutir os conceitos afetividade e cognição, e suas implicações na educação. Parte-se da ideia de que a diferença entre humanos e demais seres decorre da necessidade de aprender a ser; ou seja, das dificuldades de ser do homem, advindas desse exercício, e não o emprego puro e simples da racionalidade. Schopenhauer apresenta a hipótese de que as noções de tempo e espaço são resultado da sensibilidade e percepção acerca, respectivamente, dos fenômenos do movimento e das relações das coisas no mundo. Infere-se, então, que das relações estabelecidas ao longo de suas trajetórias existenciais entre as coisas e seres nascem os afetos, ou seja, os modos como as coisas (ou seres afetam ou são afetadas em suas diversas manifestações. A tese deste ensaio sugere que a razão nada mais é do que a afetividade formatada ao modo humano: a resultante do sentido existencial entrecruzado à realidade. Logo não haveria supremacia da cognição em detrimento da afetividade, por serem um e mesmo fenômeno: o do entendimento da realidade; baseando-se nos afetos sentidos e percebidos pelo sujeito. Tal premissa pode contribuir com o pensamento educacional ao (reintegrar a afetividade e a cognição, ao contrário do que se vem praticando: um privilégio exacerbado da educação racionalista. Essa (reintegração pode ocorrer pela conjunção da Arte, da Filosofia e da Psicologia, o que, de certo modo, defende a Pedagogia Waldorf, de Rudolf Steiner.The goal of this article is to discuss the concepts of affectivity and cognition, and their implications to education. The main idea is that, what really differentiates mankind from the other forms of life is not the simple use of rationality, but rather originates from the necessity of learning to be, that is, man's difficulty of being. A hypothesis by philosopher Schopenhauer presents the notions of time and space as being a result of human sensibility and perceptions about the movement and the relationship among elements in the world, respectively. As such, it is inferred that, affects are originated from these established relations; that is, how things or beings affect or are affected in their different manifestations. The thesis of this essay defends the possibility of reason being the affective root between the existential feelings and reality. Therefore, there would be no supremacy of the cognitive aspects granted by rationality in regards to affective aspects, inasmuch as they are the same phenomenon: the knowledge, which is built on interpretations of reality - interpretations based on affects felt and acknowledged by an individual. Such premise could contribute to education by integrating affectivity and cognition, as opposed to the common exacerbated privilege of rational education. Such integration can be accomplished by the integration of Art, Philosophy and Psychology, which in a way supports the Waldorf Pedagogy, by Rudolf Steiner.

René Simonato Sant'Ana

2010-01-01

294

EVALUATION OF THE NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT CONFERENCE NUMBER 2. (TITLE SUPPLIED).  

Science.gov (United States)

EDUCATORS ARE NOT ADEQUATELY FINDING WAYS TO DEAL WITH THE DISADVANTAGED IN AMERICA. THEY ASSUME THAT THEY MUST MAKE THE DISADVANTAGED CONFORM TO AND FUNCTION IN THE DOMINANT MIDDLE-CLASS SOCIETY. HOWEVER, WHILE THE MIDDLE CLASS SEEMS TO FAVOR A HOMOGENIZATION OF ALL CULTURES, SOME MINORITY CULTURES RESIST THIS PRESSURE AND FAVOR A SOCIETY IN…

POPKIN, RICHARD H.

295

Considerações sobre o ensino médico no Brasil: consequências afetivo-emocionais nos estudantes / Considerations on medical education and its affective and emotional impact on medical students in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Faz-se uma revisão não exaustiva da evolução do ensino médico no Brasil desde sua origem, passando pelas inúmeras reformas praticadas, que buscam melhorar a formação técnica dos estudantes. Chama-se a atenção para o fato de nessas reformas nunca terem sido referidas questões como o bem-estar e a saú [...] de mental dos alunos. O curso de Medicina sempre foi considerado estressante, mas a preocupação com esse aspecto é recente na história. Alguns estudos tentam identificar a fase do curso mais estressante, e a maioria indica a primeira série do ciclo clínico. Outros tentam apontar os fatores mais responsáveis pelo estresse, buscando-os nas características dos alunos e do curso. São apontados os diagnósticos mais frequentes citados na literatura e sugestões para minimizar esse processo no âmbito das escolas médicas. Abstract in english This article provides a non-exhaustive review of the evolution in medical education in Brazil since its origins, touching on the various curricular reforms that have sought to improve medical students' technical training. Interestingly, such reforms have never addressed the students' mental health a [...] nd well-being. Medical training has always been considered stressful, but real concern over this aspect is recent. Some studies have attempted to identify the most stressful phase in medical education, and most point to the first year of clinical training. Others seek to identify the most important stress factors, among course-related and individual student characteristics. The study highlights the most frequent diagnoses cited in the literature and provides suggestions to minimize this process in the medical school setting.

Maria Bernadete, Gonçalves; Ana Maria Teresa, Benevides-Pereira.

296

Safety and Security Technologies of Importance to Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations Using Public Transit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All travelers have concerns about safety and security. For transportation-disadvantaged persons (i.e., older adults, persons with disabilities, and low-income individuals), these concerns are amplified by the vulnerability of the individuals. Safety and security can be improved for transportation-disadvantaged populations through the use of technology. Specific technologies include vehicle tracking systems, silent alarm systems, security cameras, and way-finding navigation systems. Other innovative safety devices and programs provide additional safety and security. Five sites across the United States were visited to determine how agencies of different sizes using different approaches meet the needs of these special populations. The agencies noted that technologies of benefit to the transportation-disadvantaged communities generally benefit all users of public transportation.

Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

2006-01-01

297

Social Problems of the Most Disadvantaged Southern Transdanubian Micro-Regions in Hungary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are the so called most disadvantageous or MD micro-regions. The Hungarian government and the regional development institution system has worked out an own development programme for the improvement of these regions. The Southern Transdanubian Regional Development Council was established in 1998.The investigation focuses on the 8 most disadvantageous micro-regions of Southern Transdanubia. The micro-regional level in Hungary was determined on statistical and not on administrative consideration. The degree of social-economic underdevelopment under Hungarian circumstances is reflected by indicators of economy, infrastructure, society, sociality, and employment. The most disadvantaged micro-regions are qualified as beneficiary micro-regions. The 8 micro-regions of the Southern Transdanubian related to environmental development can be subsidized in the framework of the regional operational programme from the presumable resources of the micro-regions: economic development (business infrastructure, settlement development (function-expanding settlement development, environmental development (sewage, water management.

BERNADETT GÁLOSI-KOVÁCS

2011-01-01

298

Perceiving Racial/Ethnic Disadvantage and Its Consequences for Self-Esteem among Asian-Americans  

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Full Text Available This study is the first to test experimentally (vs. correlationally whether perceiving racial/ethnic disadvantageleads to lower self-esteem among Asian-Americans. We manipulated perceived disadvantage by havingAsian-American college students recall and write about experiences in which they were personallydisadvantaged because of their race/ethnicity, and examined the effects of perceiving disadvantage on variousoutcome measures, including racial/ethnic identity, racial/ethnic salience (the number of ethnic identitiesparticipants listed on the Twenty Statements Test, and self-esteem. Consistent with experimental research withother racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States, the self-esteem of Asian-Americans was unharmed byrecalling and describing past incidents of racially-based disadvantage.

Julie Spencer-Rodgers

2014-05-01

299

Affective Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

2010-01-01

300

Accounting for vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage in pandemic critical care triage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a pandemic situation, resources in intensive care units may be stretched to the breaking point, and critical care triage may become necessary. In such a situation, I argue that a patient's combined vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage should be a justification for giving that patient some priority for critical care. In this article I present an example of a critical care triage protocol that recognizes the moral relevance of vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. PMID:20465071

Kaposy, Chris

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.

Jason Prior

2008-04-01

302

A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children / Uno studio della Carta del Benessere, in bambini socialmente svantaggiati  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attenda [...] nce and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

Musicco, Massimo; Pulvirenti, Rosalia Azzaro; Gainotti, Sabina; Petrini, Carlo; Riccio, Chiara; Silvestrini, Bruno.

303

Affective Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

Jodi Dean

2010-02-01

304

Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children’s symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems.

Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

2013-01-01

305

Disadvantaged Student Grant Program: Annual Report for the Illinois Public Community Colleges, FY 1981.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides an account and evaluation of activities conducted under the Illinois Community College Disadvantaged Student Grant Programs (DSGP), which were instituted in 1973 and which are currently serving 116,612 students on 51 campuses. Part I offers responses from students and instructors to the programs and provides examples of…

Hawkins, Carolyn R.; Lape, Keith R.

306

A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

Pestle, Ruth

307

"Great Conversation" for School Improvement in Disadvantageous Rural Contexts: A Participatory Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The core empirical basis of this paper is based upon my recent participatory action research case study, sponsored by my university, conducted in a rural school in one of the most disadvantageous districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The paper argues that the current climate in most of the schools across the country reflects "apathy" and "ignorance".…

Bana, Zubeda

2010-01-01

308

A Multilevel Analysis of Race, Community Disadvantage, and Body Mass Index Among Adults in the US  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the contributions of both individual socioeconomic status (SES) and community disadvantage in explaining the higher body mass index (BMI) of black adults in the US. Data from a national survey of adults (1986 American's Changing Lives Study) were combined with tract-level community data from the 1980 census.

2004-01-01

309

Impact of a Retention Program for Disadvantaged Medical Students upon the Medical School Community  

Science.gov (United States)

Over its 4-year history the formal tutorial program for disadvantaged first-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, has become successful in preparing students to compete scholastically. This article assesses its effect, particularly the attitudes of students (positive), administration (supportive), and faculty…

Marshall, Carter L.; And Others

1975-01-01

310

Predictors of Quality of Life in Economically Disadvantaged Populations in Montreal  

Science.gov (United States)

Most epidemiological studies agree that economically disadvantaged populations are the groups most vulnerable to mental health problems and report lower quality of life among these populations. However, it appears that access to social support plays a role in protecting against the chronic stress resulting from conditions such as poverty. This…

Caron, Jean

2012-01-01

311

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

312

Rural Parentage and Labor Market Disadvantage in a Sub-Saharan Setting: Sources and Trends  

Science.gov (United States)

High unemployment in many developing countries is intensifying job competition and raising concern for the employment prospects of vulnerable groups, including children of rural parents. This paper examines the trends and sources in employment disadvantage associated with rural parentage in Cameroon. In documenting the sources of inequality, the…

Giroux, Sarah C.

2008-01-01

313

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

314

Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street  

Science.gov (United States)

Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

2012-01-01

315

The Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Alternative Explanations and Evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Methods: Secondary…

Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

2014-01-01

316

Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

2008-01-01

317

A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude  

Science.gov (United States)

Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

2012-01-01

318

The Rosen Scholars Program: A New Design for Mentoring Disadvantaged Youth for Postsecondary Success. Evaluation Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rosen Scholars Program was a privately funded program for the support and mentorship of talented disadvantaged urban youth. After 6 years of planning and operation, the program was evaluated to assess effectiveness in terms of program objectives and outcomes. The evaluation was conducted by doctoral candidates from Teachers College, Columbia…

2001

319

Employer Reactions to Efforts to Place Disabled and Disadvantaged Workers. Studies in Placement Monograph No. 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys in Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco, California, asked 448 employers about their exposure and reactions to job development activity by agencies serving disabled and disadvantaged persons. Respondents were generally favorable or indifferent to being contacted, rated the performance of their disabled employees as being average or above…

Zadny, Jerry J.

320

Utilization of Primary and Secondary Medical Care among Disadvantaged Populations: A Log-Linear Model Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: We examined how, where an overall population is covered by universal health insurance, characteristics of disadvantaged populations interact to influence inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization. Subject and Methods: Disadvantaged populations, the focus of the study, were defined as populations who have lower socio-economic status (SES, who are elderly and/or reside in a peripheral area. Data from the 2009 Israeli National Health Survey were analysed using log-linear models to estimate utilization of medical care. Results: The main findings were: a pro-poor utilization of primary medical care among elderly populations, with higher odds ratios for low SES populations in the periphery; (b lack of interaction between SES and primary medical care utilization among younger populations, between SES and secondary medical care utilization among the elderly and pro-rich utilization of secondary medical care among younger populations who did not regularly visit general practitioners (GP; (c the odds ratios of secondary medical care utilization increased as SES decreased for both elderly and younger populations who also regularly visited a GP. Conclusion: Potential policy implications for disadvantaged populations, regarding possible inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization, can be drawn using log-linear model analysis of interactions among characteristics (SES, age, location of disadvantaged populations.

Gregory Yom Din

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Does Training for the Disadvantaged Work? Evidence from the National JTPA Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Federal Government has sponsored job training for the unemployed and economically disadvantaged for more than three decades. The National Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) study is the first evaluation of a major ongoing national program that uses a random assignment experimental design in which only program experience divides participants…

Orr, Larry L.; And Others

322

Disadvantaged but Different: Variation among Deprived Communities in Relation to Child and Family Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Disadvantaged communities are increasingly the target for interventions. Sure Start was launched in England in 1999 to tackle child poverty and improve child and family services, with Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) targeted at relatively small areas of marked deprivation. However, they are located in a range of different types of…

Barnes, Jacqueline; Belsky, Jay; Broomfield, Kate A.; Dave, Sapna; Frost, Martin; Melhuish, Edward

2005-01-01

323

A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

2011-01-01

324

Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. The Social Genome Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor children in the United States start school at a disadvantage in terms of their early skills, behaviors, and health. Fewer than half (48 percent) of poor children are ready for school at age five, compared to 75 percent of children from families with moderate and high income, a 27 percentage point gap. This paper examines the reasons why poor…

Isaacs, Julia B.

2012-01-01

325

Education and Assessment in Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

Education and assessment in Swedish schools have been affected by several reforms during the last two decades. The educational system has moved from centralization to decentralization and a goal-oriented approach has been introduced on all educational levels. This paper provides an historical overview of the Swedish educational system, educational…

Wikstrom, Christina

2006-01-01

326

THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT AND REHABILITATION OF WOMEN AFFECTED BY THE 2004 TSUNAMI IN THE OF THE STATE OF TAMILNADU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a destructive tsunami which devastated coastal communities bordering the Indian Ocean, killing thousands of people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, the Maldives, Malaysia, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen and Kenya. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history. In India, the death toll and damages were severe, particularly along the southern and eastern coastal regions. Subsequently, central and state government authorities in the state of Tamilnadu - one of the most severely stricken regions - took immediate measures for tsunami preparedness and rehabilitation. The media played a major role in this effort by communicating to the public information related to the science and technology facts of tsunami hazards and to ways of mitigating their impact with better understanding and preparedness. Through its superior ability to communicate effectively information, the media became the role model in helping people make decisions for their own welfare. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the media’s role in the post-rehabilitation efforts and particularly in improving the status of affected women of the north Chennai region, who were forced to migrate from Ernavour and Ennore, in Chennai district, in the India state of Tamilnadu, by providing them science and technology communication.

P. Sri Jothi

2011-01-01

327

Self-Instruction through Reading: The Keller Plan. ASME Medical Education Booklet No. 7  

Science.gov (United States)

Advantages and disadvantages of the Keller Plan in medical education are reviewed. The author's advice is based in part on his experience using the method in a course in histology at the University of Dundee, Scotland. (LBH)

Stoward, Peter J.

1976-01-01

328

Ethnic identity, perceptions of disadvantage, and psychosis: findings from the ÆSOP study.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Many studies have shown that rates of psychosis are elevated in the Black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK. One important, but relatively less researched explanation of these high rates may be social adversity associated with acculturation processes. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group subjected to social disadvantage may exert adverse effects on individuals from BME groups. Using data from a large epidemiological case-control study of first-episode psychosis, we aimed to investigate whether strong ethnic identification is a factor contributing to the excess of psychosis in BME groups compared with the White British, after adjustment for perceptions of disadvantage. All cases with a first episode of psychosis presenting to specialist mental health services within tightly defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK, and geographically matched community controls were included in the study. Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one\\'s own ethnic group. Analysis was performed on data from 139 cases and 234 controls. There was evidence that, as levels of ethnic identification increased, the odds of psychosis increased in the BME but not in the White British group, independent of potential confounders. However, the association between strong ethnic identity and psychosis in BME individuals was attenuated and non-significant when controlled for perceived disadvantage. Strong identification with an ethnic minority group may be a potential contributory factor of the high rates of psychosis in the BME population, the effects of which may be explained by perceptions of disadvantage.

Reininghaus, Ulrich

2010-12-01

329

Potential missed detection with screening mammography: does the quality of radiologist's interpretation vary by patient socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE We examined whether quality of mammography interpretation as performed by the original reading radiologist varied by patient sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS For 149 patients residing in Chicago and diagnosed in 2005-2008, we obtained the original index mammogram that detected the breast cancer and at least one prior mammogram that did not detect the cancer performed within 2 years of the index mammogram. A single breast imaging specialist performed a blinded review of the prior mammogram. Potentially missed detection was defined as an actionable lesion seen during a blinded review of the prior mammogram that was in the same quadrant as the cancer on the index mammogram. RESULTS Of 149 prior mammograms originally read as non-malignant, 46% (N=68) had a potentially detectable lesion. In unadjusted analyses, potentially missed detection was greater among minority patients (54% vs. 39%, p=0.07), for patients with incomes below $30,000 (65% vs. 36%, p<0.01), with less education (58% vs. 39%, p=0.02), and lacking private health insurance (63% vs. 40%, p=0.02). Likelihood ratio tests for the inclusion of socioeconomic variables in multivariable logistic regression models were highly significant (p<=0.02). CONCLUSIONS Disadvantaged socioeconomic status appears to be associated with potentially missed detection of breast cancer at mammography screening.

Rauscher, Garth H; Khan, Jenna A; Berbaum, Michael L; Conant, Emily F

2013-01-01

330

Community Development and Education: A Tripod Approach To Improving America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines links between community development and educational initiatives in improving the quality of life in America's most disadvantaged communities. Reviews community development and the education-restructuring movement, defines community development, discusses two theories undergirding the movement toward increased collaboration between…

McGaughy, Charis

2000-01-01

331

The Urban Primary School. Education in an Urbanised Society  

Science.gov (United States)

This book offers an in-depth understanding of the unique challenges and contributions of urban primary schools. The authors set urban education in the wider social context of structural disadvantage, poverty, oppression and exclusion, and reassert some critical urban educational concerns. Recognizing that practice needs to be informed by theory,…

Maguire, Meg; Wooldridge, Tim; Pratt-Adams, Simon

2006-01-01

332

Educational Histories and Academic Potential: Can Tests Deliver?  

Science.gov (United States)

A new South African testing approach designed to assess potential university students' ability to cope with English-medium academic education is also designed to take into account the effects of educational disadvantagement and minimize reliance on students' content-based secondary school experiences. The approach incorporates principles from…

Yeld, Nan; Haeck, Wim

1997-01-01

333

Scottish Higher Education, 1987-2001: Expansion through Diversion  

Science.gov (United States)

A pressing question about the expansion of higher education is whether it tends to be inclusive, in the sense of bringing in larger proportions of persons from disadvantaged backgrounds, or diversifying, in that higher education tends to differentiate as it expands, or both, by bringing more persons into an increasingly stratified system of higher…

Iannelli, Cristina; Gamoran, Adam; Paterson, Lindsay

2011-01-01

334

Educational Inequalities in Women’s Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Perceived Neighbourhood Characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socio-economically disadvantaged (e.g., less educated) women are at a greater risk of depression compared to less disadvantaged women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may explain socioeconomic inequalities in risk of depression. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of perceived neighbourhood factors in mediating the relationship between education and women’s risk of depression. Cross-sectional data were provided by 4,065 women (aged 18–45). Women self-repor...

Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

2012-01-01

335

Education And Gender Bias in the Sex Ratio At Birth: Evidence From India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article investigates the possible existence of a nonlinear link between female disadvantage in natality and education. To this end, we devise a theoretical model based on the key role of social interaction in explaining people’s acquisition of preferences, which justifies the existence of a nonmonotonic relationship between female disadvantage in natality and education. The empirical validity of the proposed model is examined for the case of India, using district-level data. In this co...

2010-01-01

336

Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and neighborhood disadvantage. Moreover, virtually no research on the effect of a criminal record has examined the ‘‘black box’’ of mediating mech...

Kirk, David S.; Sampson, Robert J.

2013-01-01

337

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

338

Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood and Later Risk of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: National Register-Based Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: The aim of this thesis was to analyse the association between various types of indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and the risk of later developing schizophrenia and other psychoses. Furthermore, the importance of socioeconomic disadvantage was explored in relation to immigration, school performance, and an indicator of genetic liability for psychosis.

Wicks, Susanne

2010-01-01

339

Enriching the Professional Learning of Early Years Teachers in Disadvantaged Contexts: The Impact of Quality Resources and Quality Professional Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies indicate that very few teachers entering disadvantaged contexts feel prepared academically or professionally to teach effectively. This study focuses on the impact of a model for professional learning, the RoleM Professional Learning model (RPL), situated in a disadvantaged context over a three-year period. The participating teachers (n =…

Warren, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Jodie

2013-01-01

340

Red Dirt Thinking on Remote Educational Advantage  

Science.gov (United States)

The discourse of remote education is often characterised by a rhetoric of disadvantage. This is reflected in statistics that on the surface seem unambiguous in their demonstration of poor outcomes for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. A range of data support this view, including National Assessment Program-Literacy and…

Guenther, John; Bat, Melodie; Osborne, Sam

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Academic postgraduate medical education -- an Oxford view.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postgraduate medical education in the UK has gone through a maelstrom of change in the last 20 years; many components have disadvantaged clinical academic training in particular. In this article we summarise some of the changes and describe the advantages of the creation of a dedicated clinical academic graduate school as a response to these changes. PMID:24532742

Fleming, Kenneth; Pugh, Christopher; Best, Denise

2014-02-01

342

Gendered Barriers to Educational Opportunities: Resettlement of Sudanese Refugees in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that whilst equitable educational pathways are integrated into educational policy discourses in Australia, there are significant gendered barriers to educational participation among members of the Sudanese refugee groups. The specific conditions of forced migration reinforce disadvantage and further limit opportunities. Cultural…

Hatoss, Aniko; Huijser, Henk

2010-01-01

343

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF DIPLOMACY IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. The new technology as potential source of propaganda and vulgarization is described. Finally, although there are disadvantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies, it is concluded the advantages surpass the disadvantages. The new technologies raise the democratization of diplomacy for a general well-fair and have a tendency to reduce hard power and to strengthen soft power.

Aleksandar Plavšin

2014-07-01

344

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MODERN LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY FOR SOIL MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory devices. This is particularly important for soft materials, since their permeability could vary within several orders of magnitude depending on the variation of void ratio. The article presents advantages and disadvantages of the flow-pump method performed in a modified triaxial cell and hydraulic oedometer, in comparison with conventional constant head and falling head methods. The specimens were prepared from the waste stone dust, which is the product of final dimension stone processing.

Predrag Kvasni?ka

2003-12-01

345

Engaging Women Who Are Depressed and Economically Disadvantaged in Mental Health Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Women disadvantaged by poverty, as well as racial or ethnic minority status, are more likely to experience depression than the rest of the U.S. population. At the same time, they are less likely to seek or remain in treatment for depression in traditional mental health settings. This article explores a therapeutic, psychosocial engagement strategy developed to address the barriers to treatment engagement and the application of this strategy to a special population—women of color and white w...

2007-01-01

346

Examining Neighborhood Disadvantage and Racial Disparities in Body Mass Index Trajectories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Racial disparities in obesity among women in the United States are substantial but the causes of these disparities are poorly understood. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) trajectories for Black and White women as a function of neighborhood disadvantage and racial composition of the neighborhoods within which respondents are clustered. Using four waves of the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) survey, we estimated multilevel models predicting BMI trajectories over a 16-year p...

2010-01-01

347

Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent–child relationship quality, measured in early childhood, were all significantly associated with a composite measure tapping low levels of antisocial behavior and high levels o...

Vanderbilt-adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

2008-01-01

348

Does socioeconomic disadvantage explain why immigrants in Sweden refrain from seeking the needed medical treatment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: For the last 20 years, Sweden has changed from a homogeneous to multicultural society with about 20% of immigrants born in other countries. The existing Swedish studies have not shown coherent results on how access to health care services varies by ethnicity. The aim of this paper was to analyze the association between country of birth and refraining from seeking medical treatment and whether socioeconomic disadvantage modifies this association. Method...

2007-01-01

349

The Nomadisation of worklife:advantages and disadvantages of mobile telework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this dissertation I have focused on mobile telework. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of teleworking compared to îtraditionalî home-based telework? I have seen this both from an employer and an employee perspective. The methods I used are a) a review of relevant telework literature, and b) qualitative interviews with sixteen mobile teleworkers employed by five different sales-oriented organisations. Very little academic research is done on mobile telework in particu...

Johannessen, Steinar

2000-01-01

350

Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a hyphenated technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general overview of the advancements and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) hyphenated with other analytical techniques is given from a practical point of view. Details on the advantages and disadvantages of the hyphenation of NMR with liquid chromatography as LC-NMR and also with mass spectrometry as LC-MS-NMR are demonstrated with two examples. Current developments of NMR with other analytical separation techniques, especially with capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) are discussed

2003-11-14

351

Does social disadvantage contribute to the excess mortality in rheumatoid arthritis patients?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND—Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular causes and malignancy. The influence of disadvantage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who are known to have premature mortality, has not been ascertained.?AIM—To assess the relation between the level of patient deprivation and mortality in RA patients.?METHODS—200 RA patients, enrolled in a study comparing sulfasalazine and penicillamine in 1984-85, have been followed u...

Maiden, N.; Capell, H.; Madhok, R.; Hampson, R.; Thomson, E.

1999-01-01

352

Birth weight and later socioeconomic disadvantage: evidence from the 1958 British cohort study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between birth weight and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood and adolescence in a birth cohort study. DESIGN--Longitudinal analysis of birth weight in relation to social class, household amenities and overcrowding, and financial difficulties as reported by parents at interview when participants were aged 7, 11, and 16 years; and receipt of unemployment or supplementary benefits as reported by participants at age 23. SUBJECTS--Male participants in...

Bartley, M.; Power, C.; Blane, D.; Smith, G. D.; Shipley, M.

1994-01-01

353

The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program...

Jason Prior

2008-01-01

354

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all an...

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

355

A multilevel analysis of urban neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and health in late life  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The associations between neighborhood context and various indicators of health are receiving growing empirical attention, but much of this research is regionally circumscribed or assumes similar effects across the life course. This study utilizes a U.S. national sample to investigate the association between urban neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and health specifically among older adults. Data are from 3,442 participants aged 70+ in the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest O...

Wight, Richard G.; Cummings Link, Janet R.; Miller-martinez, Dana; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

2008-01-01

356

Economic Disadvantage in Central and Eastern Europe: What difference does social assistance make?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study analyses the impact of social assistance programs on poverty, broadly construed as economic disadvantage, in eight Central and East European countries during the mid-2000s. It does that by examining cross-national & cross-temporal variation program features and specificities to identify patterns of association with outcomes of interest such as poverty levels, individual long-term income, earnings and assets. The main data source used throughout the study is the 2007 longitud...

Avram, Silvia

2012-01-01

357

Process Evaluation of a Psychosocial Intervention Addressing Women in a Disadvantaged Setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: This paper presents the process evaluation of a community-based randomized psycho-social trial aimed to enhance reproductive and mental health outcomes of disadvantaged women living in the southern suburb of Beirut-Lebanon. Process evaluation of public health interventions involves the monitoring and documentation of interventions’ implementation to allow for better understanding of planned outcomes and of intervention effectiveness.

Rima Nakkash; Loulou Kobeissi; Zeina Ghantous; Maya Abou Saad; Brigitte Khoury; Nasser Yassin

2012-01-01

358

Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three ba...

Schulze, S.

2010-01-01

359

The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structure...

Maforah, T. P.; Schulze, S.

2012-01-01

360

Inequity in the Provision of Public Bus Service for Socially Disadvantaged Groups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neo-classical economic doctrine dominating governmental policies shows its impact on recent transport policies, causing these policies; tend to base on demand and efficiency criteria instead of equity concerns. Public transit operating for remote areas is less cost-effective eventually leading to have a low level of service quality. In metropolitan areas of developing countries, a large part of socially disadvantaged and vulnerable groups live in outer suburban locations not in the i...

Ali Soltani; Yousef Esmaeili Ivaki

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Skills, capabilities and inequalities at school entry in a disadvantaged community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socioeconomic inequalities in children’s skills and capabilities begin early in life and can have detrimental effects on future success in school. The present study examines the relationships between school readiness and sociodemographic inequalities using teacher reports of the Short Early Development Instrument in a disadvantaged urban area of Ireland. It specifically examines socioeconomic (SES) differences in skills within a low SES community in order to investigate the role of relative...

2010-01-01

362

Clinical practice guidelines. Advantages and disadvantages. Guías de práctica clínica.Ventajas y desventajas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The elaboration and implementation of clinical practice guidelines has been a novel element, which has been introduced into medical care in health facilities over the last few years. Our country has not been the exception, and especially our Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, adds up to more than a decade with the employment of these tools. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of using guidelines are assessed, according to our own point of view and starting from the referred pr...

Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito; Luis Gustavo Del Sol Padrón; Alfredo Alberto Espinosa Roca; José Luis Garriga Valdés; Brandy Viera Valdés

2009-01-01

363

At a disadvantage: the occupational attainments of foreign born women in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data on the wage and salary of labor force participants aged 25-64 from the 1973 Canadian Mobility Study, this study on the occupational status of Canadian female immigrant employess, finds that immigrant women in the Canadian labor force have occupational statuses which are lower on the average than those of other sex and nativity groups, and which appear to reflect not only their level of occupational status related resources, but their membership to 2 negative groups--female and foreign-born. However, considerable stratification, by birth place, exists among groups of female immigrant workers. The analysis indicates that the double disadvantage of being female and foreign-born is a less of a factor for the occupational attainments of women born in the US and UK, than it is for born elsewhere. There are 3 possible explanations for the existence of the dual disadvantage: 1) the social image of the desirability of foreign-born female immigrants and their capabilities may play a role; 2) the formation of ethnically and linguistically bounded local economies, which is a feature of immigrant receiving societies, may shape the employment patterns of women more so than men's, influenced by the non-North American norms concerning male approval of the work lives of women; and 3) the more general exploitation of workers in a class society and the relations between core-capitalist economies and dependent ones on the periphery, may be responsible for placing immigrant women in a position of double disadvantage. PMID:12340230

Boyd, M

1984-01-01

364

The Reciprocal and Correlative Relationship Between Learning Culture and Online Education: A Case from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to build on the insights of educators regarding the relationship between culture and online learning. More specifically, this paper aims to explore the ways in which students’ culture of learning is changing as a result of the introduction of various modes of online learning. It also aims to explore the ways in which culture and cultural values affect the application and success of online-learning strategies. Particular attention is directed to learners’ perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of online communication. The paper is based on primary data drawn from undergraduate female students’ responses regarding how online education is changing their learning culture and how their culture is influencing online education. Sixty-seven undergraduate Saudi female students participated in the survey. The literature in the field of online and distance education is explored to help answer these questions. The participants indicated that online education helped them to challenge some cultural norms, enhance their learning culture, and improve their communication skills.

Amani K Hamdan

2014-02-01

365

Educational Federalism in Germany : Foundationsof Social Inequality in Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article applies Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to examine how sub-national education systems affect the extent of social inequality in education within the German federal states. Variations in educational outcomes between the federal states can be primarily attributed to the strict educational decentralization in Germany. We examine four conditions of regional education systems presumed to be relevant for the extent of social inequality in education: the availability of early...

Freitag, Markus; Schlicht, Raphaela

2009-01-01

366

Teachers and the Emotional Dimensions of Class in Resource-Affected Rural Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, a "cultural turn" in the study of class has resulted in a rich body of work detailing the ways in which class advantage and disadvantage are emotionally inscribed and embodied in educational settings. To date, however, much of this literature has focused on the urban sphere. In order to address this gap in the literature, this…

Pini, Barbara; Price, Robin; McDonald, Paula

2010-01-01

367

Specifics for generalists: Teaching elementary physical education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality physical education offered at the elementary school level is critical for children tounderstand and develop healthy living. In most countries, physical education is taught by ageneralist teacher (i.e., an individual who has not undertaken extensive training in physicaleducation particularly at the elementary school level. Inadequate and inappropriatepreparation has been identified as a major barrier for an elementary generalist to developand implement a quality physical education program. The purpose of this paper is toidentify and discuss helpful strategies used to employ each fundamental component of aquality physical education program and is intended for a generalist audience. Morespecifically, the paper will explore (a the (disadvantage of teaching physical education as ageneralist teacher; (b the ability of physical education to address the whole child; (c theconfusion surrounding physical education and physical activity; and (d the strategies of asuccessful physical educator.

Amanda DE LISIO

2009-06-01

368

Technical Workshop on Basic Education and Lifelong Learning for Gender Equality through CLCs (Jayagiri-Bandung, Indonesia, March 28-31, 2001). Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), UNESCO, is a cooperative program designed to promote education for all in the region. Its principal aim is to promote primary education, literacy, and continuing education for all and particularly for disadvantaged groups. APPEAL/PROAP has instituted the project, Promotion of Basic…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

369

Tax effects on education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taxes affect the individual’s educational choice through many channels, and they have both direct and indirect effects on human capital accumulation. The structure of the tax system creates different incentive effects that distorts the individual’s educational choice. Some of these tax effects discourage higher education, while others encourage it. I give an overview over the existing literature on taxes and education and also provide the intuition for many of these partial effects in a s...

Alstadsæter, Annette

2005-01-01

370

USGS Education Collection  

Science.gov (United States)

The USGS Education Collection provides scientific data and activities about natural resources, natural hazards, geospatial data and issues that affect quality of life. As an outreach project, it provides access to online material and educational resources that may be useful to K-12 educators and college instructors. Many resources can be used directly in the classroom: lessons, labs, demonstrations or as resources for teacher education, curriculum development and for student research.

371

Savings education: Learning the value of self-control.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article proposes a funded school-based allowance and savings program targeted at economically disadvantaged students with poor educational outcomes to help poor children develop less present-biased time preference patterns so as to increase student effort and skills acquisition, avoid the pitfalls that pave the path of adolescence and move from poverty to middle class status as adults. Time orientation is associated with low educational investments, poor educational outcomes, out-of wedl...

Hutton, Patricia A.; Holmes, James M.

2005-01-01

372

Education, education, education  

CERN Document Server

Education is a recurring theme of our 60th anniversary year, as I was reminded last week when we had a visit from the winners of the Spanish schools competition launched with the Prince of Asturias Award prize money (see here).   Young people are always remarkable in their curiosity and inventiveness, and this was very clear in all the submissions for the competition. I was most impressed with the six winners, but have to give a special mention to the youngest, Sofía Isabella Villamizar Villegas, who at just seven years of age made a lovely video explaining the Higgs mechanism by analogy to moving a balloon with and without static charge through a field of suspended strips of paper. It was not only charming, but also very effective as analogies go. The Spanish visit came in the middle of judging to find a winner of the Beamline for Schools competition, which closed at the end of March having received almost 300 proposals for experiments from schools all over the world. These vary ...

2014-01-01

373

78 FR 52467 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged  

Science.gov (United States)

...comments about these proposed regulations, address them to Monique M. Chism, Director, Student Achievement and School Accountability Programs, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland...

2013-08-23

374

Adherence barriers and facilitators for cervical screening amongst currently disadvantaged women in the greater Cape Town region of South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In South Africa cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer amongst women, and black African women have the highest risk of developing this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of South African women do not adhere to recommended regular cervical screening.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions, experiences and knowledge regarding cervical screening of disadvantaged women in two informal settlements in South African urban areas.Method: The Health Belief Model (HBM provided a theoretical framework for this study. Four focus groups (n = 21 were conducted, using questions derived from the HBM, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The ages of the women who participated ranged from 21 to 53 years.Results: The analysis revealed lack of knowledge about screening as a key structural barrier to treatment. Other structural barriers were: time, age at which free screening is available, and health education. The psychosocial barriers that were identified included: fear of the screening procedure and of the stigmatisation in attending screening. The presence of physical symptoms, the perception that screening provides symptom relief, HIV status, and the desire to know one’s physical health status were identified as facilitators of cervical screening adherence.Conclusion: This knowledge has the potential to inform healthcare policy and services in South Africa. As globalisation persists and individuals continue to immigrate or seek refugee status in foreign countries, increased understanding and knowledge is required for successful acculturation and integration. Developed countries may therefore also benefit from research findings in developing countries.

Chantelle De Abreu

2013-07-01

375

Empowering Parents to Improve Education: Evidence from Rural Mexico. Impact Evaluation Series Number 4. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3935  

Science.gov (United States)

Mexico's compensatory education program provides extra resources to primary schools that enroll disadvantaged students in highly disadvantaged rural communities. One of the most important components of the program is the school-based management intervention known as Apoyo a la Gestion Escolar, (AGEs). The impact of the AGEs is assessed on…

Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry; Rubio-Codina, Marta

2006-01-01

376

Student perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of problem based learning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A higher education puts a woman in control of herself and that lasts a lifetime. According to DeMott (1990), the resource most widely used as a tool for upward mobility is education. However, for many women, the opportunity to pursue a second or third level education does not present itself at age appropriate times. There are many issues related to the educational choices women make in late adolescence and throughout their lifespan. This paper endeavours to investigate and m...

Mc Tiernan, Kathleen

2004-01-01

377

The Gold Standard Programme : smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.

Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette

2013-01-01

378

Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Crawford DA, Ball K, Cleland VJ, Campbell KJ, Timperio AF, Abbott G, Brug J, Baur LA, Salmon JA. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

379

RELATIONSHIP OF LATE POSITIVE ERPS (EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS), AGE, INTELLIGENCE AND LEAD ABSORPTION IN SOCIOECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN  

Science.gov (United States)

Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families are at risk for malnutrition, learning disabilities, and many other problems associated with poverty. Increasing application of event-related potentials (ERP) methods has been made in studies of aberrant development, although...

380

Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis in Children with Special Needs or Social Disadvantage or Both: Contraindications Are Not Always Contraindications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

? Objective: Our aim in the present study was to identify outcomes in children with special needs or social disadvantage, or both, receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) treatment in a pediatric dialysis unit.

Aksu, Nejat; Yavascan, Onder; Anil, Murat; Kara, Orhan Deniz; Bal, Alkan; Anil, Ayse Berna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Computed tomography urography in non malignant kidney diseases – how to overcome one of the disadvantages?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Introduction: Computed tomography urography is among the fastest growing imaging directions, indications of which continue to change. Radiation dose is one of its main disadvantages. There are a number of literary publications regarding how to reduce radiation dose: by voltage, by mA or by reducing the number of phases. What you will learn: We present the initial experience in the diagnosis of non-malignant kidney disease with three low-dose study protocol: a standard low dose, low dose and low dose introduced by us. Our research is based on three groups of patients. The first of 36 men and 22 women viewed with repetitive low-dose protocol: 120 kV / 219 effective milliampere. The second and third group of 16 men and 9 women, respectively: 100/ 163 and 80/115 . Discussion: There have been a number of studies to reduce the radiation dose that is considered one of the main disadvantages of computed tomography urography. Reducing mA (? 30 mAs), leads to the radiation dose similar to that of an overview abdominal radiography. Reducing of 140 kV to 120, reducing the dosage of the skin by about 33 % and decreasing it to 80 kilovolts, the result is about 70 %. Another technology to reduce radiation exposure is by reducing the number of phases of the study, but studies have shown that the removal of the native phase is not desirable. Conclusion: We believe that computed tomography urography is a detailed study that should be applied in certain clinical indications. Its major disadvantage is the radiation dose. Images obtained with low-dose protocols are newly comparable image quality to the standard, but with much lower radiation exposure

2013-09-26

382

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied

SABOU FELICIA

2014-05-01

383

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.

SABOU FELICIA

2014-05-01

384

THE VAT SCHEME UPON COLLECTION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FOR ROMANIAN COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the provisions, the main advantages and disadvantages of the VAT scheme upon collection, adopted by the Romanian Government in order to help the economy and to collect more money to the state budget. The VAT payment to the state budget upon collection was requested frequently by businessmen, and over the years there were some other legislative proposals such as this that never materialized. According to the VAT scheme upon collection, the firm that issues the invoice will pay the VAT only when collecting, and the firm that receives the invoice may deduct VAT only on the payment moment.

MARU?A BECA

2012-11-01

385

Disadvantages and Tendencies of Development of the Personal Income Tax in the Russian Federation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the personal income tax in Russia, its disadvantages and tendencies of development. Tax burden on wages in Russia is compared with the tax burden on wages in France. The comparison is made by such parameters as the type of scale, tax rates, amount of contributions to the social funds and amount of tax deductions. This research indicated that it is necessary to reform the personal income tax in Russia. In this case improvement of social and demographic situation can be achieved and legalization of incomes increased.

Yaburova Dinara Vladimirovna

2014-04-01

386

Prevalence of hepatitis A antibody among disadvantaged gypsy children in northern Spain.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a group of socially and economically disadvantaged Spanish gypsy children was compared to that of a group of non-gypsy middle-class children. The study included 438 children, 73 gypsies (38 girls and 35 boys, mean age 8.5 years, age range 2-16 years) and 365 non-gypsy controls, randomly selected by age. The presence of anti-HAV was investigated using ELISA. Among the gypsy children, 82% had antibodies to HAV compared with 9.3% of the ch...

Cilla, G.; Perez-trallero, E.; Marimon, J. M.; Erdozain, S.; Gutierrez, C.

1995-01-01

387

Using local areas data to improve the lives of disadvantaged children and families.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because economic and social opportunities are unevenly distributed across England, the places in which children and young people are born and grow up can have significant influences on both their current well-being and their future life chances. Data now available confirms the expected finding that the level of child well-being found in an area tends to reflect its overall level of disadvantage. However, there are a number of exceptions to this general rule – local areas where child well-be...

2011-01-01

388

Integrated management systems. Advantages and disadvantages; difficulties and recommendations in the process of implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations are constantly looking for methods to improve their efficiency and to guarantee them a competitive advantage, sustainable profitable growth and ability to survive in a turbulent environment. An increasing popularity of implementation of certified management systems has been noticed. The most often integrated management system are eg. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 18001. The paper presents the conditions for the implementation of an integrated management system (IMS, the characteristics of the most integrated management systems, the advantages and disadvantages of integration and the difficulties in the implementation of IMS and recommendations regarding the effectiveness of the integration of IMS.

Aneta Wysoki?ska-Senkus

2011-01-01

389

Undermining the principle of concentration?: European Union regional policy and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions about the most cost-effective allocation of the funds, the sources of structural disadvantage are more spatially concentrated than the funds devoted to compensating this disadvantage and reveals a weak ...

Crescenzi, Riccardo

2009-01-01

390

Undermining the Principle of Concentration? European Union Regional Policy and the Socio-Economic Disadvantage of European Regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper sets out to analyse the regional policy of the European Union by assessing whether the actual distribution of funds to the regions undermines the principle of territorial concentration. The empirical analysis shows that, due to either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions about the most cost-effective allocation of the funds, the sources of structural disadvantage are more spatially concentrated than the funds devoted to compensating this disadvantage and reveals a weak ...

Crescenzi, Riccardo

2009-01-01

391

Disadvantaged black and coloured infants in two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa differ in micronutrient status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To determine the nutritional and health status of urban infants in two disadvantaged communities in the Western Cape, South Africa with special reference to micronutrient status. The results of this study will serve to plan an intervention study in these communities in the same age group. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Two disadvantaged urban black and 'coloured' communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Subjects: Sixty infants aged 6-12 months from each community. O...

Oelofse, A.; Raaij, J. M.; Benade, A. J.; Dhansay, M. A.; Tolboom, J. J.; Hautvast, J. G. A. J.

2002-01-01

392

Undermining the principle of concentration? EU development policies and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution of the EU structural funds to assisted regions might have been à priori distorted by either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions over their most cost-effective allocation. A little correlation between expenditure and socio-economic disadvantage, by undermining the principle of concentration, might have reduced the impact of the EU structural funds on economic and social cohesion. The empirical analysis shows that the sources of disadvantage are more spatially con...

Crescenzi, Riccardo

2009-01-01

393

The Racial/Ethnic Group Disadvantage Scale: A Scale for Use with Multiple Groups in Diverse Geographical Contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Racial-Ethnic Group Disadvantage Scale (REGDS) is a new brief (7-item) measure of general perceptionsof racial/ethnic group disadvantage, designed for use with multiple racial/ethnic groups in diverse geographicalcontexts. The scale measures the extent to which individuals believe that their racial/ethnic group has lowersocial status, fewer economic resources, and less political power than other racial/ethnic groups in society,combined with collective experiences o...

Julie Spencer-Rodgers; Meaghan Gilbert; Kaiping Peng

2013-01-01

394

DISADVANTAGED NEIGHBORHOOD INFLUENCES ON DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN YOUTH WITH PERINATALLY ACQUIRED HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS: HOW LIFE STRESSORS MATTER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children living with perinatal HIV illness (PHIV+) disproportionately reside in disadvantaged neighborhoods and contend with persistent mental health challenges. This study examined the influences of disadvantaged residential neighborhood on anxiety and depression, and potential resources that buffer against internalizing problems when youths were exposed to neighborhood stressors. Multilevel analysis of 196 PHIV+ and 129 perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected youth (PHIV?) in New York City...

Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Elkington, Katherine S.; Abrams, Elaine J.

2011-01-01

395

Undermining the principle of concentration? EU development policies and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The distribution of the EU structural funds to assisted regions might have been à priori distorted by either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions over their most cost-effective allocation. A little correlation between expenditure and socio-economic disadvantage, by undermining the principle of concentration, might have reduced the impact of the EU structural funds on economic and social cohesion. The empirical analysis shows that the sources of disadvantage a...

2009-01-01

396

The Educational integration of migrants. What is the role of sending society actors and is there a transnational educational fi eld?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well documented that in most European countries migrants have lower educational attainment levels than natives. Access to education for migrant children is almost universally guaranteed in the EU, but this does not automatically equate to access to adapted education, taking into account specific needs linked to socio-economic disadvantages and linguistic challenges. Furthermore, social and ethnic school segregation constitutes a serious barrier towards access to good education for migra...

Jacobs, Dirk

2013-01-01

397

Imbalanced literacy? How a US national educational policy has affected English learners and their teachers / Disparidad en la Alfabetización? Cómo la política nacional afecta a estudiantes y docentes de Inglés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El aprendizaje y la enseñanza son siempre afectados por los contextos educativos y sus políticas desde las políticas de aula de clase que establecen los docentes, hasta las políticas que establecen las escuelas, las organizaciones, los distritos, estados y/o el país. ¿Cómo se implementa la política [...] a nivel local? ¿Cómo afecta dicha política las necesidades y realidades de docentes y estudiantes? ¿Cómo el escuchar las preocupaciones de los maestros puede contribuir a validar las críticas a la política? Este artículo descubre la pertinencia de estas preguntas en la política de educación conocida como No Child Left Behind (NCLB). A través de las perspectivas y experiencias de seis maestros de inglés en tres escuelas públicas de un distrito escolar en el noroeste de los Estados Unidos se narran las incidencias de esta política. Aunque las preocupaciones de los maestros son frecuentemente vistas como simples anécdotas, estas pueden ofrecer información valiosa sobre las debilidades de las políticas y/o de los programas. En la dicotomía entre los mundos de la política y la práctica, este artículo resalta la necesidad crítica de atender tanto a la política como a la práctica. Abstract in english Learning and teaching are always affected by institutional contexts and their policies, ranging from the classroom policies that teachers establish or enact-tacitly or explicitly, to the larger rings of policy set by schools, organizations, districts, states, and/or country. How is policy enacted on [...] a local level? How does such policy affect the needs and realities of students and teachers? How does listening to teacher concerns contribute to valid critiques of policy? This article addresses those questions as they pertain to the US education policy known as No Child Left Behind (NCLB). It is told through the perspectives and experiences of six English language teachers in three public schools in one urban school district in the Northeastern United States. Although teachers' concerns are often dismissed as anecdotal, they can offer valuable insights into the weaknesses of policies and/or programs. In the often, dichotomous worlds of policy and practice, this story highlights the critical need to attend to both.

Judy, Sharkey.

398

Advantages and disadvantages of valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To improve the standard of living in many parts of the world, an efficient energy-storage medium with low-maintenance requirements is essential. Valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries (VRBs) have the potential to offer such a service at a competitive cost. Since there have been few critical analyses of the efficacy of this technology, this discussion examines the advantages and disadvantages of using VRBs in energy-storage applications. VRBs possess the following advantages: no water maintenance; little chance of acid spillage; negligible emission of acid and hydrogen; no special ventilation needs; minimal overcharge required at normal temperatures; easy to transport, and can be operated on their side. In addition, the gelled-electrolyte design of VRB is resistant to acid stratification, while the absorptive glass-microfibre type has an excellent high-rate discharge performance. On the other hand, VRBs are not as resistant to overcharge as flooded-electrolyte units and must be charged very carefully to reach an acceptable service life. Other disadvantages include: specific gravity cannot be measured; a limited shelf life of two years, and an increased likelihood of thermal runaway. (orig.)

Newnham, R.H. (CSIRO, Div. of Mineral Products, Port Melbourne (Australia))

1994-11-01

399

Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disparities in verbal ability, a major predictor of later life outcomes, have generated widespread debate, but few studies have been able to isolate neighborhood-level causes in a developmentally and ecologically appropriate way. This study presents longitudinal evidence from a large-scale study of >2,000 children ages 6-12 living in Chicago, along with their caretakers, who were followed wherever they moved in the U.S. for up to 7 years. African-American children are exposed in such disproportionate numbers to concentrated disadvantage that white and Latino children cannot be reliably compared, calling into question traditional research strategies assuming common points of overlap in ecological risk. We therefore focus on trajectories of verbal ability among African-American children, extending recently developed counterfactual methods for time-varying causes and outcomes to adjust for a wide range of predictors of selection into and out of neighborhoods. The results indicate that living in a severely disadvantaged neighborhood reduces the later verbal ability of black children on average by approximately 4 points, a magnitude that rivals missing a year or more of schooling. PMID:18093915

Sampson, Robert J; Sharkey, Patrick; Raudenbush, Stephen W

2008-01-22

400

Links between Motor Skills and Indicators of School Readiness at Kindergarten Entry in Urban Disadvantaged Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School readiness represents a kindergarten characteristic which ultimately contributes to academic and personal success. This literature has traditionally focused on cognitive and behavioral characteristics. However, clinicians underscore the critical importance of motor skills to kindergarten preparedness. This study, using data from the Montreal Longitudinal Preschool Study, examines concurrent links between motor skills and other indicators of school readiness in typically developing children attending regular kindergarten classrooms in disadvantaged environments. Participants include a sample of 522 children from the Montreal Longitudinal Preschool Study with individual assessments of receptive vocabulary and number knowledge and teacher ratings of gross, fine, and perceptual-motor skills and classroom behaviors. The link between motor skills and early math skills completely explained any influence attributed to verbal skills. Developing a better understanding of how the distinct key elements of school readiness relate to each other will help teachers devise more comprehensive strategies in helping children become prepared for the first grade transition, especially in urban, disadvantaged settings.

Linda S. Pagani

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
401

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pres­sures especially cost cutting and search for costeffective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods:The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsizing, Hospital Restructuring, Staff Downsizing, Hospital Merging, Hospital Reorganization and the Persian equivalents. Resulted 815 articles were studied and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles were selected for analysis. Results: Five hospital downsizing methods were identified during searching. These methods were reducing the number of employees and beds, outsourcing, integration of hospital units, and the combination of these methods. The most important benefits were cost reduction, increasing patient satisfaction, increasing home care and outpatient services. The most important disadvantage included reducing access, reducing the rate of hospital admissions and increasing employees’ workload and dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Each downsizing method has strengths and weaknesses. Using different methods of downsizing, according to circumstances and applying appropriate interventions after implementation, is necessary for promotion.

Mousazadeh, Yalda; Jannati, Ali; Jabbari Beiramy, Hossein; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebadi, Ali

2013-01-01

402

Acupuncture in rheumatoid arthrit’s patients: advantages, disadvantages and reasons to use this therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: to verify the main reasons that justify the acupuncture treatment’s search among Rheumatoid Arthrit’s patients; to identify advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Methods: this is about a case study, performed in Hospital de Medicina Alternativa and a Private Clinic that use acupuncture as therapy, both in Goiânia. That were cases 18+, rheumatoid arthrit’s patients, acupuncture at least a month, self-evaluation and talking capables. This study was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás (028/2005. Results: four patients participate, and they were interviewed after the acupuncture session. Data were analyzed based on Content Analysis Technique. After interviews’ analysis, we identified two thematic categories: “Acupuncture’s attractives” and “Acupuncture: advantages and disadvantages”. Conclusions: it’s known that Acupuncture is an efficient Rheumatoid Arthrit’s therapy, so is necessary that Health Professionals does more divulgation and dedication. And so is necessary to study more this therapy, in case to describe their benefits, as an alternative therapy for Reumatoid Arthrit’s patients.

Laidilce Teles Zatta, Leonora Rezende Pacheco, Marcus Antônio de Souza, Juliano Ricardo Santana dos Santos, Karina Machado Siqueira, Virginia Visconde Brasil

2009-10-01

403

Educational Television Via Satellite. Preliminary Studies and Plans, Volume 1 . Television Educativa Via Satelite. Estudios de Antecedentes Y Proyecto Preliminar de Plan, Tomo 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A general review of the use of educational television via satellite is presented. The problems associated with such systems are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various types of systems. Previous research and projects involving ed...

1970-01-01

404

Does socioeconomic disadvantage explain why immigrants in Sweden refrain from seeking the needed medical treatment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: For the last 20 years, Sweden has changed from a homogeneous to multicultural society with about 20% of immigrants born in other countries. The existing Swedish studies have not shown coherent results on how access to health care services varies by ethnicity. The aim of this paper was to analyze the association between country of birth and refraining from seeking medical treatment and whether socioeconomic disadvantage modifies this association. Methods: Cross-sectional Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004. A population-based sample comprising of 14,732 men (1,382 immigrants and 17,115 women (1,717 immigrants aged 21 to 84 years. Country of birth was categorised as being born in Sweden, other OECD countries or other countries (non- OECD. The main outcome was the self-reporting of refraining from seeking medical treatment during the past three months. Data was collected within a three-month period during the spring of 2004 and was based on a postal self-administered questionnaire linked to registry data from Statistics Sweden. The nonresponse rate was 37%. Main results: In spite of the fact that immigrants reported poorer health status, they were more likely to refrain from seeking medical treatment as compared to Swedish-born residents (odds for immigrants from other OECD countries were ORmen = 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6 and ORwomen = 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and for immigrants from other countries (ORmen = 3.1, 95% CI 2.4-3.4 and ORwomen = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9. Socioeconomic disadvantage (SDI did not explain why immigrants fromother OECD countries had increased odds for refraining fromseekingmedical treatment. However SDI explained about 20%of the increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment among immigrants from other (non-OECD countries. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disadvantage does not fully explain why immigrants refrain from seeking medical treatment. Public health strategies towards the goal “care on equal terms” cannot be achieved without addressing wider socioeconomic determinants including interactions between class and ethnicity.

Sarah Wamala

2007-09-01

405

Problem drinking and exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol consumption in Scottish men: associations with life course socioeconomic disadvantage in a population-based cohort study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With surveys suggesting that exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol intake is commonplace, the health and social impact of modifying intake on a population level is potentially considerable. If public health interventions are to be successfully implemented, it is first important to identify correlates of such behaviours, including socioeconomic disadvantage. This was the aim of the present study. Methods Population-representative cohort study of 576 men from the West of Scotland. Data on life course socioeconomic position were collected in 1988 (at around 55 years of age. Alcohol consumption patterns (detailed seven day recall and problem drinking (CAGE questionnaire were ascertained in 1990/2 (at around 59 years of age. A relative index of inequality was computed to explore the comparative strength of different indicators of social circumstances from different periods of the life course. Results Socioeconomic adversity in both early life and in adulthood was related to an increased risk of exceeding the weekly and daily alcohol guidelines, with adult indicators of socioeconomic position revealing the strongest associations. Of these, material indicators of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood – car ownership, housing tenure – were marginally more strongly related to heavy alcohol intake and problem drinking than education, income and occupational social class. A substantial proportion of the influence of early life deprivation on alcohol intake was mediated via adult socioeconomic position. Similar results were apparent when problem drinking was the outcome of interest. Conclusion In men in this cohort, exposure to disadvantaged social circumstances across the lifecourse, but particularly in adulthood, is associated with detrimental patterns of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in late middle age.

Benzeval Michaela

2008-09-01

406

The genetic precursors and the advantageous and disadvantageous sequelae of inhibited temperament: an evolutionary perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guided by evolutionary game theory (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005), this study aimed to identify the genetic precursors and the psychosocial sequelae of inhibited temperament in a sociodemographically disadvantaged and racially diverse sample (N = 201) of 2-year-old children who experienced elevated levels of domestic violence. Using a multimethod, prospective design across 3 annual measurement occasions, the authors conducted structural equation modeling analyses indicating that trained observer ratings of inhibited temperament at age 2 were uniquely predicted by polymorphisms in dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Children's inhibited temperament, in turn, indirectly predicted decreases in their externalizing problems at age 4 through its association with greater behavioral flexibility at age 3. Results highlight the value of integrating evolutionary and developmental conceptualizations in more comprehensively charting the developmental cascades of inhibited temperament. PMID:23527493

Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L

2013-12-01

407

Race, gender, and chains of disadvantage: childhood adversity, social relationships, and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a life course approach to guide an investigation of relationships and health at the nexus of race and gender. We consider childhood as a sensitive period in the life course, during which significant adversity may launch chains of disadvantage in relationships throughout the life course that then have cumulative effects on health over time. Data from a nationally representative panel study (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 3,477) reveal substantial disparities between black and white adults, especially pronounced among men, in the quality of close relationships and in the consequences of these relationships for health. Greater childhood adversity helps to explain why black men have worse health than white men, and some of this effect appears to operate through childhood adversity's enduring influence on relationship strain in adulthood. Stress that occurs in adulthood plays a greater role than childhood adversity in explaining racial disparities in health among women. PMID:24578394

Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A; Liu, Hui; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2014-03-01

408

The last word in court--a hidden disadvantage for the defense.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the legal systems of most western countries, defense attorneys present their sentencing recommendation after the prosecution has presented its sentencing demands. This procedural sequence for criminal cases is intended to balance the impact of both parties on the judge's final decision. Especially the positioning of the defense's plea at the end of the trial follows the fundamental legal principle "in dubio pro reo." Research on judgmental anchoring, however, suggests that the standard procedural sequence may in fact work against this principle. Consistent with this implication, the present studies demonstrate that the defense's sentencing recommendation is anchored on, and consequently assimilated toward, the preceding recommendation by the prosecution. This influence prevents the defense attorney from effectively counterbalancing the prosecutor's demand. Instead, the biased defense attorney's recommendation partially mediates the impact of the prosecutor's demand on the judge's decision. These findings suggest that the standard procedural sequence in court may place the defense at a distinct disadvantage. PMID:16382357

Englich, Birte; Mussweiler, Thomas; Strack, Fritz

2005-12-01

409

Evaluation of Sheep Embryo Quality by Morphologic Methods – Advantages and Disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study is focused on one of the most important steps in embryo technology evaluating embryo quality. During three years, we have conducted embryo transfer experiments on sheep. The evaluation of embryo quality was made using morphologic methods. We have evaluated embryos immediately after recovery (surgical methods recovery or after throwing of frozen embryo under a optical microscope were used for evaluation. International Embryo Transfer Society standards for embryo quality classification. There are four grades of quality: excellent, good, medium and poor. The morphological method’s advantages are: it is very fast, not so expensive and does not require excessive embryo manipulation. Disadvantages of this method are: grading is subjective, depending on the experience of the evaluator, metabolic, genetic or epigenetic disorders of embryos are not detectable.

S. Angela

2006-01-01

410

Mothers' Beliefs about Literacy Development: Indigenous and Anglo-Australian Mothers from Different Educational Backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown a relationship between mothers' beliefs about literacy, their educational and socioeconomic backgrounds, and their children's emergent literacy awareness. Many Australian Indigenous children experience educational disadvantage, as do children whose parents are manual workers. One recommendation that is frequently made is for…

Torr, Jane

2008-01-01

411

The Dollars and Cents of Investing Early: Cost-Benefit Analysis in Early Care and Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Heckman et al. discuss how cost-benefit analysis of prekindergarten education programs demonstrates that the highest per child benefits stem from programs that focus on economically disadvantaged children. Indeed, studies have shown that these children make significant gains in cognition, social-emotional development, and educational performance…

Heckman, James; Grunewald, Rob; Reynolds, Arthur

2006-01-01

412

To Segregate or to Separate? Special Education Expansion and Divergence in the United States and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two hundred years in the United States and Germany, special educational systems have been institutionalized to facilitate access to learning opportunities for children with disabilities, difficulties, and disadvantages. Originally heralded as innovative, the positive views of these mainly segregating and separating educational…

Powell, Justin J. W.

2009-01-01

413

Primary school teachers' opinions on the assessment in physical education from the Stajerska region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Throughout the history of educational system few methods of assessing were changed and each among them has certain advantages and disadvantages. In order to determine what are the opinions of teachers regarding the assessment of physical education, I made a survey with primary school teachers from the Štajerska region.

2011-01-01

414

Using Kansas Study and National Community College Benchmark Project Information for Assessment of General Education  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 2006 fall semester, Nashville State Technical Community College (NSCC) completed a review of its general education program, including assessment of student success. A major advantage in assessing general education is that a number of measures are available for this purpose. A major disadvantage is that these measures rarely can be tied…

Weed, Ellen J.

2007-01-01

415

Diversification in Higher Education. Werkstattberichte--Band 56 (Workshop Paper No. 56).  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication explores the variety of notions that exist regarding the diversity of higher education. It favors efforts to keep differences of quality and function within higher education in check, thus ensuring chances for socially and economically disadvantaged students to share common experiences with others and facilitating a…

Wasser, Henry

416

Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism in Higher Education and the Labor Market in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2011-01-01

417

Process Evaluation of a Psychosocial Intervention Addressing Women in a Disadvantaged Setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents the process evaluation of a community-based randomized psycho-social trial aimed to enhance reproductive and mental health outcomes of disadvantaged women living in the southern suburb of Beirut-Lebanon. Process evaluation of public health interventions involves the monitoring and documentation of interventions’ implementation to allow for better understanding of planned outcomes and of intervention effectiveness. Methods: A community-based randomized trial was conducted. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions (of combined 30 minutes of relaxation exercises and 75 minutes of structured support groups delivered twice per week over a period of six-weeks. A process evaluation was conducted during the implementation of the intervention. This process evaluation aimed to ensure that the intervention was delivered and implemented as planned, as well as to monitor women’s satisfaction and attendance. The main components of the process evaluation included: dose delivered, dose received, and reach. Closed ended questionnaires were administered before/after/during each intervention session. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Analysis revolved around simple frequency distribution for categorical variables and means (SD for continuous variables. Limited bivariate analysis (using CHI Square and Anova was done. Results: Results indicated that the delivery, implementation, and reach of the intervention were favorable. Participation was acceptable and satisfaction rates were very high. Conclusion: These favorable findings pertaining to intervention satisfaction, reach and participation highlight a number of lessons for future intervention studies in the context of disadvantaged settings. They also support the importance of involving the local community members in intervention planning, implementation and evaluation early on. We believe that the community involvement in this trial directly and significantly contributed to the results of this process evaluation.

Rima Nakkash

2011-12-01

418

Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.  

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The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

2014-03-01

419

Why don't they just get married? Barriers to marriage among the disadvantaged.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kathryn Edin and Joanna Reed review recent research on social and economic barriers to marriage among the poor and discuss the efficacy of efforts by federal and state policymakers to promote marriage among poor unmarried couples, especially those with children, in light of these findings. Social barriers include marital aspirations and expectations, norms about childbearing, financial standards for marriage, the quality of relationships, an aversion to divorce, and children by other partners. Edin and Reed note that disadvantaged men and women highly value marriage but believe they are currently unable to meet the high standards of relationship quality and financial stability they believe are necessary to sustain a marriage and avoid divorce. Despite their regard for marriage, however, poor Americans do not view it as a prerequisite for childbearing, and it is typical for either or both parents in an unmarried-couple family to have a child by another partner. Economic barriers include men's low earnings, women's earnings, and the marriage tax. In view of these findings, Edin and Reed argue that public campaigns to convince poor Americans of the value of marriage are preaching to the choir. Instead, campaigns should emphasize the benefits for children of living with both biological parents and stress the harmful effects for children of high-conflict parental relationships. Programs to improve relationship quality must address head-on the significant problems many couple face. Because disadvantaged men and women view some degree of financial stability as a prerequisite for marriage, policymakers must address the instability and low pay of the jobs they typically hold as well as devise ways to promote homeownership and other asset development to encourage marriage. Moreover, programs need to help couples meet the challenges of parenting families where children are some combination of his, hers, and theirs. Encouraging more low-income couples to marry without giving them tools to help their marriages thrive may simply increase the divorce rate. PMID:16158733

Edin, Kathryn; Reed, Joanna M

2005-01-01

420

Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is built upon a psychology of hope and provides pathways not only to new hope but also to a new sense of identity and independence. Clemente Australia (CA is an example of community embedded, socially supported university education (CESS. Essential elements of CA are respecting people for who they are and for where they are within their individual life journeys; building student capacity to be more proactive in reflecting upon and engaging with the world; learning with and relating to others; and promoting educative justice through the recognition of the students’ human rights to participate in tertiary education in a way that meets their personal and academic learning needs. For the students, the university (Australian Catholic University and other partners in CA, it is evident that there has been an ongoing shift from dependence upon the provision of materials and services to empowerment and enhanced capabilities in identifying the supports and processes required to meet the personal and professional needs of students, staff and community agencies. This shift has occurred through the scaffolding processes provided, the establishment of innovative partnerships and purposeful reflection. It has involved listening to one another, welcoming people into new worlds and challenging one another in the provision of transformative education to realise the fulfilment of hope for many Australians experiencing disadvantage. key words: transformation; education; community; hope; homelessness; disadvantage

Peter Howard

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
421

Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is built upon a psychology of hope and provides pathways not only to new hope but also to a new sense of identity and independence. Clemente Australia (CA is an example of community embedded, socially supported university education (CESS. Essential elements of CA are respecting people for who they are and for where they are within their individual life journeys; building student capacity to be more proactive in reflecting upon and engaging with the world; learning with and relating to others; and promoting educative justice through the recognition of the students’ human rights to participate in tertiary education in a way that meets their personal and academic learning needs. For the students, the university (Australian Catholic University and other partners in CA, it is evident that there has been an ongoing shift from dependence upon the provision of materials and services to empowerment and enhanced capabilities in identifying the supports and processes required to meet the personal and professional needs of students, staff and community agencies. This shift has occurred through the scaffolding processes provided, the establishment of innovative partnerships and purposeful reflection. It has involved listening to one another, welcoming people into new worlds and challenging one another in the provision of transformative education to realise the fulfilment of hope for many Australians experiencing disadvantage. key words: transformation; education; community; hope; homelessness; disadvantage

Peter Howard

2010-11-01

422

Education, Training and Identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although public policy debate centers on education and training (ET) as a primary determinant of economic success, this study suggests that instead the economy determines patterns of participation in education and training. Research over time shows that planned government ET policies have little ability to affect the economy because the effects of…

Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Gorard, Stephen; Furlong, John

423

Education for Menarche.  

Science.gov (United States)

Education programs to prepare young women for menarche can potentially affect their self-view; peer interaction, decision making; and self-care capabilities. A review of literature on menarche and menarcheal education is presented with implications for program development. (Author/MT)

Dashiff, Carol

1986-01-01

424

Trends in educational technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trends in Educational Technologies analyses the benefits and considerations of deploying four major technological trends set to affect higher education institutions. These include; MOOCs, BYOD, Gamification and Games-based learning and Learning analytics. The report argues that, while technology can bring benefits and should be embraced by institutions, pedagogy and learning should be at the heart of any technological adoption.

Karnad, Arun

2014-01-01

425

Physical Education as Porn!  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This paper offers critical commentary on the culture of "performativity" that has dominated educational discourse over the last 20 years, affecting the way in which researchers, teachers, pupils and parents think and act toward Physical Education and sport (PESP) in schools. It is a culture that, in the UK, is likely to intensify in…

Evans, John

2013-01-01

426

ADVANTAGES ADN DISADVANTAGES OF E-LEARNING IN THE CONTEXT OF DEVELOPMENT / Reflexe vývoje výhod a nevýhod e-learningu  

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Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-learning in the context of its advantages and disadvantages. The first part presents brief survey of the changing views of this topic. The next part gives an overview of the advantages and disadvantages from the different points of view. Finally, attention is paid to e-learning emerging issues and key trends influenced advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.P?edložený ?lánek se zabýva e-learningem v kontextu jeho výhod a nevýhod. Úvodní ?ást p?edkladá stru?ným exkurz do vývoje zpracování dané problemati­ky. Nasleduje vlastní p?ehled s odkazy na zdroje a dis­kusní témata. Pozornost je v?nována rovn?ž aktuálním záležitostem a aktivitám, které v sou?asné dob? m?ní e-learning a dopl?ují a inovují seznam položek výhod a ne­výhod e-learningu.

Egerová Dana

2008-05-01

427

The Economics of Investing in Universal Preschool Education in California  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown that well-designed early education programs serving disadvantaged children in the year or so prior to kindergarten entry can generate benefits to government and the rest of society that outweigh the costs of the program services. As a result of this evidence and the conviction that children benefit from structured programs…

Karoly, Lynn A.; Bigelow, James H.

2005-01-01

428

American Educational Research Association Paper Abstracts, 1968 Annual Meeting.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains abstracts of approximately 400 papers presented at the 1968 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. A sampling of the varied subjects covered includes: classroom interaction, verbal behavior, concept learning, conservation concepts, teaching the disadvantaged, teaching strategies, research on…

Hausdorff, Henry, Ed.

429

Alternate Methods for Analyzing Data from Education Experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advantages and disadvantages of three analytic methods are discussed. A hypothetical data set is employed to make the discussion complete. It is suggested that commonality analysis can be usefully employed in research studies in education, particularly when aptitute-treatment interaction studies are involved. (Author/LMO)

Thompson, Bruce

1985-01-01

430

Descentralizacion de la educacion: Financiamiento basado en la demanda. Tendencias del Desarrollo. (Decentralization of Education: Demand-Side Financing. Directions in Development.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Central government's supply-side expansions of schooling have not equally benefited all members of society, especially girls, indigenous peoples, tribal groups, disadvantaged minorities, and the poor. Public spending on education is often inefficient, higher education is subsidized at primary education's expense, and costs are becoming…

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Ariasingam, David Lakshmanan

431

Affirmative Action in Higher Education in India: Targeting, Catch Up, and Mismatch at IIT-Delhi. NBER Working Paper No. 17727  

Science.gov (United States)

Affirmative action policies in higher education are used in many countries to try to socially advance historically disadvantaged minorities. Although the underlying social objectives of these policies are rarely criticized, there is intense debate over the actual impact of such preferences in higher education on educational performance and labor…

Frisancho Robles, Veronica C.; Krishna, Kala

2012-01-01

432

What factors of satisfaction and motivation are affecting the development of the academic career in Portuguese higher education institutions? Que fatores de satisfação e motivação estão afetando o desenvolvimento da carreira acadêmica em instituições de ensino superior em Portugal?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important constituent group and a key resource of higher education institutions (HEIs) is the faculty or academic staff. The centrality of the faculty role makes it a primary sculptor of institutional culture and has implications for the quality of the institution and therefore has a major role in achieving the objectives of the institution. Demand for academic staff in higher education has been increasing and may be expected to continue to increase. Moreover the performance of academic st...

Maria de Lourdes Machado-Taylor; Virgílio Meira Soares; José Brites Ferreira; Odília Maria Rocha Gouveia

2011-01-01

433

Non-Formal Education for Women in Bangladesh. Supplementary Paper No. 5. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using certain criteria, 4 out of 35 voluntary and nongovernmental organizations in Bangladesh, which were engaged in nonformal education among economically disadvantaged women, were selected and surveyed to identify and document their nonformal activities. Data were generated through field visits, personal interviews, observations, and examination…

Hoque, Naseem

434

78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged  

Science.gov (United States)

...your comments about the proposed amendments, address them to Monique Chism, Director, Student Achievement and School Accountability Programs, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Attention: AA-MAAS NPRM, U.S. Department...

2013-11-19

435

Old and new inequalities in educational attainment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines ethnic and class inequalities in educational attainment using the 2001 Belgian Census. It analyses the highest qualifications that the 1973 to 1979 birth cohort obtained in 2001. Variation in attainment levels is explained as a function of gender, ethnic and class origins, and other characteristics of the parental household in 1991. Earlier findings of gross ethnic disadvantage, in particular among Turkish and Moroccan youngsters, were largely replicated when ethnicity is ...

Phalet, Karen; Deboosere, Patrick; Bastiaenssen, Vicky

2007-01-01

436

Disadvantaged Youth Employment. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources on Reviewing Disadvantaged Youth Unemployment. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

Science.gov (United States)

The testimony presented in this document focuses on the severe unemployment crisis among disadvantaged youth. Despite several nationwide youth employment programs the problem is increasing. As these young people continue to go without jobs they lose self-esteem and become victims of the street. A broad spectrum of witnesses testified before this…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

437

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

Cunningham Heather

2010-07-01

438

Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

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Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

2011-01-01

439

Project SOUL: Computer Training Program for High School Students from Disadvantaged Areas. Part I, General Report. Technical Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a general description of the 1970 "Project SOUL" summer program. The computer training course, intended for disadvantaged high school students, provides both training for immediate jobs and fundamental mathematical and scientific training for students going on to college. Included in this document are a description of the…

Bellman, Richard E.; And Others

440

Home-Based Child Development Interventions for Preschool Children from Socially Disadvantaged Families. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:1  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of home-based programmes aimed specifically at improving developmental outcomes for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families. The authors searched the following databases between 7 October and 12 October 2010: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2010,…

Miller, Sarah; Maguire, Lisa K.; Macdonald, Geraldine

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

The Role of Parenting in Linking Family Socioeconomic Disadvantage to Physical Activity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents play an important role in influencing adolescent health behaviors and parenting practices may be an important pathway through which social disadvantage influences adolescent health behaviors that can persist into adulthood. This analysis uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine how parenting practices mediate…

Lee, Hedwig

2014-01-01

442

Examining How Neighborhood Disadvantage Influences Trajectories of Adolescent Violence: A Look at Social Bonding and Psychological Distress  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To understand how neighborhoods influence the development of youth violence, we investigated intrapersonal mediators of the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and youth violence trajectories between ages 11 and 18. The hypothesized mediators included indicators of social bonding (belief in conventional values, involvement…

Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

2011-01-01

443

Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2008-01-01

444

Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

Waghid, Y.

2010-01-01

445

Computer-based testing and training with scenarios from complex problem-solving research: Advantages and disadvantages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of PC-based simulations for selection and training for jobs which require complex problem solving skills is ever-increasing. This paper gives a short review of such simulations along with a list of advantages and disadvantages of their use. Possible future developments are sketched.

Funke, Joachim

1998-01-01

446

Post-Modern Career Assessment for Traditionally Disadvantaged South African Learners: Moving Away from the "Expert Opinion"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career assessment techniques in the South African context, when conducted in a group context. Through the use of traditional psychometric instruments, South African professionals are inclined to…

Bischof, David; Alexander, Dinah

2008-01-01

447

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

448

An Analysis of Historical Influences of Modern Chinese Overseas Students in Japan on Education Modernization in Zhili Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article made an analysis and demonstration of historical influences of modern Chinese overseas students in Japan on education modernization in Zhili Province with the aim of making up for disadvantages regional study in studies of modern Chinese education history, recognizing and evaluating in an impartial and justified way the historical position and influences of Chinese overseas students in Japan on modern Chinese education history and enriching the content and system of study on Chinese modern education history.

Guofu Fan

2012-01-01

449

Disadvantages of interfragmentary shear on fracture healing--mechanical insights through numerical simulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of secondary fracture healing processes is strongly influenced by interfragmentary motion. Shear movement is assumed to be more disadvantageous than axial movement, however, experimental results are contradictory. Numerical fracture healing models allow simulation of the fracture healing process with variation of single input parameters and under comparable, normalized mechanical conditions. Thus, a comparison of the influence of different loading directions on the healing process is possible. In this study we simulated fracture healing under several axial compressive, and translational and torsional shear movement scenarios, and compared their respective healing times. Therefore, we used a calibrated numerical model for fracture healing in sheep. Numerous variations of movement amplitudes and musculoskeletal loads were simulated for the three loading directions. Our results show that isolated axial compression was more beneficial for the fracture healing success than both isolated shearing conditions for load and displacement magnitudes which were identical as well as physiological different, and even for strain-based normalized comparable conditions. Additionally, torsional shear movements had less impeding effects than translational shear movements. Therefore, our findings suggest that osteosynthesis implants can be optimized, in particular, to limit translational interfragmentary shear under musculoskeletal loading. PMID:24648331

Steiner, Malte; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Simon, Ulrich; Wehner, Tim

2014-07-01

450

Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households. PMID:23315363

Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

2013-03-01

451

The advantages and disadvantages of Art History to Life: Alois Riegl and historicism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alois Riegl was one of the seminal art historians of the early twentieth century, but very little is known about his career as adjunct-curator of textiles at the Austrian Museum for Art and Industry. He worked at the Museum from 1884 and combined this position with University teaching until he left this post to become a full Professor of Art History at the University of Vienna in 1897. While interest in Riegl has shown no signs of abating in recent years, most scholars continue to debate Riegl’s theories and methods. The aim of this paper, however, is to demonstrate just how much of Riegl’s theorizing was brought into focus by practical issues at the Museum for Art and Industry. As recent studies have indicated, Riegl was much more than an ivory tower theoretician; his work reverberated with the type of cross-disciplinary cultural criticism we associate with the intellectual life of fin-de-siècle Vienna. Another goal of this paper is to contribute to our expanding understanding of Riegl in his social and institutional contexts. Finally, it traces ways in which Riegl used his early exposure to Nietzsche, particularly Nietzsche’s second Untimely Meditation (The advantages and disadvantages of History to life to craft his responses to contemporary artistic and social crises in the final decade of the nineteenth century.

Diana Reynolds Cordileone

2010-12-01

452

Correlates of substance abuse treatment completion among disadvantaged communities in Cape Town, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with treatment completion among poor communities in South Africa. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on cross-sectional survey data collected from 434 persons residing in poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa who had accessed substance abuse treatment in 2006. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that therapeutic alliance, treatment perceptions, abstinence-specific social support, and depression were significant partial predictors of treatment completion. Conclusions Findings suggest that treatment completion rates of individuals from poor South African communities can be enhanced by i improving perceptions of substance abuse treatment through introducing quality improvement initiatives into substance abuse services, ii strengthening clients' abstinence-oriented social networks and, iii strengthening the counselor-client therapeutic alliance.

Pasche Sonja

2010-03-01

453

Potential advantages and disadvantages of sequentially building small nuclear units instead of a large nuclear plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewal of nuclear power programs in countries with modest electricity consumptions and weak electrical grid interconnections has raised the question of optimal nuclear power plants sizes for such countries. The same question would be also valid for isolated or weakly connected regions within a large country. Building large size nuclear power plant could be prevented by technical or financial limits. Research programs have been initiated in the International Atomic Energy Agency and in the USA (within the framework of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program) with the aim to inspect under which circumstances small and medium reactors could be the preferred option compared to large nuclear plants. The economy of scale is a clear advantage of large plants. This paper compares, by using probabilistic methods, the net cash flow of large and medium size plants, taking as example a large nuclear plant (around 1200 MW) and four sequentially built smaller plants (300 MW). Potential advantages and disadvantageous of both options have been considered. Main advantages of the sequential construction of several identical small units could be the reduced investor risk and reduced investment costs due to the learning effect. This analysis is a part of studies for the Croatian power generating system development. (orig.)

2008-11-01

454

Review. Advantages and disadvantages of control theories applied in greenhouse climate control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today agriculture is changing in response to the requirements of modern society, where ensuring food supply through practices such as water conservation, reduction of agrochemicals and the required planted surface, which guarantees high quality crops are in demand. Greenhouses have proven to be a reliable solution to achieve these goals; however, a greenhouse as a means for protected agriculture has the potential to lead to serious problems. The most of these are related to the inside greenhouse climate conditions where controlling the temperature and relative humidity (RH) are the main objectives of engineering. Achieving appropriate climate conditions to ensure high yield and quality crops reducing energy consumption have been the objective of investigations for some time. Different schemes in control theories have been applied in this field to solve the aforementioned problems. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a review of different control techniques applied in protected agriculture to manage greenhouse climate conditions, presenting advantages and disadvantages of developed control platforms in order to suggest a design methodology according to results obtained from different investigations. (Author) 64 refs.

Duarte-Galvan, C.; Torres-Pacheco, I.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R. G.; Romero-Troncoso, R. J.; Contreras-Medina, L. M.; Rios-Alcaraz, M. A.; Millan-Almaraz, J. R.

2012-07-01

455

Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity producti