WorldWideScience

Sample records for educational disadvantages affecting

  1. Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

  2. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of digital education

    OpenAIRE

    Mąkosa, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...

  4. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  5. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  6. Educational Disadvantage and Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    HIGGINS, STEPHEN T.; Heil, Sarah H.; BADGER, GARY J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Solomon, Laura J; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of education on smoking status in a cohort (n = 316) of pregnant women who were smokers at the time they learned of the current pregnancy. Subjects were participants in clinical trials examining the efficacy of monetary-based incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. In multivariate analyses, educational achievement was a robust predictor of smoking status upon entering prenatal care, of achieving abstinence antepartum among those still smoking...

  7. Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic…

  8. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  9. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases over time. There was no statistically significant difference between cognitive functioning in both groups of children. No negative effects of pre-school education were identified. The results are in partial contradiction to other research and literature - specifically the outcome in cognitive functioning was unexpected. This can be attributed to limited number of participants. However we suppose that the results support the importance of pre-school education. Its impact could be further studied using longitudinal studies as well as focusing in more detail on the individual aspects of social exclusion and its effects on school readiness.

  10. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence – early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborhood...

  11. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspecti...

  12. Role of educational environment for students with health disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silanteva T.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the inclusive environment's support practices promoting to basic purposes of inclusive education, i.e., involvement of a bigger number of students with health disabilities into society. The article regards a number of supporting models, which prepare students for transition into an inclusive class, contribute to successful adaptation in the classroom and affect social relations of students as connected with the way they are perceived and accepted by other people. We analyzed the methodological foundation of inclusive education, drawing on theoretical underpinnings of the inclusive model, and tried to observe their coincidences with the concepts of cultural-historical approach in psychology.

  13. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  14. Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

  15. Educators' motivation on integration of ICTs into pedagogy: case of disadvantaged areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Chigona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using the technology for teaching and learning. Qualitative research approach was used to gather and analyse information from educators from randomly sampled schools located in disadvantaged areas in the Western Cape. The study has shown that educators' motivation to use technology for curriculum delivery could be impacted by satisfaction derived from using the ICTs, individual expectations, responsibility and a sense of achievement experienced when using the technologies.

  16. Educators' motivation on integration of ICTs into pedagogy: case of disadvantaged areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agnes, Chigona; Wallace, Chigona; Zane, Davids.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using th [...] e technology for teaching and learning. Qualitative research approach was used to gather and analyse information from educators from randomly sampled schools located in disadvantaged areas in the Western Cape. The study has shown that educators' motivation to use technology for curriculum delivery could be impacted by satisfaction derived from using the ICTs, individual expectations, responsibility and a sense of achievement experienced when using the technologies.

  17. Owen Bradford Butler: Corporate America's Evangelist for the Educationally Disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Frank L.

    1989-01-01

    The retired Procter & Gamble corporate leader and member of the Committee for Economic Development (CED) discusses the crisis in the American education system and his efforts for reform. Subjects covered include implications for business and the nation, business and federal reform initiatives, and the mandate for community-wide involvement. (AF)

  18. "Operation Bridge" - An Innovative Comprehensive Vocational Education Program for Disadvantaged Youth. Second Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Robert N., Jr.

    A 2-part developmental program consisting of a Dropout Component and a K-12 Component, this project is designed to provide a comprehensive and innovative vocational education program for the disadvantaged population of North Central Colorado as well as to provide a broad occupational orientation to increase students' awareness of the range of…

  19. Effects of Economic Disadvantaged Status and Secondary Vocational Education on Adolescent Work Experience and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1997-01-01

    Of a sample from the National Educational Longitudinal Study who were high school seniors in 1992, nondisadvantaged and vocational track participants were more likely to be employed in 1996 than disadvantaged and nonvocational students. Vocational track participants were more likely to be employed over 20 hours per week. (SK)

  20. School Tracking and Access to Higher Education among Disadvantaged Groups. NBER Working Paper No. 16914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    When students are tracked into vocational and academic secondary schools, access to higher education is usually restricted to those who completed an academic track. Postponing such tracking may increase university attendance among disadvantaged students if additional time in school enables them to catch up with their more privileged counterparts.…

  1. Targeting Educational Disadvantage by Area: Continuity and Change in Urban Areas in England, 1968-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George; Smith, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on data and policies from England, trends in educational disadvantage by area are traced from the late 1960s when the first pilot projects were established in the UK, to the present. The origins of these developments and the subsequent rises and falls of such area-based policies in England are reviewed. Specially collected data for the…

  2. Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: A Case Study of Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimine, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of young children spend significant amounts of time in early childhood educational settings. Concerns about the quality of this experience have increased substantially in recent years. Further, as social inequalities in Australia continue to grow the gap between disadvantage and advantage widens despite overall levels of increased…

  3. The challenge of educational disadvantage in a knowledge economy: a case study of Waterford crystal Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke , Senan

    2006-01-01

    The PhD research question ‘how can educationally disadvantaged employees gain the necessary qualifications to secure employability status and contribute to competitiveness in a knowledge based economy ’ is addressed through case study research using Waterford Crystal Ltd, an indigenous, manufacturing, exporting company from 1990-2006 as the context. Both the company and the economy paralleled the transformation of its manufacturing bases to compete in the global economy during this period. ...

  4. An Investigation of the Vocational Directors' Role and Responsibilities in the Delivery and Evaluation of Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Programs, as Perceived by the Local Administrator. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ivan E.; Oshima, Asahi

    A study assessed and compared perceptions of local vocational educators toward delivery and evaluation of vocational education programs for the disadvantaged and handicapped. Emphasis was on identifying factors affecting vocational education for the special needs population and areas of concern relative to these factors. A survey instrument was…

  5. Closing the Assessment Loop of Dental Health Education of Children from Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona IONAS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the level of knowledge of a group of children from disadvantaged backgrounds regarding the prevention of teeth decay, after having participated in courses of dental health care. The study is based on 107 socially disadvantaged children. They have been applied questionnaires referring to the scope of the study. After having completed the courses in the dental health field and dental hygiene, the children became more aware of the importance of a proper tooth brushing (77.6% than they were before the educational program (66.3%. The number of children who acknowledged that the toothbrush is a personal property has increased in percent from 96.5% to 99.1%. After the first educational program they became more aware of the role of mouthwash (the percentage increased from 79.1 % to 91.5% and of the use of the dental floss (from 50% to 91.5%. Psychologically, a very useful procedure to make children aware of the importance of the oral hygiene is to highlight the loss of a beautiful smile (96% because of tooth decay or of extractions (72%. All the indicators measured have shown an increase in the knowledge level of dental health care. The knowledge level of the use of dental floss and mouthwash proved a statistically significant increase. The results we obtained showed that the knowledge gap between the use of dental floss and mouth wash observed at the beginning of the study was closed after just one educational lesson. At the end of our program we were able to create an assessment loop process that can offer enough feedback to the management team so as to deliver the most suitable dental healthcare education for the socially disadvantaged children.

  6. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  7. Do preschool programs affect social disadvantage? What social workers should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The majority of children from lower income families enter elementary school well behind their peers in reading, math, and general knowledge. Poor academic achievement in the early grades is associated with a range of social problems such as failure to complete high school, increased risk of unintended pregnancy, increased criminal activity, and insufficient wages. There has been a steady increase in the number of publicly funded preschool programs designed to help children from a range of disadvantaged backgrounds develop school readiness skills. Social work has been minimally involved in preschool programs, even as policymaker interest and public support for these programs have grown. This article reviews the outcomes research on preschool intervention programs and discusses the implications of this research for social work policy advocates and practitioners. PMID:23409341

  8. The Equity Raw-Score Matrix--A Multi-Dimensional Indicator of Potential Disadvantage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Issues surrounding student participation, transition, retention and successful completion in higher education are topical. While the Australian federal government has identified broad groupings of under-represented students, these do not shed light on the complexities underlying the issues of the educationally disadvantaged, such as the…

  9. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-12-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  10. EFFECTS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS: WHAT FORTY YEARS OF RESEARCH TELLS US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cheung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of educational technology applications and how features of using technology programs and characteristics of these evaluations affect achievement outcomes for disadvantaged students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 154 qualifying studies were included in the final analysis. The findings of the review suggest that educational technology applications generally produced a positive, though modest, effect (ES=+0.16 in comparison to traditional methods. A marginally significant difference was found among four types of educational technology applications. Larger effect sizes were found with comprehensive models (ES=+0.23 and innovative technology applications (ES=+0.20. Effect sizes for supplemental programs and computer-managed learning were +0.15 and +0.12, respectively. The findings provide some suggestive evidence that approaches that integrated computer and non-computer instruction in the classrooms and innovative approaches are effective in improving student achievement. Differential impacts were also found by both substantive and methodological features.

  11. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2015-11-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males. PMID:26307026

  12. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (?g mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  13. Koranic Education Centres: A viable educational alternative for the disadvantaged learner in Sahel Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah-Lalya, Ibrahima

    2015-08-01

    Within the international momentum for achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many African countries have made considerable progress during the last decade in terms of access to basic education. However, a significant number of children enrolled in the early grades of primary schools either repeat classes or drop out and never graduate. Moreover, there are currently about 30 million school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa who have never attended any form of schooling. In view of this situation, sub-Saharan African countries have been looking for alternative options to educate those who have not been accounted for in the formal school system. This note considers informal Koranic Education Centres (KECs) which are trying to fill the gap of schooling in the Sahel-Saharan strip. The author looks at the challenges this form of schooling faces and at how to meet them efficiently. He sounds out the possibility of using KECs to cater for those who have been left aside by formal schooling. Based on existing studies, data compiled by educational systems and a study conducted by the Working Group on Non-Formal Education (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) in 2013, the author of this research note came to the conclusion that a holistic approach, where the two systems (the Koranic and the formal) collaborate and support one another, could effectively contribute to alleviating the dropout predicament and to reducing the number of unschooled children. It could offer a second-chance opportunity to dropout and unschooled children in the Sahel and Saharan zone. However, before this can become a viable alternative, a number of major challenges need to be addressed. Through its WGNFE, ADEA intends to further investigate the holistic approach of combining formal "modern" and informal "Koranic" schooling to come up with tangible recommendations.

  14. Koranic Education Centres: A viable educational alternative for the disadvantaged learner in Sahel Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah-Lalya, Ibrahima

    2015-09-01

    Within the international momentum for achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many African countries have made considerable progress during the last decade in terms of access to basic education. However, a significant number of children enrolled in the early grades of primary schools either repeat classes or drop out and never graduate. Moreover, there are currently about 30 million school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa who have never attended any form of schooling. In view of this situation, sub-Saharan African countries have been looking for alternative options to educate those who have not been accounted for in the formal school system. This note considers informal Koranic Education Centres (KECs) which are trying to fill the gap of schooling in the Sahel-Saharan strip. The author looks at the challenges this form of schooling faces and at how to meet them efficiently. He sounds out the possibility of using KECs to cater for those who have been left aside by formal schooling. Based on existing studies, data compiled by educational systems and a study conducted by the Working Group on Non-Formal Education (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) in 2013, the author of this research note came to the conclusion that a holistic approach, where the two systems (the Koranic and the formal) collaborate and support one another, could effectively contribute to alleviating the dropout predicament and to reducing the number of unschooled children. It could offer a second-chance opportunity to dropout and unschooled children in the Sahel and Saharan zone. However, before this can become a viable alternative, a number of major challenges need to be addressed. Through its WGNFE, ADEA intends to further investigate the holistic approach of combining formal "modern" and informal "Koranic" schooling to come up with tangible recommendations.

  15. Disadvantageous lies

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbacher, Urs; Utikal, Verena

    2011-01-01

    We present experimental evidence on the existence of disadvantageous lies. Literature so far assumes that people do not lie to their monetary disadvantage. However, some people have preferences for appearing honest. If the utility gained from appearing honest outweighsthe monetary payoff gained from an advantageous lie or the truth, people will tell a disadvantageous lie.

  16. Stories about care : women in a historically disadvantaged community infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Julian C. Müller; Sunette Pienaar

    2004-01-01

    Black women in previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa carry the burden of triple oppression: (a) the social engineering policies synonymous with apartheid have marginalised women economically and socially; (b) patriarchy, embedded in cultural and religious discourses, has rendered women voiceless and powerless and (c) HIV/AIDS targets the most vulnerable: women and children. The authors describe a research experience in Atteridgeville, a historically disadvantaged community in S...

  17. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  18. Effects of Employment-Based Programs on Families by Prior Levels of Disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, Desiree Principe; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Imes, Amy; Huston, Aletha C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how welfare and employment policies affect subpopulations of low-income families that have different levels of initial disadvantage. Education, prior earnings, and welfare receipt are used to measure disadvantage. The analysis of data from experiments suggests that employment-based programs have no effects on economic well-being among the least-disadvantaged low-income, single-parent families, but they have positive effects on employment and income for the most-disadvantag...

  19. School-to-Work Transition Services for Disadvantaged Youth Enrolled in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Elizabeth R.; Balasubramaniam, Meena

    A study examined the circumstances underlying the school-to-work transition problems of disadvantaged youth and strategies that school systems in Detroit, Pensacola (Florida), New Castle (Indiana), and Pittsburgh have adopted to address these problems. Among the problems studied were lack of information about jobs and careers, too few role models…

  20. Empowering Educationally Disadvantaged Mathematics Students through a Strategies-Based Problem Solving Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…

  1. Effective Affective Design for Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvacek, Susan M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the importance of affective considerations when designing instruction for distance education. Topics discussed include learner motivation based on Keller's ARCS model (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction); communication patterns that facilitate interaction between students; and ethics involved with marketing programs,…

  2. A Report on the Workshop for the Preparation of Tentative Objectives and Guidelines for Resident Outdoor Education Programs for Urban Disadvantaged Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Robert L.

    A workshop on outdoor education, funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title V, was held to develop guidelines for a residential program for urban disadvantaged youth. Participants came from various educational and other disciplines. Resource speakers and leaders were also involved. Tentative guidelines and objectives were produced…

  3. 78 FR 79221 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...Part IV Department of Education...such funding in the future. In addition, the...implementation of the Education Data Exchange Network...Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official...84.011: Title I, Education of Migrant...

  4. Extending the Purposes of Science Education: Addressing Violence within Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education…

  5. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  6. Affective Education in Philadelphia. Fastback 102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Norman A.

    This small booklet describes the Affective Education Program established in Philadelphia in 1967. The program uses various classroom techniques such as the problems, plans, and sharing classroom structure to foster student leadership and cooperation; using group roles, feedback, and processing; and being responsive to student concerns. In…

  7. Training Needs: An Analysis of a Statewide Survey of Vocational Educators in Alabama Who Work with Disadvantaged and Handicapped Students. Special Needs Coordination Unit: Report #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankovsky, Ray

    The second of a three-part report on vocational education for handicapped and disadvantaged students in Alabama focuses on the training needs cited by 500 vocational educators. It is explained that questionnaire results identified nine cluster areas, including the art and science of teaching special needs, development and use of special materials…

  8. Identification of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Special Education Service Delivery in Rural Kentucky as a Basis for Generating Solutions to Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Belva C.

    1992-01-01

    Eight elementary special education teachers attending a graduate course described 48 critical incidents that highlighted the advantages or disadvantages of their rural Kentucky areas in the delivery of special education services. Incidents were categorized and served as the basis for discussion of solutions to local problems in service delivery.…

  9. Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

  10. Funding Special Education by Total District Enrollment: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Several states and the federal government distribute aid for special education programs based primarily on total district enrollment and a fixed aid amount per student, a method called "census funding." In this policy brief, we address three questions to help policy makers, educators, and researchers better understand census-funding…

  11. Cognitive skills matter : The employment disadvantage of low-educated workers in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abrassart, Aurélien

    2012-01-01

    It is now a widely acknowledged fact that the low-educated workers are facing important risks of labour market exclusion in modern economies. However, possessing low levels of educational qualifications leads to very different situations from one country to another, as the cross-national variation in the unemployment rates of these workers attest. While conventional wisdom usually blames welfare states and the resulting rigidity of labour markets for the low employment opportunities of low-ed...

  12. Cumulative Disadvantage? Educational Careers of Migrant Students in Irish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Byrne, Delma; McGinnity, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Recent rapid immigration of a diverse group of migrant children into an almost exclusively White Irish school population makes Ireland an interesting case study for migrant education. This article explores key points in the careers of migrant secondary school students in Ireland from an equality perspective. The article draws on data gathered as a…

  13. The Role of Families and Pre-School in Educational Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylva, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    In the first volume of the "Oxford Review of Education" Jerome Bruner (1975) showed how the upbringing of the very young is influenced by poverty, and how different kinds of upbringing shape human development. He called the paper "Poverty and childhood" and baldly stated "With respect to virtually any criterion of equal…

  14. 38 CFR 21.3344 - Special assistance for the educationally disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate); (2) Needs additional secondary school education, remedial, refresher, or deficiency courses, to... language skills and mathematics skills may be made by: (i) A VA counseling psychologist or vocational...) (f) Basic skills. Basic English language courses or mathematics courses will be authorized when it...

  15. New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegría Majluf

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.

  16. Cognitive skills matter. The employment disadvantage of the low-educated in international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Abrassart, Aurélien

    2011-01-01

    It is now a widely acknowledged fact that the low-skilled are facing important risks of labour market exclusion in modern economies. However, possessing low levels of educational qualifications leads to very different situations from one country to another, as the cross-national variation in the unemployment rates of the low-skilled attest. While conventional wisdom usually blames welfare states and the resulting rigidity of labour markets for the low employment opportunities of low-skilled w...

  17. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Soci...

  18. Improving Education and Employment for Disadvantaged Young Men: Proven and Promising Strategies. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #10-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Low high school graduation rates and sharply declining employment rates among disadvantaged youth have led to increasing numbers of youth who are disconnected from both school and work. What programs and policies might prevent these disconnections and improve educational and employment outcomes, particularly among young men? We review the evidence…

  19. Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings…

  20. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auld Garry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style related to child feeding; b provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV; and c creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

  1. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  2. A Case Study of an Affective Education Course in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Chiang; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the components of a framework for affective education implementation based on a positive psychology approach. A fifth grade class of 31 students in a public rural elementary school in Taiwan participated in a 13-week long affective education course that consisted of six units: Self-discovery, Love and…

  3. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Efthymios Alepis; M. Virvou; K. Kabassi

    2009-01-01

    One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making th...

  4. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  5. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  6. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI; REZA NOROUZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitiv...

  7. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  8. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  9. Are Non-Eligible Students Affected by Special Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans; Pettersen, Ivar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the academic performance of non-eligible students - in an institutional setting of full inclusion - are affected by special education resources. Special education resources are per definition provided in a compensatory manner, and are increasingly being targeted to misbehaving students. The hypothesis is thus that special education resources might dampen the negative externalities associated with misbehaving students, and thus work to improve the performance of non-elig...

  10. Temps educatius i rendiment acadèmic: desigualtats educatives en grups desfavorits The time devoted to education and academic performance: educational inequalities in disadvantaged groups Tiempos educativos y rendimiento académico: Desigualdades educativas en grupos desfavorecidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Feu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’objectiu d’aquest article és reflexionar sobre les aportacions teòriques i estudis empírics més rellevants en el panorama internacional que relacionen l’èxit educatiu dels estudiants de classes i/o grups desafavorits amb l’ús adequat dels temps educatius que van més enllà de l’horari escolar. Concretament dels temps (i per extensió també dels espais, projectes i actuacions desenvolupats per la institució escolar pública, per les famílies, per les organitzacions de la societat civil o per l’Administració en general sempre i quan tinguin una intenció educativa explícita i manifesta. També es farà èmfasi especial a l’hora de destacar quin tipus de relacions es produeixen entre aquestes esferes i quins agents les promouen. esmentarem algunes qüestions que formen part del debat actual, però tenim interès a centrar-nos tant en les responsabilitats familiars i escolars com en les dinàmiques de capital social que afecten l’èxit educatiu i que tenen per objectiu crear un projecte educatiu comú (o altament compartit que va més enllà de l’horari escolar. _____________________________________________ L’objectif de cet article est de réfléchir sur les contributions théoriques ainsi que les études empiriques les plus importantes dans le panorama international qui mettent en rapport le succès éducatif des élèves de classes et/ou les groupes défavorisés avec l’usage adéquat des temps éducatifs qui vont bien au-delà de l’horaire scolaire ; plus concrètement, des temps (et par extension aussi des espaces, des projets et des interventions développés par l’institution scolaire publique, par les familles, par les organisations de la société civile ou par l’administration en général dans tous les cas où ils ont une intention éducative explicite et manifeste. Il met aussi l’accent sur le type de relations qui se tissent entre ces différentes sphères et sur les agents qui les promeuvent. Nous mentionnons en outre quelques questions qui font partie du débat actuel, mais nous avons choisi de nous centrer aussi bien sur les responsabilités des familles et de l’école que sur les dynamiques de capital social qui affectent la réussite éducative et qui ont pour objectif de créer un projet éducatif commun (ou largement partagé qui va bien au-delà de l’horaire scolaire.This paper considers the most relevant theoretical and empirical studies at international level that relate the educational success of students in disadvantaged classes and/or groups with the appropriate use of time for education outside of school hours. Specifically, we focus on the time (and, by extension, the spaces, projects and activities that is dedicated to explicit and clear educational objectives by state schools, families, civil society organizations or the government in general. In addition, we highlight the kinds of relationships that form between these different spheres and the agents that promote them. We mention some issues that are part of the current debate. However, our main focus is family and school responsibilities and the dynamics of social capital that influence educational success and whose goal is to create a joint educational project (or one that is largely shared that goes beyond school hours.El objetivo de este artículo es indagar las aportaciones teóricas y estudios empíricos internacionalmente más relevantes que relacionan el éxito educativo de los estudiantes de clases y/o grupos desfavorecidos con el uso «adecuado» de los tiempos educativos que van más allá del horario escolar. Concretamente los tiempos (y por extensión también los espacios, proyectos y actuaciones desarrollados por la institución escolar pública, por las familias, por las organizaciones de la sociedad civil o por la Administración en general siempre y cuando tengan una intención educativa explícita y manifiesta. También se hará énfasis especial a la hora de destacar qué tipo de relaciones se producen entre estas esferas y qué agentes las promueven. Mencio

  11. 78 FR 52467 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...Part 200 Education of disadvantaged, Elementary and secondary education, Grant programs--education, Indians--education, Infants and children, Juvenile delinquency, Migrant labor, Private schools, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  12. Youth, Arts and Education: Reassembling Subjectivity through Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey Moody, Anna

    2012-01-01

    How are the arts important in young people’s lives? Youth, Arts and Education offers a groundbreaking theory of arts education. Anna Hickey-Moody explores how the arts are ways of belonging, resisting, being governed and being heard. Through examples from the United Kingdom and Australia, Anna Hickey-Moody shows the cultural significance of the kinds of learning that occur in and through arts. Drawing on the thought of Gilles Deleuze, she develops the theory of affective pedagogy, which e...

  13. Developmental Patterns in Affective Recognition: Implications for Affective Education (HYP/POL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neal J.

    Implications for affective education are drawn from an empirical study of 60 upper-middle socioeconomic class 6 to 15 year-olds' responses to questions asking how videotaped actors felt. Percentage frequencies of category use in tape-recorded transcripts coded by two judges revealed no differences by child's sex. Marked developmental differences…

  14. To What Extent Does Continuing Professional Education (CPE) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) Affect Physicians Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathleen A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent is there an understanding among physicians as to how continuing professional education (CPE) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) affect physicians practice? To address the question, focus groups were used to begin a process of identifying the components within each type of education so that…

  15. Affective Education in the Primary Grade Levels: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.

    This report describes a 12-week pilot phase of an affective education program in the Stuttgart School District, Arkansas. Participating in the program were 218 children, grades 2-4, and a team of nineteen teachers who were given 12 weeks of in-service training designed to facilitate their use of the DUSO, Focus on Self-Development Human…

  16. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  17. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  18. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  19. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  20. Evaluation of an Affective Education Curriculum: Sex and Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Robert J.; Prost, Beth

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of an affective education curriculum for fifth-grade students. Results indicated the eight-week program had a positive impact on students' self-esteem. Teacher ratings suggested that the program also had a positive effect on students' peer relationships. Treatment seemed to make more of a difference for males. (JAC)

  1. Predicting Career Maturity Attitudes in Rural Economically Disadvantaged Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1994-01-01

    Six predictor variables (gender, race, disadvantage, postsecondary plans, vocational education, career indecision) were 75% accurate in identifying career maturity and immaturity among 90 economically disadvantaged rural ninth graders. Career indecision and race were most important for career immaturity, race and disadvantage for career maturity.…

  2. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Thi Nguyen; Wendy Warren; Heather Fehring

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study’s findings show that many factors hinder the quality of English teaching and learning: uninteresting teaching style; insufficient time for communicative activities; grammar...

  3. Does Faculty Incivility in Nursing Education Affect Emergency Nursing Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Pamela

    Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.

  4. Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program. Final Rule. Federal Register, Department of Education, 34 CFR Part 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Secretary amends the regulations governing the Migrant Education Program (MEP) administered under Part C of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended (ESEA). These final regulations adjust the base amounts of the MEP Basic State Formula grant allocations for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and subsequent years (as well…

  5. K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional development will continue through the 2013-2014 academic year. Formative assessment of the ongoing project indicates that students, teachers, parents and school administrators rank their experiences highly and that students are motivated to continue on the path to geoscience careers.

  6. Toward an affective pedagogy of human rights education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Ruyu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas under the Confucian tradition. The paper’s first section explores the thinking of three philosophers - Rorty, Merleau-Ponty, and Beardsley - who serve as sources for APHRE. The second section explains how their concepts contribute to APHRE’s development. In the third section, a practical curricular framework is presented. Finally, the paper discusses implementing the framework and concludes by recognizing APHRE as a pedagogic approach for crossing borders among nationalities, cultures, and languages

  7. The use of team-based, guided inquiry learning to overcome educational disadvantages in learning human physiology: a structural equation model

    OpenAIRE

    Rathner, Joseph A.; Byrne, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as “the human bioscience problem.” In the present report, we describe the outcomes for individual success in studying first-year human physiology in a subject that emphasis...

  8. Studies in Visual Perception and Reading in Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. Alan

    Two studies were carried out to measure the difficulties in visual perception which affect the reading abilities of disadvantaged children. The first study involved children in the first grades of eight poverty-area schools. Results reinforced earlier findings that urban disadvantaged children scored poorly on tests of visual perception.…

  9. Disadvantaged young people looking for work: a job in itself?

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall, Rebecca; Lupton, Ruth; Green, Anne; Watmough, Simon; Bates, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the task for jobseekers in the UK labour market in 2010–11. It focuses on young jobseekers with limited education and skills, and particularly on those from disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

  10. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…

  11. Persistent employment disadvantage, 1974 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Berthoud, Richard; Blekesaune, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The research compares the employment prospects of disadvantaged social groups in Britain over the past 30 years. It uses data from the General Household Survey, conducted almost every year between 1974 and 2003, with a total sample of 368,000 adults aged 20 to 59. A logistic regression equation estimates the probability of having a job for each member of the sample, taking account of gender and family structure, disability, ethnicity and age (and controlling also for educational qualification...

  12. Education and Demographics: How Do They Affect Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Wayne J.

    1988-01-01

    The author focuses on the relationship between the changing demographic composition and educational level of the labor force and the impact of those factors on the structural rise in unemployment. He discusses how the labor market has adjusted to the increased supply of young, well-educated workers by weakening the market for high school…

  13. Factors Affecting Attitudinal Patterns Toward Education in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bardin H.; And Others

    A sample of 380 urban, suburban, and rural persons living in the Province of Santiago, the Dominican Republic, were interviewed to determine their attitudes toward education. A 15 statement attitude instrument, using a Likert response scale, was developed. The major findings of the study were that attitudes toward education were significantly…

  14. Factors Affecting Student Success in Postsecondary Academic Correctional Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Research in correctional education has focused on examining outcomes for participants and identifying principles and guidelines that reflect best practice. Relatively few studies have focused on postsecondary education programs and fewer still have sought to relate program implementation to student outcomes to inform program design and improve…

  15. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  16. Financing Education for Children Affected by Conflict: Lessons from Save the Children's Rewrite the Future Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…

  17. Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2010-01-01

    Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

  18. Determining Factors that Affect Satisfaction of Students in Undergraduate Tourism Education

    OpenAIRE

    Atay, Lütfi; Yildirim, Hac? Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism underg...

  19. #The #importance of the affective aspects in the planning of the goals of aesthetic education

    OpenAIRE

    Denac, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects of the goals of aesthetic education in the theory and practice of pre-school and elementary school education. It points out the urge to account for the affective aspect in the formation of the goals of esthetic education. With this research, in which we also included pre-school teachers and those teaching the first grades of elementary school, we wished to produce an empirical study of the problems and particularities which...

  20. Materials Selection for Disadvantaged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawles, Beverly

    One of a series on library service to disadvantaged adults, this guide describes the selection of special materials. Factors to consider in identifying the clients and their needs are outlined. Bibliographies useful in selecting special materials for disadvantaged adults, some 140 books popular with adult new readers, and 23 publishers of such…

  1. Does Tax Evasion Affect Unemployment and Educational Choice ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    While examining the macroeconomic effects of government taxand punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector generalequilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wagebargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choiceof education is determined endogenou...... to choose punishment rates so to more than fully counteractthe distortion created by the government's inability to tax theinformal sector.JEL-codes: H26, I21, J64Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, education, matching,unemployment....

  2. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations?

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Mischo; Stefan Wahl; Janina Strohmer; Carina Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for professional practice, and as education of early childhood teachers matters with regard to developmental outcomes of children, knowledge orientations of prosp...

  3. The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhan M IDRUS; Noraida A. GHANI; Omar MA; Zuraidah A. RAHMAN; Hanafi ATAN

    2005-01-01

    The Support System in Distance Education:Factors Affecting Achievements Among Women Learners Hanafi ATAN Zuraidah A. RAHMAN Omar MAJID Noraida A. GHANIRozhan M IDRUS School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT Distance education has the potential to contribute to the enhancement of women’s development by overcoming not only temporal and spatial barriers but familial commitments as well. It brings education to their home and allows women to learn at the...

  4. Educators and Students: A Look on Affectivity in High Ability/Giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete de Fátima Bastos Valentim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally cognitive development is the focus regarding high abilities/giftedness so affective development receives less attention from parents and educators. Based on this, the objective of this text is debating the importance of the gifted people’s affectivity. Methodology was a case study about a gifted student. Instruments were a questionnaire by Perez and Freitas (2012 to identify gifted adults’ indicators and a semi structured interview. Results point to the importance of paying attention on affective aspects of students’ development and the importance of educators’ formation to they teach gifted students in classroom. We consider neglecting affectivity is a possible source of negative consequences for gifted students in their adult life. Also the educator’s formation is not only the professional preparation but it includes personal preparation. Finally, the first thing educators need to do is identifying gifted students. It is necessary to know at least about high abilities to identify them.

  5. Factors affecting the motivation of unemployed for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how well Ajzen in Fishbein's (1980 Theory of reasoned action (TRA predicted educational intentions and aspiration of the unemployed, who were enrolled in governmental funded educational programs. Study also explores the role of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997 as the third independent determinant of intention within the theory of reasoned action and its impact on motivation for further education. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 326 unemployed persons, aged from 16 to 49 years. It turned out that the only significant predictor variable are subjective norms, which had explained 38 % of the variance in intentions (p < 0.001, whereas attitudes toward behavior and self-efficacy did not achieve significance. On the other hand self-efficacy strongly influences individual's educational aspirations and expectations. The results of the study support the hypotheses, that external variables have stronger impact on person's goals, which are under a strong social influence, then on personal beliefs about instrumentality of behavior and perceived competence.

  6. Mindfulness-Based Interventions and the Affective Domain of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…

  7. Mindfulness-Based Interventions and the Affective Domain of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…

  8. Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

  9. Researching Emotion and Affect in the History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobe, Noah W.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory paper was prepared for a symposium held at the 2011 ISCHE conference in which participants were asked to envision future challenges in the historiography of education, to predict where the field was moving, and to imagine what innovations and new interests would arise in the subsequent 30 years. While the paper is playfully…

  10. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  11. Infusing Language Enhancement into the Reading Curriculum for Disadvantaged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jaci; Forester, Betsy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the collaborative instruction provided by a special education reading teacher and a speech-language pathologist to disadvantaged high school special education students, most with learning disabilities or mild-to-moderate mental retardation. It discusses teaching issues such as motivation, phonology, language use patterns, and…

  12. 34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...under the Secondary School Vocational Education...economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...meals under the National School Lunch Act (42 U.S...demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that...economically disadvantaged students attending...

  13. Alternative Certification: A Comparison of Factors Affecting the Motivations of General and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Kathleen A.; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2012-01-01

    Many teacher education programs are not meeting the needs of future teachers. To adequately prepare for the projected four million teachers who will be teaching by the 2016 school year, institutions of higher education and alternative certification programs (ACPs) will need to examine the motivations that affect an individual's desire to teach in…

  14. Investigating the Experiential Impact of Sensory Affect in Contemporary Communication Design Studio Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalsey, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The studio is the primary site for learning in specialist Communication Design education worldwide. Differing higher education institutions, including art schools and university campuses, have developed a varied range of studio environments. These diverse learning spaces inherently create a complex fabric of affects. In addition, Communication…

  15. Dispositional Factors Affecting Motivation during Learning in Adult Basic and Secondary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students' goals, goal-directed thinking and action…

  16. Change in Affect and Needs Satisfaction for Amotivated Students within the Sport Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Sport Education Model ("SEM") on amotivated students affect and needs satisfaction. 78 amotivated students from an original pool of 1,176 students enrolled in one of 32 physical education classes. Classes were randomly assigned to either the "SEM" (N = 16)or traditional class (N = 16).…

  17. Project: MOBILITY: A Federally Funded Research and Design Project for Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Students. Long Range Planning Process. Management Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Robert E.; Wood, R. Ronald

    A management plan developed for the district-wide coordination of vocational education program planning in the State Center Community College District, California, is presented. Following a discussion of the planning process (in memo form) and a section on how to read flow-block diagrams, the mission profile and narrative description of this model…

  18. Is there a role for affect and emotion in entrepreneurship education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a si...... affects created both within and among the students. We also point to challenges and risks involved in leveraging affect in entrepreneurship teaching.......Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a...... data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the students’ learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created...

  19. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [? = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  20. "Bringing Boys Back In". Soziale Ungleichheit Zwischen den Geschlechtern im Bildungssystem Zuungunsten von Jungen am Beispiel der Sekundarschulabschlusse ("Bringing Boys Back In". Social Inequality between the Sexes in the Educational System to the Disadvantage of Boys as Illustrated by Graduation from Secondary Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Heike; Klein, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Shows that in the German educational system, boys are at a disadvantage with girls. Explains that boys often leave secondary school without a final degree. Concludes that the smaller the proportion of male elementary teachers and the higher the rate of unemployment, the lower the achievement of boys in secondary schools. (CAJ)

  1. Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments. PMID:24711381

  2. A study of professional nurses’ perceptions of factors affecting the process of client education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarzi Z

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 about inhibiting factors. We used Likert score to measure questions. Data analysis performed by SPSS software. Statistical test were Chi square, t test, variance analysis and correlation of variance. Results: The highest percentage of nurses (52.1% believed that enough attention is not being paid to facilitating factors such as considering patient education as priority in patient care, nurses being responsible for patient education, considering patient education as a criteria in nurses annual evaluation, importance of patient education for nurse administrators, having in-service education about patient teaching and having proper time, place and personnel for patient education. Majority of nurses (57.4% believed factors such as shortage of nurses, lack of proper place, time and patient motivation for receiving education, nurses and nurse administrators’ inattention to patient education and negative attitude of doctors toward patient education by nurses are inhibiting factors in process of education. Statistical tests showed a meaningful relation between demographic variables such as sex, clinical background, shift work and position and facilitating factors. There was also a meaningful relation between variables like working in more than one shift, having clinical experience of patient education and being evaluated for patient education during study of nursing and inhibiting factors. Conclusion: This study shows low level of facilitating factors for patient education in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science. To improve patient education in these hospitals it is necessary to improve facilitating factors.

  3. Turbulence in Intercultural Communication Education (ICE): Does It Affect Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Fred; Tournebise, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This article examines a rather neglected context of intercultural education: intercultural communication education (ICE). ICE can be found in different fields such as business, applied linguistics, intercultural communication and health education, amongst others. The authors start by reviewing the latest and ongoing changes…

  4. Turbulence in Intercultural Communication Education (ICE): Does It Affect Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Fred; Tournebise, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This article examines a rather neglected context of intercultural education: intercultural communication education (ICE). ICE can be found in different fields such as business, applied linguistics, intercultural communication and health education, amongst others. The authors start by reviewing the latest and ongoing changes…

  5. Is there a role for affect and emotion in entrepreneurship education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah

    Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a single case study to explore the role of affect in entrepreneurial learning. The study focuses on a learning activity involving the creation of a flashmob by the students, as well as the buildup to the flashmob, which included a Lego based exercise. The case study builds on a combination of observation data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the students’ learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created very different patterns of affect. We suggest that these differences are due to differnces in the space in which the learning activity occurs, and the temporal duration of the activity. Implications Our study suggests that entrepreneurship educators can and should seek to address the issue of affect in their teaching. We also provide evidence of how teachers can create learning-conducive platforms. Value/Originality The study bridges theoretical insight into the affective turn and empirical data from an entrepreneurship classroom. This results in useful descriptions of learning activities and the affects created both within and among the students. We also point to challenges and risks involved in leveraging affect in entrepreneurship teaching.

  6. Affecting Change in Architecture Education / Can We Do the Right Thing

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta M. Feldman; Walter Grondzik

    2012-01-01

    I am impressed but not surprised at how differently Tom, Richard and Iview the question of “affecting change in architectural education.” Tomtook on the more expansive issue of how the broader university might redefineitself through “design thinking” and “design thinkers’” leadership,while Richard gave a concise overview of long held aspirations forarchitectural education and the profession. And I took on architecture’srelationship to society, particularly concerned with “massive societalchan...

  7. Beyond the Entrepreneurial University: The Potential Role of South Africa's Historically Disadvantaged Institutions in Reconstruction and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotzky, George

    1999-11-01

    The author identifies two tendencies affecting higher education. On the one hand, universities and colleges are under pressure to become more market-oriented and to respond to rapid changes in information technology and knowledge production. On the other hand, there is a growing concern that they should work for the benefit of society, promoting social equity and responding to community needs. The author argues that partnerships between the community and institutions of higher education are an effective way of contributing to community development. He describes the potential of South Africa's historically disadvantaged institutions to contribute to reconstruction and development in the aftermath of apartheid.

  8. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, team members, and subcontractors. This clause addresses disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, teaming arrangement members, and subcontractors.... The Contractor shall obtain representations of small disadvantaged status from joint venture...

  9. Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape. PMID:22947990

  10. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  11. Why the Disadvantaged Drop Out: The Administrators' View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Ferrante, Reynolds

    A report focusing on the academically disadvantaged minority group students is presented. Perceptions of administrators in public two-year colleges as to the major reasons for attrition of this group are examined. A pre-coded questionnaire was developed to gather information concerning programs of compensatory education in two-year colleges. It…

  12. The disadvantage of combinatorial communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Lachmann, Michael; Carl T. Bergstrom

    2004-01-01

    Combinatorial communication allows rapid and efficient transfer of detailed information, yet combinatorial communication is used by few, if any, non-human species. To complement recent studies illustrating the advantages of combinatorial communication, we highlight a critical disadvantage. We use the concept of information value to show that deception poses a greater and qualitatively different threat to combinatorial signalling than to non-combinatorial systems. This additional potential for...

  13. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Use of Educational Technology in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the related factors that affect the usage of educational technology in primary schools. This study depends on literature analysis and the questionnaire to collect data. Specifically, the items employed in this study were derived from the teachers' and school administrators' perceptions of using…

  14. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  15. Effects of Affective Education Through Developmental Guidance Services: A One-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.

    This is an evaluation of developmental guidance services' affective education program. Data was collected on children enrolled in Buerkle School and in a control school (Julia Shannon) in Stuttgart School District No. 22 (AR). Third- and fourth-grade level boys and girls who had been in the program for the full 1975-1976 year provided data for…

  16. Effects of an Affective-Social Education Program Over Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.

    This report describes the effects of a 2-year affective-social education program offered by the elementary guidance services of the Stuttgart School District in Arkansas. Four groups of children (a total of 105 boys and 116 girls) were identified for this evaluation: Group I, involved in the program for two full years; Group II, participating one…

  17. "Affective Eduscapes": The Case of Indian Students within Australian International Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluya, Gilbert; Probyn, Elspeth; Vyas, Shvetal

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the financial, cultural and governmental structures that frame international education as an important part of Appudurai's ethnoscapes of globalization. Developing the idea of affective eduscapes we analyse the lived experiences of Indian students. Drawing on interview material, we deconstruct the idea of "the Indian…

  18. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  19. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  20. Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

  1. Population Validity for Educational Data Mining Models: A Case Study in Affect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Baker, Ryan; Gowda, Sujith; Heffernan, Neil; Heffernan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced research methods such as educational data mining (EDM) have allowed researchers to effectively model a broad range of constructs pertaining to the student, moving from traditional assessments of knowledge to assessment of engagement, meta-cognition, strategy and affect. The automated…

  2. "Affection in Education": Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the Politics of Greek Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal…

  3. Affective and Social Issues among High Achieving African American Students: Recommendations for Teachers and Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, H. Richard

    2002-01-01

    Outlines affective and social issues as well as needs among high achieving African American students, discussing higher achievers in terms of urban schooling, emotional and psychological experiences, exclusion and isolation, powerlessness, token status, and pigeonholing. Recommendations for teachers and teacher education focus on identifying and…

  4. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Garcia-Garcia; V., Jha.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predispo [...] sition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  5. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Garcia-Garcia; V., Jha.

    Full Text Available The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predispo [...] sition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities.

  6. Públicos e (des)vantagens em educação: escolas e famílias em interacção / Publics et (dés)avantages dans l'éducation: écoles et familles en interaction / Publics and (dis)advantages in education: schools and families in interaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Virgínio, Sá; Fátima, Antunes.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretendemos apresentar alguns resultados provisórios de uma investigação em curso centrada nos processos de regulação da educação. O estudo desenvolve-se num concelho do norte de Portugal (convencionalmente designado Vila Formosa), abarcando as escolas com oferta de ensino secundário, e [...] pretende esclarecer, um conjunto de questões envolvidas com a diversidade dos públicos escolares, orientações e práticas das escolas e estratégias das famílias. Os elementos que nos propomos apresentar decorrem da análise de uma parcela do material empírico recolhido na primeira fase do estudo e centram-se, no essencial, na articulação entre duas vertentes: i) lógicas e processos mobilizados pelas escolas nos momentos em que efectivam determinadas escolhas organizacionais (nomeadamente, quando procedem à constituição das turmas e à gestão de determinados recursos); ii) determinadas estratégias de investimento escolar das famílias (materializadas, por exemplo, em 'escolhas' diversas e no recurso a 'explicações'). Os dados preliminares da investigação em curso, sugerem, ainda que de uma forma não linear nem consolidada, estamos perante um acesso desigual a um bem fundamental - a educação -, sobretudo nas suas fileiras mais prestigiadas, desigualdade essa que parece penalizar sobretudo os grupos sociais que já sofrem de outros défices. Abstract in english In this text we intend to present some preliminary results of an inquiry in progress centred in the processes of regulation of education. The study is developed in one municipality of the north of Portugal (conventionally assigned Vila Formosa), including the schools that supply secondary education, [...] and it intends to clarify a set of questions envolved whit the diversity of school publics, families strategies and orientations and practices of schools. The elements that we intend to present result from the analysis of a parcel of the collected empirical material in the first phase of the study and they are focused, in the essential, over the articulation between two sources: i) logics and processes mobilized by the schools at the moment where they accomplish organizational choices (namely, when they proceed to the constitution of pupil groupings and the management of some resources); ii) some family strategies of school investment (materialized, for example, in "different choices" and the use of "private individualized lessons"). The preliminary data of the research, suggest that we are in presence of an unequal access to a basic good - education -, over all in its most privileged courses, inequality that seems to penalize those social groups that already suffer from other disadvantages.

  7. Secondary science teachers' use of the affective domain in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Bette L.

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore (a) the types of student affective responses that secondary science teachers reported emerged in science classes, (b) how those teachers worked with student affective responses, and (c) what interactions were present in the classroom when they worked with student affective responses. The study was motivated by research indicating that student interest and motivation for learning science is low. Eight secondary science teachers participated in the case study. The participants were selected from a pool of teachers who graduated from the same teacher education program at a large Midwest university. The primary sources of data were individual semi-structured interviews with the participants. Krathwohl's Taxonomy of the Affective Domain served as the research framework for the study. Student affective behavior reported by participants was classified within the five levels of Krathwohl's Affective Taxonomy: receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Participants in the study reported student behavior representing all levels of the Affective Taxonomy. The types of behavior most frequently reported by participants were identified with the receiving and responding levels of the Affective Taxonomy. Organization behavior emerged during the study of perceived controversial science topics such as evolution. Participants in the study used student affective behavior to provide feedback on their lesson activities and instructional practices. Classroom interactions identified as collaboration and conversation contributed to the development of responding behavior. The researcher identified a process of affective progression in which teachers encouraged and developed student affective behavior changes from receiving to responding levels of the Affective Taxonomy.

  8. Factors Affecting Adoption and Diffusion of Distance Education among Health Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, distance education enrollment has become more common in colleges and universities, increasing from 1.6 million students in 1998 to an estimated 6.7 million in 2012. The purpose of this study was to identify which constructs in Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovation theory are more likely to contribute to adoption…

  9. Factors Affecting Adoption and Diffusion of Distance Education among Health Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, distance education enrollment has become more common in colleges and universities, increasing from 1.6 million students in 1998 to an estimated 6.7 million in 2012. The purpose of this study was to identify which constructs in Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovation theory are more likely to contribute to adoption…

  10. A Research on Critical Thinking Tendencies and Factors that Affect Critical Thinking of Higher Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan Arslan; Hakan Gulveren; Erhan Aydin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysis in order...

  11. Developmental changes in achievement motivation and affect in physical education: Growth trajectories and demographic differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined changes in student achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and affective responses in secondary school physical education. Method: Greek junior high school students (N ¼ 394; 191 males and 203 females) responded to a multisection questionnaire twice a year from the ages of 12 to 15 years. Results: Multilevel modeling analyses showed significant linear decreases in perceptions of taskinvolving teacher climate, task and ego goal orientat...

  12. 'Affection in Education': Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the politics of Greek love

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, JC; Brooke, C

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how 'a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal or transcendental terms' was fashioned out of the discourse of Greek studies in 19th-century Oxford by Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde and the Uranian po...

  13. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Responsible Management Education in Ghanaian Business Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Atakoa

    2013-01-01

    Business schools have been criticized failing to acknowledge their role in educating responsible managers thatcould have helped in solving the recent financial crisis that affected corporate institutions. This has resulted in anumber of measures by most business schools in the areas of introduction of responsible management educationcourses. Nevertheless, the general view prevails that business schools as a whole are making only very littleprogress in addressing these critical issues on insti...

  14. The level of hopelessness in the students of an occupational education center and affecting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Erhan Deveci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ?10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ?10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.

  15. By scrapping the Education Maintenance Allowance the Coalition government risks losing their opportunity to target entrenched problems of social mobility and educational disadvantage among pupils from deprived backgrounds in England

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In late 2010 the Coalition government announced that the Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) – a UK-wide scheme that offers weekly finance to students from low-income households who continue into post-compulsory further education – would come to an end in England after only 4 years of national availability to all 16-18 year olds. Joan Wilson finds that the scrapping of the scheme may work against the Coalition’s plans for social mobility.

  16. Perceptions of instructor's verbal aggressiveness and physical education students' affective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    The study examined the effects of perceptions of instructor's verbal aggressiveness on students' affective learning, and, in particular, students' affect toward the course, course-related behaviour, the instructor, as well as students' satisfaction as a function of perceived verbal aggressiveness by the instructor. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine the psychometric integrity of the affective learning scale employed. The sample comprised 146 physical education undergraduate students (18-22 years old, M = 18.9, SD = 1.0). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the factorial validity of the affective learning measure. Correlational analysis revealed a negative relationship between perceived verbal aggressiveness of the instructor and students' affect toward the course, course-related behaviour and the instructor, and students' satisfaction. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived verbal aggression could significantly predict all the dependent variables; the prediction was particularly high for students' affect towards the instructor and students' satisfaction. Findings and implications for teachers' type of communication were discussed and future research suggestions were made. PMID:23033767

  17. Affecting Change in Architecture Education / Can We Do the Right Thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. Feldman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I am impressed but not surprised at how differently Tom, Richard and Iview the question of “affecting change in architectural education.” Tomtook on the more expansive issue of how the broader university might redefineitself through “design thinking” and “design thinkers’” leadership,while Richard gave a concise overview of long held aspirations forarchitectural education and the profession. And I took on architecture’srelationship to society, particularly concerned with “massive societalchanges.” All of us, however, appear to have faith in architecture’sability, using Richard’s words, to “make a difference.” It seems to methat relying on past and even present architecture education models isnot the best strategy.- - - -Change is both pervasive and evasive. In architectural education,evasive may arguably dominate. Although many aspects of change(or the potential therefore might serve as a basis for this discussion,change to mitigate the negative environmental impacts of buildings willbe selected as a case in point. There may be no single issue of greaterlong-term impact facing architectural education and the professions itserves.

  18. ????????????????????????????????? Discriminating Math Low-Achievement Motivation Patterns: Comparing Disadvantaged and Other Students in Elementary and Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Yi-Mei Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????764 ???426 ???338 ?????428 ?????336 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? This study assesses math-avoidant motivation patterns of disadvantaged students to determine whether they require remedial education and learning guidance. The study includes 764 elementary and junior high school students (426 male and 338 female, and 428 normal and 336 disadvantaged. The students were sampled by region and school size in Taiwan. These students completed the Math Avoidance Motivation Scale, including variables measuring “self-efficiency,” “expectancy of success,” “perception of difficulty,” “intrinsic otivation,” “avoidance strategies,” “resistance,” and “self-control.” Two-stage cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, analysis of variance, and x2 (chi-square analysis were used as statistical methods. The results of the study show that students are divided into 4 clusters: enjoyment, permissiveness, helplessness, and carefulness. Discriminant analysis of the 7 observed variables identified 2 functions: affection and conation. These 2 functions differentiate between the 4 student clusters. The results also show that differences occur between the proportion of enjoyment and permissiveness clusters in the disadvantaged and normal student groups. This study explores 4 math avoidant motivation patterns and proposes that teachers recognize student styles. Teachers can encourage permissive students to form self-governing learning habits and support helpless students psychologically with remedial education programs.

  19. Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Bulut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.

  20. Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly ed...

  1. What affects asthma medicine use in children? Australian asthma educator perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Julianne J; Davidsson, Anders; Moles, Rebekah; Saini, Bandana

    2009-06-01

    The global burden of childhood asthma is significant. Health care systems are faced with increasing financial costs, while children with asthma and their caretakers are faced with poorer physical health, emotional health, and quality of life. Despite the availability of effective treatment, the quality use of asthma medicines in children remains suboptimal. An investigation was conducted to explore issues related to children's asthma medicine usage from the perspective of the health care professional. Although current literature has elicited the views of caretakers and children, the health care professional viewpoint has been relatively unexplored. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 21 Australian asthma educators. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and transcripts were thematically analyzed with the assistance of NVivo 7. Emergent themes associated with health care professionals, parents, medicines, children, and educational resources were found. Major issues included a lack of information provided to parents, poor parental understanding of medicines, the high cost of medicines and devices, child self-image, the need for more child responsibility over asthma management, and the lack of standardization, access to, and funding for educational resources on childhood asthma. There are multitudes of key issues that may affect asthma medicines usage in children. This research will help inform the development of educational tools on the use of medicines in childhood asthma that can be evaluated for their effectiveness in getting key messages to target audiences such as children, caretakers, and teachers. PMID:19544161

  2. Determining Student Internet Addiction Levels in Secondary Education and the Factors that Affect It

    OpenAIRE

    Fezile Ozdamli; Ozge Beyatli

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of students in secondary education in North Cyprus and the factors that affect it. In this research, a survey method which provides a general universal judgment was used to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of such students. It has been found that 59.9% of the students are at low of becoming internet addicts, 20.7% of them are in the high risk category, 13.5% face no risk of addiction, whi...

  3. Factors Affecting Pupil Cognitive Growth in Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soar, Robert S.; And Others

    As part of the evaluation of project Follow Through, the Institute for Development of Human Resources of the University of Florida collected observational data in a sample of classrooms representing a number of experimental programs. Three waves of data have been collected: 70 classrooms each in the winters of 1969 and 1970, and 289 in the winter…

  4. Airtraq optical laryngoscope: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, Kemal Tolga; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-06-01

    Difficult or unsuccesful tracheal intubation is one of the important causes for morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. Almost 30% of the anesthesia-related deaths are induced by the complications of difficult airway management and more than 85% of all respiratory related complications cause brain injury or death. Nowadays, due to the advances in technology, new videolaryngoscopic devices became available. Airtraq is a novel single-use laryngoscope which provides glottis display without any deviation in the normal position of the oral, pharyngeal or the tracheal axes. With the help of the display lens glottis and the surrounding structures are visualised and under direct view of its tip the tracheal tube is introduced between the vocal cords. In patients having restricted neck motion or limited mouth opening (provided that it is greater than 3 cm) Airtraq offers the advantage of a better display. Moreover the video image can be transfered to an external monitor thus an experienced specialist can provide assistance and an educational course can be conducted simultaneously. On the other hand the Airtraq videolaryngoscopic devices possess certain disadvantages including the need of experience and the time demand for the operator to learn how to use them properly, the rapid deterioration of their display in the presence of a swelling or a secretion and the fact that they are rather complicated and expensive devices. The Airtraq device has already documented benefits in the management of difficult airways, however serial utilization obviously necessitates experience. PMID:24180160

  5. We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen Immordino-Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely learning, attention, memory, decision making, and social functioning, are both profoundly affected by and subsumed within the processes of emotion; we call these aspects emotional thought. Moreover, the evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests the hypothesis that emotion-related processes are required for skills and knowledge to be transferred from the structured school environment to real-world decision making because they provide an emotional rudder to guide judgment and action. Taken together, the evidence we present sketches an account of the neurobiological underpinnings of morality, creativity, and culture, all topics of critical importance to education. Our hope is that a better understanding of the neurobiological relationships between these constructs will provide a new basis for innovation in the design of learning environments.

  6. Factors Affecting the Professional Characteristics of Teacher Educators in Israel and in the USA: A Comparison of Two Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagrir, Leah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to identify the factors affecting the professional characteristics of teacher educators by comparing two models of teacher education. The research findings revealed four major focal points that have an impact on professional characteristics: the operational model adopted by the institution where teacher…

  7. Factors Affecting Governance In Catholic Church Run Educational Institutions In Arusha Archdiocese Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Adoka Okisai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Governance is an important aspect in the day to day operations of schools and achievement of school goals and attaining development in any part of the world and indeed in Tanzania. The main purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting governance in catholic run educational institutions in Arusha Tanzania. The study specifically aimed to investigate the effect of policy frameworks monitoring and evaluation and organizational structure in governance in catholic run educational institutions. During the study primary data collection was done using questionnaires and personal interviews. Both simple random and purposive samplings were used to obtain data. The findings of the study indicated that most catholic run educational institutions are aware of the factors of governance which were being investigated. The majority of the leaders were in favor of good governance in their institutions which is characterized by transparency and accountability. This research shows that the presence of good policies brings about guidance and direction in the institution which in place enhances accountability and effectiveness in the part of those in leadership position. The study recommends that the Institutions should endeavor through staff development programs to induct new staff members in the institution to have a harmonious understanding of institutional policy framework and to achieve the set institutional goals.

  8. How do educational transfers affect child labour supply and expenditures? Evidence from Indonesia of impact and flypaper effects.

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Indunil; Sumarto, Sudarno

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises a large nationally representative household survey of unusual scope and richness from Indonesia to analyse how the receipt of educational transfers, scholarships and related assistance programmes affects the labour supply of children and the marginal spending behaviour of households on children’s educational goods. We found strong evidence of educational cash transfers and related assistance programmes significantly decreasing the time spent by children in income-generatin...

  9. Curricular Models for Culturally Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Clement T.

    1976-01-01

    Two psychological theories which seem to have had a great impact on compensatory education programs are Skinnerian reinforcement theory and the cognitive developmental theory derived in part from Jean Piaget. The Englemann-Becker program is a typical example of the Programmed Curricular kind of program; the Florida Project, an Open Framework; and…

  10. Technical Training for the Disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance of Businessmen, Washington, DC.

    Sixty-five representatives of business, federal and state government, and education participated in the conference designed to present the Training and Technology (TAT) Project at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Oak Ridge, Tennessee Y-12 plant as a model from which potential contracters might gain insight into the processes of formulating…

  11. Keeping up with Changes in Laws Affecting Immigrants. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 20. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses keeping up with changes in laws affecting immigrants. Its objective is to teach students to track the legal framework that affects immigrants' lives and to build problem-solving…

  12. Complementary Expertise in a Zoo Educator Professional Development Event Contributes to the Construction of Understandings of Affective Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products--an Affective…

  13. Influence of a Dissection Video Clip on Anxiety, Affect, and Self-Efficacy in Educational Dissection: A Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.

    2016-01-01

    In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection.…

  14. Schools, education and social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkes, Jo

    1999-01-01

    A review of research evidence suggests that low levels of educational attainment are crucial in generating and sustaining social exclusion. Test scores at school are the most effective predictor of many adult outcomes. School attendance and soft skills are also important. Reviewing the factors accounting for the variance in educational attainment, it is evident that combinations of social disadvantage powerfully affect school performance with up to 75% of school variation in 16 year old attai...

  15. Determining Student Internet Addiction Levels in Secondary Education and the Factors that Affect It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile Ozdamli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of students in secondary education in North Cyprus and the factors that affect it. In this research, a survey method which provides a general universal judgment was used to determine the level of internet addiction on the part of such students. It has been found that 59.9% of the students are at low of becoming internet addicts, 20.7% of them are in the high risk category, 13.5% face no risk of addiction, while 5.9% are internet addicts. It was determined that as students’ internet usage hours increase, the risk of addiction increases.

  16. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  17. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the ...

  18. A Report on the Baltimore City Public Schools' Workshop for Teachers of Disadvantaged Vocational Students, Summer, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resurreccion, Richard L.

    To help teachers develop effective procedures for dealing with disadvantaged vocational students, the Baltimore City Public Schools sponsored a summer workshop in cooperation with the College of Education at the University of Maryland. As a result of this workshop, teachers were to a) become sensitive to the problems of disadvantaged students, b)…

  19. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... various modifications to the Department's Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) Program. In a...

  20. 77 FR 54951 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... September 6, 2012 Part II Department of Transportation 49 CFR Part 26 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise... 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications AGENCY... of Transportation's disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) rule. First, the NPRM proposes...

  1. The Impact of the High Tuition Policy on Disadvantaged Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Yuan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan's education rate of return has increased incrementally over the long term, and education is the primary factor impacting income inequality. Its impact has been increasing every year. Having their children attend college is the way for disadvantaged households to escape poverty, but the high tuition policy is putting the poor in an…

  2. The Gap between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students in Science Achievement in South African Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Sarah; Scherman, Vanessa; Venter, Elsie

    2008-01-01

    South Africa's education system is still deep in the throes of reform under its third Minister of Education since 1994. Poor communities, in particular those of rural Africans, bear the brunt of the past inequalities. The challenge was to explore the extent of the "gap" in students' scores by comparing the advantaged and disadvantaged communities…

  3. Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

  4. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Sweden: A study of ESD within a transition affected by PISA reports

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Youngeun

    2013-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been called for playing a crucial role in integrating principles,values, and practices accorded with sustainable development. Holistic approach, ethical values, norm transitionand behavior changes are required to achieve the aim of ESD. However, while both external and internal impactsof the Swedish education system have affected its fundamental values and aims, core elements of ESD inSwedish curriculum were also influenced. This paper analyzes,...

  5. An investigation into the use of digital technology in adult education - how does it affect roles in adult education?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Henrietta Clare

    2013-01-01

    Adult education and further training in Ire land is currently undergoing reform. The VEC structure is now abolished and it has been rcplaced by Education and Training Boards. Meanwhile digital technology is also being integrated into adult education and bringing about changes of its own. This case study aimed primarily to examinc how thc use of digital tecliiJgy can impact on the roles of those involved ill adult education. In particular, thc focus of the S!!!bl was ~ ro les...

  6. Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. PMID:23145793

  7. Affectivity in educational context and in the teacher’s formation: mobilization, social participation and ethical-politics suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Melo de Mendonça

    Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.

  8. Semblanzas de la línea de investigación: Dominio afectivo en educación matemática / Affective Domain in Mathematics Education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo, Martínez Padrón.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM) y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías [...] sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM. Abstract in english This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM) and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation o [...] f mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.

  9. Semblanzas de la línea de investigación: Dominio afectivo en educación matemática Affective Domain in Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Martínez Padrón

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM.This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation of mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.

  10. Toward Digital Citizenship: Examining Factors Affecting Participation and Involvement in the Internet Society among Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to understand digital citizenship, based on the assumptions of Ribble (2014), by examining factors affecting participation and involvement in the Internet virtual societies among higher education students. A quantitative approach using a survey questionnaire was implemented. The participants were 174 students from the…

  11. Transforming Schools and Strengthening Leadership to Support the Educational and Psychosocial Needs of War-Affected Children Living in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study that examined the educational experiences of refugee students who have immigrated to Canada. Many children from war-affected countries have been denied basic human entitlements, and their immigration to Canada represents hope for their futures. Evidence suggests that these students are further…

  12. Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2013-01-01

    People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

  13. Variable Affecting the Information Needs and Seeking Behavior of Educational Administrators: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shafique, Dr. Farzana; Mahmood, Dr. Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at reviewing the research studies conducted to find out the information needs and seeking behavior of educational administrators, and other stakeholders of education enterprise. The purpose of this review is to identify the important variables a ffecting the information needs and seeking behavior of educational administrators. An effort is also made to review the status of su...

  14. Learning to Teach Sport Education in Russia: Factors Affecting Model Understanding and Intentions to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotova, Olga Nikolaevna; Hastie, Peter Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While remarkably positive findings have been presented in research focusing on Sport Education in school settings, investigations on how preservice teachers learn to teach a new curriculum in physical education have been described as "the missing link" in curriculum research. The purpose of this study was to introduce Sport Education to…

  15. Comment: Unemployment Theories and Disadvantaged Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Al

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that policies tolerating higher levels of joblessness for workers generally, and for disadvantaged workers in particular, are based on tenuous job search rationales and inflation expectationist fears. The old weapons of fiscal and monetary stimulation to stabilize income and unemployment are required, together with new strategies to…

  16. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful in the...

  17. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  19. Advantages and disadvantages of developing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To solve the problem of the shortage of electricity in China, an objective assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of generating electricity from different energy sources is necessary. Nuclear power is evaluated against hydro-, oil-, gas- and coal-power. It is proposed to develop nuclear power in a planned way as a sensible long term strategy

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  1. A Premedical Summer Program for Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemendor, Anthony A.; Moore, Olivia N.

    1978-01-01

    Five years of summer program experience with minority and disadvantaged students are examined and the impact of summer programming on medical school admission and academic performance in the first year of medical training is discussed. An academic curriculum of anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology--with intensive counseling--provides the basis of…

  2. On the Brink: How the Recession of 2009 Will Affect Post-Secondary Education. Canadian Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex; Dunn, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    With the global recession in full effect, post-secondary education in Canada is about to face some very significant challenges. The purpose of this report is to outline the likely main effects of this global recession on the Canadian post-secondary education (PSE) sector, as well as suggest a series of measures that governments can take to help…

  3. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  4. Factors Affecting the Integration of Information Literacy in the Teaching and Learning Processes of General Education Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therdsak Maitaouthong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.

  5. Whose education affects a child's nutritional status? From parents' to household's education

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Burchi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2) to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household membe...

  6. Effective Strategies for Educating Students in At-Risk Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    Every aspect of children's lives affects their ability to learn and succeed in school. However, conditions associated with poverty environments are major factors in students' dropping out. Children whose home environments and social backgrounds result in development different from the mainstream enter school at a distinct educational disadvantage

  7. Continuing Professional Education and Interacting Variables Affecting Behavioral Change in Practice: Instrument Development and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marilyn; Campbell, Nancy; Brigham, Carole

    1999-01-01

    Instruments were developed to test the following elements of Cervero's model of continuing professional-education effectiveness in achieving behavior change: motivation, social system, perceptions of the nature of change, and satisfaction with continuing professional education. Four studies and an expert panel confirmed the validity and…

  8. Factors Affecting the Decision to Merge: The Case of Strategic Mergers in Norwegian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Stensaker, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    Much research has been undertaken to investigate the cultural, structural and, to some extent, the economic effects of mergers in higher education. However, surprisingly little research has been done on why higher education institutions decide to merge. This article identifies and discusses a number of structural factors that may play a role when…

  9. Factors Affecting the Longevity of Special Education Teachers in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Rebecca Jane

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of maintaining highly qualified special education teachers are evident in public schools across the nation. Replacing educators who leave the field is a time consuming and expensive endeavor that impacts the achievement and progress of children with disabilities. This study is focused on explaining length of tenure in the profession…

  10. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  11. Counting Affects: Mo(ve)ments of Intensity in Critical Avian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to contribute to the idea of "posthumanist education" by unfolding an educational situation where an assemblage of two humans and 33 former battery hens is gathered to carry out a so-called cognitive bias experiment for two days. A Deleuzian repertoire is set in motion to configure the dynamics of hens intervening in the…

  12. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  13. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Sara B

    2014-12-01

    Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

  14. Sociopolitical Ideology as a Correlate of Teacher-Candidates' Attitudes Concerning Poverty and the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ruth; Long, Samuel

    1973-01-01

    Reports a study of the relationship between teacher-candidates' sociopolitical ideologies and their attitudes toward poverty and the disadvantaged among 591 undergraduate students of education at Indiana University and Southern Illinois University in the winter of 1971. (Author/JM)

  15. The Effects of Cartoon Characters as Motivators of Preschool Disadvantaged Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert; And Others

    A study designed to test effects of cartoon characters on the behavior of preschool disadvantaged children in an educational setting explored the use of cartoons as complementary additions to work materials. Because the 83 Head Start subjects had not been introduced to the alphabet an experimental set of worksheets was made which used the 26…

  16. Guidelines for Planning and Evaluation of Programs and Services for the Disadvantaged and Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadt, Ronald W.; Palmer, Edward W.

    1976-01-01

    The guidelines for programs and services for the disadvantaged and handicapped cover areas of concern essential to Department of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education's program approval/evaluation and project proposals/grants: students served; occupational programs; administrative organization; personnel; objectives; evaluation; resources…

  17. A Story of Conflict and Collaboration: Media Literacy, Video Production and Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…

  18. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…

  19. Factors Affecting the Standard of Female Education: A Case Study of Senior Secondary Schools in the Kassena-Nankana District

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Adetunde; Akampae P. Akensina

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the current factors affecting the standard of female education in the Kassena-Nankana district in Upper East Region of Ghana. Poverty, long-held negative attitudes about women's intellectual capabilities, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, examination failure in mathematics and science and the traditional division of household labour are among the many factors that continue to keep vast numbers of girls out of the classroom in the district and country as well.

  20. General education versus vocational training: How do they affect individuallabour market performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Karasiotou, Pavlina

    2004-01-01

    Using the Panel Study of Belgian Households (PSBH, waves 4 to 10) we estimate the effects of education (initial and life-long, general and vocational) on incomes, labour supply and unemployment. This allows for a decomposition of the economic returns of education on earnings in two parts; one attributed on wages and one on employment time. The sample includes individuals 18-65 who have completed initial education at school or university, who are at the labour market and receive income from wo...

  1. DETERMINING THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS HAVING UNDERGRADUATE TOURISM EDUCATION WITH THE DEPARTMENT BY MEANS OF THE METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION TREE

    OpenAIRE

    Hac? Mehmet Yildirim; Lütfi Atay

    2010-01-01

    Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism underg...

  2. Factors Affecting the Application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    Salih USUN

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors and problems associated with the growth of Information and Communication Technologies(ICT)in developing countries and examine the Turkish distance Education System from the point of the factors such as cultural;political;economic;technological..The study,firstly,introduces some applications and problems of instructional technology and distance education in some developed countries and Turkey as a developing country;than examines Turkish distan...

  3. An exploration of socio-cultural and organizational factors affecting women's access to educational leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Korkor Owusu, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Recent global reports indicate that women have made tremendous improvements in educational enrolment and labour participation but are woefully underrepresented in top leadership positions. Moreover, studies have shown that feminine leadership strategies are embraced but leadership is still perceived as a prerogative of men in many societies. This study therefore sought to explore the socio-cultural and organizational factors influencing the underrepresentation of women in educational leadersh...

  4. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  5. Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions Regarding Factors That Affect Student Retention in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study compared faculty and student perceptions regarding factors that affect student retention in online courses in an attempt to more effectively address the problem of attrition. A grounded study method was used to interview students taking online courses, analyze their responses related to the critical factors that affect…

  6. Inclusive Education in Spain: How Do Skills, Resources, and Supports Affect Regular Education Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiner, Esther; Cardona, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined regular education teachers' perceptions of inclusion in elementary and secondary schools in Spain and how these perceptions may differ depending on teaching experience, skills, and the availability of resources and supports. Stratified random sampling procedures were used to draw a representative sample of 336 general…

  7. New Bildung chances for the disadvantaged through reconstruction of online social capital : an empirical research into informal learning of migrant youth in online socio-cultural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yafang

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of the long-time educational disadvantages of the migrant youth in Germany that again have been explicitly indicated by the dissatisfactory PISA results, this dissertation project has explored the contingencies in online informal learning space to moderate the educational inequalities of the disadvantaged migrant youth against the perpetual excluding mechanisms of the stratified educational system in Germany. On the whole, two clues are found out in this research. On th...

  8. Institutional factors that affect black South African students' perceptions of early childhood teacher education

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M G, Steyn; Teresa, Harris; C G, Hartell.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of th [...] em enrol in this particular programme at a historically white university. Through a qualitative, case study approach the reasons for the low enrolment and completion rates were investigated. Participants mentioned that recruitment for this programme, particularly in rural areas should be improved. They also pointed out the higher prestige of other career options, the linguistic challenges they face, the cost of university education and early teacher education in particular, as well as access to transport and resources as barriers to recruitment and retention. Their recommendations for higher enrolment rates included the use of black students to recruit in rural and in township areas, increased funding for bursaries, and more culturally sensitive pedagogies in early childhood teacher education.

  9. Identifying the Principal Factors Affecting the Selection of Higher Education Economical Studies in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Odysseas Moschidis; Vassilis Kostoglou; Jason Papathanasiou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the factors affecting the selections of university departments for undergraduate studies made by high school graduates in Greece; crucial decisions affecting both the vocational career of the individuals as well as the labor market at national level. It is therefore important for the economic development of a country to understand how people come early to decisions that have a significant effect in their career. The factors under consideration have been identifi...

  10. Psychological Pressures Affecting Social Studies Teachers at Ma'an Directorate of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid abedlraman al atyat; hani hatmel obeidat

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the psychological pressures that affect Social Studies (SS) teachers. In order to attain the objective of the study a questionnaire composed of 35 items representing the major psychological stress has been prepared. Moreover, the validity and reliability of such items have been verified. The study sample comprises 76 male and female teachers. The study concludes that the level of pressure affecting social studies teachers reaches 88.66%. Some of the major pressur...

  11. The science of memory - and how it should affect design of games for outside education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    education, great memories can now be shaped on the go. And of course we need memory to learn. Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for historical reasons, all this useful knowledge rarely reaches teachers or designers of educational games.......Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again. With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in...

  12. The science of memory - and how it should affect design of games for outside education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again. With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in education, great memories can now be shaped on the go. And of course we need memory to learn. Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for historical reasons, all this useful knowledge rarely reaches teachers or designers of educational games.

  13. Variables that Affect Math Teacher Candidates' Intentions to Integrate Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Based on Social Cognitive Carier Theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2002), this study tested the effects of mathematics teacher candidates' self-efficacy in, outcome expectations from, and interest in CAME on their intentions to integrate Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME). While mathematics teacher candidates' outcome…

  14. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  15. Factors affecting teachers' attitudes and practice of family life education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, A A; Oyedeji, S O; Johnson, T O

    1992-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by 700 secondary school teachers in Nigeria's Lagos, Kaduna, and Cross-River States revealed a generally positive attitude toward family life education. 53.56% of respondents were female and 31.5%% were or had been married. Their average age was 28.3 years. One third of the teachers were not parents, and only 15.5% had children as old as their students. The teachers expressed agreement with the importance of school-based sex education (71.6%), the potential for family planning to improve health (82.9%), concern with rapid population growth (68.7%), and awareness that teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are major social problems in Nigeria (84.7% and 74.9%, respectively). Most identified ages 10-14 years as the ideal time to talk to children about sex. Half considered it the mother's responsibility to provide sex education, and most felt it is easier to talk to a female child. 45% of teachers agreed that contraceptive services should be available to adolescents. The factors associated with a positive attitude toward family life education were female sex, single marital status, Christian religion, and teaching in a coeducational school. PMID:12319296

  16. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  17. Education Affects Attitudes of Physical Therapy Providers toward People with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…

  18. The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

  19. Science Education for Environmental Awareness: Approaches to Integrating Cognitive and Affective Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledyke, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Science education has an important part in developing understanding of concepts that underpin environmental issues, leading potentially to pro-environmental behaviour. However, science is commonly perceived negatively, leading to inappropriate and negative models of science that do not connect to people's experiences. The article argues that the…

  20. Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change, Vol. VII: Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Paul; And Others

    This report is one of three volumes that describe the second phase of a study that examined the implementation of four federal change agent programs related to education. Phase 2 of the study focused on what happens to local projects in the two largest change agent programs--ESEA Title III and ESEA Title VII--when federal funding stops. This…

  1. How Evaluation Processes Affect the Professional Development of Five Teachers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagrir, Leah

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research that investigates the nature of the connection between the professional development of five teachers in higher education and the evaluation processes they have to undergo. Since teaching, scholarship, and service are the three components that evaluation measures, this research examines how the teachers' professional…

  2. Does Cost of Schooling Affect Enrollment by the Poor? Universal Primary Education in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of Uganda's program of "Universal Primary Education," which, starting from 1997, dispensed with fees for primary enrollment. Finds, for example, that while the program was associated with a dramatic increase in primary school attendance and that inequalities in attendance related to gender, income, and region were…

  3. Factors Affecting the Impact of Teacher Education Programmes on Teacher Preparedness: Implications for Accreditation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Beavis, Adrian; Kleinhenz, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide guidance to policy-makers about the standards that might be appropriate for accrediting teacher education programmes. The study was commissioned by the Victorian Institute of Teaching (VIT), a statutory body established in 2001 by the Victorian state government with responsibility for the registration…

  4. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  5. Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

  6. Too Fast, to Furious? As Community Colleges Grow in Enrollment and Appeal, Some Question Their Ability to Serve Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    The growing number of high-achieving students choosing to attend community colleges has fueled this debate: Are two-year schools shortchanging educationally and financially disadvantaged, students in the process? Answers aren't easy, and of course, they vary widely among educators. But because community colleges are such a major portal of entry…

  7. Factors Affecting Adoption of Cloud Computing Technology in Technical Educations (A Case Study of Technical Institution in Meerut City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sudhir Pathak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing Technology is perceived by many as a new asset of Information technology for the IT companies, educational institutions, government sectors, etc. In the ever fast growing economy apart from the challenges faced due to recession, the educational institutes find this a big hurdle as to how to provide necessary Information technology support for educational activities and research areas. Cloud Computing, the latest buzzword in IT sector, may come to the rescue, as it can provide an easy and inexpensive access to the state of the art IT technology, software and its applications. Cloud computing is a recent concept that is still evolving across the information technology industry and academia. Cloud computing is Internet (cloud based development and use of computer technology whereby dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. The main aims & Objectives of this research paper is to study the factors which affect the adoption of Cloud Computing Technology in a technical educational institutions, a case study of Engineering colleges in Meerut city(UP.. Questionnaire was used a data collection tool and the results were analyzed by SPSS & R program for statistical analysis

  8. Factors affecting the use of open source software in tertiary education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Glance, David; Kerr, Jeremy; Reid, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) is software that has been released under a license which requires the distribution of the software’s source code with any binaries. It is often available at no cost and is mostly supported by developers providing their services for free. Considerable interest has been shown in OSS by tertiary education institutions (TEIs) because of the promise of a reduced total cost of ownership of the software, potentially better support, freedom from vendor lock–in, ability to t...

  9. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Rahi, J. S.; Cumberland, P. M.; Peckham, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition.Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood Unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social ...

  10. Analysis of factors affecting rehospitalization of patients with chronic kidney disease after educational hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kose E; An T; Kikkawa A; Matsumoto Y.; Hayashi H

    2014-01-01

    Eiji Kose,1 Taesong An,2 Akihiko Kikkawa,2 Yoshiaki Matsumoto,3 Hiroyuki Hayashi1 1Department of Pharmacotherapy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabashi, 2Yokosuka Kyousai Hospital, Yokosuka, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Funabashi, Japan Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease complications. Therefore, medical institutions conduct educational hospitalization for early treatme...

  11. Studying principals' resource allocation and affecting resource factors for physical education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Rämä, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate principals’ opinions of PE resourcing in schools. Resourcing was divided for different resourcing factors in schools: principals’ money allocation, qualified PE teachers, PE teachers’ in-service education, extracurricular PE and optional PE courses. These resource factors were investigated by associations between school size and different resourcing factors and between school’s regional location and different resourcing factors. Other aims wer...

  12. Time and Affect in Talk about ‘Student Experience’ of Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a qualitative exploratory study that uses focus groups and arts-based research to examine students’ talk about their experiences at one higher education institution (HEI) in London, UK. The study investigates the development and impact of a market-driven approach to HEIs including social policy discourses and measures of student experience, such as the National Student Survey (NSS). These constructions of student experience are examined with regard to narrative accounts given by unde...

  13. Does higher learning intensity affect student well-being? Evidence from the National Educational Panel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Quis, Johanna Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Starting in 2004/2005, the German state Baden-Wurttemberg reduced academic track duration from nine to eight years, leaving cumulative instruction time mostly unchanged. I use this change in schooling policy to identify the effect of schooling intensity on student well-being in life and school, perceived stress, mental health indicators and self-efficacy. Using rich data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), estimates show higher strains for girls in terms of stress and mental hea...

  14. How the Cultural Contexts of Urban Teaching Affect Novice Science Educators: Implications for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Marlina

    2014-01-01

    While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from high teacher turnover (Ingersoll, 2004). This high turnover is especially problematic in the content areas of science (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010). Through ethnographic case studies the first year…

  15. Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

  16. Patient Education Level Affects Functionality and Long Term Mortality After Major Lower Extremity Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Michael R.; Julien, Jamii St; Miller, Carly; Fisher, Bryan; Cederstrand, Sara L.; Nylander, William A.; Guzman, Raul J.; Dattilo, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we examine the relationship between level of education of patients and five year mortality following major lower extremity amputation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent above- or below-knee amputation at the Nashville VA by the vascular surgery service between January 2000 and August 2006. Formal level of education of the study patients was recorded. Outcomes were compared between those patients who had completed high school and those who had not. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and student's t-test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Five year mortality for patients who completed high school was lower than those who had not completed high school (62.6% vs. 84.3%; p = 0.001), even after adjusting for important clinical factors (Odds Ratio of death = 0.377, 95% CI 0.164 – 0.868 p=0.022). Conclusions Patients with less education have increased long term mortality following lower extremity amputation. PMID:22906244

  17. Factor analysis of the most informative parameters affecting the efficiency of training wrestling students of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko S.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensively analyzed the various factors that affect the absorption of the students practical course in wrestling. The study involved 98 boys - 3rd year students of the Faculty of Physical Education, who begin the study of the course Combating and methods of teaching. Also, 32 students who are engaged in the struggle. The results of studies of anthropometric, physical, functional, ergonomics students. The input data for the factor analysis were the first 3-ranking figure, biomechanical, physical fitness and functional status, anthropometric. It is established that the content of the first most significant factors included biomechanical parameters that demonstrate the value of balance and coordination abilities of others.

  18. Complementary expertise in a zoo educator professional development event contributes to the construction of understandings of affective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

    2013-09-01

    Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.

  19. Psychological Pressures Affecting Social Studies Teachers at Ma'an Directorate of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid abedlraman al atyat

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying the psychological pressures that affect Social Studies (SS teachers. In order to attain the objective of the study a questionnaire composed of 35 items representing the major psychological stress has been prepared. Moreover, the validity and reliability of such items have been verified. The study sample comprises 76 male and female teachers. The study concludes that the level of pressure affecting social studies teachers reaches 88.66%. Some of the major pressures found are the constant change of study books, students insulting teachers, the negative perspective of society toward the teacher, low and insufficient salaries and the large number of daily study classes. Significant statistical differences have been found due to gender variable and in the favor of male teachers. Findings also revealed significant differences due to teaching experience variable.

  20. Perception of Factors Affecting the Quality of Higher Education: A Study on Selected Private Universities in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Rana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking higher education in Bangladesh is not as difficult as it was thought a decade ago. No doubt, expansion of private universities has made it so easy. Through the Private University Act-1992, there has been an unbelievable expansion of private universities in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, this growth, in some respect, is contrasted with the quality of higher education these universities provide. The main purpose of this paper is to find out some factors that greatly affect the higher education. To explore the subject matter of this study, considering the research questions and objectives, both the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection have been used. To find out the answers of the research questions survey has been conducted with 42 questions for students in 20 private universities in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. After collecting data and information and analyzing, researchers have found that quality of education of all these universities is not same. It differs on the ground of their different size, location, stuffs, courses, funding authority, service rule, financial and managerial capacity etc. Only a few universities are providing quality education but rests of them are not quality concerned, Most of them are depending on part time teachers, poor infrastructures, without service rules etc. In the same time, researchers have found that students’ satisfaction level is very low on campus, lab and library facilities, though a few universities are trying to ensure standard classroom facility and library facilities. Most of the students are not aware of their degrees and its sale-ability. At last, based on findings, researchers have offered some suggestions that can be takeninto consideration in policy level.

  1. The science of memory - and how it should affect design of games for outside education

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again.With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in education, great memories can now be shaped on the go.And of course we need memory to learn.Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for histo...

  2. “Don't affect the share price”: social media policy in higher education as reputation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony McNeill

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including learning, teaching and assessment. This study considers the social media policies of 14 universities in the United Kingdom (UK that are currently in the public domain. It addresses some of the ways in which Higher Education Institutions (HEIs are responding to both the positive potential of social media as well as its perceived threats. Drawing inspiration, if not actual method, from critical discourse analysis, this study argues that marketisation has been the main policy driver with many social media policies being developed to promote university “brands” as well as protect institutional reputation. The creation and implementation of social media policies are therefore playing a role in helping universities manage both the risks and the benefits of social media in the context of an increasingly marketised Higher Education (HE environment in which protecting institutional reputation has become a priority. However, in the defence of the metaphorical institutional “share price”, some policies constrain both academic autonomy and the possibilities for innovation and risk-taking.

  3. Reassembling the "Environment": Science, Affect, and Multispecies Educative Practice at the Aquarium of the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa Katrina

    Drawing on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork at the Aquarium of the Pacific and Michel Foucault's governmentality and biopolitics as an overarching theoretical frame, this dissertation engages in a political ecological analysis to explore how the institution, its staff, and nonhumans work to produce various sorts of knowledge about the environment. I argue that the educative assemblages imagined and formed there, which are intimately linked to institutional fiscal survivability, politically deploy nonhuman animals in the Aquarium's "edutainment" project. Through the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to entertain, invoke compassion, and convey science to the public, staff encourage guests to have tactile, auditory, and visual encounters with live ocean creatures in order to construct a natural world worthy of being saved, due to its instrumental and intrinsic value. I show how this public conservation re-education project attempts to highlight the voices of the animals being represented there, but not necessarily the voices of the animals actually residing there. I also draw out the implications of these representative practices and argue that the institution ought to utilize staff-nonhuman relationships, which are grounded in care and empathy, as a framework for developing visitor-nonhuman relationships.

  4. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Fliessbach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

  5. Factors that Affect the Decision of Refugee and Immigrant Students to Pursue Higher Education in Tennessee: The Case of Egyptian, Somali, Kurdish and Mexican Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebriel, Mengistu H.

    2011-01-01

    Refugee and immigrant students face challenges in pursuing higher education. This study examined factors that affect the decision of refugees and immigrant students to pursue higher education in Tennessee. The factors included cultural capital these students acquire from their parents and families; cultural difference they have with the mainstream…

  6. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended…

  7. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  8. Southern Africa: AIDS-affected children face systemic discrimination in accessing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005, Human Rights Watch (HRW) conducted an investigation in Kenya, South Africa and Uganda to document AIDS-affected children's experiences of inequality and neglect in the school system. HRW found, consistent with previous research, that the sickness of one or both parents due to HIV/AIDS led many children withdraw from school to perform household labour or offset lost family income. Parental death often led to abandonment, discrimination within extended and foster families, and emotional trauma that interfered with school performance. PMID:16544404

  9. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)

  10. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  11. VENTAJAS Y DESVENTAJAS DEL BILINGÜISMO / ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BILINGUALISM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Ardila.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las personas bilingües tienen que coordinar dos sistemas lingüísticos. Esto implica algunas ganancias, pero también un costo. Las ganancias del bilingüismo incluyen: un incremento de la flexibilidad mental; una superioridad en el desarrollo de aquellas funciones cognitivas relacionadas con la atenci [...] ón y la inhibición; el uso de una cantidad mayor de estrategias cognoscitivas en la solución de problemas; un aumento de la llamada conciencia metalingüística; y una habilidad mayor de comunicación. Entre los costos del bilingüismo se menciona: cierto retraso aparente en la adquisición del lenguaje; una interferencia entre ambos sistemas fonológicos, léxicos y gramaticales; y un posible decremento en el vocabulario en las dos lenguas. Se concluye que existe una gran variabilidad de experiencias lingüísticas en las personas bilingües y un gran número de variables afecta su ejecución en diferentes tareas intelectuales. Abstract in english The fact that bilingual individuals have to coordinate two linguistic systems implies both advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages are an increase in mental flexibility; a greater development of cognitive functions related to attention and inhibition; the use of a larger number of cogni [...] tive strategies for the solution of problems; an increase in the so-called metalinguistic consciousness; and a better ability to communicate. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages of bilingualism are an apparent delay in language acquisition; interference between the two phonological, lexical, and grammatical systems; and a possible decrease in vocabulary in both languages. The article concludes that bilingual persons display a great variety of linguistic experiences and that a large number of variables affect their performance in different intellectual tasks.

  12. Reproduction of Gender Gaps throughout the Entrepreneurial Career: Disadvantages and Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; SchØtt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Gender gaps pervade human activity. But little is known about forces reshaping gaps across career phases, from education to running a business. The purpose of this study is to account for gender gaps owing to a lack of education and training. Such gaps may accumulate over one’s entrepreneurial career and widen or narrow due both to environmental forces that reconfigure the gap across career phases and to the gendering of competencies and benefits from education and training. Methodology – A representative sample of 110,689 adults around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Gender-related effects were ascertained by odds ratios estimated by hierarchical modelling, controlling for country and attributes of individuals. Findings – Education and entrepreneurial training, both during and after formal schooling, are highly beneficial in developing competencies and during career phases – i.e. intending to start a business, starting a business, and running a business. Early gaps in human capital are reproduced as gaps in careers, and continuous disadvantages in the environment repeatedly widen gaps throughout a person’s entrepreneurial career. That said, gender gaps are reduced slightly over time as women gain greater benefit from training than men. Implications for research – The cumulative effects of early gender gaps in education and training call for research on gendered learning, and recurrent gender effects across career phases call for research on gendering in micro-level contexts such as networks and macro-level contexts such as institutions. Implications for policy and education – Understanding the gendering of human capital and careers has implications for policy and education aimed at developing human resources, especially for mobilising women. The finding that women gain greater benefit than men from training is informative for policies that foster gender equality and empower women pursuing careers. Originality/value – Conceptualising the entrepreneurial career as a sequence of several stages enables the assessment of gender gaps owing to initial disadvantages in education and to recurrent disadvantages on the career path.

  13. Improving Dietary Habits in Disadvantaged Women With HIV/AIDS: The SMART/EST Women’s Project

    OpenAIRE

    Segal-Isaacson, C.J.; Jonathan N Tobin; Weiss, Stephen M; BRONDOLO, ELIZABETH; Vaughn, Anita; Wang, Cuiling; Camille, Joanne; Gousse, Yolene; ISHII, MARY; Jones, Deborah; LAPERRIERE, ARTHUR; LYDSTON, DAVID; SCHNEIDERMAN, NEIL; Ironson, Gail

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of information on whether brief nutrition education can succeed in improving longer-term dietary patterns in disadvantaged populations with HIV/AIDS. In the SMART/EST II Women’s Project 466 disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS were randomized to one of four groups and received a two-phase training consisting of a coping skills/stress management and nutrition education provided either in a group or individually. At baseline the majority of participants had excessive fat and sugar ...

  14. ROLE OF ICT EDUCATION FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Beena [Research Scholar; Dr. Madhu Mathur [Dean , Faculty of Education

    2012-01-01

    Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Information and communications are closely linked to power and the ability to affect change. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer etc. Socially the majorities of Indian women are still tradition bound and are in disadvantageous position. ICTs are emerging as a powerful tool for women empowerment in a developing count...

  15. Teacher self-efficacy and its relationship with students’ affective and motivational variables in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, researchers have proposed that teacher self-efficacy influences student achievement and motivation. The main aim of this work is to identify possible teacher self-efficacy profiles and to determine possible differences in some affective-motivational variables of students. 95 teachers and 1924 students from five Spanish public Universities took part in this study. Using cluster analysis, three distinctive profiles of teachers were generated: high self-efficacy, medium self-efficacy, and low self-efficacy. ANOVA results suggest that teachers with intermediate self-efficacy perception have more learning-oriented students than teachers with high self-efficacy. Students of teachers who are overconfident of their teaching capacity seem to engage less in studying to learn, they are more indifferent to the subjects, and they value the contents of the subject less. These students could also be less confident about the results of their efforts, showing a low perception of self-efficacy, greater academic work avoidance, and more anxiety than students of teachers with a moderate perception of self-efficacy. The results are discussed in light of the hypothesis of overconfidence.

  16. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of storage with surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available

  18. Clinical education and training: Using the nominal group technique in research with radiographers to identify factors affecting quality and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues

  19. Affective Imagination in Science Education: Determining the Emotional Nature of Scientific and Technological Learning of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.

  20. 75 FR 25815 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AD75 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program by increasing accountability for recipients with respect to good... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65...

  1. 76 FR 5083 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AD75 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... administration of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program by increasing accountability for recipients... (ANPRM) concerning several DBE program issues on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 15904). The first issue raised...

  2. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises....

  3. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 54952). In that NPRM, the Department proposed various modifications of the Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise:...

  4. 78 FR 68016 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... FR 65164, which corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  5. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  6. Practical Problems of Schoolbook Selection for Disadvantaged Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Gertrude

    Every year the purchase of unsuitable books for disadvantaged children wastes millions of dollars. The use of these unsuitable books results in extensive reading failure. In order to overcome this waste of money and human resources, book committees need to employ standards and methods of evaluation to identify books appropriate for disadvantaged…

  7. Forest User Groups and Disadvantaged Households: An Investigation into Household Fuelwood and Fodder Consumption in the Hills of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke St. Clair, Priscilla (Pacific Lutheran Univ., Parkland, WA (United States))

    2008-07-01

    This paper investigates how local Forest User Group (FUG) characteristics and household-level awareness of FUG requirements affect household consumption of fuelwood and fodder, and whether traditionally disadvantaged households are affected disproportionately. Results indicate that traditionally disadvantaged households do not use less fuelwood for cooking meals than other households. Most FUG conditions do not appear to have a disproportionately negative effect on fodder or fuelwood use by landless or occupational caste households, and some such as the share of women on the FUG committee have disproportionately positive effects. Results for household awareness of FUG requirements are mixed

  8. Neighborhood Level Disadvantage is Associated with Reduced Dietary Quality in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Jose R. Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    Research has linked neighborhood socioeconomic status to differential dietary quality among adults. However, the relationship between neighborhoods and children’s diet remains understudied. The aim of the research was to examine if neighborhood disadvantage (e.g. socioeconomic status, social and physical disorder) affected dietary quality among children. Data for this cross-sectional study were gathered between June 2005 and December 2008. Research participants included 182 children aged 7 to...

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: The Moderating Role of Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  10. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  11. Pedagogical Justice and Student Engagement in South African Schooling: Working with the Cultural Capital of Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fataar, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    This article is a conceptual consideration of what could be regarded as pedagogical justice for disadvantaged students in South African schools. Combining Bourdieu's social reproduction account of education with elements of Bernstein's consideration of the internal dynamics that constitute the pedagogic relay, the article considers the pedagogical…

  12. Neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration, social disadvantage, and homicide risk: an ecological analysis of 10 U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Wall, Melanie

    2008-09-01

    Homicide is one of the leading causes of death among African-American and Hispanic men. We investigated how neighborhood characteristics associated with social disadvantage explain racial/ethnic homicide gaps in 10 U.S. cities. The test hypotheses were that (1) higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics would be associated with higher homicide rates and (2) the relationship between racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics (e.g., unemployment, median household income, low educational attainment, and female headship). The test hypotheses were examined using separate Poisson regression models, which adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. Homicide rates were greater in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of African-Americans and Hispanics than in other groups, and the association of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration with homicide was reduced after adjusting for neighborhood social disadvantage variables, especially percent female head of household and percent persons with less than a high school education. We also found that the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide was explained more by social disadvantage variables in some cities than in others. Based on our findings, policy makers may wish to consider implementation of policies that (1) expand early childhood education programs and higher education opportunities and (2) encourage economic and community development initiatives in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:18661242

  13. Nutrition habits of Physical Education and Sport High School students of Afyon Kocatepe University and factors affected the the nutrition habits

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus Y?ld?r?m; ?rfan Y?ld?r?m; Yunus Tortop

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habit...

  14. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  15. Multiple Disadvantages? The Earnings of Asian Women Computer Scientists in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the earnings of an under-researched group: Asian women in computer science, in the United States (U.S.. I distinguish three subsets of college-educated Asian female computer scientists working full time in the U.S.: 1 U.S.-born, U.S.-educated Asian Americans, 2 Asian-born, U.S.-educated Asian immigrants, and 3 Asian-born, Asian-educated Asian immigrants. Results from multivariate regression and quantile regressions (at the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles show that U.S.- and Asian-educated Asian immigrant women earn less on average (at the mean level and at the 10th, 50th, and/or 75th percentile levels than their white male counterparts. Only Asian American women do not earn less than their white male counterparts at any level. Further analysis reveals that Asian immigrant women earn less due to their gender, but not because of a combination of their gender and race. Neither the immigrant women’s birthplace or the origin of their degree further disadvantage their earnings. The lack of multiple disadvantages may be explained by white women earning less than expected, but not Asian immigrant women earning more than expected. Suggestions for further research are discussed.

  16. Estudantes com desvantagens econômicas e educacionais e fruição da universidade / Les etudiants defavorises sur le plan economique et educationnel et le profit qu'ils tirent de l'universite / Students with economical and educational disadvantages and fruition of the university

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Mesquita de, Almeida.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute os principais resultados de uma investigação que teve como objetivo apreender a utilização dos recursos e espaços da Universidade de São Paulo por um grupo de estudantes com desvantagens econômicas e educacionais. A partir de uma revisão crítica da bibliografia nacional e estrangeira [...] sobre a trajetória de estudantes provindos das camadas populares que chegam ao ensino superior e da interpretação dos dados empíricos coligidos, reflete-se sobre o que esses alunos, efetivamente, aproveitam da estrutura propiciada pela universidade. Os alvos da investigação voltam-se para verificar como ocorreu o processo de socialização no ambiente familiar; a reconstrução da trajetória de ingresso e o trânsito no ambiente universitário mediante a apreensão do cotidiano, da adaptação à linguagem acadêmica, da realização dos afazeres, além do contato com indivíduos de origem similar bem como de outros estratos sociais. A pesquisa utilizou a metodologia qualitativa, operacionalizada em duas fases: grupos focais e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com o objetivo de refinar as principais categorias surgidas. Espera-se contribuir na reflexão sobre os debates atuais em torno da inclusão social no ensino superior ao integrar à análise do acesso à universidade, uma discussão sobre a efetiva permanência, onde o foco passa a ser um estudo mais pormenorizado das diferenças na qualidade da educação recebida pelos diversos segmentos sociais presentes na universidade pública. Abstract in english This text discusses the main results of an investigation that had as its objective to understand the use of the resources and spaces of the University of São Paulo by a group of students with economical and educational disadvantages. Starting from a critical revision of the national and foreign bibl [...] iography on the path of students stemming from society's poorer layers that arrive at higher education and of the interpretation of the empiric data gathered, a reflection is made about what those students effectively take of the structure propitiated by the university. The investigation aims to verify how the socialization process happened in the family atmosphere; as well as how happened the reconstruction of the entrance path and the traffic in the academical atmosphere through the understanding of daily life, the adaptation to the academic language, the accomplishment of academic tasks, besides the contact with individuals of similar origin as well as from other social strata. The research used the qualitative methodology through two phases: focal groups and semi-structured interviews with the objective of refining the main categories to appear. This paper hopes to contribute in the reflection on the current debates around the social inclusion in the higher education through integrating a discussion on the effective permanence to the analysis of the access to the university, where the focus becomes a more detailed study of the differences in the quality of the education received by the several present social segments in the public university.

  17. The Gold Standard Programme: smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.DesignObservational prospective cohort study.SettingGSPs in pharmacies, hospitals and communities in Denmark, reporting to the national Smoking Cessation Database.ParticipantsDisadvantaged patients, defined as patients with a lower level of education and those receiving unemployment benefits.Interventions6-week manualised GSP smoking cessation interventions performed by certified staff.Main outcome measures6 months of continuous abstinence, response rate: 80%.ResultsContinuous abstinence of the 16?377 responders was 34% (of all 20?588 smokers: 27%). Continuous abstinence was lower in 5738 smokers with a lower educational level (30% of responders and 23% of all) and in 840 unemployed (27% of responders and 19% of all). In respect to modifiable factors, continuous abstinence was found more often after programmes in one-on-one formats (vs group formats) among patients with a lower educational level, 34% (vs 25%, p=0.037), or among unemployed, 35% (vs 24%, p=0.099). The variable 'format' stayed in the final model of multivariable analyses in patients with a lower educational level, OR=1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.63).ConclusionsAlthough continuous abstinence was lower among disadvantaged smokers, the absolute difference was small. If the programme had been as effective in disadvantaged as in non-disadvantaged groups, there would have been an extra 46 or 8 quitters annually, respectively. Promoting individual interventions among those with a low education may increase the effectiveness of GSP.

  18. The prospects of fostering entrepreneurial praxes by school leadership at historically disadvantaged schools in the Sedibeng area / Malefane Johannes Lebusa

    OpenAIRE

    Lebusa, Malefane Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This study departs from the notion that historically disadvantaged schools are in a position where they face many challenges regarding their education service delivery. Among other challenges, these schools experience a shortage of both educational and infrastructural resources. Consequently, the past number of years has seen these schools loosing learners to historically advantaged schools. Many of these schools, however, manage to produce good results and attain good reputations. They thus ...

  19. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte; Ravn, Ib; Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Rasmussen, Ove Steiner; Berliner, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Yung; Brandi, Ulrik

    in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs...... for the VIDA+program, the Danish Clearinghouse of Education has made a research review of effective intervention programs that include parental involvement (see Appendix I). A range of materials and tools have thus been developed for the VIDA educational program, including guidelines for working with....... This VIDA Report 1 presents the design and methods used in the inclusive ECEC intervention program. TWO MODEL PROGRAMS Two model programs are introduced: the VIDA Basis program and the VIDA+ parental program. Both programs consist of education and training of VIDA staff by means of three elements...

  20. Black and White Teacher Attitudes toward the Disadvantaged and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotts, Wayne

    1978-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire administered to 24 Black and 27 White elementary school teachers indicated there were no significant differences in attitudes toward disadvantaged youth and poverty. Both groups expressed pessimistic expectations. (JC)

  1. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    We describe an outreach initiative to provide disadvantaged youth with an intensive academic research experience. To offer an effective internship for these underrepresented youth, one needs to develop a comprehensive program that addresses the students' academic, professional, and personal needs.

  2. DETERMINING THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SATISFACTION OF STUDENTS HAVING UNDERGRADUATE TOURISM EDUCATION WITH THE DEPARTMENT BY MEANS OF THE METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hac? Mehmet Yildirim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism undergraduate programs where they are registered. With this purpose, a questionnaire was performed on 1734 students. The method of classification tree was used in determining the factors affecting students’ satisfaction. As a result of the classification tree analysis, it was observed that the variable, which affected students’ satisfaction most, was the job considered to be done after graduation and that this was followed by sufficiency of job opportunities after graduation, whether the department was chosen after researching or not, whether one can be a good manager with the education received from the department or not, and whether the courses included current subjects or not, respectively.

  3. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage, and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses, such as psychosis, are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper, thus, examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health, and health service utilization in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilizes quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, SA, Australia. Participants (42% female) provided information about socioeconomic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilization. The paper highlights that socioeconomic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact, and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by this disadvantage be an important focus for mental health services. Such health policy would provide accessible treatment programs and linked pathways to illness recovery and diminish the pressure on the delivery of health services. Consequently, the development of policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by disadvantage should be an important focus for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:26636059

  4. Soil Stabilization Using Lime: Advantages, Disadvantages and Proposing a Potential Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehaj Taha Jawad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an overview of previous studies on lime (quick and hydrated -treated soil. Lime is the oldest traditional stabilizer used for soil stabilization. The mechanism of soil-lime treatment involves cation exchange, which leads to the flocculation and agglomeration of soil particles. The high pH environment then causes a pozzolanic reaction between the free Ca+2 cations and the dissolved silica and alumina. Lime-treated soil effectively increases the strength, durability and workability of the soil. Such treatment also improves soil compressibility. A fluctuation behavior was observed on the influence of lime on soil permeability. However, the factors affecting the permeability of the soil-lime mixture should be extensively studied. Nonetheless, lime treatment has a number of inherent disadvantages, such as carbonation, sulfate attack and environment impact. Magnesium oxide/hydroxide are thus proposed as a suitable alternative stabilizer to overcome at least some of the disadvantages of using lime in soil stabilization.

  5. Re-examining the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey. PMID:21667767

  6. Disadvantages of Linguistic Origin – Evidence from Immigrant Literacy Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Isphording, Ingo Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

  7. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  8. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  9. 45 CFR 2526.30 - How do convictions for the possession or sale of controlled substances affect an education award...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...section, a recipient of an education award who is convicted under...eligible to use his or her education award from the date of the...offenses; (G) Employment history; (H) Service to the community...her eligibility to use the education award suspended...

  10. Are Clinical Diagnoses of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias Affected by Education and Self-Reported Race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Grober, Ellen; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Ehrlich, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial examined whether the diagnostic process for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias may be influenced by knowledge of the patient's education and/or self-reported race. Four conditions were implemented: diagnostic team knows (a) race and education, (b) education only, (c) race only, or (d) neither. Diagnosis and…

  11. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

  12. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns. PMID:26121125

  13. 48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise. 752.226-1 Section 752.226-1...Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise. As prescribed in 726.7006(a...following provision: Disadvantaged Enterprise Representation (APR 1991)...

  14. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006...SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS Disadvantaged Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be...

  15. 13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED...the criteria of social and economic disadvantage...individual claiming economic disadvantage...form an ongoing relationship to conduct business...created by such a relationship would not...

  16. The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the students? parent; related to the parent?s socio-economic background and their involvement strategies in their children?s education at home. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent?s involvement. The findings of this study indicated that most parents from the low socioeconomic background claimed that they showed high involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child?s education success. However, the education level, employment status, and income among the the parents fom the lower socioeconomic background affect their understanding and their knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child?s education. As a result, there is a lack among these children in terms of good skills, behaviour and values which are extremely important for their academic success.

  17. Neighborhood disadvantage, racial concentration and the birthweight of infants born to adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-04-01

    To study the relationship between neighborhood demographic characteristics (disadvantage, racial concentration) and the birthweight of infants born to adolescent mothers, potentially as mediated by smoking, prenatal care use, or perceptions of neighborhood safety. Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Birthweight (continuous) and low birthweight (smoking during pregnancy, early initiation of prenatal care, and perceptions of safety) were also examined. Controls for adolescent baseline age, age at pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) and parental education were included. Analyses were run stratified on race. Baseline continuous birthweight, BMI and neighborhood demographics varied significantly between non-Hispanic Black and White adolescent mothers, with Black adolescent mothers evidencing lower birthweight and higher BMI, neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration. In multivariable analyses among Black adolescent mothers, Black racial concentration was positively associated with birthweight, and negatively associated with low birthweight; no mediators were supported. Neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration were unassociated with birthweight outcomes among White adolescent mothers. Infants born to Black adolescent mothers evidenced higher birthweight with increasing Black neighborhood concentration. Further exploration of mechanisms by which Black racial concentration may positively impact birthweight is warranted. PMID:23771237

  18. Disadvantages of applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. Wierzbicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assumptions of this study were an attempt to identify lacquer coating disadvantages. Samples of the parts with disadvantages were prepared with the use of microtome and then viewed on an optical microscope. The defects have been described and the causes of their formation have been identified.Findings: The paper shows the examples of common disadvantages of polymer coatings’ application in automotive industry.Research limitations/implications: In automotive industry, they are often used as a substrate - metals or other materials. The description and identification of disadvantages of coatings on these substrates requires further study.Practical implications: The identification of disadvantages of the applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate allows to eliminate them. Through the improvement and generation of new technologies of coating industry as a major supplier to the very large automotive industry, the industry will continue to thrive, grow and maintain its economical competitiveness in the global marketplace.Originality/value: Applications of multilayer polymer coatings in automotive industry are rarely described in literature - especially the application on polymers substrate. The description and identification for the emergence of the most frequent reasons of lacquer disadvantage is a novelty in this article.

  19. Factors Affecting Adoption of Cloud Computing Technology in Technical Educations (A Case Study of Technical Institution in Meerut City)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sudhir Pathak; Dr. M.K.Madan

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Computing Technology is perceived by many as a new asset of Information technology for the IT companies, educational institutions, government sectors, etc. In the ever fast growing economy apart from the challenges faced due to recession, the educational institutes find this a big hurdle as to how to provide necessary Information technology support for educational activities and research areas. Cloud Computing, the latest buzzword in IT sector, may come to the rescue, as it can provi...

  20. Food insecurity is associated with past and present economic disadvantage and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S; Lahelma, E

    2001-11-01

    Fears and experiences of food restriction influence eating behavior but the association between past and present economic disadvantage, food insecurity and body size is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined these associations in a nationwide, representative sample of 25- to 64-y-old Finnish men and women (n = 6506). The respondents were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into four groups: thin, normal, overweight and obese. Economic disadvantage was assessed by three indicators including low household income, unemployment during past 5 y and long-term economic problems in childhood. Food insecurity was assessed by five separate items concerning economic fears and experiences related to sufficient supply of food during the past 12 mo, and a combined scale in which those with affirmative responses to four to five items were classified as hungry. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using both the BMI grouping and indicators of economic disadvantage as independent variables to predict food insecurity, controlling simultaneously for age, educational attainment and sex. The results showed that low household income, recent unemployment and economic problems in childhood were all predictors of food insecurity. Thin people were most likely to be hungry and showed most food insecurity in five separate items. In addition, obese people reported more buying cheaper food due to economic problems and fears or experiences of running out of money to buy food than did normal weight subjects. In conclusion, both past and present economic disadvantage is associated with various aspects of food insecurity. The association between food insecurity and BMI is curvilinear. PMID:11694612

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of Factors Affecting the Educational Use of ICT in Technology-Rich Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Antoni; Meneses, Julio; Sigales, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the main factors that influence teachers' decision-making regarding the educational use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in technology-rich classrooms. Method: We collected data from 278 teachers in Catalonia (Spain) working in eight primary and secondary education…

  2. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education

  3. What We Call What We Do Affects How We Do It: A New Nomenclature for Simulation Research in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Morin, Marie-Paule; Giannoulakis, Konstantine; Koh, Jansen; Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid technological advances and concern for patient safety have increased the focus on simulation as a pedagogical tool for educating health care providers. To date, simulation research scholarship has focused on two areas; evaluating instructional designs of simulation programs, and the integration of simulation into a broader educational…

  4. Mathematics Competency and Situational Mathematics Anxiety: What are the Links and How Do These Links Affect Teacher Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Audrey; Hurst, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The issue of mathematics anxiety and its possible links to mathematical competence have long been of concern to mathematics educators, particularly with the potential of the effects of mathematics anxiety to be transmitted from teacher to student. Hence it is in the interests of teacher educators to understand the nature of mathematics anxiety and…

  5. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education

  6. How Income Contingent Loans Could Affect the Returns to Higher Education: A Microsimulation of the French Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtioux, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms of…

  7. Infections and inequalities: anemia in AIDS, the disadvantages of poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lucia; Seley, Celeste; Martorano, Julieta; Garcia-Moreno, Isabella; Troncoso, Alcides

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study anemia in AIDS patients and its relation with socioeconomic, employment status and educational levels. Methods A total number of 442 patients who visited the Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina were included in the study. Patients were dividied into two groups, i.e. one with anemia and the other without anemia. Anemia epidemiology and its relationship with educational level, housing, job situation, monthly income, total daily caloric intake and weekly intake of meat were evaluated. Results Anemia was found in 228 patients (54%). Comparing patients with or without anemia, a statistically significant difference was found (P<0.000 1) in those whose highest educational level reached was primary school, who lived in a precarious home, who had no stable job or were unable to work, whose income was less than 30 dollars per month, whose meat consumption was less than twice a week or received less than 8 000 calories per day. Conclusions The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity. PMID:23569955

  8. Revisiting the Gramscian Legacy on Counter-Hegemony, the Subaltern and Affectivity: Toward an Emotional Pedagogy of Activism in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Michalinos Zembylas

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic i...

  9. Building Capacity for Disaster Resiliency in Six Disadvantaged Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Salvesen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster plans almost always do not benefit from the knowledge and values of disadvantaged people who are frequently underrepresented in disaster planning processes. Consequently, the plans are inconsistent with the conditions, concerns, and capabilities of disadvantaged people. We present an approach to community-based participatory planning aimed at engaging marginalized and distrustful communities to build their capacity to be more disaster resilient. We review the experiences of six disadvantaged communities under the Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD project. The EPD effort revealed several critical implications: recruit a diverse set of participants for inclusive collaboration; provide analytical tools to co-develop information and empower people; employ coaches to organize and facilitate sustainable community change; design a bottom-up review process for selection of strategies that holds communities accountable; and build capacity for implementation of strategies.

  10. Adult learning and social inequalities: Processes of equalisation or cumulative disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2015-08-01

    Adult learning is an increasingly important form of education in globalised and aging societies. While current policy recommendations tend to focus on increasing participation rates, the authors of this article argue that higher participation rates do not necessarily lead to lower social/educational inequalities in participation. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between social inequalities and adult learning by exploring cross-national patterns of participation in different adult learning activities and the consequences of participation on individual labour market trajectories. The empirical basis of the paper is an analysis of 13 country studies (as well as two cross-national analyses) brought together by the international comparative research project "Education as a lifelong process - comparing educational trajectories in modern societies" ( eduLIFE). Despite wide variations in participation rates across countries, mechanisms of social/educational inequality in engagement in job-related adult learning tend to be relatively similar across countries, in particular with regard to non-formal learning. Effects tend most frequently to be a presence of cumulative advantage, though in some countries a certain degree of equalisation is noticeable with regard to formal adult education. The authors conclude that it is relatively clear that currently almost no country is truly able to reduce social inequalities through adult learning. Their recommendation is that public policy makers should place greater emphasis on making adult learning more accessible (in terms of entry requirements, affordability as well as motivation) to underrepresented groups, in particular those who are educationally disadvantaged.

  11. The Affective (Re)Production of Refugee Representations through Educational Policies and Practices: Reconceptualising the Role of Emotion for Peace Education in a Divided Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In…

  12. HIV/AIDS Education and Behaviour Change:Contextual factors that affect translation of knowledge into action among in-school adolescents in rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Komunda,Rodney Noel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect translation of HIV/AIDS knowledge into action. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data was obtained from students, teachers, parents, school administrators and the HIV/AIDS coordination department from the Ministry of Education and Sports. The Health Belief Model and Social Learning Theory that formed the basis of this study were used through discussion and analysis of research findings. The ...

  13. Contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação Contributions from Henri Wallon to the relationship between cognition and affectivity in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurino Lima Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo.This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.

  14. Clinical Instructors' Perceptions of the Importance of Affective Behaviors in Undergraduate Athletic Training Clinical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokris, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…

  15. Clinical Instructors' Perceptions of the Importance of Affective Behaviors in Undergraduate Athletic Training Clinical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokris, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The affective domain represents a set of learning objectives that are difficult to assess and instruct. Affective behaviors consist of different attributes such as interpersonal relationships, professionalism, trust, empathy, and integrity to name a few. This study surveyed athletic training clinical instructors' perception of the importance…

  16. Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet; ZENILMAN, JONATHAN; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15–21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who wer...

  17. Spanish-Language Home Visitation to Disadvantaged Latino Preschoolers: A Means of Promoting Language Development and English School Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Mann

    2014-01-01

    This study reports five years of a school readiness intervention called “HABLA” (Home Based Activities Building Language Acquisition), designed to increase and enrich speech and literacy activities in the homes of economically and educationally disadvantaged Latino families with children between the age of 2 and 4. A team of trained home visitors provided two years of a 23-week program of visitation in which they met with parent(s) and child twice weekly. Both yea...

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Shen

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. “Conventional mortgage-type loan” and “Income contingent loan” has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice for student loans programs in China. These suggestions maybe supply references to other developing countries.

  19. A Study of Communication Patterns in Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Kate L.; Wimberger, Herbert C.

    To study mother-child interaction patterns in culturally disadvantaged and culturally advantaged families, verbal and nonverbal communications were observed, recorded, and analyzed both independently and collectively. Subjects were 10 Head Start children, 10 culturally advantaged children, and the mothers of both groups. Communications were…

  20. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  1. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China (including Hong Kong), Taiwan... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who is socially disadvantaged? 124.103 Section 124.103 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a)...

  2. The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

  3. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  4. Activating the Disadvantaged. Variations in Addressing Youth Transitions across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Axel; Walther, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The term activation refers to a shift in social policies, through which individuals are given more responsibility for their own social inclusion. This article provides a comparative analysis of the different ways in which EU member states interpret and implement the concept of activation by addressing the transitions of disadvantaged young people…

  5. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  6. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Joint Ventures. The offeror represents, as part of its offer, that it is a joint venture that complies... Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B. For joint ventures, “address” refers to the address of the small disadvantaged business concern that is...

  7. The Measurement of Affective Education: A Report of Recent Work by Outward Bound Prepared for the Conference on Outdoor Pursuits in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Paul

    To assure continuing internal organizational accountability and to promote external communication and idea adoption, Outward Bound began in 1973 on ongoing procedure whereby its affective objectives were identified, analyzed, and evaluated. In a workshop situation teachers initially identified 3 to 6 major affective objectives; these, then, were…

  8. Training people from disadvantaged groups in computer use: Is the backlog not too big to overcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Blignaut

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The digital divide is both a matter of having access to technology and being able to use it. There are several initiatives to roll out Information and Communication Technology (ICT in public places in South Africa, but the question arises as to whether people will be able to use it effectively. Is the backlog with regard to general education and training not so insurmountable that people from disadvantaged communities are not educable for computer usage? This paper reports on the experiences and observations of instructors during a word processing training course for people from such communities. An interaction model that incorporates user and interface limitations with the difficulties experienced, serves as framework for the discussion. It became clear that most of the difficulties that attendees experienced were related to lack of technological experience, a limitation that can be eliminated through practice and perseverance. Enough practice might also result in an attenuation of the effects of some psychological limitations.

  9. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; SchØtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs. Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.

  10. Socially Disadvantaged Students in Socially Disadvantaged Schools: Double Jeopardy in Mathematics Achievement in the G8 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Traci Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Using the G8 countries' (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States) samples from the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study aimed to explore the phenomenon of double jeopardy in mathematics achievement for socially disadvantaged students. Double…

  11. Using Social Network Analysis to Examine How Perceived Beliefs Affect Service Quality in Public Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Neal, Andree

    2009-01-01

    In business, educational, and other organizations, team members often connect with one another in informal groups in order to fill certain needs (Accel-Team, 2006). Such needs include the ability to connect with others who share worldviews, opinions, or beliefs. When social network analysis (SNA) or concept mapping is used to examine interpersonal…

  12. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  13. Bullying Affects More than Feelings: The Long-Term Implications of Victimization on Academic Motivation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Jones, Adena; Fursa, Sophie; Byrket, Jacqueline S.; Sly, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow students. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child progresses in school, more…

  14. Teachers' and Caregivers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Educational Experiences of Children Affected by Parental AIDS in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepkemboi, Grace; Aldridge, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the perceptions of teachers and caregivers concerning gender differences in the educational experiences of children influenced by the HIV status of their parents or orphaned by AIDS in 7 orphanage schools of Western Kenya. 12 teachers and 8 caregivers participated in the study. Data were…

  15. Bullying Affects More than Feelings: The Long-Term Implications of Victimization on Academic Motivation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Jones, Adena; Fursa, Sophie; Byrket, Jacqueline S.; Sly, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow students. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child progresses in school, more…

  16. Mentoring, educational services, and incentives to learn: What do we know about them?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the effectiveness of services and incentives offered to disadvantaged youth. We focus our analysis on three types of interventions: mentoring, educational services, and financial rewards. The objective of this article is threefold. First, we explain alternative theoretical points of view in favor (or against - when applicable) each of these interventions. Then, we discuss how recent empirical work has affected that view, and we summarize the latest finding...

  17. The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA, RACHEL A.; Lynne M Reder

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative recognition, are used, the effects seem to contradict a low-frequency advantage in memory. Four experiments are presented to support the claim that in ad...

  18. The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative…

  19. Equalizing Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kenneth

    Education directly determines life, liberty, and happiness for that segment of the population which can afford better educational facilities. For economically and socially disadvantaged people, education only perpetuates inequality. Financial inequality results in some school districts spending more money per student than other school districts.…

  20. Educational Collaboration at Nordic Technical Universities – How is it Performed and does it affect Innovation and Entrepreneurship?

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In order to shed light on the role of higher education and its importance for innovation and entrepreneurship this paper presents the results of a survey of the four major technical universities in the Nordic countries; Aalto University in Helsinki, Finland; Chalmers Technical University in Gothenburg, Sweden; the Danish Technical University in Copenhagen, Denmark; and the Norwegian Technical University in Trondheim, Norway. Through the survey we have investigated what forms or tools the four...

  1. Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory Interaction Observation Schedule (SCIOS): A System for Analyzing Teacher-Pupil Interaction in the Affective Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Katherine A.; Liberty, Paul G.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Interaction Observation Schedule (SCIOS) is a classroom observation instrument designed to record pupil-teacher interaction. The classification of pupil behavior is based on Krathwohl's (1964) theory of the three lowest levels of the affective domain. The levels are (1) receiving: the learner should be sensitized to…

  2. What factors of satisfaction and motivation are affecting the development of the academic career in Portuguese higher education institutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Machado-Taylor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An important constituent group and a key resource of higher education institutions (HEIs is the faculty or academic staff. The centrality of the faculty role makes it a primary sculptor of institutional culture and has implications for the quality of the institution and therefore has a major role in achieving the objectives of the institution. Demand for academic staff in higher education has been increasing and may be expected to continue to increase. Moreover the performance of academic staff as teachers and researchers determines much of the student satisfaction and has an impact on student learning. There are many factors that serve to undermine the commitment of academics to their institutions and careers. Job satisfaction is important in revitalizing staff motivation and in keeping their enthusiasm alive. Well motivated academic staff can, with appropriate support, build a national and international reputation for themselves and the institution in the professional areas, in research and in publishing. This paper aims to identify the issues and their impacts on academic staff job satisfaction and motivation within Portuguese higher education institutions reporting an ongoing study financed by the European Union through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

  3. How does non-formal marine education affect student attitude and knowledge? A case study using SCDNR's Discovery program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mary Francis

    Non-formal environmental education provides students the opportunity to learn in ways that would not be possible in a traditional classroom setting. Outdoor learning allows students to make connections to their environment and helps to foster an appreciation for nature. This type of education can be interdisciplinary---students not only develop skills in science, but also in mathematics, social studies, technology, and critical thinking. This case study focuses on a non-formal marine education program, the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources' (SCDNR) Discovery vessel based program. The Discovery curriculum was evaluated to determine impact on student knowledge about and attitude toward the estuary. Students from two South Carolina coastal counties who attended the boat program during fall 2014 were asked to complete a brief survey before, immediately after, and two weeks following the program. The results of this study indicate that both student knowledge about and attitude significantly improved after completion of the Discovery vessel based program. Knowledge and attitude scores demonstrated a positive correlation.

  4. "There's a Real Mix...It's Not All Doom and Gloom around Here!": Parents' Views on Raising Children in a Community Experiencing High Levels of Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Judith

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 three primary schools and a community youth service "crossed borders" by forming a network to improve student educational achievement in a community experiencing high levels of disadvantage. Recognising that they lacked the capacity and resources required to counteract the numerous barriers to learning experienced by many of their…

  5. Rethinking the Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Underprepared, Underrepresented, and Economically Disadvantaged Students: Majors and Courses for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Nancy Clover

    Attracting and assuring the success of students of color requires the rethinking of curricula to meet the needs of underrepresented, underprepared, and economically disadvantaged students. General education offerings should be restructured to give students the skills and resources needed to make sense out of their particular gender and ethnicity,…

  6. Same Landscape, Different Lens: Variations in Young People's Socio-Economic Experiences and Perceptions in Their Disadvantaged Working-Class Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann-Barrett, Mary Tanya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare socio-economic experiences and community perceptions expressed by socially and economically disadvantaged young people with those of university students living in the same post-industrial community. I consider markers of distinction among these young people in relation to their family and educational experiences. I also…

  7. Rural-urban migratión in Bolivia: Advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of rural-urban migration, and shows that the costs of increased urbanization (crime, pollution, congestion, etc) in Bolivia are rather small compared to the costs experienced in other Latin American countries. The benefits, on the other hand, may be large. Encouraging rural-urban migration may be one of the cheapest ways of reducing poverty in Bolivia because it is so much cheaper to provide basic services like electricity, piped water, sc...

  8. Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Mary Lou; Stokes, Trevor F.

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity ...

  9. Social disadvantage, family composition, and diabetes mellitus: prevalence and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    BAUMER, J; Hunt, L; Shield, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between social disadvantage and family composition on diabetes prevalence and diabetes care outcome.?DESIGN—Retrospective audit in the south west of England of 801 children with diabetes mellitus.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of diabetes in relation to the Townsend index. Admissions to hospital with diabetes related problems, glycated haemoglobin, time spent in hospital, outpatient attendance rates.?RESULTS—There was no association b...

  10. Disadvantages of applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate

    OpenAIRE

    ?. Wierzbicki; J. Kulesza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assu...

  11. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk Africa...

  12. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSC?NESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  13. Health status of disadvantaged adolescents entering the Job Corps program.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, C. R.; Probst, J C

    1983-01-01

    The health status of 2,203 disadvantaged young people entering the Job Corps was studied by reviewing the medical information collected during examinations performed upon entering the Job Corps. The study was conducted from February 1980 through January 1981. The sample records were obtained from eight representative Job Corps centers. The Job Corps is a federally funded residential vocational training program for youths between 16 and 22 years of age. During the study period, 100 Job Corps c...

  14. Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; McLanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes two contributions to research on the link between the social environment and health. Using data from a birth cohort study, we show that, among African American boys, those who grow up in highly disadvantaged environments have shorter telomeres (at age 9) than boys who grow up in highly advantaged environments. We also find that the association between the social environment and telomere length (TL) is moderated by genetic variation within the serotonin and dopamine pathways. ...

  15. BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOME CONSERVATION TREATMENTS FOR EGYPTIAN MUMMIES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosalie David

    2001-01-01

    Mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. This paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of DNA in mummified remainsLos restos momificados y sus artefactos asociados son frágiles y vulnerables a varios tipos de deterio...

  16. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  17. Is Formal Lifelong Learning a Profitable Investment for All of Life? How Age, Education Level, and Flexibility of Provision Affect Rates of Return to Adult Education in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Blom, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Lifelong learning is increasingly being recognized as a primary factor for knowledge diffusion and productivity growth. However, little economic evidence exists on the economic value of lifelong learning for the individual, especially in developing countries. This paper contributes to remedy this shortfall. It investigates one aspect of lifelong learning: returns to formal education across ages. In the absence of long-term longitudinal data, the paper estimates rates of return for simulated r...

  18. Assessment of knowledge on prevention of dental caries in a group of children from disadvantaged families in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona IONAS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the identification of knowledge regarding the prophylaxis of dental caries in a group of children coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. A number of 86 children coming from disadvantaged environments were assessed, registered in SOS Children’s Villages Association of Romania - Counseling and Support Centre for Children and Parents of Cisndie, who received questionnaires applied for this study purpose. Daily brushing requirement is known by a rate of 89.5% children included in the study, 96% of children knowing that they should have their own toothbrush. The toothbrush change frequency is known by 68.6% of study participants. When asked about the technique of brushing, the response rate was only 52.3%, there is a large number of questionnaires that had not marked any answer to this question. The role of auxiliary dental hygiene means is known in the proportion of 79.1% for mouthwash, and 50% for the dental floss. There is a significant difference between flossing and mouthwash (<0,001%, the concepts being known therefore differently. Carioprophylactic nutrition has been recognized by 89,5% of study participants. Most children do not know or they are not enrolled in a program of sealing or fluorization (94,2%. There is a significant difference between the procedures of sealing and fluorization. (<0,001%. A continuing medical education is required for all children, but further efforts should be made to improve the educational level of children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

  19. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  20. The Presence of Asthma, the Use of Inhaled Steroids, and Parental Education Level Affect School Performance in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Katsardis, C.; Chatzimichael, A; Zimeras, S.; Rigas, A.; E. Paraskakis; A. Tsalkidis; Tsakiris, A.; Iordanidou, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point a...

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  2. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program : VIDA status report 1. Design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs. This VIDA Report 1 presents the design and methods used in the inclusive ECEC intervention program. TWO MODEL PROGRAMS Two model programs are introduced: the VIDA Basis program and the VIDA+ parental program. Both programs consist of education and training of VIDA staff by means of three elements: presentation of theoretical and empirical knowledge of children’s learning and wellbeing; education, including giving staff the opportunity to refl ect on their own experiences when working with socially disadvantaged children at their center; and, fi nally, training on how to renew practices at local level on the basis of VIDA program guidelines. The aim of the fi rst program (VIDA Basis) is to support children’s learning and well-being and particularly support socially disadvantaged children, i.e. these children’s socioemotional development and learning through inclusive efforts. The aim of the second program is the same kind of improvement of children’s development butin this program parents are involved in the activities too (VIDA+ program). Thus, the two model programsare similar in that they both direct attention to children in general and disadvantaged children’s well-being and learning particular; however they differ in that VIDA+ particularly directs attention to fi nding new methods for involving parents. INTERVENTION: EDUCATION AND IMPLEMENTATION The aim of the VIDA programs is to enhance the innovative competences of managers and daycare teachers with regard to improving the learning and wellbeing of children. The objective of the VIDA educational programs is to improve the way in which staff works with renewing everyday practices in terms of early efforts for socially disadvantaged children. The two model programs are based on recent evidence-based knowledge and, specifi cally for the VIDA+program, the Danish Clearinghouse of Education has made a research review of effective intervention programs that include parental involvement (see Appendix I). A range of materials and tools have thus been developed for the VIDA educational program, including guidelines for working with children’s learning and well-being through social inclusion. The program builds on three perspectives: 1) a resourceoriented and asset perspective on socially disadvantaged children as children with potential (not defi cit), 2) a learning perspective that views participants in the program (children, teachers and parents) as active, refl ective learners, and 3) an organizational learning perspective (staff qualifi cation in the entire daycare center). The VIDA education and training sessions thus build on methods that improve professionals’ ability to convert scientifi c knowledge into practice through knowledge sharing and innovative experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit) knowledge in order to improve the efforts for children. The role of managers is important as they ar

  3. 34 CFR 403.141 - What are the application requirements for the State Assistance for Vocational Education Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION... disadvantaged youth, ages sixteen through twenty-one, inclusive; (4) Assurances that business concerns will be... educationally disadvantaged youth into the vocational education programs; and (7) Assurances that the...

  4. Lessons from black-thicket jungle: What is feasible in village schools of disadvantaged areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victoria J.

    1989-06-01

    Comparative examination of the national goals of education as presented by various developing countries shows such goals to be often abstract and overly idealistic: a long way from the harsh reality of most rural village schools. Drawing on the results of a lengthy field study in a disadvantaged area of Sri Lanka, this article discusses the matter of feasibility in the shadow of too high expectations. It is concluded that ambitious goals should be operationalized at a practicable level, and recommendations are put forward for feasible action. As a rigidly ordered system of schooling may be an inevitable stage in a progressive evolution of schooling types, patience is needed before criticizing schools which lack creative teaching and problem-solving approaches. It is emphasised that the most important raw materials of the educational system are abundantly present, i.e., human resources. Children are eager to learn; parents are potentially supportive and want education for the sake of learning as well as for jobs. And most importantly for the success of the schools, dedicated principals and teachers are present in unexpectedly high numbers considering the constraints they face. The importance of such educators is stressed, along with implications for selection, training and remuneration.

  5. The role of motivation and metacognition on the development of cognitive and affective responses in physical education les-sons: A self-determination approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Karagiannidis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the role of motivation and metacognition in the formation of cognitive and affective outcomes from participation in physical education lessons within the framework of self-determination theory. A sample of 630 adolescents (M age = 14.06, SD = .29 participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires including measures of perceived autonomy support in PE, autonomous motivation in PE, metacognitive processes in PE, enjoyment, boredom in PE and intention for leisure-time physical activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that perceptions of autonomy supportive motivational climate significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity. In addition autonomous motivation and metacognition significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions, whereas controlling motivation was a significant predictor of boredom. Multiple mediation modeling indicated that perceptions of autonomy supporting climate on these responses was mediated mainly by autonomous motivation and metacognition. The findings of the present study provide valuable information on the mediating role of autonomous motivation and metacognition on the effects of autonomy supportive motivational climate on students’ cognitive and affective responses during physical education lessons.

  6. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

  7. 75 FR 16357 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Airport Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Airport Concessions AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), DOT. ACTION...sunset'' provision from its rule governing the airport concessions disadvantaged business enterprise (ACDBE) program....

  8. 75 FR 5551 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Airport Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Airport Concessions AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), DOT. ACTION...sunset'' provision from its rule governing the airport concessions disadvantaged business enterprise program. The rule...

  9. General design of a technical assistance program to help DOE/prime contractor buyers in doing business with small disadvantaged businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.

  10. Computer applications in remote sensing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computer applications to instruction in any field may be divided into two broad generic classes: computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction. The division is based on how frequently the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer affects the instructional process and how active a role the computer takes in actually providing instruction. There are no inherent characteristics of remote sensing education to preclude the use of one or both of these techniques, depending on the computer facilities available to the instructor. The characteristics of the two classes are summarized, potential applications to remote sensing education are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of computer applications to the instructional process are considered.

  11. Disadvantaged Rural Health – Issues and Challenges: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Chillimuntha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ‘upside-down’ perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location–allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

  12. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  13. Nutrition habits of Physical Education and Sport High School students of Afyon Kocatepe University and factors affected the the nutrition habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?rfan Y?ld?r?m

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for  Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women  21,12±2,25.  In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of  time (% 46,6  and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and  a very low proportion of students  have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch.   While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the  dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High School have inadequate knowledge on nutrition and nutrition education, they often skip meal and most of them have two meals ?n a day.  A very low proportion of them have regular breakfast.In addition, it was seen that students who have good economic status and lived in the dormitory and believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast and regular nutrition.

  14. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Ho?gör, Ay?e Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  15. Health improvement for disadvantaged people in Nepal – an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ram B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken. Methods A random selection of Village Development Committees and households, within the eight Districts where participation and a Rights-based Approach had been promoted specifically by local NGOs were compared with similar villages and households in eight Districts where this approach had not been promoted. Information was sought by structured interview and observation by experienced enumerators from both groups of householders. Health knowledge and experiences were compared between the two sets of households. Adjustments were made for demographic confounders. Results Complete data sets were available for 628 of the 640 households. Health knowledge and experiences were low for both sets of households. However, health knowledge and experiences were greater in the participatory households compared with the non-participatory households. These differences remained after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions The study was designed to evaluate progress with participatory processes delivered by non-governmental organisations over a five year period. Improvements in health knowledge and experiences of disadvantaged people were demonstrated in a consistent and robust manner where interventions had taken place.

  16. Theories of Communications in Managing Industrial Enterprises: Advantages and Disadvantages ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????: ???????????? ? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertychko Tetiana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out the problem of sharp necessity of increase of effectiveness of communication processes at Ukrainian enterprises. It justifies a necessity to study the existing developments of Ukrainian and foreign scientists in this field. It conducts analysis of main theories of communication in managing industrial enterprises. It studies main definitions of the “communication process” notion, and establishes stages of this process in general and at an enterprise in particular. It studies evolution of models of the communication process, starting with the very first ones and finishing with the modern ones. It reveals their advantages and disadvantages. It establishes that the main disadvantage of these models is insufficient accountability of factors of practical and economic efficiency of the communication process. It analyses modern channels of the communication process from the point of view of origination and degree of use at enterprises. It justifies advantages of some channels of the communication process over the other ones. It identifies prospects of further studies.? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? «??????? ????????????», ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ???? ? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????. ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????.

  17. Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora C. H.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Craig, Anna E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage experienced in early development predicts ill health in adulthood. However, the neurobiological pathways linking early disadvantage to adult health remain unclear. Lower parental education—a presumptive indicator of early socioeconomic disadvantage—predicts health-impairing adult behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol dependencies. These behaviors depend, in part, on the functionality of corticostriatal brain systems that 1) show developmental plasticity and early...

  18. ICT and Educational (Dis)advantage: Families, Computers and Contemporary Social and Educational Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence; Snyder, Ilana; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Because access to new technologies is unequally distributed, there has been considerable debate about the growing gap between the so-called information-rich and information-poor. Such concerns have led to high-profile information technology policy initiatives in many countries. In Australia, in an attempt to 'redress the balance between the…

  19. FarmacOft: software educativo para la farmacología contra las afecciones oftalmológicas / FarmacOft: educational software for pharmacology against ophthalmological affections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilys, Martínez Torres; Michel, Sierra Leyva; Keilym, Artiles Martínez; Yaquelin, Martínez Chávez; Ailin, Anoceto Martínez; Lelys, Navarro Aguirre.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el uso adecuado de fármacos contra las afecciones oculares es un contenido esencial en la asignatura Farmacología II de tercer año de Medicina. Objetivo: diseñar un software educativo sobre el uso de fármacos contra las afecciones oculares. Métodos: se realizó una investigación cualitati [...] va en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara en el curso 2013-2014. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inducción-deducción para la interpretación y procesamiento de la información y los referentes teóricos del tema; empíricos: análisis documental de los programas y orientaciones metodológicas, y la encuesta en su modalidad de cuestionario a estudiantes para diagnosticar los conocimientos adquiridos sobre la prescripción y uso racional de medicamentos contra las afecciones oftalmológicas y en forma de entrevista a informantes clave. Resultados: en el programa no se contempla la farmacología contra las afecciones oftalmológicas ni se establecen suficientes nexos interdisciplinares desde una perspectiva integradora para consolidar las habilidades de los alumnos en este campo; no hay bibliografía especializada sobre el tema ni medios de enseñanza en formato digital para estos contenidos; por lo que se diseñó un software educativo utilizando la herramienta de CrheaSoft con una combinación de elementos visuales. Conclusiones: el software proporciona un material educativo didáctico de consulta y de apoyo a la docencia en Farmacología II, facilita la motivación y permite que los estudiantes construyan el conocimiento sobre la aplicación de medicamentos contra afecciones oftalmológicas. Fue valorado por los especialistas como pertinente, útil y factible por su cientificidad y carácter pedagógico. Abstract in english Background: the appropriate use of drugs against ocular affections is an essential content in the subject Pharmacology II of the third year of Medicine. Objective: to design educational software on the use of drugs against ocular affections. Methods: it was carried out a qualitative research work in [...] Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2013-2014. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction for the processing and interpretation of information and the theoretical foundations of the topic; empiric: documental analysis of the programs and methodological orientations, and the survey in questionnaire modality was applied to the students to diagnose the acquired knowledge on the prescription and rational use of medications against ocular affections and an interview was applied to key informants. Results: the pharmacology against ocular affections is not contemplated in the program and there aren´t settle down enough interdisciplinary connections from an integrative perspective to consolidate the abilities of the students in this field; there is not specialized bibliography on the topic neither teaching means in digital format for these contents; that´s why an educational software was designed using the tool of CrheaSoft with a combination of visual elements. Conclusions: the software provides a didactic educational material of consultation and support to teaching in Pharmacology II, it facilitates the motivation and it allows the students to build knowledge on the application of medications against ocular affections. It was valued by the specialists as pertinent, useful and feasible for its scientific and pedagogic character.

  20. Soil Health Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  1. Revisiting the Gramscian Legacy on Counter-Hegemony, the Subaltern and Affectivity: Toward an Emotional Pedagogy of Activism in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalinos Zembylas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic intellectual in relation to his views about the unity of reason and emotion offer points of departure for activism, especially small acts of everyday life that often go unnoticed. Finally, Gramsci’s concern with the emotional potential of subaltern subjects shows how important it is to consider subaltern passions as political resources that challenge hegemonic conditions and formulate strategic counter-hegemonic responses.

  2. Time is on whose side? Time trends in the association between maternal social disadvantage and offspring fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Diderichsen, Finn; Davey-Smith, George; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    linear regression. RESULTS: All measures of social disadvantage were associated with decreased fetal growth (p < 0.001), but with considerable differences in the magnitude of the associations. The association was strongest for non-western ethnicity (-0.28 z-score), low education (-0.19), teenage...... motherhood (-0.14), single motherhood (-0.13), poverty (-0.12) and weakest for unemployment (-0.04). The deficit in fetal growth increased over time for all associations except for unemployment. Also, the measures of social adversity increasingly clustered within individuals over time. CONCLUSION: Maternal...

  3. Contingency contracting with disadvantaged youths: Improving classroom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M L; Stokes, T F

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a student-teacher contracting procedure on adolescent students' academic productivity. Participants were 13 youths enrolled in a vocational training program for disadvantaged youth and their classroom teacher. During the baseline conditions students were paid contingent on attendance alone, the system operating in the program prior to this research. During contracting conditions students were paid contingent on contract fulfillment of academic productivity goals set by mutual agreement between the student and teacher. Contracting and contingent pay procedures were developed with, and implemented by, the classroom teacher. A reversal experimental design showed that student's productivity more than doubled during contracting conditions as compared with their productivity during baseline. PMID:16795661

  4. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  5. Parental imprisonment, the prison boom, and the concentration of childhood disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2009-05-01

    Although much research has focused on how imprisonment transforms the life course of disadvantaged black men, researchers have paid little attention to how parental imprisonment alters the social experience of childhood. This article estimates the risk of parental imprisonment by age 14 for black and white children born in 1978 and 1990. This article also estimates the risk of parental imprisonment for children whose parents did not finish high school, finished high school only, or attended college. Results show the following: (1) 1 in 40 white children born in 1978 and 1 in 25 white children born in 1990 had a parent imprisoned; (2) 1 in 7 black children born in 1978 and 1 in 4 black children born in 1990 had a parent imprisoned; (3) inequality in the risk of parental imprisonment between white children of college-educated parents and all other children is growing; and (4) by age 14, 50.5% of black children born in 1990 to high school dropouts had a father imprisoned. These estimates, robustness checks, and extensions to longitudinal data indicate that parental imprisonment has emerged as a novel-and distinctively American-childhood risk that is concentrated among black children and children of low-education parents. PMID:21305393

  6. Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

  7. Increasing Intergroup Cooperation Toward Social Change by Restoring Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups’ Positive Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Shnabel, Nurit; Ullrich, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we develop a perspective on social change as cooperation between advantaged and disadvantaged groups to facilitate not only redistribution of power and wealth but also restoration of threatened identity dimensions. We argue that disadvantaged groups experience threats to their agency whereas advantaged groups experience threats to their morality. Restoration of these aspects of groups’ identities can unlock the potential for collective action among members of disadvantaged gr...

  8. The Influence of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Perceived Disapproval on Early Substance Use Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Fite, Paula J; Wynn, Porche'; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the role of neighborhood disadvantage, perceived caregiver disapproval, and perceived peer disapproval in early initiation of substance use in a sample of 126 aggressive 9th graders (66% male; 79% African American). Findings suggested that perceived caregiver and peer disapproval as well as neighborhood disadvantage were associated with early substance use initiation. However, when associations were simultaneously examined, neighborhood disadvantage was the only fac...

  9. Continuity and change in pathways to young adult disadvantage: results from a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John

    2003-01-01

    A life-course account of the pathways to adult social exclusion for children born in 1958 is explored. We identify the pervasive childhood factors, associated with a wide range of adult disadvantage, and specific life-course domain antecedents. Childhood disadvantage has more powerful legacies for women than for men: pathways to social exclusion are gendered. Experiences of disadvantage between ages 16 and 23 relate as closely to outcomes at age 33 as at age 23. The excess legacy of childhood...

  10. 7 CFR 760.107 - Socially disadvantaged, limited resource, or beginning farmer or rancher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Provisions for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.107 Socially disadvantaged, limited resource, or beginning farmer or rancher. (a) Risk management purchase requirements,...

  11. Problematizing Neighborhood Renewal: Community, School Effectiveness and Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I argue that values of democracy and social justice in education would seem to have been displaced in recent decades by managerialist norms that are linked to the presumed needs of business and the economy of the nation. I am concerned that conceptualizations of the nature and purpose of education, and of the roles of teachers, are…

  12. Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Howard; Jude Butcher; Luke Egan

    2010-01-01

    In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is built up...

  13. Teachers working together to foster self-regulated learning through reading by students in an elementary school located in a disadvantaged area

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie C. Cartier; Butler, Deborah L; Nancy Bouchard

    2010-01-01

    A key question for the educational research community concerns how teachers can adapt theories and practices supported by the scientific literature in ways that meet the particular needs of students in classrooms. The research reported here takes up that question by investigating how a team of teachers in an elementary school in a disadvantaged area built from research and theory to enact, try out, and refine classroom practices supportive of self-regulated LTR in their subject-area classroom...

  14. Examining Alternative Measures of Social Disadvantage Among Asian Americans: The Relevance of Economic Opportunity, Subjective Social Status, and Financial Strain for Health

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, A. B.; Gee, Gilbert C; TAKEUCHI, DAVID T.

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Data come from the Asian subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2095). Regression models were used to examine the associations bet...

  15. O imperativo do afeto na educação infantil: a ordem do discurso de pedagogas em formação / The imperative of affect in early childhood education: the order of discourse of undergraduate education students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Saballa de, Carvalho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que teve como foco de análise a problematização dos discursos sobre afeto docente presentes em relatórios de um estágio realizado em turmas de Educação Infantil por 30 acadêmicas de Pedagogia em fase de conclusão do curso. O objetivo do artigo é probl [...] ematizar como os discursos sobre afeto se constituem enquanto imperativos que inventam e regulam os modos de exercício docente. O campo de estudos no qual se fundamentou a pesquisa foi o dos estudos culturais e dos estudos desenvolvidos por Michel Foucault. A metodologia consistiu na análise do discurso foucaultiana, por meio da qual foram destacadas as regularidades e inflexões presentes nos relatórios. Estes foram escritos a partir de elementos recordatórios, como fotos, planejamentos e demais registros das acadêmicas. A análise evidenciou a assunção da afetividade como um imperativo profissional associado a um processo de generificação da docência. A partir da pesquisa, concluiu-se que os significados do afeto no exercício da docência só existem como resultados inacabados de processos que tratam de nomeá-lo e conformá-lo. Por essa razão, se for assumida a perspectiva de que os discursos que tomam o afeto como imperativo docente presentes nos relatórios analisados são produzidos pelas práticas sociais, pelas relações de poder e pelo tipo de lógica disciplinar que os operacionaliza, é possível desnaturalizá-los e reinventá-los, experimentando outros modos de agir e de pensar o exercício da docência na Educação Infantil. Abstract in english This article presents the results of a study that focused on the problematization of the discourses on teacher affect present in reports of an internship in early childhood education classes of 30 Education students nearing graduation. The aim of this paper is to discuss how discourses on affect bec [...] ome imperatives that invent and regulate the ways of teaching. The research was based on cultural studies and the studies developed by Michel Foucault. Its methodology consisted of Foucauldian discourse analysis, through which regularities and inflections found in the reports were highlighted. These reports were written using memory aids such as photos, plans, and other records of the students. The analysis evidenced the assumption of affection as a professional imperative associated with a process of gendering of teaching. From the research, it was concluded that the meanings of affect in the teaching profession only exist as unfinished results of processes that deal with naming it and shaping it. For this reason, if one assumes the perspective that the discourses that take affect as a teacher imperative, as the ones present in the reports analyzed, are produced by social practices, by the relations of power and type of disciplinary logic that operationalizes such discourses, it is possible to denaturalize them and reinvent them, experimenting with other ways of acting and thinking of teaching in early childhood education.

  16. BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOME CONSERVATION TREATMENTS FOR EGYPTIAN MUMMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosalie David

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. This paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of DNA in mummified remainsLos restos momificados y sus artefactos asociados son frágiles y vulnerables a varios tipos de deterioro, incluyendo los factores que resultan de las condiciones ambientales, el daño físico y el daño causado por intentos anteriores o inapropiados de conservación. Este informe considerará los beneficios y desventajas de los métodos de conservación mediante los cuales la mayor parte del deterioro puede ser evitada o rectificada después. También se considerará la reparación física, el apoyo y el cuidado de las momias y, en particular, los problemas asociados con su exposición en museos. Finalmente, se presentarán nuevas investigaciones que consideran las maneras en que varios tratamientos de conservación pueden afectar la preservación de ADN en restos momificados

  17. Using preschool materials to modify the language of disadvantaged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B; Risley, T R

    1974-01-01

    Although language remediation programs have generally been conducted with the use of special materials in structured group settings, traditional preschool practice emphasizes "incidental teaching" incorporated into children's free play. To determine if incidental teaching practices could be effective in improving children's speech, this study investigated the spontaneous speech of 12 disadvantaged children during free-play periods over eight months of a preschool program. Whenever the children selected a preschool play material, they were prompted and required to ask for it, first by name (noun), then by name plus a word that described the material (adjective-noun combination), then by use of a color adjuctive-noun combination, and finally by requesting the material and describing how they were going to use it (compound sentence). As each requirement was made, the children's general use of that aspect of language markedly increased, but little change was noted in the amount or nature of the children's interactions with teachers or their use of a set of materials to which they had free access. This study demonstrates that preschool free-play periods can be powerful "incidental teaching" periods by capitalizing on moments when children seek new play materials. PMID:4436172

  18. [Causal attribution of discrimination and favoritism in a disadvantaged group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Nobuko

    2006-10-01

    Two experiments investigated the hypothesis that the need to protect positive self-regards mediates the causal attribution of one's failure to discrimination. Female undergraduates read a scenario in which either the participant herself or another woman (in-group member) took a job interview. The outcome was depicted either as failing (Studies 1 and 2) or passing the interview (Study 2). Participants attributed the failure to gender discrimination only when the interviewers were unanimously sexists. The attribution to discrimination was negatively correlated with the state self-esteem in the social domain. When the protagonist was an in-group member, a moderate level of discrimination was sufficient to elicit the participant' s discrimination attribution. For the positive outcome scenario, the participants were more likely to acknowledge the influence of favoritism on their own success than on other's success. These results suggest that the unwillingness for attributing a failure to discrimination functions for the protection of the self-esteem among the members of a disadvantaged group. Implications for the study of coping strategies used by victims of discrimination are discussed. PMID:17447441

  19. [Advantages and disadvantages of the femtosecond laser microkeratome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, D; Salin, F; Mortemousque, B; Chabassier, P; Mottay, E; Léger, F; Colin, J

    2005-05-01

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) complications are mainly attributable to imperfect cutting with the mechanical microkeratome. The femtosecond laser is an important challenger because it can provide extremely precise cutting beginning at any corneal point. We analyze the potential of this new tool from the results reported in the literature. The optomechanical control of the impact position provides freer and more effective intrastromal cutting than the blade. The best cutting matrix is obtained with the postage stamp method. If the plasma quality is not perfectly under control, side effects such as tissue streaks and secondary ultraviolet radiations can be observed. For LASIK surgery, femtolaser cutting can offer greater safety, reproducibility, predictability and flexibility. The risk of incomplete or irregular cutting and the free cap risk are reduced. Striae, epithelial defects and interface deposits should be minimized. A better flap congruence can limit the risk of secondary displacement and epithelial ingrowth. The results of making thinner flaps should be more predictable. Other than the high cost of the procedure, laser cutting has very few disadvantages. In 1999, Intralase Corporation introduced the first femtolaser microkeratome on the American market. Approximately 120,000 intra-LASIK procedures have been carried out with fewer cutting complications than with the mechanic blade. PMID:15976724

  20. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Rodriguez-Granillo, Bibiana Rubilar, Gaston Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo E Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

  1. Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA T. CHICO?

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was shaped in relation to different socio-economic and socio-cultural policies that determined the creation of a polarisation between north and south or between centre and periphery which were subject to numerous socio-urban inversions during the communist and post-communist eras. Hence, life in a large metropolis is vulnerable to inequalities appearing within the urban pattern that intensifies, in some cases, towards residential segregation. The historical-geographical analysis of vectors behind clusters of sensitive areas in the 20th and 21st centuries strengthens the importance of social cohesion measures in the future urban policies and territorial planning.

  2. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  3. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...not in other countries; and (iii) Negative impact on entry into or advancement...social and professional association with students or teachers, denial of educational...employment; retaliatory or discriminatory behavior by an employer; and social...

  4. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... denial of equal access to institutions of higher education, exclusion from social and professional... Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China (including Hong Kong), Taiwan... any relevant evidence in assessing this element. In every case, however, SBA will consider...

  5. 76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 23 RIN 2105-AE10 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... Department of Transportation's Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (ACDBE) regulation... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may...

  6. 75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for federally funded contracting opportunities. Under... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 8, 2009, the Department published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 15910, a... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AD76 Participation by Disadvantaged Business...

  7. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

  8. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students in 29 School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent federal policy initiatives are aimed at improving disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching. These efforts, including Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, arise from concerns that disadvantaged students are taught by less effective teachers. A growing body of research uses value-added analysis to measure teacher…

  9. The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

  10. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  11. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  12. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

  13. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  14. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

  15. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  16. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give...

  17. Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

  18. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53.130-4 Section 105-53.130-4 Public Contracts and Property Management... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-4 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14, 1978, an amendment to the...

  19. Is social capital perceived as a source of competitive advantage or disadvantage for family firms? An exploratory analysis of CEO perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    DE MASSIS, ALFREDO VITTORIO; Kotlar, Josip; FRATTINI, FEDERICO

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological perspectives suggest that executives’ perceptions do matter when it comes to predict the outcomes of strategic processes, little research has dealt with CEO perceptions in family firms. In this article we focus on the social capital resources of family firms and investigate which resources are perceived as competitive (dis)advantages and which factors affect the differences in perceptions among family firms’ CEOs. We rely on a multiple case study that involved seven fam...

  20. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  1. Sustainable energy and development in disadvantaged communities: New approaches from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)

  2. Oral language supports early literacy: a pilot cluster randomized trial in disadvantaged schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ? .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy. PMID:24160184

  3. Child mental health in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts: risk and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Simões Matsukuraa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify and compare different situations of risk or protection in the socio-emotional development of children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts. Seven (7 children aged eight to ten and their respective parents participated in the present survey. The children were 2nd to 5th grade students at an elementary public school in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. The subjects involved in this survey were divided into two different groups: one composed of children evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ – with clinical symptoms (Group with Clinical Symptoms of Mental Health - GSC; the other group was composed of children that did not present clinical symptoms (Group with Typical Development - GDT and their parents. Two different interview scripts were used for data collection: one answered by the children and the other responded by the parents. Data analysis was based on the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD. The results showed similarities and differences between the GSC and GDT groups. Regarding the similarities, all the children have rules and responsibilities, and all the parents seek assistance in the care of their children by means of social, health and educational services. Concerning the differences, children in the GSC group refer to school in a negative way and have less support from their parents in school activities. It is worth mentioning that studies of this nature can contribute to the debate on public policies and practices aimed at this population.

  4. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T P, Maforah; S, Schulze.

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in [...] discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education). Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

  5. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Maforah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education. Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

  6. Parenting predictors of cognitive skills and emotion knowledge in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1 year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1 year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  7. FAIR VALUE IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Å koda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.

  8. Development of Nuclear Energy in Ukraine. Necessity, Advantages and Disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to current projections of economic development of Ukraine, domestic consumption of electricity will grow from the present level of 190 billion kWh / year to about 280 billion kWh / year in 2030, which determines the prospects of the electricity industry development. Alternative ''green'' energy sources - solar, wind and small hydropower can develop only within a commercially reasonable considering temporary ''green'' tariff, which is far above the rates for traditional sources. According to prognoses the share of ''green'' energy sources in Ukraine in 2030 will not exceed 10-15% regardless of their environmental appeal. The updated nuclear energy development strategy by 2030 will save the share of nuclear electricity generation at the achieved level about half of total domestic electricity production. Development of nuclear power generation in the period to 2030 provides: increase the safety of the operating NPP; efficiency increase of existing nuclear power plants (up to 85% in terms of the basic mode of operation); continued of NPP units operation for 20 years over time, provided the original design; completion of the units 3,4 Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in 2017; construction and commissioning prior to 2027 three new nuclear power units the total capacity to 3.5 GW on new NPP site; beginning in 2022-2029 years construction of new nuclear reactors at sites of existing nuclear power plants to replace existing units that will be decommissioned after 2030; implementation of the units preparation to decommissioning after an additional period of operation; improvement of infrastructure support and development of nuclear power generation. In the article analyzes the necessity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy in Ukraine in the Updated Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2030.(author).

  9. Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of soecioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males’ physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males’ victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

  10. Mathematics Textbook Transformation and Instructional Intervention for Disadvantaged Elementary School Students: Changes in Mathematics Achievements and Goal Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chieh Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine changes in the mathematics achievements and goal orientations among disadvantaged students after instructional intervention in textbook transformation and instructional intervention for disadvantaged students. There were eight disadvantaged students in this instructional intervention. Factor analysis, MANOVA, and covariance analysis were used in data analysis. Several important findings were discovered. First, prior to instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientations of disadvantaged students were no different from those of other students, but their mathematics achievements were lower than those of others. Second, after instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientation of disadvantaged students became higher. Finally, after instructional intervention, the mathematics achievements of disadvantaged students became higher, too

  11. Can personality traits and intelligence compensate for background disadvantage? Predicting status attainment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. PMID:25402679

  12. Colorado Department of Education Migrant Education Program. Recruitment Manual, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Because migrant students are among the most educationally disadvantaged students in our nation, Congress created the Migrant Education Program in 1966. Identification and recruitment are critical activities since migrant funding is based, in part, on an annual count of eligible migratory children. Funds come directly to the state, which contracts…

  13. Sociopolitical Development of Private School Children Mobilising for Disadvantaged Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply…

  14. Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to students…

  15. Taxation for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas H.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" provides a basic understanding of the mechanics of the various taxes used to raise money for education, the extent to which these taxes are utilized, the way they interrelate, and the criteria that can be used when judging their relative advantages and disadvantages. The chapter opens with…

  16. Brief Report. Educated Adults Are Still Affected by Intuitions about the Effect of Arithmetical Operations: Evidence from a Reaction-Time Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakoussi, Xenia; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that intuitions about the effect of operations, e.g., "addition makes bigger" and "division makes smaller", are still present in educated adults, even after years of instruction. To establish the intuitive character, we applied a reaction time methodology, grounded in dual process theories of reasoning. Educated…

  17. Integrating Design Disciplines: Understanding the Potential for and Factors Affecting the Success of Interdisciplinary Design Education for Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tae Seo

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…

  18. Sociopolitical development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2015-12-01

    A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply add-on content. Private schools represent a domain of education that has received relatively little attention in research literature regarding sociopolitical activism for addressing SSIs. In this study, we aimed to document the extent to which private school students were able to implement socioscientific activism and to map their socio-political development in the context of a project on child labour. Data collected from student projects and interviews indicate, in many cases, dramatic development of socially critical views and activist orientations that took place over time, and in various steps. A discussion of the factors enabling students' activist development, such as the school culture, the curriculum, and their teacher, are discussed.

  19. Sociopolitical development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply add-on content. Private schools represent a domain of education that has received relatively little attention in research literature regarding sociopolitical activism for addressing SSIs. In this study, we aimed to document the extent to which private school students were able to implement socioscientific activism and to map their socio-political development in the context of a project on child labour. Data collected from student projects and interviews indicate, in many cases, dramatic development of socially critical views and activist orientations that took place over time, and in various steps. A discussion of the factors enabling students' activist development, such as the school culture, the curriculum, and their teacher, are discussed.

  20. The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the stud...

  1. A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

  2. Closing the Education Gap: A Mayo Clinic Approach to Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Herb A.

    Despite recent efforts to provide equal education, agreement exists that blacks, females, and disadvantaged students as a group are outperformed in mathematics and science by white middle-class students. To help disadvantaged students, the Duval County Public Schools (Jacksonville, Florida) have developed a "Mayo Clinic" approach to education that…

  3. Collaborations Resulting in New Leadership Model Operationalization with Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodym, Jacqueline Z.; Tejeda, Armando R.; Moffett, David W.

    2015-01-01

    A new leadership model is needed in all organizations. In response, The Affect-Centered Transformational Leadership Model came about. The new model resulted from a doctoral student's participation in a leadership course, and continued dialogue with its professor. Ultimately, the new model reached the stage of needing to be operationalized. A…

  4. Continuing Education - A Management Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter F.

    The approach to continuing education at the Shell Oil Company is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods of instruction and different formats for continuing education are described. The impact of continuing education is assessed in relation to the following: hiring policies, career development, staff upgrading, promotional…

  5. The impact of redistributing power to disadvantaged families in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, K; Coons, B; Molnár, A

    2013-08-22

    The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) formulated recommendations along which health inequalities can be successfully tackled anywhere in the world. The situation of the Roma minority in Europe provides countless opportunities for the translation of these guidelines into action that should be guided by coherent and evidence-based strategies integrating lessons learned in smaller-scale field projects. Our paper describes the long-term evaluation of a locally initiated housing project in Hungary carried out more than a decade after implementation, which highlights the salience of the CSDH's recommendations and critical factors for success and sustainability. The project provides evidence for the long-term positive impact on education of the social housing project implemented by an empowered community through delegating decision making to a board of representatives of the beneficiaries in all decisions, including financial ones. Educational level greatly improved, and all houses-inhabited by 17 out of 20 families who initially entered the project-remained in good condition, properly equipped and decorated after 13 years of implementation, in spite of an increase of unemployment during the same period which led to reduced income and deterioration of the families' economic situation. Better housing conditions for vulnerable people can be sustained and result in increased educational level if incremental improvement is aimed for and coupled with the redistribution of power at the local level. PMID:23969320

  6. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  7. The Funding and Organization of Adult Continuing Education Research in Britain: Trends and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Taylor, Richard

    1995-01-01

    A research review identified major adult/continuing education trends in Britain: vocational education/training, university-business-industry interaction, educational needs of the disadvantaged, nonformal settings, life-cycle analysis, access to education, articulation, social purpose and radical adult education, and analysis of adult education in…

  8. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  9. 75 FR 5369 - Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY:...

  10. 75 FR 1296 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ...Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business...proposed changes to the 8(a) Business Development (BD) Program Regulations...Associate Administrator for Business Development, U.S. Small...

  11. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business...2011, to amend the 8(a) Business Development (BD) program and SBA size...Administrator, Office of Business Development, at (202)...

  12. 76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST...Department of Transportation's Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...51-26.53 apply with respect to concession specific goals, so the amendment...

  13. 78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...Title I--Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged AGENCY...rulemaking regarding modified academic achievement standards and alternate assessments based on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice...

  14. A Comparative Study of WPPSI and WISC Performances of Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yater, Allan C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare and contrast performances on the WPPSI and the WISC to determine the concurrent validity of the two instruments at three age levels among disadvantaged black children. (Author)

  15. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...contributed to social disadvantage, such as race, ethnic origin, gender, disability, long-term residence in an environment isolated...Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed in recognition of the discrimination faced by people with disabilities. It is plausible that...

  16. Business planning innovative projects: the essence of technology, advantages and disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Knyaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.

  17. Changes in Reward after Gastric Bypass: the Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Samantha; Goldstone, Anthony P; le Roux, Carel W

    2015-10-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective long-term weight loss intervention. Key to its success appears a putative shift in food preference away from high-energy-density foods associated with a reduced appetitive drive and loss of neural reactivity in the reward system of the brain towards food. Post-prandial exaggerated satiety gut hormone responses have been implicated as mediators. Whilst the positive impact of bariatric surgery on both physical and psychological outcomes for many patients is clearly evident, a subset of patients appear to be detrimentally affected by this loss of reward from food and by a lack of alternative strategies for regulating affect after surgery. Mindfulness training has emerged as a potential tool in reducing the need for immediate reward that underpins much of eating behaviour. Further research is needed to help identify patients who may be more vulnerable after gastric bypass and which forms of support may be most beneficial. PMID:26358733

  18. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Güro?lu, Berna; Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize...

  19. What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.

  20. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... street events and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will...

  1. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-01-01

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support...

  2. Exploring health-seeking behaviour of disadvantaged populations in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improving ability of the health system to reach the poor/disadvantaged populations is important for health and essential to mitigate the income-erosion consequences of ill-health in Bangladesh. This study examined the health-seeking behaviour of some identified disadvantaged population groups, including the effect of poverty focused non-governmental development interventions. Methods: The thesis is based on five studies from four different research projects, ...

  3. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    KRAUS, NINA; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of...

  4. Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Amy H. Herring; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal S...

  5. Harder than Expected: Increased Conflict in Clearly Disadvantageous Delayed Choices in a Computer Game

    OpenAIRE

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyz...

  6. A survey of the perceptions of previously disadvantaged South Africans on taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Oberholzer, Ruanda

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptions prevalent amongst previously disadvantaged South Africans on taxation. A need identified in this study is that of more knowledge regarding tax systems, the implementation thereof and the utilization of revenue received from taxation. The South African Government has the opportunity to empower previously disadvantaged South Africans, by providing information sessions to them regarding taxation. Another important point proven from this study is that pre...

  7. PSYCHO-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER CHOICES OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED ADOLESCENTS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Sreelatha, S

    2014-01-01

    Present study was conducted in Kanyakumari district in Tamilnadu with 500 socially disadvantaged adolescents(MBC, SC and ST) selected from 24 schools to assess their Psycho-social development and career preferences. The study also tried to find out whether there is any significant relationship between the selected psychological and sociological correlates and career choices of socially disadvantaged adolescents.The data was collected using Psycho-Social Development Scale a...

  8. Climate Change and Levels of Violence in Socially Disadvantaged Neighborhood Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the link between climate change and neighborhood levels of violence using 20 years of monthly climatic and crime data from St. Louis, MO, USA. St. Louis census tracts are aggregated in neighborhood groups of similar levels of social disadvantage, after which each group is subjected to time series analysis. Findings suggest that neighborhoods with higher levels of social disadvantage are very likely to experience higher levels of violence as a result of anomalously w...

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Kristin; HARKNETT, KRISTEN

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,211), we examine neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. We find that: (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial assistance, from family and friends; (b) residential stability is associated with stronger personal safety nets irrespective of neighborhood quality; and (c) mothers who ...

  10. Neighborhood Disadvantage, High Alcohol Content Beverage Consumption, Drinking Norms, and Drinking Consequences: A Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use can cause significant harm. We examined the relationships between neighborhood disadvantage, consumption of high-alcohol-content beverages (HACB), drinking norms, and self-reported drinking consequences using data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (N?=?9,971 current drinkers) and the 2000 Decennial Census. We hypothesized that (1) individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods would report more negative drinking consequences than individuals living in more affluen...

  11. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; George P. Knight

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results gener...

  12. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with you...

  13. Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Education Program aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo, the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP, Brazil

  14. Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Education Program aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo, the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP

  15. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...

  16. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  17. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    -assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created...

  18. Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children / Desarrollo de la inteligencia en niños en edad preescolar con desventajas socioeconómicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sefa, Bulut.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos factores influyen en el desarrollo intelectual de niños en edad preescolar con desventajas socioeconómicas. El desarrollo de la inteligencia es un concepto multidimensional que está determinado por factores biológicos, sociales y ambientales. Sin embargo, en la presente revisión únicamente [...] se analizan y discuten los aspectos sociales y ambientales. Algunos de los factores que presentan profundos efectos en el desarrollo cognitivo son los siguientes: la estimulación del medio ambiente, las actitudes de los padres, la edad materna y la educación. Se ejemplifican también algunos programas de prevención e intervenciones exitosas encaminadas al enriquecimiento del desarrollo cognitivo infantil. Parece que los programas de intervención temprana en el segundo y tercer año de la vida infantil tienen efectos fundamentales en el desarrollo cognitivo de aquellos niños con ciertas desventajas. Es claro que el aprendizaje se inicia con el nacimiento. Algunos estudios longitudinales mostraron que el periodo más efectivo para la intervención es durante la niñez temprana. Aquellos niños que han estado en programas de estancias y jardines infantiles han mantenido estos logros en la adolescencia y en la edad adulta. Algunos de estos beneficios incluyen puntuaciones elevadas en pruebas de IQ, mejores calificaciones en pruebas de puntuación y mejores habilidades en lectura y matemáticas, mayor número de logros educacionales, mayor número de títulos universitarios y un menor número de problemas psicológicos y de salud mental. Por tanto, la investigación en programas tempranos de alta calidad proporciona múltiples ventajas en forma personal, así como para la sociedad en su conjunto. Activistas sociales, psicólogos y consejeros deberían hacer un mayor esfuerzo para modificar las políticas gubernamentales y la asignación de fondos. Abstract in english The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social [...] and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.

  19. The Evaluation of English Education Policies. CEE DP 131

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Educational inequalities are evident even before children start school. Some educational achievement gaps widen out as individuals progress further through the education sequence and into the labour market, especially those connected to disadvantaged students. Thus, there is a significant need for careful evaluation of educational policies that…

  20. Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Qingyang

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176...