Disadvantaged students entering basic nursing programs present challenges to educators who may be unprepared to identify and address the unique needs of this learner group. Developing affirming strategies to support and promote disadvantaged students choosing the nursing profession is critically important to the long-term recruitment and retention of nurses from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. The author describes the characteristics of disadvantaged students, explores equity issues, and offers suggestions for supporting disadvantaged students during their educational experiences. PMID:15685022
Objectives. Asthma affects 25-30% of children living in certain disadvantaged Chicago neighborhoods, a rate twice the national prevalence (13%). Children living in poor, minority communities tend to rely heavily on the emergency department (ED) for asthma care and are unlikely to be properly medicated or educated on asthma self-management. A pilot project implemented and evaluated a community health worker (CHW) model for its effectiveness in reducing asthma morbidity and improving the quality of life among African-American children living in disadvantaged Chicago neighborhoods. Methods. Trained CHWs from targeted communities provided individualized asthma education during three to four home visits over 6 months. The CHWs also served as liaisons between families and the medical system. Sev...
The difficult economic context of Western countries and sociocultural changes in family structure are increasing the complexity and diversity of parental roles in the accomplishment of everyday tasks. This phenomenon is especially marked in socially and economically disadvantaged areas, which are particularly destabilised by environmental problems. Studies in this field have suggested that parental attitudes and educational practices play a key role in the development of the child. However, these practices remain malleable, and they may oscillate between being risk factors and protective factors. Exploiting this theoretical framework with the goal of reducing the socio-affective and educational risks to children, preventive interventions can be implemented, with the aim of helping parents ...
The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural isolation. By looking at the factors affecting the quality and continuity of teachers in remote Indigenous communities, as well as the need for institutional collaboration, targeted recruitment strategies and a reorientation of expectations, this article will consider one strategy developed in order to recruit and retain effective teachers in these communities. (Contains 1 table.)
In the era of globalisation, provision of quality education is increasingly gaining importance across the world. Like elsewhere, it has already been realised in India that equal attention is needed simultaneously on access, equity and quality to achieve the goal of universalisation of elementary education. It has also been experienced that although the majority of children in India today have access to school education, all of them are not receiving quality education for various reasons, leading to poor learning level, repetition and gradual exclusion from school education. Large achievement gaps are found among different groups of children attending schools located in different regions and managed by government and private providers. Using the primary data collected from 88 schools of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, this paper attempts to critically examine the extent to which the quality of school affects access and participation of children particularly in rural areas. It also investigates problems of inadequate infrastructure and academic facilities: how these are affecting the quality of education; who are the children most affected by poor quality schools and therefore facing problems of locational disadvantage; and the influence of gender and social background of children on their access to quality education. (Contains 2 footnotes, 9 figures, and 34 tables.)
This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of immigrant students in their host society's school system. Specifically, the findings reveal that in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, second-generation Turkish students had significant disadvantages in terms of allocated resources at home and in school. More often than not, these disadvantages were found to have significantly negative effects in terms of second-generation Turkish students' test outcomes relative to their native peers. In all three countries, however, the differences between the second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in terms of their family/home resources were found to explain more of the achievement gap than the differences in their schooling resources. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)
This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of immigrant students in their host society's school system. Specifically, the findings reveal that in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, second-generation Turkish students had significant disadvantages in terms of allocated resources at home and in school. More often than not, these disadvantages were found to have significantly negative effects in terms of second-generation Turkish students' test outcomes relative to their native peers. In all thre...
Through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data on school funding in South Africa, this paper aims to analyse the user fee policy option in public schooling in South Africa. Debate is ongoing about the role of private input into public schooling and whether this practice affects access (and the constitutional right) to basic education, and the effects of decentralised school finance policy and its outcomes. A central question is whether school fees have led to greater equality and equity in the schooling system or whether they contribute to greater inequity. Differentiation in the public schooling system is often caused by the presence of private contributions which are used to employ extra educators and lower educator ratios-significant quality differentials. Using empirical data and a disaggregated methodology, this paper illustrates how key equity indicators are affected by the presence of private contributions. Further, it is suggested that while non-state provision of education is limited in South Africa the model of user fee and private contributions is an important feature of post-apartheid education. Finally it is argued that a key challenge in post-apartheid South Africa is to address equitable access to quality education for the majority of disadvantaged learners, and enhance redistributive mechanisms in education financing in public schools. (Contains 4 figures, 5 tables and 3 notes.)
Project on Training of Non-Formal Education Personnel: National Workshops in Bhutan, Nepal, and India cum Study Visits Undertaken by Teams of China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam (June 17-July 5, 1998) (APPEAL).
This report is a summary of study visits plus workshops that took place in Bhutan, Nepal, and India in 1998 within the framework of UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL). Three educators each from China, Lao PDR, and Vietnam and educators from the host countries participated. The project aimed to promote literacy and primary education in disadvantaged rural areas and was based on two UNESCO-supported pilot projects: the promotion of primary education for girls and disadvantaged groups in China, India, Nepal, and Vietnam; and the promotion of literacy for youth and adults in Bhutan, China, Lao PDR, and Nepal. Study visit objectives included exchanging experiences through presentations and discussions, observing literacy classes and other nonformal education in the countries visited, contributing experience to teacher training workshops, and offering concrete proposals and suggestions to governments. Among the main issues discussed was the difference among countries in social context and disparities that hinder the achievement of APPEAL. While the urban-rural gap was common to all six countries (those visited and those of study team members), gender disparity was more serious in South Asia, and caste was an important social factor in India and Nepal. Issues affecting the sustainability and potential expansion of initial projects included program quality and relevance to the needs of communities and learners, community participation and ownership, national commitment through concrete policies, and effective planning and management. Research also plays an important role in ensuring program quality, building bridges between intellectuals and the grassroots, and influencing policy makers. Other important issues included the need for coordinated planning and implementation of formal and nonformal education and the overwhelming need for nonformal education of girls and women. Appendices contain a list of participants and activities during the study visit. (TD)
As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools and neighbourhoods in mainly poor urban contexts to help improve educational outcomes. Over time these later compensatory educational policies and interventions have become known as area-based initiatives (ABIs). This article categorises and documents these important initiatives and provides evidence of impact. The key finding is that although there have been improvements in attainments linked to these interventions, there continues to be an enduring link between disadvantage and educational outcomes. In an attempt to conceptualise why this is the case, this article utilises Barker's ecological macro, meso and micro perspective on educational disadvantage and Fraser's social justice ideas of redistribution and recognition. (Contains 50 footnotes.)
Summarizes evidence regarding disparities in health status and access to health services across disadvantaged U.S. populations, reviewing major contributing factors to these disparities, highlighting examples of advocacy approaches that have been conceptualized and implemented in health education efforts, and discussing the role of advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities that persist among the disadvantaged. (SM)
This paper reviews recent studies on the effectiveness of services and incentives offered to disadvantaged youths both in the US and abroad. We focus our analysis on three types of interventions: mentoring, educational services, and financial rewards. The objective of this article is threefold. First, we explain alternative theoretical points of view in favor (or against--when applicable) each of these interventions. We then discuss how recent empirical work has affected that view and summarize the latest findings. We conclude by considering which questions remain to be examined. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand which educational interventions work and for whom, and to be used as a starting point for the debate on where to go next. (Contains 1 table.)
Schools traditionally have held students accountable for misbehavior with the use of disciplinary measures such as: detention, suspension and expulsion as consequences of breaking school rules. Intuitively, many educators believe that excluding a student from classroom instruction places that student at an academic disadvantage. This study investigated what effects disciplinary exclusion had on students who are removed from their regular educational setting as a punishment. The research examined eight middle school students who received an in-school suspension and then studied the affects upon their grades, attendance and behavior over a six week period. The research showed that suspensions had no significant effects upon the grades, attendance and behavior of the student participants. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
Postsecondary noncredit education has become increasingly common; many community colleges now enroll more noncredit than credit students. Much of the growth has occurred in workforce instruction and contract training, programs are noted for their role in meeting shifting workforce demands and providing skills in a way that is flexible and responsive to employer needs. Growth in this sector raises questions about whether colleges are keeping pace with need, using resources efficiently, and providing access to all students. This report describes a study conducted by the Community College Research Center (CCRC) that explores the overarching issues affecting community college noncredit workforce education. Specifically, the study examined: (1) the extent to which noncredit workforce education and state policies play a role in workforce development, provide disadvantaged groups with access to higher education, and generate revenue for colleges; (2) how colleges organize their noncredit workforce programs to balance the tradeoffs between the desired flexibility of noncredit education and the integration of credit and noncredit programs; and (3) the extent to which noncredit workforce education provides recorded outcomes for students, such as transcripts or industry certifications, and the extent to which outcome data are available. Study findings lead to five key recommendations: (1) Provide state funding to support noncredit workforce education with clear and targeted goals that promote workforce development and help students access credit education by cultivating better ties to career pathways; (2) Encourage increased coordination between credit and noncredit programs to benefit both students and employers; (3) Better assess student needs and support efforts to recruit noncredit students into credit programs and to articulate noncredit and credit programs to promote student transfer, when appropriate; (4) Explore the development of nondegree forms of validation for all noncredit workforce education and standard systems to record outcomes that promote the portability of evidence of skills for students and accountability for colleges and state workforce education funds; and (5) Collect more information on individual and employer outcomes from noncredit workforce education to assess the contributions of noncredit workforce education for students, employers, and the economy. Five appendixes are included: (1) Departments and Additional Resources Consulted; (2) State Policies on Noncredit Workforce Education; (3) State Policies on Noncredit Workforce Education in Case Study College States; (4) Description of Case Study Colleges; and (5) Summary of Findings and Recommendations. (Contains 9 figures and 4 tables.) [This study was conducted in collaboration with the National Council for Workforce Education and the National Council for Continuing Education and Training. Funding for the study on which this report is based was provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
Although low socio-economic status has consistently been associated with lower birthweight, little is known about the factors whereby socio-economic disadvantage influences birthweight. We therefore examined explanatory mechanisms that may underlie the association between the educational level of pr...
Socioeconomic position is often operationalized as education, occupation, and income. However, these measures may not fully capture the process of socioeconomic disadvantage that may be related to morbidity. Economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain may also place individu...
Assesses continuing education programs and initiatives in library and information service (LIS) in South Africa. Reviews how apartheid left educational institutions unevenly developed and argues that despite the availability of programs to most LIS personnel, those not belonging to professional organizations and those from previously disadvantaged institutions have not benefited. Identifies critical areas for continuing education. (PEN)
While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main sources of this vulnerability. Our paper employs multilevel framework to explore the extent of the impact of schools on access to postsecondary education, especially for youth from disadvantaged background. Our analyses revealed that: (1) for youth with similar financial constraints who attend schools with relatively similar quality, those from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds who attend schools with high concentration of low SES students are particularly vulnerable to exclusion from university education, and (2) a substantial portion of the SES effect operate through the impact of high school academic achievement and postsecondary education expectation on access to postsecondary education. (Contains 4 tables.)
Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire, and their national literacy and numeracy test scores were retrieved. Mothers (N?=?755) completed a telephone interview. Students of highest school SES, maternal education, nutritional quality of breakfast, more sedentary time and female gender had higher literacy scores. SES, maternal education, male gender and total minutes of daily PA were predictors of numeracy with an interaction between greater total PA in boys and greater numeracy. Even though the socioeconomic factors that have predicted children's academic achievement for many decades are still clearly set in place, there are also other modifiable health influences that affect literacy and numeracy and are independent of SES. The current findings provide evidence for health educators and school administrators who may garner support for both breakfast programs and daily school PA for the dual purposes of health promotion as well as for the improvement of literacy and numeracy in settings in which social class may be acting against the educational interests of disadvantaged children. PMID:22798563
This critical case study of one, Somali Bantu male high school student illuminates the struggle for recently arrived refugees at the high school level. Few educational research studies describe how recently arrived refugee students and their families make their transition to US schools (Ngo et al. in "Hmong Stud J" 8:1-35, 2007; Hones and Cha in "Educating new Americans: immigrant lives and learning." Erlbaum, Mahwah, 1999; Igoa in "The inner world of the immigrant child." Erlbaum, Mahwah, 1995). Studies that examine how race, county of origin, and low socio-economic status affect refugee students also are few in number. Specifically Kamya ("Soc Work" 42:154-165, 1997) argues that there is a compelling need for research that investigates how racism and stereotypes of Black Americans affect the experiences of African black immigrants and refugees. Rong and Brown ("Educ Urban Soc" 2:247-273, 2002) add that black newcomers students often face a triple disadvantage of being black, having limited access to educational opportunity, and being poor. These challenges are particularly relevant for high school students as they have a limited amount of time to acquire proficiency in English and content area knowledge before transitioning to post-secondary education or the work force. In order to better understand how some of these processes work for a recently arrived refugee student in an urban school district, this paper examines the educational adaptation and coping strategies of one Somali Bantu male high school student and his family to the US public school system during the 2007-2008 school year through the lens of intersectionality.
Society's failure to educate proportionate numbers of African American students in mathematics is an ongoing problem. The roots of this problem lie in systemic racism and segregated schools. The overwhelming majority of economically disadvantaged African American high school students at segregated schools receive substandard mathematics education. One part of this study consists of analysis of Chicago Public Schools (CPS) data, showing vast inequities in the education delivered to the 72% of African American CPS students who attend segregated schools. Data from interviews of 24 freshmen in low-level algebra classes at one such CPS school support the major part of this study. The interviewees answer questions about their experiences as mathematics students and as African Americans. Results of this study found students to be teacher dependent, to approach math lessons as unconnected to previous knowledge, and to take a narrow view towards the value of mathematics. Students had not encountered autonomous learning in mathematics, learned to approach difficult problems with confidence and perseverance nor experienced the joy of solving a challenging problem. While students are aware of racism's existence, they are unclear about how it affects them directly. Students do not recognize that the segregated schools and neighborhoods of their lives are a result of racism. They accept their substandard education as normal and are uncritical of their schools. Students repeat anti-Black stereotypes about fellow students in relation to violence, interest in education, and self-responsibility. Mathematics educators need to be aware of the social context of math education. Segregated, economically disadvantaged African American students are likely to have learned teacher-dependence and narrow approaches to mathematics. It is therefore crucial that teachers develop lessons and practices aimed at moving students in the opposite direction, to become independent conceptual thinkers. This is no simple task, particularly for students who have developed these practices over many years of school. Researchers can prioritize the development of autonomy-building, conceptually based lessons and practices and school systems can support teachers' collaborative efforts in this regard. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists, sociologists, and experts in social and education policy examines the corrosive effects of unequal family resources, disadvantaged neighborhoods, insecure labor markets, and worsening school conditions on K-12 education. This groundbreaking book illuminates the ways rising inequality is undermining one of the most important goals of public education--the ability of schools to provide children with an equal chance at academic and economic success. The most ambitious study of educational inequality to date, "Whither Opportunity?" analyzes how social and economic conditions surrounding schools affect school performance and children's educational achievement. The book shows that from earliest childhood, parental investments in children's learning affect reading, math, and other attainments later in life. This book contains six parts. Part I, Overview, contains: (1) Introduction: The American Dream, Then and Now (Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane). Part II, The Developing Child and Adolescent, contains: (2) Lessons from Neuroscience Research for Understanding Causal Links Between Family and Neighborhood Characteristics and Educational Outcomes (Charles A. Nelson III and Margaret A. Sheridan); (3) The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention Skills, and Behavior Problems (Greg J. Duncan and Katherine Magnuson); (4) Middle and High School Skills, Behaviors, Attitudes, and Curriculum Enrollment, and Their Consequences (George Farkas); (5) The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations (Sean F. Reardon); (6) Inequality in Postsecondary Education (Martha J. Bailey and Susan M. Dynarski); and (7) Educational Expectations and Attainment (Brian A. Jacob and Tamara Wilder Linkow). Part III, The Family, contains: (8) Educational Mobility in the United States Since the 1930s (Michael Hout and Alexander Janus); (9) How Is Family Income Related to Investments in Children's Learning? (Neeraj Kaushal, Katherine Magnuson, and Jane Waldfogel); (10) Parenting, Time Use, and Disparities in Academic Outcomes (Meredith Phillips); and (11) Family-Structure Instability and Adolescent Educational Outcomes: A Focus on Families with Stepfathers (Megan M. Sweeney). Part IV, Neighborhoods, contains: (12) Converging Evidence for Neighborhood Effects on Children's Test Scores: An Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Observational Comparison (Julia Burdick-Will, Jens Ludwig, Stephen W. Raudenbush, Robert J. Sampson, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, and Patrick Sharkey); and (13) Unpacking Neighborhood Influences on Education Outcomes: Setting the Stage for Future Research (David Harding, Lisa Gennetian, Christopher Winship, Lisa Sanbonmatsu, and Jeffrey Kling). Part V, Labor Markets, contains: (14) The Effects of Local Employment Losses on Children's Educational Achievement (Elizabeth O. Ananat, Anna Gassman-Pines, and Christina M. Gibson-Davis); and (15) How Does Parental Unemployment Affect Children's Educational Performance? (Phillip B. Levine). Part VI, Schools, contains: (16) The Role of Family, School, and Community Characteristics in Inequality in Education and Labor-Market Outcomes (Joseph G. Altonji and Richard K. Mansfield); (17) Year-by-Year and Cumulative Impacts of Attending a High-Mobility Elementary School on Children's Mathematics Achievement in Chicago, 1995 to 2005 (Stephen W. Raudenbush, Marshall Jean, and Emily Art); (18) The Effect of School Neighborhoods on Teachers' Career Decisions (Don Boyd, Hamp Lankford, Susanna Loeb, Matthew Ronfeldt, and Jim Wyckoff); (19) Crime and the Production of Safe Schools (David S. Kirk and Robert J. Sampson); (20) Immigrants and Inequality in Public Schools (Amy Ellen Schwartz and Leanna Stiefel); (21) School
Against the background of the long-time educational disadvantages of the migrant youth in Germany that again have been explicitly indicated by the dissatisfactory PISA results, this dissertation project has explored the contingencies in online informal learning space to moderate the educational ineq...
A study investigated parental behaviors or practices associated with seven high-achieving, limited-English-proficient children (ages 3-11) of low-income, educationally disadvantaged Hispanic mothers. The mothers had high expectations, a firm belief in the educational system, and a desire to be linked with the school. A list of 36 supportive behaviors is provided. (CR)
Psychosocial factors have been shown to play an important role in the aetiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). A strong association between CHD and socioeconomic status (lower-level education, poor financial situation) has also been well established. Socioeconomic differences may thus also have an effect on psychosocial risk factors associated with CHD, and socioeconomic disadvantage may negatively affect the later prognosis and quality of life of cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on socioeconomic differences in psychosocial factors which specifically contribute to CHD. A computer-aided search of the Medline and PsycINFO databases resulted in 301 articles in English published between 1994 and 2007. A comprehensive screening process identified 12...
Texas faces health challenges requiring a physician workforce with understanding of a broad range of issues -- including the role of culture, income level, and health beliefs -- that affect the health of individuals and communities. Building on previous successful physician workforce "pipeline" efforts, Texas established the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP), a first-of-its-kind program to encourage access to medical education by Texans who are economically disadvantaged. The program benefits those from racial and ethnic minority groups and involves all 31 public and 34 private Texas undergraduate colleges and universities offering life science degrees, as well as all 9 medical schools. Available program data indicate that JAMP has broadened enrollment diversity in Texas' medical schools. However, greater progress requires strengthened partnerships with professional colleagues practicing medicine in communities across Texas. This article explores how JAMP can help Texas physicians and how Texas physicians can help JAMP. PMID:22855018
This paper presents the findings of a study on the current knowledge and attitudes of pre-service teachers on the use of scenario-based multi-user virtual environments in science education. The 28 participants involved in the study were introduced to "Virtual Singapura," a multi-user virtual environment, and completed an open-ended questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire indicated that gender and current computer game use were likely to affect the perceived benefits of using virtual worlds in a classroom setting. Behavior management was seen as being a constraining factor on a pre-service teacher's willingness to use a virtual world in the future. Overall, the results of the study indicate that pre-service teachers as a result of their use of "Virtual Singapura" are both aware of virtual worlds and have a reasonable understanding of both their potential advantages and disadvantages within a classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 5 tables.)
Recent studies suggest that social recognition processes are affected by Parkinsons disease (PD). However, whether PD patients exhibit behavioral changes is still controversial. The purpose of the present study was to examine the decision making of PD patients performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We recruited a large number of early, nondemented PD patients for the IGT. We also recorded the skin conductance responses (SCRs) during the task as a measure of emotional arousal. Compared with the normal control (NC) subjects, PD patients selected more disadvantageous decks in the IGT, and their SCRs were lower than those of NC subjects before making decisions and after receiving reward or punishment. The tendency toward risky choices was not correlated with age, education, global cognitive ...
Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the ?Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships? (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include studen...
This paper describes a 6-year effort aimed at developing educational interventions for a group of economically disadvantaged children. The program provided an opportunity for psychologists and student paraprofessionals to join with personnel at urban health care facilities in responding to a serious identified community problem--disadvantaged youngsters, ages 1 and 2, who are vulnerable to later school and life difficulties. The intervention succeeded in enhancing academic skills among six groups of disadvantaged toddlers. As ongoing research results indicated the need for new program elements, the university personnel piloted innovations and the health centers gradually incorporated effective components into the existing program. PMID:729347
Psychosocial factors have been shown to play an important role in the aetiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). A strong association between CHD and socioeconomic status (lower-level education, poor financial situation) has also been well established. Socioeconomic differences may thus also have an effect on psychosocial risk factors associated with CHD, and socioeconomic disadvantage may negatively affect the later prognosis and quality of life of cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on socioeconomic differences in psychosocial factors which specifically contribute to CHD. A computer-aided search of the Medline and PsycINFO databases resulted in 301 articles in English published between 1994 and 2007. A comprehensive screening process identified 12 empirical studies which described the socioeconomic differences in CHD risk factors. A review of these studies showed that socioeconomic status (educational grade, occupation or income) was adversely associated with psychosocial factors linked to CHD. This association was evident in the case of hostility and depression. Available studies also showed a similar trend with respect to social support, perception of health and lack of optimism. Less consistent were the results related to anger and perceived stress levels. Socioeconomic disadvantage seems to be an important element influencing the psychosocial factors related to CHD, thus, a more comprehensive clarification of associations between these factors might be useful. More studies are needed, focused not only on well-known risk factors such as depression and hostility, but also on some lesser known psychosocial factors such as Type D and vital exhaustion and their role in CHD. PMID:19104965
This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a development environment; as a collaboration tool and to provide an environment for simulation. The benefits of virtual worlds for computing education (with a particular emphasis on "Second Life") are discussed. Qualitative feedback from students is reported which, although not definitive, illustrates many of the benefits and disadvantages of using virtual worlds in computing education. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)
The incontrovertible scientific evidence about tobacco use causing serious health consequences is now accepted even by the tobacco industry. Research continues to enlarge the spectrum of diseases caused by tobacco use among users as well as among nonusers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. This review attempts to illustrate the greater risk to adverse health outcomes among the less educated due to a greater prevalence of tobacco use among them. Numerous surveys worldwide and in India show a greater prevalence of tobacco use among the less educated and illiterate. In a large population based study in Mumbai, the odds ratios for any kind of tobacco use among the illiterate as compared to the college educated were 7.4 for males and 20.3 for females after adjusting for age and occupation. School-dropouts are more likely to take up tobacco use in childhood and adolescence. Student youth taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school are less likely to initiate tobacco use. High tobacco use among the less educated and under privileged affects them in multiple ways: (i) Tobacco users in such households, because of their nicotine addiction, prefer spending a disproportionate amount of their meager income on tobacco products, often curtailing essential expenditures for food, healthcare and education for the family. (ii) Because of high tobacco use and other factors of disadvantage connected with low educational status, they suffer more from the diseases and other health impacts caused by tobacco. This higher morbidity results in high health care expenditures, which impoverish the family further. (iii) Premature death caused by tobacco use in this under- privileged section often takes away the major wage earner in the family, plunging it into even more hardship. Tobacco use is a terrible scourge particularly of the less educated, globally and in India. Tobacco use, education and health in a human population are inter-related in ways that make sufferings and deaths caused by tobacco use even more tragic than normally realized. Tobacco use works against social and economic development and should be appropriately addressed through health education and tobacco cessation services particularly in the underprivileged, illiterate population. PMID:18032804
In the article, we will focus on economic issues concerning the favourability of employing dual purpose officers, given that national dual-purpose educational programs exist; we will thus delimit us from discussing potential advantages and disadvantages of firm-specific educational investments in maritime schools or universities. In our treatment of economic issues, we will focus on insights from the resource-based view of the firm, labour economics, and transaction cost economics, and then make some general statements about the potential economic advantages and disadvantages to a shipowner of employing dual-purpose officers.
Introduction Roma, the largest minority group in Europe, face widespread racism and health disadvantage. Using qualitative data from Serbia and Macedonia, our objective was to develop a conceptual framework showing how three levels of racism--personal, internalized, and institutional--affect access to maternal health care among Romani women. Methods Eight focus groups of Romani women aged 14-44 (n = 71), as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with gynecologists (n = 8) and key informants from NGOs and state institutions (n = 11) were conducted on maternal health care seeking, experiences during care, and perceived health care discrimination. Transcripts were coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Themes were categorized into domains. Results Twenty-two emergent themes identified barriers that reflected how racism affects access to maternal health care. The domains into which the themes were classified were perceptions and interactions with health system, psychological factors, social environment and resources, lack of health system accountability, financial needs, and exclusion from education. Conclusions The experiences of Romani women demonstrate psychosocial and structural pathways by which racism and discrimination affect access to prenatal and maternity care. Interventions to address maternal health inequalities should target barriers within all three levels of racism. PMID:16543299
Universalizing primary education for girls and children in disadvantaged areas remains the most challenging task for developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. This evaluation report reviews the processes and outcomes of the Pilot Project on Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Children in Disadvantaged Areas in Gansu Province, China, a UNESCO-sponsored project through the Asian-Pacific Program for Education for All implemented between 1991 and 1995. The report is presented in three parts. Part 1 describes the planning procedures; the target areas; and the project objectives, scope, activities, and evaluation plan. The major activities of the pilot project involved mobilizing influential persons in the community to ensure community participation, providing family education to parents, training educational personnel, developing supplementary learning materials combining functional literacy with vocational skills, and providing preschool education. Part 2 details educational deficits in the targeted area's available school facilities, outlines the specific intervention procedures and additional studies undertaken, and presents outcomes. Findings indicated that the enrollment rate and retention rate have been raised by 11 percent and 3 percent, respectively, and the repetition and dropout rates have been reduced by 8 percent and 2 percent, respectively. Girls' participation increased steadily in all counties involved. Part 3 of the report discusses the implications of the study, concluding that the pilot project proves that with well-designed and implemented interventions, serious disadvantages can be overcome to make a difference in the lives of girls. Part 4 outlines problems with the project and makes suggestions for future programs. (KB)
This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio-economic positions of this target group and entrepreneurship activities taking place. Global trends influence disadvantaged learners level of participation in learning within Europe. The Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom, despite the differences in migration period, have made the decision to live in these countries for many reasons, including economic reasons. However, the different history of migration and internal policies in each country has determined the level of this community’s participation in active citizenship and Lifelong Learning. For instance, in Denmark, the situation is as such that minorities, including Asian communities, have been negatively affected in the recent years due to the increased political restrictions and media coverage. In comparison, despite the recent immigration policies in the UK, many members of the Asian communities have embraced the opportunities LifeLong Learning has produced and have led to some social change. Through accessing educational guidance and educational opportunities, members of the Asian communities have gone on to improving their socio-economic status. This has occurred via education leading to better employment options and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship has been a foundation for immigrants to develop and establish a sense of citizenship. The impacts of life long learning in this digital age has important implications on the future of entrepreneurship as a viable option for immigrants. The landscape and accessibility of knowledge in the 21st century world is changing and producing a gradual domino effect on the socio-economic status of Asians in Europe.
Boys' literacy underachievement continues to garner significant attention and has been identified by journalists, educational policymakers, and scholars in the field as the cause for much concern. It has been established that boys perform less well than girls on literacy benchmark or standardized tests. According to the National Assessment of Education Progress (2009), female students consistently score higher than boys on average in both reading and writing. This trend is supported by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test results. In 2006, the largest gender gap was found in reading. Girls on average outperformed boys in this area in all of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Test scores and achievement gaps such as the ones described here have been used to create a sense of "moral panic" concerning boys' literacy skills and engagement. In this paper, the authors express some concerns about the ways in which boys' literacy underachievement is defined and taken up within a context that continues to represent all boys as victims or as the "new disadvantaged." The authors argue for the need to engage with literature and analytic perspectives that are capable of addressing the complex interplay between various social, cultural, and institutional factors--such as gender, social class, race, ethnicity, and sexuality--that affect both boys' and girls' engagement with literacy. They also draw attention to the implications associated with movements to reclaim schooling as a masculine domain and suggest pedagogical rather than structural reforms.
The authors extend the ideals set forth by the universal design (UD) framework seeking to include the unique needs of students in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community. Universal design is a philosophy that, when applied to higher education, constitutes acceptance of, equal access for, and equal opportunities for success for all students. The basic tenets of UD were originally developed to address the challenges of designing a campus for students with physical barriers, however recent theorizing has expanded the basic tenets of UD to encompass the needs of students with disabilities and disadvantages that are not necessarily visible (Burgstahler and Cory, 2008), such as LGBTQ students. LGBTQ students routinely face barriers to their success in higher education, including both direct and indirect discrimination and prejudice which oftentimes negatively affects their academic success and overall college experience. Each year, there are several ratings scales, or campus climate ratings, that attempt to gauge how suitable or "LGBTQ-friendly" an institution's campus is. Applying the UD framework, the authors examined the LGBTQ campus climate ratings as a potential existing measure of how well LGBTQ students' needs are currently being met. Two appendixes present: (1) Individual items scored by the Campus Climate Index of LGBT friendly campuses organized by universal design principle; and (2) Individual items scored by the Advocate of LGBT friendly campuses organized by universal design principle. (Contains 6 tables.)
More than a decade prior to the official dismantling of apartheid in South Africa, a number of universities launched foundation programmes to assist disadvantaged students. This article focuses on science and engineering foundation programmes, locating them within their political and institutional context and then tracing the evolution of their educational philosophy. But foundation programmes only represent one strategy for dealing with educational disadvantage. It is therefore compared to an alternative model explored in the early 1990s which emphasised the "infusion" of academic development principles into the mainstream. This provides a backdrop for considering the educational effectiveness of the foundation programmes that have recently proliferated as a result of the Department of Education's latest funding strategy. (Contains 3 figures and 6 notes.)
Advantages to telecommuting are flexibility, control, productivity, morale, quality of life, and, for employers, access to a wider skill pool. Disadvantages are frustration, isolation, sweatshop potential, and resentment of co-workers. Business education should emphasize keyboarding, telecommunications, time management, and communication skills in preparing students for telecommuting. (SK)
This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation ...
2.3.9 Statements of Commitment and Letters of Support .... and CANs in order to facilitate small businesses and small disadvantaged businesses participation. ... NASA's Partnership with the Research and Education Communities. ... from NASA on the grounds of their race, color, creed, age, sex, national origin, or disability.
Describes a study of economically disadvantaged first and second graders in Chile that evaluated the effects of the introduction of educational videogames into the classroom on mathematics and reading comprehension. Investigated effects on learning, motivation, and classroom dynamics; teachers' expectations of change; and technological transfer. (Contains 69 references.) (Author/LRW)
Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53% females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Recent studies suggest that social recognition processes are affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether PD patients exhibit behavioral changes is still controversial. The purpose of the present study was to examine the decision making of PD patients performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We recruited a large number of early, nondemented PD patients for the IGT. We also recorded the skin conductance responses (SCRs) during the task as a measure of emotional arousal. Compared with the normal control (NC) subjects, PD patients selected more disadvantageous decks in the IGT, and their SCRs were lower than those of NC subjects before making decisions and after receiving reward or punishment. The tendency toward risky choices was not correlated with age, education, global cognitive function, or the severity of the disease. These results confirmed that the decision making of PD patients was affected by the disease, rather than by other cognitive functions; moreover, such behavior was related to lower emotional responses. Behavioral and SCR patterns of PD patients were similar to those of amygdala-damaged patients. The response bias toward risky choices in PD may be explained by the dysfunction of the amygdala, which is known to be involved in risk evaluation. PMID:18069681
The popular belief that early childbearing almost certainly leads to school dropout, subsequent unwanted births and economic dependence is greatly oversimplified, if not seriously distorted: A longitudinal study of over 300 primarily urban black women who gave birth as adolescents in the middle to late 1960s shows that a substantial majority completed high school, found regular employment and, even if they had at some point been on welfare, eventually managed to escape dependence on public assistance. Relatively few ended up with large families; most had fewer births than they had wanted or expected at the time they first became pregnant. The study also found that the pathways to success were surprisingly diverse. Although young women who gave birth at an early age were disadvantaged when compared with their peers who bore children later, huge variability existed. Teenage childbearing lowered the women's likelihood of economic success and increased their likelihood of having a large family. However, the women who had more economically secure and better-educated parents were more likely to succeed--perhaps as a result of receiving a greater amount of direct aid and having other family resources available. In addition, differences in educational motivation and performance were especially important factors. Young mothers who had been doing well in school and who had had high educational aspirations at the time of their first birth were much more likely than others to be successful later. Additional births at young ages also constrained the mothers' ability to attend school and accrue job experience. Women who had more children in the five years after their first birth did less well in school, had lower aspirations and came from more disadvantaged families than did women who curtailed their fertility. However, even when such factors were controlled for, subsequent fertility lowered the chances of economic success in later life. Changes in the mothers' life courses affected some aspect of their children's behavior at all ages, but there was no simple or recurring pattern of influence. For example, a mother's welfare receipt was associated with behavior problems in her child during the preschool years, but not later on. In contrast, the mother's marital status was not related to behavior problems during the preschool period but was clearly related to such problems during the child's adolescence. PMID:3678480
Morbidity and mortality are greater among socially disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Greater chronic stress exposure in disadvantaged groups may contribute to this by accelerating cellular aging, indexed by shorter age-adjusted telomere length. While studies consistently relate shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) to stress, the few studies, mostly from the UK, examining associations of LTL with SES have been mixed. The current study examined associations between educational attainment and LTL among 2599 high-functioning black and white adults age 70-79 from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Multiple regression analyses tested associations of race/ethnicity, educational attainment and income with LTL, adjusting for potential confounders. Those with only a high school education had significantly shorter mean LTL (4806basepairs) than those with post-high school education (4926basepairs; B=125, SE=47.6, p=.009). A significant interaction of race and education (B=207.8, SE=98.7, p=.035) revealed more beneficial effects of post-high school education for blacks than for whites. Smokers had shorter LTL than non-smokers, but the association of education and LTL remained significant when smoking was covaried (B=119.7, SE=47.6, p=.012). While higher income was associated with longer LTL, the effect was not significant (p>.10). This study provides the first demonstration of an association between educational attainment and LTL in a US population where higher education appears to have a protective effect against telomere shortening, particularly in blacks. PMID:22981835
This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear picture of attainment trends during the Soviet period that provide a perspective for judging educational attainment in the post-Soviet period. Using household survey data collected in 2007 by the World Bank, I conduct a synthetic cohort analysis to estimate the likelihood of completing basic, secondary and higher education for men and women; urban and rural residents and ethnic majority and minority citizens. Findings for particular groups are mixed, but in general the gap in educational attainment between advantaged groups and disadvantaged groups narrows during the Soviet era, but widens in the post-Soviet period. (Contains 12 notes, 4 tables, and 6 charts.)
This dissertation focuses on the educational aspirations and expectations of a heterogeneous group of women who were enrolled in, or had graduated from, adult education and literacy programs in Boston, Massachusetts. The research questions guiding the inquiry are: (1) Why do educationally disadvantaged women value education--how are these values transmitted, and what are the social processes through which they are translated into the cultivation of educational aspirations and expectations? (2) What are the broader social processes and institutional arrangements that shape educationally disadvantaged women's educational aspirations and expectations? and (3) How are gender, age, race/ethnicity, and social class implicated in the development of educationally disadvantaged women's non-traditional educational trajectories? Feminist standpoint methodologies are used to analyze the educational life histories of each of the women who participated in the study. Using feminist standpoint theories as the overriding theoretical framework for the study, the dissertation argues that social processes of the transmission of educational values and their translation into the cultivation of educational aspirations and expectations create potential spaces for the practice of resistance to gender, age, racial/ethnic, and social class oppression/subordination, presenting opportunities for educationally disadvantaged women to engage in the political process of struggling to achieve a standpoint. The two primary sources of the transmission of educational values were (1) family socialization processes and (2) work experiences. Within families, mothers and grandmothers transmitted educational values by requiring and enforcing school attendance and by offering active encouragement through explanatory frameworks that conveyed messages about the importance of education to daughters and granddaughters. Haitian, Cape Verdean, and African American women were encouraged to take advantage of educational opportunities that their mothers and grandmothers had not had because of their gender or their race/ethnicity, and Latinas and Irish American women were encouraged to take advantage of educational opportunities that mothers and siblings had relinquished by dropping out of school. The women learned from their work experiences that a U.S. high school diploma or GED was a minimum requirement for obtaining legitimate work opportunities and for gaining access to post-secondary education, which was becoming increasingly necessary to maintain employment. Early schooling provided an important social context for the transmission of educational values. Women whose early schooling was well integrated with family had positive early schooling experiences, and women whose early schooling was poorly integrated with family did not. In the context of their later schooling experiences in adult education and literacy programs, the women translated educational values into educational aspirations and expectations by acquiring self-confidence, by achieving and maintaining various forms of independence, and by accepting family responsibility. Although women who transitioned to college faced the same barriers to persistence as those who did not, those who transitioned focused not on these barriers but on challenges directly related to their schooling, socially and/or academically, describing strategies they had developed for overcoming these challenges. These women adopted the identity of "serious student," which kept them focused on their educational goals. They worked through academic challenges by producing a sustained academic effort that evolved though the cultivation of their educational aspirations: They learned that they could achieve academically if they tried hard enough for long enough. In addition, they developed effective strategies for negotiating the challenges of transition by drawing on social and professional skills they had developed in their adult education and literacy programs as well as through their tenacity and commitment to their educational and occupat
Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations, mother's support, mother - daughter relationship, cultural pride, talent recognition, the girls' perception of teachers and school and the girls strong desire to change their economic situation contribute to their success in school regardless of their low socio-economic backgrounds.
This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.
In its recent report, the Governor's Committee on Education Excellence proposes a major restructuring of California's school finance system, replacing most of the separate programs through which revenue now flows from the state to local school districts with a base program and a targeted program. The base program would serve the educational needs of all students. The targeted program would provide supplemental funds for disadvantaged students. Base revenue would be allocated according to the total number of students in each district. Targeted revenue would be allocated according to the number of English learners and students from low-income families. The Committee would not restrict the use of funds in these two programs, although districts would be obliged to demonstrate that targeted funds enhance the education of disadvantaged students. The Committee's proposed reform would not affect some current revenue programs, the most notable of which is special education. Overall, however, 86 percent of state revenue allocated to public schools would be consolidated into the new base and targeted programs. The Committee is not specific about every detail of its proposed new school finance system, including the level of base funding. It does stipulate that targeted revenue for each low-income student should be 40 percent of revenue per student in its base program and that targeted revenue for each English learner be 20 percent of that base revenue per student and suggests that base revenue vary with the grade attended by students, using the current funding formula for charter schools as a model. This report simulates the Committee's proposal using these parameters, comparing the revenue school districts would have received under various versions of the Committee's proposed system with the revenue districts actually received in 2004-2005 from the programs the Committee would eliminate. The simulations have been conducted imposing the condition that no district receives less revenue under the proposed system than it actually received in 2004-2005. The finance proposal of the Governor's Committee is similar to another recent proposal by Alan Bersin, Michael Kirst, and Goodwin Liu. Like the Governor's Committee, Bersin, Kirst, and Liu would consolidate a large number of current revenue programs, and large districts gain more than smaller districts under simulation. However, the two proposals differ in four primary areas: (1) Bersin, Kirst, and Liu recognize that it may be desirable to weight grade levels differently in allocating base revenue, but do not make an explicit recommendation about those weights; (2) Like the Governor's Committee, Bersin, Kirst and Liu define targeted students as English learners and students from low-income families but would use a different measure of low-income families and apply different weights for low-income students and English learners; (3) Bersin, Kirst and Lin would provide additional funds to districts with high concentrations of disadvantaged students, a factor considered by the Governor's Committee, but not recommended; and (4) Bersin, Kirst, and Liu propose to adjust school district revenue for differences in regional labor market conditions, another adjustment the Governor's Committee considered, but did not recommend. Although the differences illustrate that there are significant policy choices in implementing the direction of reform that both the Governor's Committee and Bersin, Kirst, and Liu have chosen, the choices are far less significant than the fundamental decisions the state would have to make in adopting either proposal. (Contains 20 footnotes, 9 figures and 12 tables.)
For the first time, researchers, policymakers and practitioners across the world will have access to a comprehensive mapping of research evidence and policy strategies about education and poverty in affluent countries. Although there is widespread agreement that poverty and poor educational outcomes are related, there are competing explanations as to why that should be the case. This is a major problem for practitioners, policy makers and researchers who are looking for pointers to action, or straightforward ways of understanding an issue that troubles education systems across the world. This unique book brings scholarship and analysis from some of the most influential researchers and writers on education and poverty within one text. The authors provide a synthesising framework that will help researchers and policy makers to examine future educational policy in a holistic and comprehensive fashion. This book contains three sections. Section 1, Education and Poverty: A Mapping Framework, contains: (1) Education and Poverty in Affluent Countries: An Introduction to the Book and the Mapping Framework (Carlo Raffo, Alan Dyson, Helen Gunter, Dave Hall, Lisa Jones and Afroditi Kalambouka); (2) The Mapping Framework, Research Literature and Policy Implications within a Functionalist Perspective (Carlo Raffo, Alan Dyson, Helen Gunter, Dave Hall, Lisa Jones and Afroditi Kalambouka); and (3) The Mapping Framework, Research Literature and Policy Implications within a Socially Critical Perspective (Carlo Raffo, Alan Dyson, Helen Gunter, Dave Hall, Lisa Jones and Afroditi Kalambouka). Section 2, International Studies on Education and Poverty, contains: (4) Neoliberal Urban Education Policy: Chicago, A Paradigmatic Case of the Production of Inequality, and Racial Exclusion (Pauline Lipman); (5) Inclusive School Leadership Strategies in Disadvantaged Schools Based on Student and Community Voice: Implications for Australian Educational Policy (John Smyth); (6) Effectiveness and Disadvantage in Education: Can a Focus on Effectiveness Aid Equity in Education? (Daniel Muijs); (7) High Hopes in a Changing World: Social Disadvantage, Educational Expectations, and Occupational Attainment in Three British Cohort Studies (Ingrid Schoon); (8) Area-Based Initiatives in English Education: What Place for Place and Space? (Ruth Lupton); (9) A Critical Pedagogy of Global Place: Regeneration in and as Action (Pat Thomson); (10) Leaving School and Moving On: Poverty, Urban Youth and Learning Identities (Meg Maguire); and (11) The Challenges of Poverty and Urban Education in Canada: Lessons from Two School Boards (Jane Gaskell and Ben Levin). Section 3, An Examination of Educational Policy, contains: (12) Policy and the Policy Process (Helen Gunter, Carlo Raffo, Dave Hall Alan Dyson, Lisa Jones and Afroditi Kalambouka); (13) Poverty and Educational Policy Initiatives: A Review (Carlo Raffo, Alan Dyson, Helen Gunter, Dave Hall, Lisa Jones and Afroditi Kalambouka); and (14) What is to be Done? Implications for Policy Makers (Alan Dyson, Helen Gunter, Dave Hall, Carlo Raffo, Lisa Jones and Afroditi Kalambouka).
Major barriers to equal access of minority and disadvantaged students to higher education are considered in eight papers and five responses from the 1982 Wingspread Conference on Postsecondary Programs for the Disadvantaged. Included is a policy statement from the conference that covers: quality education for all, the interrelatedness of education at different levels, the underrepresentation of minorities in important career areas and proposed governmental actions to combat the problem, successful strategies for postsecondary opportunity programs, and political action. Paper titles, authors, and respondents are as follows: "Barriers to Higher Education Revisited" (author George H. Hanford) "The Social and Ethical Context of Special Programs" (author Edmund W. Gordon, respondent Frederick S. Humphries); "The Role of Government and the Private Sector" (author James M. Rosser, respondent Stephen H. Adolphus); "The Connection between Postsecondary Programs for the Disadvantaged and Elementary and Secondary Schools" (author Barbara A. Sizemore, respondent Alex C. Sherriffs); "The Connection between Postsecondary Programs for Hispanics and Elementary and Secondary Schools" (author Alfredo G. de los Santos, Jr.); "New Populations/New Arrangements" (author Michael A. Olivas, respondent Alfred L. Moye); "Minorities in Higher Education" (author Alexander W. Astin, respondent Kenneth H. Ashworth); and "The Conference Process: The Human Dimension" (Donald M. Henderson). A list of conference participants is included. (SW)
Who pursues an educational pathway, and who doesn't is highly connected to class position. On the other hand, education may function as a means of disconnecting with a socially disadvantaged background. This article explores the situation of one of the most disadvantaged groups; young people with experience of being placed in foster or residential care. As part of the YiPPEE project, including five European countries, two extensive data sets were combined and analyzed, 33 young people were interviewed, as well as 111 social service managers and 26 nominated adults. The article discusses, using Bourdieu's much used concepts of capital, barriers for continued education after compulsory school. These barriers are found on both individual and family level as well as in relation to national pol...
This paper uses internationally comparable household data sets (Demographic and Health Surveys) to investigate how gender and wealth interact to generate within-country inequalities in educational enrollment and attainment. The paper highlights that girls are at a great educational disadvantage in particular regions: South Asia and North, Western, and Central Africa. There are two main new findings. First, while gender gaps are large in a subset of countries, wealth gaps are large in almost all of the countries studied--and typically larger than corresponding gender gaps. Second, and of special concern, is the finding that in particular countries where there is a large female disadvantage in enrollment, wealth interacts with gender to exacerbate the gap in educational outcomes.
Service learning adds instructional value to any curriculum area, and it is especially appropriate for education courses. Its benefits include development of critical thinking, deeper processing of course content, and practical related experience. Using action research, this article examines the impact of service learning on preservice teachers' beliefs about education and working with disadvantaged youths. Preservice teachers provided after-school tutoring and activities for child residents at a homeless shelter. Preservice teachers kept journals and summarized their semester experiences by reflecting on five lessons that they learned and plan to incorporate as future educators. Identified lessons are analyzed and summarized with discussion.
Objective: Socially disadvantaged cancer patients have unmet educational needs, but we know little about how educational groups might help. This exploratory study examines how a group education program met underserved patients' needs. Methods: We examined a program for US patients in a safety-net hospital that featured English and Spanish language groups. We collected data from 54 group sessions over 28 months, including information on participant demographics, attendance, and satisfaction. Qualitative field notes collected by trained observers were analyzed via a grounded-theory approach to examine group dynamics. Results: Participants were underserved, had diverse disease sites and race/ethnicity, and reported that groups met their needs. Emergent analysis identified two themes related t...
Open Distance Learning (ODL) takes place within different environments that are influenced by the social, cultural and political fields in which a student lives. This is particularly significant in South Africa where distance learning has been identified as the main system that should provide access to higher education for most students in the country. Through ODL, disadvantaged students can have access to higher education. This study uses a socio-cultural framework to examine distance education students' accounts of their experiences of learning. It reveals aspects of the socio-cultural contexts that tend to be marginalised by ODL institutions.
This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K). The results suggest that mothers who pursued their own schooling over a 4-year period, regardless of whether they obtained a degree, increased their engagement with their children's schools during that same period. The results appear to be robust to a wide range of factors that select women into continuing education.
In this study, I discuss the benefits of Black feminist caring (BFC) in educational leadership. I suggest that the ethic of care in educational leadership is a manifestation of strength when serving disadvantaged student populations. This article is based on a qualitative, exploratory, multicase study that examines the ethic of care in the leadership of five African-American women serving in various capacities of educational leadership. This study employs a BFC framework because the women in this study were selected because of their reputation for caring and addresses the following guiding question: how do the African-American women educational leaders in this study operationalize caring? Findings in this study indicate that caring African-American women educational leaders display the characteristics of BFC. Their experience of marginalization stirs empathy and encourages them toward an activist leadership style. As such, they are compelled to act as other mothers and activist risk-takers in their roles as educational leaders. (Contains 1 table and 3 notes.)
The positive associations between education and health and survival are well established, but whether the strength of these associations depends on gender is not. Is the beneficial influence of education on survival and on self-rated health conditioned by gender in the same way, in opposite ways, or not at all? Because women are otherwise disadvantaged in socioeconomic resources that are inputs to health, their health and survival may depend more on education than will men?s. To test this hypothesis, we use data from the National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF). We find that education?s beneficial influence on feeling healthy and on survival are conditional on gender, but in opposite ways. Education has a larger effect on women?s self-rated health than on men?s, b...
In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans' differential disadvantage?Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach. PMID:22865946
Evaluating the impacts of public school funding on student achievement has been an important objective for informing education policymaking but fraught with data and methodological limitations. Findings from prior research have been mixed at best, leaving policymakers with little advice about the benefits of allocating public resources to schools or how it might best be done. In this study, the authors take advantage of a pilot supplemental funding program in North Carolina that used a quantitative index of educational advantage to select the most educationally disadvantaged districts in the state to receive funding. The targeted districts received supplemental funds of $250 per pupil or $840 per academically disadvantaged pupil for the 2 years of the pilot. Using a regression discontinuity design and multilevel models with extensive controls, the authors estimate that the marginal average treatment effect of the supplemental funding was 0.133 standard deviation units and that the effect on educationally disadvantaged students was 0.098 standard deviation units. The treatment effect represents approximately one third of the difference between the average score in top performing and low performing high schools. (Contains 1 note, 2 tables, and 5 figures.)
The goal of my multi-study research program has been to learn how to engage all students in learning science. Most learning theories applied to science pedagogy take either a psychological or a sociocultural perspective and hence ignore either sociocultural or motivational factors when considering classroom learning. Based on my own research studies, as well as on a complex of theories from a range of disciplines, I propose including psychological, psychosocial and sociocultural perspectives in a more holistic perspective-a biosocial system perspective. Because it allows for the interdependence of the various levels of the ecological system in which learning takes place, I believe it has considerable potential to advance knowledge about teaching and learning. This biosocial system perspective focuses in particular on how the mind is affected both by the way the embodied human brain functions and by its sociocultural context. As applied to science pedagogy, it highlights neglected subconscious processes involved in interpersonal communication at both levels of activity. On the one hand, it accords a significant role in learning to intuitive processes and feelings, and interpersonal relationships, and on the other hand, addresses the potentially problematic nature of classroom discourse in science. Such a perspective grew as I carried out several research studies in science education in Brisbane, Australia, including a study that explored ways of helping disadvantaged Year 8 students engage in learning science. (Contains 68 references.) (Author)
The context of the study reported in this paper is the difficulties of transition from nonformal primary schools to formal secondary schools in Bangladesh. The difficulties affecting a smooth school transition relate not only to the making of new relationships and adapting to new norms in a new environment, but also to a very different approach to educating disadvantaged people between the different settings. The role of images is explored as part of a research process in which formal secondary school students made connections with their past experiences in nonformal primary schools. Interviews with photographic images in this context represent an innovative approach to learning about students' experiences, fitting with Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. This theoretical framework focuses attention on the significance of the context at several levels of ecological systems to children's development. Images of their nonformal primary school represent an opportunity for nostalgia for new secondary school students, evoking strong feelings which illuminate the many dimensions of transitional challenges. (Contains 5 notes, 3 tables, 2 figures, and 12 images.)
Little is known about how health disparities affect the health status and general health perceptions of Hispanics living in Texas colonias. The purpose of this study was to conduct a health survey of residents (n = 216) of a colonia community on the border between El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico. Instruments used in this study included a researcher developed demographic questionnaire, the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH), Cutting down, Annoyance by criticism, Guilty feeling and Eye-openers (CAGE) for alcohol consumption, and the Short Form version 2 (SF36v2) health survey. Study findings show the average participant was approximately 42 years old, attained an average of 9.6 years of education, earned an average annual household income of $17,575 and had an average SASH score of 25.4. SASH scores range from 12 to 60, with higher scores suggesting higher levels of American acculturation. Findings from this health survey suggest the average resident of the colonia may have health disadvantages when compared to residents from other parts of El Paso and Texas. Binge drinking was self-reported by 13.4% of all participants; with 5.6% having a CAGE score greater than 2 (indicating an increased propensity towards problems with alcohol). The self-report rates of diabetes, depression and anxiety were 15.3%, 20.4% and 16.7% respectively. The SF36v2 composite functional health status scores mirrored the national norms. PMID:18791825
School-family partnerships (SFPs) have been the focus of research, policy, and practice efforts for several years. Increasing the interest in SFPs has been the finding that when schools and families cooperate closely, children benefit. The more supportive links there are between settings, the more potential there is for healthy development. Such strong findings have been reflected in major legislation implemented by the U.S. Department of Education (ED). National attention has increasingly focused on reforms aimed at boosting academic standards and accountability. Yet SFPs are more important now than ever. With underachievement, the academic gap between advantaged and disadvantaged youth, and high rates of social and emotional problems still major concerns of the educational system and society, SFPs can act as a critical mediating factor for educational improvement and positive youth development. To increase implementation of SFPs and foster the integration of parent involvement with social and emotional learning, people must understand the complicated context in which partnerships develop and function. School-family partnerships are influenced and defined by dynamically interacting psychological, sociological, and policy factors, such as students' developmental level, the culture of the home and community, and local and broader legislative initiatives. To increase understanding of this context and enhance communication among educators, parents, and policymakers about strategies for enhancing collaboration between schools and families, a national invitational conference, "School-Family Partnerships: Promoting the Social, Emotional, and Academic Growth of Children," was held in Washington, DC, on December 5-6, 2002. Sponsored by the Laboratory for Student Success (LSS), the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory at Temple University, the conference featured an ecological approach encompassing elements that impact parent-teacher interactions, which in turn affect academic, social, and emotional aspects of school success. Papers were commissioned to address SFPs and academic, social, and emotional learning within three levels of the social-ecological context of learning: the microsystems of schools, families, and peers; the mesosystems of SFPs and other interactions; and the macrosystems of culture, economy, and ideologies. Science-based research on SFPs and the learning of children was thus integrated within a broader structural framework. This issue of "The LSS Review" synopsizes the work-group recommendations and conference papers. The conference organizers hope that this information will outline directions for research and practice that enhance children's academic, social, and emotional success. The findings of this conference make it clear that SFPs do improve children's education and development and that such partnerships should play an important role in national education reform. Articles in this issue of "The LSS Review" include: (1) School-Family Partnerships: Promoting the Social, Emotional, and Academic Growth of Children (Evanthia N. Patrikakou, Roger P. Weissberg, JoAnn B. Manning, Sam Redding, and Herbert J. Walberg); (2) Influences and Barriers to Better Parent-School Collaborations (Pamela E. Davis-Kean and Jacquelynne S. Eccles); (3) What Motivates Parents to Become Involved in Their Children's Education (Kathleen V. Hoover-Dempsey, Joan M. T. Walker, and Howard M. Sandler); (4) Critical Issues Facing Families and Educators (Sandra L. Christenson, Yvonne Godber, and Amy R. Anderson); (5) Parental Involvement and Children's School Success (Arthur J. Reynolds and Melissa Clements); (6) School-Family Partnerships for Adolescents (Rebecca DuLaney Beyer, Evanthia N. Patrikakou, and Roger P. Weissberg); (7) Intercultural Transitions, Socioemotional Development, and Intersections between Families and Schools (Luis M. Laosa); (8) Economic and Social Correlates of the Socioemotional Adjustment of African American Adolescents (Ronald D. Taylor); (9) Preparing Educators for School-Family Partnerships: Challenges
Analyzing data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 to 1992, this report examines how computer use produces generic benefit to all children and differential benefits to minority and poor children. Specifically, the authors examined computer use at home vis-a-vis computer use at school in relation to the academic performance of disadvantaged children and their peers (defined by race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status). Home computer use typifies socially differentiated opportunities, whereas school computer use promises generic benefits for all children. The findings suggest that with other relevant conditions constant, (a) disadvantaged children did not lag far behind their peers in computer use at school, but they were much less likely to use computers at home; (b) computer use at home was far more significant than computer use at school in relation to high academic performance; (c) wing a computer at school seemed to have dubious effects on learning—taking computer science courses at school related consistently to low performance far both disadvantaged children and their peers, (d) disadvantaged children benefited less than other children from computer use, including computer use at home; and (e) compared to their peers, disadvantaged children's academic performance seemed less predictable by computer use and other predictor variables.
Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.
Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail. (Contains 5 figures.)
This article discusses the relationship between population growth and poverty in China, the issue of overpopulation in poor areas, and the need for programs that integrate population control with economic development. The number of Chinese living in poverty declined from about 250 million in 1978 to 80 million in 1993. In March 1994, the government initiated a poverty relief program that aimed to eliminate all poverty by 2001. By 1995, the number of poor declined to 65 million. The causes of poverty are numerous, but include overpopulation. Over the decades, demographic trends in poor areas reveal higher fertility, lower mortality, and higher growth. Poverty appears to be concentrated in 18 provinces and autonomous regions. Poor areas have higher rates of early marriage, early childbirth, and multiple children. Poor areas also have higher rates of disabilities and disease and lower levels of education. Poor areas have double the national percentage of illiterates. Many people living in poor areas are disadvantaged by poor transportation, remote locations, backward production methods, and a lack of a social security system. Scientific knowledge about contraception and quality child care are difficult to diffuse in poor areas. The size of the population denominator directly affects per capita income and per capita grain production. Increases in population put pressure on investment resources for production and development. A larger work force adds to the problem of unemployment. A large population size puts pressure on arable land. Poor areas need a better educated population. Sustainable development requires fertility decline. Integrated family planning programs popularize slogans such as "stabilize grain yield, increase income, and control population growth." Integrated programs have had variable success. Countermeasures must be taken to prevent the association of large families with wealth. Leadership is essential. PMID:12320980
We analyse how progressive taxation and education subsidies affect schooling decisions when the returns to education are stochastic. We use the theory of real options to solve the problem of education choice in a dynamic stochastic model. We show that education attainment will be an increasing funct...
The aim of this article is to hear the voices of HIV- and AIDS-affected educators regarding their experiences of the psychosocial effect that the HIV and AIDS pandemic has on them as well as to voice their experiences of how Resilient Educators (REds), a support programme to enable educators affecte...
Background: Children's rights education in schools has many social and educational benefits. Among them are a deeper understanding of rights and social responsibility, an improved school climate, and greater school engagement and achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children's rights education has the power to improve educational outcomes for socially disadvantaged children in particular. Sample: A sample of three primary schools was included in the study. These were drawn from a wider sample of English schools participating in the Hampshire Education Local Authority's Rights, Respect and Responsibility initiative (RRR). Design and methods: Building on a longitudinal study, we compared Year 6 children in three schools that varied in the degree to which they...
The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic identification having generally lower levels of educational achievement outcomes when compared to non-Maori. In addition, those of Maori ethnic identification were exposed to significantly (p less than 0.05) greater levels of socio-economic disadvantage in childhood. Control for socio-economic factors largely reduced the associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes to statistical non-significance. The findings suggest that educational underachievement amongst Maori can be largely explained by disparities in socio-economic status during childhood. (Contains 3 tables.)
Background: The Dakar Framework for Action calls on the world community to develop strategies for educating underserved groups and those children who live under difficult circumstances. To achieve this Education For All (EFA) goal, one approach is the use of boarding schools. Purpose: To document the advantages and disadvantages of how boarding schools have been used in a range of countries in order to ensure access to education, especially for girls. Findings: Boarding schools can provide access to education for rural children, particularly girls. They can achieve gender equality in enrollment. Enhance academic performance and provide security and protection. They can also prove a threat to local cultures and promote a sense of isolation amongst children. Conclusion: Boarding schools must be well managed and sufficiently funded to be considered a viable approach to EFA. [This document was produced by the Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, UNESCO.
In the historical development of the relationship between education and society, primary education in France has played a central role. The French educational system is one of the most stable public institutions, given its constitutional significance and relevance for the embodiment of the republican virtues. Its organisational structure has remained almost unchanged since the Loi Goblet, enacted on 30 October 1886. The principles of universalism, uniformity and equality of opportunity have marked over time that policy developments in France aimed at fighting inherited disadvantage and lifting children above the poverty line through state-based education. The scholarly focus on the institutional and administrative dimension of the French system of education has helped illuminate some of th...
This article reports on research funded by the Australian Research Council to investigate school responses to gender equity. It addresses the efforts of a disadvantaged school to tackle what they perceived to be gender inequalities, but in the process of constructing a top-set and bottom-set/stream class they are developing new forms of old inequalities and new forms of inequalities. This research indicates that despite popular assertions that girls' education has become the priority of schools and education systems, girls are being further disadvantaged through attempts to implement market strategies coupled with gender reform agendas grounded in liberal notions of equity and relying on unsophisticated notions of affirmative action. In addition, this study highlights the extent to which a...
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this article emphasizes the central role of poor infant health as a mechanism in the formation of early educational disparities. Results indicate that the varying prevalence of poor infant health across racial/ethnic groups explains a significant portion of the black disadvantage and a moderate portion of the Asian advantage relative to whites in math and reading skills at age four. Results also demonstrate that infant health is an equal opportunity offender across social groups as children with poor health are equally disadvantaged in terms of early cognitive development, regardless of racial/ethnic status. Overall, results indicate that health at birth has important consequences for individual educational achievement an...
Background A strong and consistent relationship has been observed between relative poverty and poor child health and wellbeing even among rich nations. This review set out to examine evidence that additional monies provided to poor or disadvantaged families may benefit children by reducing relative poverty and thereby improving childrens health, well-being and educational attainment. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of direct provision of additional monies to socially or economically disadvantaged families in improving childrens health, well-being and educational attainment Search strategy In total 10 electronic databases were searched including the Cochrane library searched 2006 (Issue 1), Medline searched 1966 to May 2006 , Econlit searched 1969 to June 2006 and PsycINFO searched 1...
Educational reform in South Africa envisions schooling where all students, irrespective of their background characteristics, have the opportunity to succeed. To achieve this vision, the South African education system needs to function in such a way that students' success does not depend on their backgrounds; that is, if school processes and policies in South Africa were inclusive and supportive of the learning of all students then we would expect high-quality schools to compensate for socio-economic disadvantage such that the achievement gap associated with the socio-economic status (SES) would be minimised. The main objective of this paper is to explore the relationship between school quality and socio-economic disadvantage. Our analysis, employing multilevel statistical models, indicates...
Finds that telecommuters, in interviews, consistently reported that telecommuting had been a success with few disadvantages, whereas questionnaire results suggest that the relationship between the telecommuter and his or her manager may deteriorate after an initial "honeymoon" phase has passed. Suggests that age and sex may affect a telecommuter's relationship with his or her manager. (SR)
A major disadvantage of applying sliding mode control to power converters is that the steady-state switching frequency is affected by line and load variations. This is undesirable as it complicates the input and output filters' design. A possible solution is to incorporate adaptive control schemes i...
Synthetic fibres form an important part of the textile industry, the production of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) alone surpassing that of cotton. A disadvantage of synthetic fibres is their low hydrophilicity. Polyester fibres are particularly hydrophobic. This affects the processability and fu...
Synthetic fibres form an important part of the textile industry, the production of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) alone surpassing that of cotton. A disadvantage of synthetic fibres is their low hydrophilicity. Polyester fibres are particularly hydrophobic. This affects the processability and fu...
Synthetic fibers form an important part of the textile industry, the production of polyester alone surpassing that of cotton. A disadvantage of synthetic fibers is their low hydrophilicity. Polyester fibers are particularly hydrophobic. This affects the processability and functionalisation of the ...
Recent international summits of the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) have debated the desirability and potential means by which the proficiency of an individual toxicologic pathologist might be recognized and communicated throughout the world. The present document describes the advantages and disadvantages of implementing such a global recognition system by any means, and provides a proposal whereby recognition might be accorded via rigorous credential review of a practitioner's education and experience.
Minority students from low-income families face challenges in their daily lives that continually interfere with their academic performance as well as their ability to prepare for college. Although the educational system is viewed as "the great equalizer" that gives everyone an opportunity for upward social mobility, sociological and educational research suggests otherwise. Most low-income minority students who overcome all the obstacles associated with their socioeconomic and racial backgrounds and achieve high levels of academic success do so as a result of a pivotal encounter with an educator who took the initiative to reach out to them and provide concrete academic guidance beyond their formal roles and responsibilities. Educators of students from low-income families have a special role to play in helping students be successful in life. The author's research and that of others suggest that when a relationship between an educator and a student becomes genuinely supportive, it can transform the student's path to postsecondary education. Thus, intentional academic interventions, or what the author calls educational "pivotal moments," are necessary for low-income and minority students to overcome the numerous disadvantages they face in society and in the educational system. Through academic interventions, educators can help any low-income minority student succeed academically and gain access to higher education. Principals in particular can play a unique role in creating a school community that recognizes the value of pivotal moments.
"Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and their pathways to employment; (2) apprenticeships and traineeships, with a particular focus on completions; (3) the ongoing education and training of the learner groups--namely older workers, people with a disability, low paid workers and the unemployed; (4) trends in the labour market, including labour mobility, skills mismatch and skills shortages; (5) the role of vocational education and training (VET) in innovation and workforce development; and (6) methodological and measurement issues. This paper presents the following summaries: (1) Highlights for 2011 (Georgina Atkinson); (2) As clear as mud: defining vocational education and training (Tom Karmel); (3) The attitudes of people with a disability to undertaking VET training (Lisa Nechvoglod and Tabatha Griffin); (4) Attrition in the trades (Tom Karmel, Patrick Lim and Josie Misko); (5) Building innovation capacity: the role of human capital formation in enterprises--a review of the literature (Andrew Smith, Jerry Courvisanos, Jacqueline Tuck and Steven McEachern); (6) Building the foundations: outcomes from the adult language, literacy and numeracy search conference (National Centre for Vocational Education Research); (7) The challenge of measurement: statistics for planning human resource development (Tom Karmel); (8) Differing skill requirements across countries and over time (Chris Ryan and Mathias Sinning); (9) Does changing your job leave you better off? A study of labour mobility in Australia, 2002 to 2008 (Ian Watson); (10) Does combining school and work affect school and post-school outcomes? (Alison Anlezark and Patrick Lim); (11) Education and training and the avoidance of financial disadvantage (Gary N. Marks); (12) Effect of the downturn on apprentices and trainees (Tom Karmel and Damian Oliver); (13) The effect of VET completion on the wages of young people (Nicolas Herault, Rezida Zakirova and Hielke Buddelmeyer); (14) Embedding learning from formal training into sustained behavioural change in the workplace (Cheryle Barker); (15) Enabling the effective take-up of e-learning by custodial officers (Malcolm Reason); (16) E-waste management in the VET environment (Virginia Waite); (17) Fostering enterprise: the innovation and skills nexus--research readings (Penelope Curtin, John Stanwick and Francesca Beddie); (18) From education to employment: how long does it take? (Darcy Fitzpatrick, Laurence Lester, Kostas Mavromaras, Sue Richardson and Yan Sun); (19) Getting tough on missing data: a boot camp for social science researchers (Sinan Gemici, Alice Bednarz and Patrick Lim); (20) How VET responds: a historical policy perspective (Robin Ryan); (21) The impact of wages and the likelihood of employment on the probability of completing an apprenticeship or traineeship (Tom Karmel and Peter Mlotkowski); (22) Individual-based completion rates for apprentices (Tom Karmel); (23) Initial training for VET teachers: a portrait within a larger canvas (Hugh Guthrie, Alicen McNaughton and Tracy Gamlin); (24) Juggling work, home and learning in low-paid occupations: a qualitative study (Barbara Pocock, Jude Elton, Deborah Green, Catherine McMahon and Suzanne Pritchard); (25) Lost talent? The occupational ambitions and attainments of young Australians (Joanna Sikora and Lawrence J. Saha); (26) Mapping adult literacy performance (Michelle Circelli, David D. Curtis and Kate Perkins); (27) The master artisan: a framework for master tradespeople in Australia (Karen O'Reilly-Briggs); (28) Measuring the quality of VET using the Student Outcomes Survey (Wang-Sheng Lee and Cain Polidano); (29) Measuring the socioeconomic status of Australian youth (Patrick Lim and Sinan Gemici); (30) The mobile worker: concepts, issues, implications (Richard Swe
OBJECTIVE: While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to have poor dietary intakes, some manage to eat healthily. Understanding how some disadvantaged adolescents restrict high-energy foods and beverages may inform initiatives promoting healthier diets among this population. The present investigation aimed to: (i) identify disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food and beverage intakes; and (ii) explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food intakes. DESIGN: Longitudinal online surveys were completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007), each comprising a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions examining intrapersonal, social and environmental factors. SETTING: Thirty-seven secondary schools in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Victoria, Australia. SUBJECTS: Of 1938 adolescents aged 12-15 years participating at both time points, 529 disadvantaged adolescents (whose mothers had low education levels) were included in the present investigation. RESULTS: At baseline and follow-up, respectively 32 % and 39 % of adolescents consumed high-energy foods less frequently (?2 high-energy food meals/week); 61 % and 65 % consumed high-energy beverages less frequently (?1 time/d). More girls than boys had less frequent high-energy food intakes, and baseline consumption frequency predicted consumption frequency at follow-up. Adolescents with less frequent consumption of high-energy foods and beverages seldom ate fast food for main meals, reported reduced availability of high-energy foods at home and were frequently served vegetables at dinner. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition promotion initiatives could help improve disadvantaged adolescents' eating behaviours by promoting adolescents and their families to replace high-energy meals with nutritious home-prepared meals and decrease home availability of high-energy foods in place of more nutritious foods. PMID:23122445
Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and an alternative approach that illustrates the common values in the Abrahamic faiths. The article analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of using various school programmes to counter anti-Jewish feelings amongst Muslim children and ends with a discussion of whether such programmes should be compulsory.
Colonization of public education--the process by which schools are overwhelmed and penetrated by non-educational imperatives--is usually believed to be caused by capitalism and the hegemonic ideological structures it produces. In this paper I argue that in the case of the United States an additional mechanism produces strong colonizing effects: the institution of local control. In the context of contemporary institutional conditions, local control is the lynch-pin for the production of socio-economic segregation, cumulative disadvantages, and the mythology of popular control disguising the growing control of public schooling through unaccountable bureaucracies and private corporations.
The constructivist view of education, though it may be superior to the behaviorist view in some settings, may not be the best way to educate most community college students. These students, a significant number of whom are at a disadvantage in the college classroom as a result of negative past classroom experiences, low levels of academic achievement, and/or poor academic self-esteem, may not benefit from the constructivist models of problem-based, or active, learning. A behaviorally-based program, rejected by some constructivists, has assisted community college students by fostering their academic and social integration. (Contains 1 table.)
Background There is increasing evidence that schools internationally are not meeting the needs of increasing numbers of young people, especially those at the secondary level, and whose backgrounds have placed them at disadvantage. The evidence is that significant numbers of young people are becoming disconnected from school. While the official term for this is 'disengagement', it seems that official educational policy responses to these tendencies, far from 'fixing' the problem, seem to be exacerbating it. Current policy preoccupations that emphasize accountability, greater parental choice of schools and a more prescriptive curriculum can present difficulties for young people, particularly those from challenging backgrounds. There may be a mismatch between formal educational policy, and th...
This paper reflects on a new pre-service teacher education initiative, Classmates. Classmates is a collaboration between the University of Western Sydney (UWS) and the New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET), South Western Sydney Region. Classmates aims to prepare pre-service teachers to work in challenging, hard-to-staff schools. These contexts typically have socially disadvantaged populations and annually experience teacher shortages and high teacher turnover, particularly amongst beginning and early career teachers. Classmates seeks to produce beginning teachers who are highly prepared for, confident and mentally and emotionally equipped to work in such environments. This discussion focuses on some of the positive attributes about the initiative, particularly its prac...
Abstract The positive outcomes derived from the implementation of culturally sensitive educational programs in addressing disparities in environmental literacy and health among disadvantaged communities have not been rigorously examined. This report summarizes the results of a community-wide survey completed to test this hypothesis in the Cameron Park Colonia, one of the poorest communities along the Texas-Mexico border. The assessment followed a two-year training program in environmental health provided by community lay health workers using a train-the-trainer approach. Statistical analysis of data obtained from 498 households showed that educational intervention significantly improved residents' knowledge of environmental health and disease, particularly in general health knowledge and b...
The Royal College of Radiologists recently published documents setting out guidelines to improve the teaching of radiology to medical students. These included recommendations that clinicians who teach radiology should be aware of newer educational techniques, such as problem-based learning, and should be involved in the development of curricula and assessment in medical schools. This review aims to introduce the educational theories behind problem-based learning and describe how a problem-based learning tutorial is run. The relevance of problem-based learning to radiology and the potential advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Many are calling for increased continuing education for engineers, but few details are provided as to how to source that education. This paper recommends a strategy for sourcing continuing engineering education (CEE). Providers of CEE are categorized here as internal (the organization itself), external (universities, professional/trade organizations, commercial education providers, government, equipment manufacturers and engineers' clients) and hybrid (a combination of internal and external). The focus is on who delivers the content rather than where the training is held, who pays for it or who organizes it. Typical forms, advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each category of provider. The objective of this paper is to compare the categories of CEE providers and to put forward a framework within which organizations can develop their CEE programmes. The best strategy for an organization usually is to use a combination of providers, depending on their training needs.
In this article, I explore men's educational experiences and aspirations in the context of UK policy discourses of widening participation and migration. Critiquing discourses that oversimplify gendered access to higher education, I develop an analysis of the impact of masculine subjectivities on processes of subjective construction in relation to be(com)ing a university student. Neoliberalism and self-regulation emerge as significant themes by which the men make sense of their educational experiences and aspirations. Widening participation policy discursively constructs the subject as "disadvantaged", "with potential" and responsible for self-improvement through participation in (alternative forms of) higher education (HE). The concept of diaspora illuminates the complex ways the men reconstruct their traumatic experiences in terms of hope and possibility, across different cultural spaces and expectations. A key question is how do the men construct and make sense of their masculine subjectivities in relation to diasporic experiences and aspirations to become HE students?
This paper examines the educational ambitions of adults from a disadvantaged area in Australia who returned to study at a further education institution as a means to access higher education. The study examines the significance and influence of romance, gender and social class on their formal learning, and the delaying influence of these factors in realising lifelong learning aspirations. It draws on written testimonies of students' early expectations and beliefs about learning, education and life choices, their current beliefs and future tertiary and career expectations to argue that romantic conceptions of early motherhood/marriage have a negative impact on women from low socio-economic backgrounds. The focus is on self-reporting of the impact of early parenthood and/or the consequences o...
Abstract This study explores how science education could contribute to the amelioration of violent behaviors towards humans and non-human species, specifically in a Colombian school with a population of socio-economically disadvantaged students who demonstrate high levels of violence. Until now science education has not sought to change attitudes or to address the issue of school violence that is faced in many communities. Debates around the purposes of science education have paid little or no attention to the possible connection that exists between our attitudes to non-human animals and those towards humans. This study suggests that science education can play a role in changing attitudes and developing behaviors that aim at caring for others including other humans and non-human animals. T...
Background: A linguistic mismatch between school and community creates problems in both access to school services and the quality of those services. Consideration of mother tongue is the key for making schools more inclusive for girls. Purpose: To argue that education in mother tongue results in making schools more inclusive for disadvantaged groups, especially girls and women. Findings: The use of mother tongue is linked to improvements in girls' participation in education. To make these links more solid, researchers should collect data on school enrolment, repetition, dropout and graduation that clearly differentiate between boys and girls. Conclusion: Using the mother tongue for teaching and learning does not in itself equalize opportunities for female learners, but it does improve conditioners for all learners, especially girls. Citation: Mother tongue-based teaching and education for girls: advocacy brief. Bangkok, UNESCO, 2005. 10p. [This document was produced by the Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, UNESCO.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education institutions to provide their students with an understanding of past and contemporary experiences of Indigenous Australians, as well as the social, economic and health disadvantages that challenge Indigenous communities, and to equip them to integrate Indigenous issues into their future teaching programs. This article, while focusing on teacher education developments at the University of Tasmania (UTAS) to meet National Standards and Frameworks for preservice teachers, provides some general background, and identifies recently developed resources, including the potential for Indigenous centres within universities to assist educators.
This study of basic education in El Salvador was carried out between September and December of 2003 by a team of researchers. This publication has two parts: (1) The introduction which addresses the main findings of the study and proposes education policy priorities for the next reform effort; and (2) A summary of the original study of basic education. This report focuses specifically on preschool and primary education, as well as on subsystems that affect educational quality at these levels: teacher training, educational financing, and educational management, with special attention to educational evaluation and the definition of standards. In addition, the report analyzes educational policies applied over the past decade in response to demands on the country imposed by globalization. Finally, it examines the contributions made by donor agencies to education in El Salvador. (Contains 9 annexes.) [Financial support was received from USAID/El Salvador under the Indefinite Quantity Contract (IQC) for Education.
This article summarises previous academic research into university education, distinguishing between arguments for and against improving access. Several views are summarised, including structural-functionalism, which claims that powerful social groups maintain their status and income, and human capital theory, which focuses on employee productivity. Almost all viewpoints discussed in this article support meritocracy. UK universities differ in their openness to people from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many universities, referred to here as "inclusive", deserve credit for encouraging disadvantaged people to become students; in contrast, "exclusive" universities tend to have fewer disadvantaged students than expected. There are barriers facing disadvantaged students, including unequal access to universities, which can at least partly be explained by private schools for rich pupils and financial burdens at university causing some students to take paid work (reducing time available for study). The UK spends less per student on universities than the world average and less than half as much as some European countries. The UK Government could increase university funding, concentrating on universities that are most inclusive and that tend to have the largest problems in affording sufficient staff and teaching facilities. This investment would give long-term benefits to the UK economy.
Purpose: As the Baby-Boom generation enters the ranks of the elderly adults over the next 4 decades, the United States will witness an unprecedented growth in racial/ethnic diversity among the older adult population. Hispanics will comprise 20% of the next generation of older adults, representing the largest minority population aged 65 years and older, with those of Mexican-origin comprising the majority of Hispanics. Little is known about the health status of this population. Data/Methods: Data are for Baby Boomers born between 1946 and 1964 (ages 43-61) in the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Logistic regression estimates the odds of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, fair/poor self-rated health (SRH), and functional difficulties among U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), U.S.-born Mexicans, naturalized Mexican immigrants, and noncitizen Mexican immigrants. Results: The Mexican-origin populations are disadvantaged relative to NHW for all socioeconomic status (SES) and several health outcomes. The Mexican origin disadvantage in health attenuates when controlling for SES and demographics, but the disadvantage remains for diabetes, obesity, and fair/poor SRH. Implications: Baby Boomers of Mexican origin do not share the advantages of health, income, and educational attainment enjoyed by U.S.-born NHW. As this cohort moves into old age, the cumulative disadvantage of existing disparities are likely to result in continued or worse health disparities. Reductions in federal entitlement programs for the elderly adults that delay eligibility, scale back programs and services, or increase costs to consumers may exacerbate those inequities.
This report explores the development of modular education and its application in the Dutch Open University. The origins of modular education are examined from the first applications in American higher education and the development of electives and the credit system to the role of modular instruction as the basis of higher education curriculum. Advantages of modular instruction include more choice and self-pacing for students; more variety and flexibility for teachers and staff; and increased adaptability of instructional materials. Disadvantages include greater self-discipline and self-motivation required for students, increased preparation time and lack of concrete rewards for teachers and staff, and greater administrative resources needed to track students and operate multiple modules. Changes in educational practices in the Dutch speaking world are reviewed, comparing traditional to modular approaches. The modular education program at the Dutch Open University, is described, including three modular course models (study unit model, the textbook-workbook model, and the essay/thesis model) with the advantages and disadvantages of each one outlined. Finally, the paper looks at the importance of prior knowledge, suggesting that in a modular education environment, according to the changing ideas in today's society on personal development, students will request a kind of instruction more fully in accordance with and appropriate to their personal characteristics and their prior knowledge state resulting in a more efficient and effective education for the learner. There is also the opportunity for students to skip a module or to work through it more quickly on the basis of prior knowledge. (Contains 27 references.) (ND)
A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate) person(s) and the risk factors are Father literacy [FE], Father income [FI] Parents attitude towards education[PA], Mother literacy [ME], Present examination system [PE], Present curriculum of education [PC]. The results from analyzing the data show that the factors father education combined with parents attitude towards education, father income combined with mother education, father income combined with parents attitude towards education are some the factors which affect the education in N-W.F.P. So thus we concluded from the studies that there are number of socioeconomic factors which effect our education. (Contains 1 table.)
After listing the aims and objectives of the Institute for Socially Disadvantaged Groups' Educational Improvement (ISDGEI), in Kolhapur, India, this collection of seven articles discusses prospects, problems, and successes of providing universal elementary education to the children of India. Articles: (1) discuss quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the Indian educational system; (2) indicate some of the principal factors involved in the failure to fulfill the constitutional obligation to provide universal elementary education, and identify steps to be taken to improve the situation; (3) list principles of the United Nations' Declaration of the Rights of the Child; (4) sketch the expansion of volunteer activity in India; (5) outline ways distance education can address demands made on the educational system; (6) describe the construction of a non-formal measure of adult learners' progress in literacy; and (7) describe successes and difficulties experienced in implementing a kindergarten program in the context of 100 percent illiteracy in an urban slum, the expansion of the program, salient features of the instructional techniques employed in the schools of the ISDGEI, approaches to changing students' behavior, teaching standard Marathi, improving children's language skills, providing multiple points of entry into the program, introducing vocational education, the partition of the program into separate units for infants and children of different ages and for different educational purposes, and other activities. (RH)
This study analyzed a state department of education's ability to have actual influence over the improvement of science achievement and proficiency by having direct relationships with science teachers in Georgia's lowest performing schools. The study employed a mixed ANOVA analysis of the mean scale scores and proficiency rates of the science portion of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) for the years 2004 through 2007 to determine if the intervention by the Science Mentor Program (SMP) had significant effect on the science achievement and proficiency within the cohort of schools, as compared to a set of schools receiving no intervention, on various subgroups within the schools, and on various levels of intervention within the SMP. All data used in this study are available to the public through the Georgia Department of Education (GaDOE). SMP schools were selected based on their level of intervention for three consecutive years. Non-SMP schools were selected based on demographic similarities in economically disadvantaged, white, African-American, and students with disabilities to ensure a match of pairings for analyses. The results of this study showed significant improvement of scale scores and proficiency rates between 2004 and 2007. The study showed significant increases in all schools regardless of treatment. The study also showed significant differences in performance within the subgroups. Males, white, non-Economically Disadvantaged, and regular education students were all found to have significantly better performance in both achievement and proficiency rate. Economically Disadvantaged students were found to have a significant difference with regard to treatment groups. There was a significant difference between the mean scale score and proficiency rates of Economically Disadvantaged students in schools receiving high-intervention and schools receiving no-intervention. Further analysis showed that the only significant difference was in 2004, the year prior to implementation. Results indicate while the high-intervention schools did perform lower over all four years, they were not significantly different during the time of treatment indicating high-intervention schools performed at levels equivalent to schools receiving no-intervention. This study provided evidence of the success of a specific intervention by a state education agency to improve science education for the practicing teacher and its role in improving student science achievement. It will be used by policymakers to determine future activities and potential funding of other such programs. This also has a potential for national use as it is the only program of this nature operated by a department of education in the country. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
This comparative study explored community influences on leadership and educational reform in representative school districts located in low socioeconomic class, culturally diverse communities. The study compared outcomes of one state's efforts to educate disabled preschool children (ages 3-5) in school districts in low socioeconomic settings with early childhood education efforts in a suburban, affluent community. Five school districts were selected, representing one suburban affluent setting and four economically disadvantaged settings: urban poverty, small town, low-income rural area, and Native American Indian reservation. One 3-year-old child with disabilities was selected in each school district. Findings are discussed in terms of educational practices; family and community characteristics; and the impact of class and culture on principal involvement, expectations for achievement, goal consensus, teacher recruitment and retention, teacher supervision and assistance, and collaboration. The findings demonstrated that the outcomes of a state reform effort with intentions of meeting the needs of young children with disabilities in all school districts were quite different between affluent and economically disadvantaged settings and between urban and nonurban settings. Cultural differences were not clearly dichotomous, and instead presented themselves along a continuum from affluent, to urban poverty, to small town, to rural, and to Native American community. Includes 56 references. (JDD)
This essay traces the roots of the equity approach to school choice to the work of Coons & Sugarman, which began as an outgrowth of their involvement with the landmark California school finance case, "Serrano v. Priest" (1971). Comparing the equity approach to the market model espoused by Milton Friedman, the author argues that the former is potentially more aligned with the redistributive public agenda he supports. Drawing lessons from the recent meltdown of the American economy, he further argues that the implementation of a true market approach in education is highly improbable, and that since markets are incapable of self-correction, government intervention is required to address the resulting distress when markets fail. This is not to say that the political process has been responsive to the educational needs of the most disadvantaged students either. It has produced a public school system that provides more resources to the advantaged than the disadvantaged; and the artificial limits it imposes on voucher and charter programs has resulted in a system of education by chance rather than a system of education by choice. (Contains 22 notes.)
Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment education, education for HIV prevention, and education to encourage a positive and supportive community response. It points to a number of priorities for the future. These include analyzing more carefully different forms of HIV-related education, their consequences and effects, and identifying the specific effectivity of education in general and HIV-related education in particular in achieving positive outcomes. The potential of education to enable new ways of seeing, understanding, and hoping is stressed, as is the need to support education processes and systems that "think" faster than the epidemic.
Discussion of the university's role in contributing to a civil society offers examples from the recent history of Yugoslavia showing that universities have frequently contributed to chauvinism, intolerance, racism, and ethnic cleansing. Urges institutions of higher education to foster a civil society by emphasizing: (1) an understanding of the "other," (2) moral education, and (3) education of the affections. (DB)
Examines, from a comparative perspective, the impact of political decisions on education and also the way in which the different educational systems on the islands of Mauritius and Reunion affect the democratisation of learning. Compares the educational trajectories of pupils from numerous schools, and shows that the expected social effects are moderated through teaching. Contains 24 references. (VWC)
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides scientific information intended to help educate the public about natural resources, natural hazards, geospatial data, and issues that affect quality of life. This website provides links to selected online resources to support education (K-12) and college inquiry and research. Links range from educational resources, special features, career information and classroom activities.
This work examined the Spanish population's degree of accordance with the Mediterranean diet (MD). This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,742 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ?18 y. Habitual food consumption was assessed with a computerized diet history. Accordance of food consumption with the MD was assessed with the MD Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score using the cutoffs ?9 to define strict accordance and ?7 (mid-range value) for modest accordance. Accordance of nutrient intake with the MD was defined as ?4.5 points (mid-range value) on the high-unsaturated fat OmniHeart diet score. The diet of 12% (95% CI: 11.3-12.7%) of the Spanish population reached MEDAS-based strict accordance with the MD and 46% (95% CI: 44.7-47.7) attained modest accordance. Moreover, 39.0% (95%: 37.8-40.1%) of the population achieved OnmiHeart-based MD accordance. Factor analysis identified 2 main dietary patterns. The first one was called "Westernized" and was rich in red and processed meat, French fries, refined cereals, and sweetened beverages and poor in fresh fruit; the second pattern was named "Mediterranean" and was rich in olive oil and plant-based foods. Regardless of how it was defined, MD accordance was less frequent and the Westernized pattern was more frequent among the younger, the less educated, current smokers, and those less physically active and more sedentary. In conclusion, the Spanish population is drifting away from the MD to adopt a less healthy diet, typical of Western countries. The departure from the MD mostly affects the socially disadvantaged and clusters with other unhealthy lifestyles, which may have synergistic undesirable effects on health. PMID:22875552
Little is known about predictors of health care utilization for older Hispanics with chronic conditions. This study aimed to determine: (1) the level of health care access for older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes living in a US-Mexico border area; and (2) personal and health correlates to health care utilization (ie, physician visits, eye care, emergency room [ER] use). This was a cross-sectional study based on a community assessment conducted at a clinic, senior centers, and colonias. Colonias are impoverished neighborhoods with substandard living conditions along the US-Mexico border. Hispanics living in colonias are one of the most disadvantaged minority groups in the United States. The study sample consisted of 249 Hispanics age 60 years and older who have type 2 diabetes. Descriptive analyses, multiple linear regression, and generalized linear models were conducted. Older age (P = 0.02) and affordability of physician fees (P = 0.02) were significant correlates to more frequent physician visits. Factors significantly associated with eye care were being insured (P = 0.001) and reporting high cholesterol (P = 0.005). ER use was significantly associated with younger age (60-64 years old; P = 0.03) and suffering from hypertension (P = 0.02). Those who received diabetes education (P = 0.04) were less likely to use the ER. Identifying patterns of health care utilization services in aging underserved minorities who are disproportionately affected by diabetes may lead to culturally appropriate preventive practices and timely access to health care. Adequate health care access can decrease or delay the onset of diabetes complications in older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes who live along the US-Mexico border. PMID:22313441
This review of international literature assesses the impacts that the relationship breakdown of parents has on children and factors that can provide support should this occur. The parental separation process causes significant albeit short-term distress for most children, with a minority reporting longer-term outcomes such as socio-economic disadvantage, behavioural problems, poor educational achievement, and physical and emotional health problems. Factors increasing the likelihood of sustained disadvantage include: poverty; poor parent-child relationships; continuing parental conflict, multiple transitions in family formation; and poor maternal mental health. Supporting the factors that can improve child outcomes, exploring opportune ways to strengthen couple and family relationships, and integrating the views of children (for example, in court-based dispute resolution) are the leading implications for practice and policy.
It is often assumed that refugees in the US are at an economic disadvantage compared to other immigrants. A number of hypotheses have been postulated to explain this `refugee gap'. Refugees, on average, have less English language ability, less educational experience, different forms of family support, poorer mental and physical health, and generally reside in more disadvantaged neighbourhoods than other immigrants. Although these factors are well supported by evidence for specific refugee groups, a lack of representative data for both refugee and non-refugee migrants has made the testing of this refugee gap challenging. Using the first wave of the New Immigrant Survey, these hypotheses are tested on employment, occupation, and earnings outcomes using multivariate modelling techniques among...
The present study assesses the performance of 54 participating countries in PISA 2006. It employs efficiency indicators that relate result variables with resource variables used in the production of educational services. Desirable outputs of educational achievement and undesirable outputs of educational inequality are considered jointly as result variables. A construct that captures the quality and quantity of educational resources consumed is used as resource variables. Similarly, environmental variables of each educational system are included in the efficiency evaluation model; while these resources are not controllable by the managers of the education systems, they do affect outcomes. We find that European countries are characterized by weak management, the Americans (mainly Latin Ameri...
Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who combine adventure with therapy name it adventure therapy or play therapy. Engaging in any of the experiences offered by outdoor educators affects participants and staff. This article discusses outdoor education and argues for developing spiritual intelligence.
Purpose - The two-year basic training course leading to the Basic Federal Certificate was established in Switzerland by the new Vocational Training Act in 2002 with the intention of ensuring upper secondary education and training for disadvantaged young people. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a longitudinal study of youths who participated in a two-year vocational education and training (VET) programme. The main objective is the evaluation of intentions regarding the two-year training course. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of 319 trainees on a two-year training course in the retail sales and hotel sectors were questioned at the end of their training about their educational and family background, their occupational and personal situation as well as their pros...
This bibliography describes 38 materials available for computer-assisted instruction in agribusiness and natural resources education. The materials are suitable for use by regular, disadvantaged, and handicapped students and by students whose facility in English is limited. Materials are useful for developing tests, testing, reviewing, and vocabulary. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located through the Florida Educational Information Service (FEIS), which conducted searches of the Vocational Education Curriculum Materials (VECM) database on Bibliographic Retrieval Service (BRS). For each entry, information is provided on title, date developed, system required, content, and availability (supplier, price, format). Materials suitable for the following areas of agriculture are included: agribusiness, agricultural business management, agricultural mechanics, agricultural production, animal production, crop production, floriculture, forestry, horticulture, landscaping, nursery operations, soil conservation, and wildlife management. (KC)
This is the second report evaluating Project Education and Community Development, a project which was conducted in largely Islamic Jewish, disadvantaged neighborhoods in Ofakim, Israel. Part I describes the project's background, aims and objectives, intervention strategies, and implementation phases. Part II consists of an evaluation of the project's components from January through June, 1981. Three programs are discussed separately: (1) the EMRA Home-Intervention Programme, a community based program for mothers of infants and toddlers living in relative social isolation and possessing little awareness of the importance of providing their children with a stimulating and enriching home environment; (2) a program which set up play corners in several pediatric clinics; and (3) the Neighbourhood Centre Programme, a program which opened centers for parent education and early childhood education enrichment. Appended are the various interview and assessment instruments used to evaluate the project. (GC)
This paper describes a project aimed at helping children and their families achieve their potential. It is based in an area of high social disadvantage. The authors explain how parenting classes held at a community college (a comprehensive school with provision for adult education), have led to the development of a suite of courses leading to qualification and employment. Most of the participants have been women. Even participants with a history of low educational attainment have achieved success and all have gained qualifications to enable them to gain employment working with children. A description is given of how the Progression Route of courses has the potential to build the community and provide access to higher education. The data from a pilot evaluation, based on interviews with 12 ...
There are public health benefits in prisoner health education, given that inmates are predominantly from an underclass that is overrepresented in all categories of disease and health disadvantage. The author reviews these health issues and proposes Freire's approach to education on prisoner-generated, problematic health topics within the context of their lives and cultures. Freirean stages proposed include identification and investigation of relevant health topics of concern to inmates, thematization, problematization of the issues, and development of critical health consciousness, followed by dramatization of problems and solutions within culturally appropriate contexts. Examples are presented. Health rights and responsibilities are discussed in the context of correctional settings and the structural and organizational limits they present for staff and inmates. This approach to prisoner health education should result in increased health literacy and emancipation, which prisoners can later diffuse within their communities of origin. PMID:20810874
This paper addresses ethical concerns emanating from the practice of using patients for health care education. It shows how some of the ways that patients are used in educational strategies to bridge theory-practice gaps can cause harm to patients and patient-practitioner relationships, thus failing to meet acceptable standards of professional practice. This will continue unless there is increased awareness of the need for protection of human rights in teaching situations. Unnecessary exposure of patients, failing to obtain explicit consent, causing harm to vulnerable or disadvantaged groups and inappropriate use of information, though normally regarded as unacceptable professional practices, may go unrecognised in meeting educational needs, widening rather than narrowing theory-practice gaps. PMID:9800586
Explaining educational inequalities in preterm birth. The Generation R Study. ( 2008) Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. Published online. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2007.136945. Background Although a low socio-economic status has consistently been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, little is known about the pathways through which socio-economic disadvantage influences preterm birth. Aim To examine mechanisms that might underlie the association between the educational level of pregnant women as an indicator of socio-economic status, and preterm birth. Methods The study was nested in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Information was available for 3830 pregnant women of Dutch origin. Findings The lowest educated pregnant women had a statistically significant higher...
Despite wide agreement on the goals of environmental education (EE), the promotion of action is still considered contentious. Critical environmental education (critical EE) teaches students to combine critical reflection with the ability to engage in local action to address social/environmental problems. This article examines a critical urban farming school in New Orleans' Lower Ninth Ward for how student action is addressed. Results found that critical learning within an egalitarian, youth-centered community located in a disadvantaged area produces students who are more enlightened and empowered to create change. However, concerns regarding funding and safety led staff to not adhere to maintaining an egalitarian ethic, undermining the individualism and unpredictability that critical EE thrives upon and producing "disconnects" in students' education. (Contains 3 notes.)
Comparability between different educational qualifications is an important issue within policy discourse in the UK. In this context, the comparability of qualification demands has been explored through the use of expert human judgement. The involvement of human judgement in estimating assessment demands has consequences for methodology. This review considered the ways that the Kelly's Repertory Grid (KRG) technique has been used to compare assessment demands over recent years. The review involved the identification and analysis of research documents as well as consideration of the original theory on which the KRG method was founded. This article describes how the technique has been adapted as it has shifted from its original psychotherapeutic context to be used in educational assessment and comparability studies. The review also explored possible disadvantages that stem from these adaptations, leading to recommendations to ensure the validity of findings when using the technique in educational assessment studies. (Contains 1 figure.)
How pronounced is income inequality around the world--and how can education help reduce it? This paper reports the following: (1) Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the average income of the richest 10% of the population was about nine times that of the poorest 10% before the onset of the global economic crisis; (2) High levels of income inequality are associated with low levels of earnings mobility between generations in a number of countries; (3) Education policies that promote equity and support disadvantaged students in achieving better academic outcomes may help reduce income inequality in the future; and (4) Four top performers on the 2009 PISA assessment--Canada, Finland, Japan, and Korea--put a strong focus on equity in their education systems.
This study uses multilevel models to examine longitudinal associations between contextual influences (neighborhood and family) assessed in 1983 in a cohort of 2,355 children, 4-16 years of age, and educational attainment in 2001. Variation in educational attainment in 2001 attributable to between-neighborhood and between-family differences was 8.17% and 36.88%, respectively. The final model explained 33.64% of the variance in educational attainment, with unique variances of 14.53% for neighborhood and family-level variables combined versus 10.94% for child-level variables. Among the neighborhood and family-level variables, indicators of status (5.29%) versus parental capacity/family process (4.03%) made comparable predictions to attainment while children from economically disadvantaged fam...
As increasing numbers of students from non-traditional sources enter the baccalaureate nursing program, retention of these educationally, socially, and economically disadvantaged and older students have become important to a nursing program's continued viability. To retain these students, nurse educators need to become more sensitive to the educational needs of these students. Through focus groups used to survey sophomore, junior, and senior nursing students, researchers identified academic and non-academic resources cited by successful traditional and non-traditional students. A telephone survey of local nursing programs, by a third researcher, identified student resources at other statewide baccalaureate nursing programs. Participating students cited curriculum resources most often, with emotional support and academic resources of next importance. Students also expressed frustration regarding accessing resources (e.g., class time, office support, parking). The long term goal was to develop a resource program for non-traditional nursing students. PMID:9257552
Abstract The association between education or income and mortality has been explored in great detail. These measures capture both the effects of material disadvantage on health and the psychosocial impacts of a low socioeconomic position on health. When explored independently of educational attainment and income, occupational prestige - a purely perceptual measure - serves as a measure of the impact of a psychosocial phenomenon on health. For instance, a fire-fighter, academician or schoolteacher may carry the social benefits of a higher social status without actually having the income (in all cases) or the educational credentials (in the case of the fire-fighter) to match. We explored the independent influence of occupational prestige on mortality. We applied Cox proportional hazards mode...
Animal experiments, analog modeling and digital simulations are some means followed in laboratory practices to teach electrophysiological concepts. Advantages and disadvantages of these different strategies may change due to the teaching aims and education levels; none of these ways mentioned above is appropriate alone for all educational purposes. For a beginner who is coming up against the electrophysiological concepts for the first time, experiments on simple analog models would be more educational than all other means. In this work, two analog models involving simple and cheap electrical network components to teach the basic electrophysiological concepts have presented. The first one is suitable to simulate passive membrane properties while the second model involving batteries and manually controllable resistors is suitable to simulate the active membrane properties under space clamped conditions. PMID:17282321
One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the multiple-choice question (MCQ) format, which many feel is associated with the lowest kind of learning of disconnected facts. This paper, however, discusses several ways in which teaching with MCQs, and so with EVS, has transcended this apparent disadvantage, has based itself on deep learning in the sense of focusing on learning relationships between items rather than on recalling disconnected true-false items, and so has achieved substantial learning advantages. Six possible learning designs based on MCQs are discussed, and a new function for (e-)assessment is identified, namely catalytic assessment, where the purpose of test questions is to trigger subsequent deep learning without direct teaching input.
The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent is there an understanding among physicians as to how continuing professional education (CPE) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) affect physicians practice? To address the question, focus groups were used to begin a process of identifying the components within each type of education so that further research can be done to address how physicians learn and whether competence can be influenced by continuing education.
The author reports on the federal budget proposal for fiscal year 2012 in which President Barack Obama singled out education as an area crucial to the country's economic future. He called for bolstering programs he deems critical to his vision for a renewed Elementary and Secondary Education Act and proposed new ones in research, early-childhood education, teaching, and efforts to close achievement gaps. But the proposal faces steep hurdles in Congress--it came just three days after Republican leaders in the U.S. House of Representatives released a plan that would slice nearly $5 billion from the budget now funding the department. The Obama administration's proposed $48.8 billion in discretionary Education Department spending for the fiscal year that begins Oct. 1 excludes money for Pell Grant college aid and represents a 4.3 percent increase over fiscal 2010. Lawmakers are still working on the fiscal 2011 spending plan. Key precollegiate programs and areas would be slated for modest increases: Title I, which has a wide sweep and helps educate disadvantaged students, would get $14.8 billion, up $300 million from current funding; and aid to special education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act would rise to $11.7 billion, up $200 million. The proposal also reprises the administration's ambitious reorganization plan that would consolidate and regroup a wide range of programs under headings focused on particular areas, such as teaching and learning.
The purpose of this study is to examine the various economic facets of inequality in education in India. The specific focus is on inter-group inequalities, such as inequality between males and females and between backward and advanced castes. It is hypothesized that returns to education accrue differently to different groups of population and unfavorably to the weaker sections. Reasons for the differential rates of return are found either in the functioning of the school system or in the functioning of the labor market. An in-depth analysis of the reasons why the same kind of education results in different rates of return for different population sectors shows that the returns to education would be far greater if the very groups most discriminated against, women and disadvantaged castes, received more attention. The analysis is based on primary data from approximately 1,000 members of the workhorse in the West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh (India). The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Regional Inequality in Educational Development in India"; (3) "The Sample Survey"; (4) "Returns to Education in India: A Review"; (5) "The Internal Rate of Return: The Methodology"; (6) "Returns to Education"; (7) "Inequality in Human Capital Formation"; (8) "Economics of Discrimination in the Labour Market"; and (9) "Summary and Conclusions." A statistical appendix provides supporting tables. (Contains 34 tables, 15 figures, and 315 references.) (SLD)
Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.
"Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and their pathways to employment; (2) apprenticeships and traineeships, with a particular focus on completions; (3) the ongoing education and training of the learner groups--namely older workers, people with a disability, low paid workers and the unemployed; (4) trends in the labour market, including labour mobility, skills mismatch and skills shortages; (5) the role of vocational education and training (VET) in innovation and workforce development; and (6) methodological and measurement issues. This paper presents the following summaries: (1) Highlights for 2011 (Georgina Atkinson); (2) As clear as mud: defining vocational education and training (Tom Karmel); (3) The attitudes of people with a disability to undertaking VET training (Lisa Nechvoglod and Tabatha Griffin); (4) Attrition in the trades (Tom Karmel, Patrick Lim and Josie Misko); (5) Building innovation capacity: the role of human capital formation in enterprises--a review of the literature (Andrew Smith, Jerry Courvisanos, Jacqueline Tuck and Steven McEachern); (6) Building the foundations: outcomes from the adult language, literacy and numeracy search conference (National Centre for Vocational Education Research); (7) The challenge of measurement: statistics for planning human resource development (Tom Karmel); (8) Differing skill requirements across countries and over time (Chris Ryan and Mathias Sinning); (9) Does changing your job leave you better off? A study of labour mobility in Australia, 2002 to 2008 (Ian Watson); (10) Does combining school and work affect school and post-school outcomes? (Alison Anlezark and Patrick Lim); (11) Education and training and the avoidance of financial disadvantage (Gary N. Marks); (12) Effect of the downturn on apprentices and trainees (Tom Karmel and Damian Oliver); (13) The effect of VET completion on the wages of young people (Nicolas Herault, Rezida Zakirova and Hielke Buddelmeyer); (14) Embedding learning from formal training into sustained behavioural change in the workplace (Cheryle Barker); (15) Enabling the effective take-up of e-learning by custodial officers (Malcolm Reason); (16) E-waste management in the VET environment (Virginia Waite); (17) Fostering enterprise: the innovation and skills nexus--research readings (Penelope Curtin, John Stanwick and Francesca Beddie); (18) From education to employment: how long does it take? (Darcy Fitzpatrick, Laurence Lester, Kostas Mavromaras, Sue Richardson and Yan Sun); (19) Getting tough on missing data: a boot camp for social science researchers (Sinan Gemici, Alice Bednarz and Patrick Lim); (20) How VET responds: a historical policy perspective (Robin Ryan); (21) The impact of wages and the likelihood of employment on the probability of completing an apprenticeship or traineeship (Tom Karmel and Peter Mlotkowski); (22) Individual-based completion rates for apprentices (Tom Karmel); (23) Initial training for VET teachers: a portrait within a larger canvas (Hugh Guthrie, Alicen McNaughton and Tracy Gamlin); (24) Juggling work, home and learning in low-paid occupations: a qualitative study (Barbara Pocock, Jude Elton, Deborah Green, Catherine McMahon and Suzanne Pritchard); (25) Lost talent? The occupational ambitions and attainments of young Australians (Joanna Sikora and Lawrence J. Saha); (26) Mapping adult literacy performance (Michelle Circelli, David D. Curtis and Kate Perkins); (27) The master artisan: a framework for master tradespeople in Australia (Karen O'Reilly-Briggs); (28) Measuring the quality of VET using the Student Outcomes Survey (Wang-Sheng Lee and Cain Polidano); (29) Measuring the socioeconomic status of Australian youth (Patrick Lim and Sinan Gemici); (30) The mobile worker: concepts, issues, implications (Richard Sweet); (31) Moving the fence posts: learning preferences of part-time agriculture students (Alan Woods); (32) Musing budding musos: the role of peer mentoring in learning to be a contemporary musician (Ross Stagg); (33) Older workers: research readings (Tabatha Griffin and Francesca Beddie); (34) Outcomes from combining work and tertiary study (Cain Polidano and Rezida Zakirova); (35) Outcomes of stakeholder consultations to identify the LSAY analytical program for 2011-13 (National Centre for Vocational Education Research); (36) Over-skilling and job satisfaction in the Australian labour force (Kostas Mavromaras, Seamus McGuinness, Sue Richardson, Peter Sloane and Zhang Wei); (37) Pathways: developing the skills of the Australian workforce (Hugh Guthrie, John Stanwick and Tom Karmel); (38) Plumbing, sustainability and training (Sian Halliday-Wynes and John Stanwick); (39) Pre-apprenticeship training activity (Paul Foley and Davinia Blomberg); (40) Pre-apprenticeships and their impact on apprenticeship completion and satisfaction (Tom Karmel and Damian Oliver); (41) Pre-vocational programs and their impact on traineeship completion and satisfaction (Damian Oliver and Tom Karmel); (42) Review of the Survey of Employer Use and Views of the VET System: outcomes from the discussion paper (National Centre for Vocational Education Research); (43) The role of VET in workforce development: a story of conflicting expectations (Tanya Bretherton); (44) The shifting demographics and lifelong learning (Tom Karmel); (45) Skill (mis-)matches and over-education of younger workers (Chris Ryan and Mathias Sinning); (46) Skill shortages in the trades during economic downturns (Damian Oliver); (47) Social capital and young people: do young people's networks improve their participation in education and training? (Ronnie Semo and Tom Karmel); (48) To gain, retain and retrain: the role of post-school education for people with a disability (Cain Polidano and Ha Vu); (49) Understanding and improving labour mobility: a scoping paper (John Buchanan, Susanna Baldwin and Sally Wright); (50) Understanding the psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships to improve retention (Erica Smith, Arlene Walker and Ros Brennan Kemmis); (51) Understanding the undertow: innovative responses to labour market disadvantage and VET (Tanya Bretherton); (52) VET and the diffusion and implementation of innovation in the mining, solar energy and computer games sectors (Robert Dalitz, Phillip Toner and Tim Turpin); (53) The vocational equivalent to Year 12 (Patrick Lim and Tom Karmel); (54) Vocational qualifications, employment status and income: 2006 census analysis (Anne Daly); (55) Weighting the LSAY Programme of International Student Assessment cohorts (Patrick Lim); (56) What is a practical, effective and sustainable approach to leadership development at the Canberra Institute of Technology? (Coralie Daniels); (57) Which paths work for which young people? (Tom Karmel and Shu-Hui Liu); (58) Work, life and VET participation amongst lower-paid workers (Barbara Pocock, Natalie Skinner, Catherine McMahon and Suzanne Pritchard); and (59) Year 12 completion and youth transitions (Chris Ryan). [For the previous edition, "Research Messages 2010," see ED517177.
High rates of nonmarital fertility and divorce mean that many fathers do not live with some or all of their children. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this research compares socioeconomic and family characteristics among men with only coresidential children (n = 762), with both coresidential and nonresidential children (n = 107), and with only nonresidential children (n = 367) and examines the factors that influence men's visitation with nonresidential children. Men with only nonresidential children are more disadvantaged than men with both coresidential and nonresidential children, who in turn are more disadvantaged than men with only coresidential children. Although competing obligations to coresidential children affect visitation with nonresidential children, other factors are also important. In particular, the number of both coresidential sons and daughters negatively affects visitation. Men visit nonresidential children more frequently when they were married or cohabiting at birth, and visitation is negatively related to the age of nonresidential children. (Contains 3 tables.)
Three essays put forth recommendations for improving various aspects of American education. The first essay, "Teacher Preparation," focuses on the impact of several social, global, and technological trends on American schools and teacher education. In light of these trends, it is concluded that teachers must understand the ways in which America is changing and be prepared to help the growing numbers of disadvantaged children. They must also have a global perspective and see that the world is a global village that is politically transformed, economically connected, and ecologically imperiled. Teachers must help students cooperate rather than compete and find ways to use technology to help the learning process. Finally, in light of the stressful home lives of many children, they must understand how deeply these children are in need, and be caring as well as competent. The second essay, "Early Childhood Education," proposes six national objectives for early education: (1) good nutrition for every child; (2) universal preschool education for every disadvantaged child; (3) the establishment of nongraded Basic Schools that combine grades K-4; (4) classes of no more than 15 students; (5) evaluation to ensure that students have basic language and computation skills before leaving 4th grade; and (6) intergenerational connections. The final essay, "A National Education Index," recommends the creation of a set of nationwide standards that would serve as a framework for state accountability. The proposed index would include standards for student achievement, the conditions of teaching, school climate, school finance, accountability and intervention, and school partnerships with parents and the business community. (AC)
The Civil Society Network for Education Reforms (E-Net Philippines), a network of organizations pushing for Education for All, believes that years of underinvestment and neglect of the public education system have caused the country's dismal education performance. This critique provided a framework for engaging with DepEd and the Legislature, specifically in lobbying for increased investments for education targeting the marginalized, excluded and vulnerable groups. But it did not apply to principals, teachers and civil society organizations already implementing and innovating education programmes on the ground. There was also a need to formulate an approach toward local government (LGU) officials responsible for the needs of those who are missing out on education. ENet Philippines realized the importance of generating updated data at the "barangay" (village) and municipal (town) levels and scrutinizing the reasons many children and youth are not in school. The need for updated data to guide national and local advocacy gave birth to Education Watch, a collaboration between Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE) and E-Net Philippines, to map out the disadvantaged sectors in education. Conceptualized in March 2006, Education Watch culminated in a public launch in September 2007. It is a citizen-based assessment at the midpoint of the Education for All campaign in the Philippines seeking to establish baseline data, determine the magnitude of education deficits, analyze the underlying causes of deprivation, monitor changes over time, and identify factors that can account for changes in the education performance until 2015. It is designed to inform policy, formulate well-targeted programs and identify and locate beneficiaries to effectively reach out to children missing out on education. The study was undertaken at three levels: (1) National Monitoring;(2) Local Area Surveys; and (3) Case Studies. The data culled from the local survey and from national government statistics show that the Philippines is missing its Education for All targets. In fact, the government's midterm progress report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) noted that Goal No.2 on universal primary education, along with Goal No.5 on Maternal Health, have become the most threatened among the eight goals. (Contains 5 tables, 1 figure and 10 endnotes.)
In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.
Abstract This article describes an application of the Performance Pyramid, a needs assessment framework that supports a holistic view of an organization allowing assessors to identify how organizational culture may affect performance. We illustrate use of the Performance Pyramid for a needs assessment with human systems integration practitioners in the U.S. Army. We describe how the Performance Pyramid guided our methods, data collection, and results interpretation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the methodology.
This is the fifth and final report of a longitudinal study examining the use of a comprehensive system of prevention and early intervention services in Palm Beach County, and how its use relates to the outcomes of children and families living in four targeted geographic areas (TGAs) with high rates of poverty, teen pregnancy, crime, and child abuse and neglect. Data sources included vital statistics and administrative service use records on Palm Beach County families who gave birth in 2004 and 2005; data from annual in-person household surveys with a baseline sample of 531 low-income mothers drawn from the cohort of mothers in the TGAs who gave birth in 2004 and 2005; and qualitative data from interviews with a subgroup of 40 mothers randomly selected from the larger survey sample. The authors' main concern was the system of prevention and early intervention services funded by the Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County, particularly the Maternal Child Health Partnership (MCHP) system that was designed to serve pregnant and newly delivered mothers. Results indicate that the MCHP system initially identified mothers with many important risk factors, and that mothers with greater needs were more likely to receive services and more days of services than other mothers. Of mothers screened "at risk" who did not receive services, however, almost a third could not be located, and 15 percent declined services. Service use was affected by many other factors, including individual family characteristics, service type, and program characteristics. Receipt of MCHP services in year 1 was also associated with other service use in years 2, 3, and 5. One reason, according to mothers' reports, was that MCHP providers served an essential bridging or "brokering" role between parents and basic services, including Medicaid, food assistance, and childcare subsidies. One of the clearest findings was the disadvantaged status of children born to foreign-born mothers relative to those born to U.S.-born mothers. At the end of the study, as the focal children were getting ready for kindergarten, children of foreign-born mothers were more likely to be living at or below the poverty level, even though their caregivers were more likely to be married or living together. In light of their relative disadvantaged status, it is encouraging to note that foreign-born mothers, and particularly foreign-born Hispanic mothers, were more likely to receive treatment services from the MCHP system. On the other hand, they used fewer services outside of the MCHP system compared to U.S.-born mothers. In conclusion, study findings make clear that the emerging system of care in Palm Beach County is successfully engaging many at-risk families in needed services through the MCHP around the birth of a child. The authors end with the following set of recommendations: (1) Improve the quality and effectiveness of parenting supports and education; (2) Improve access to and quality of early care and education; (3) Increase efforts to help families stay involved in or become re-connected to needed services over time; (4) Enhance training of service providers; (5) Making location and timing of services convenient for families; (6) Improve channels of information and communication about services; (7) Strengthen relationships between the CSC system of care and other community supports and services; and (8) Improve data systems and other sources of information on service availability, use (duration, intensity), and need. Appended are: (1) Longitudinal Study Sample and Methods; (2) Additional Data on PBC and TGA Birth Cohorts, 2004-2009; and (3) Additional Data on Year 5 Study Sample. A bibliography is included. (Contains 118 tables, 13 figures and 84 footnotes.) [For the previous report, "Supporting Low-Income Parents of Young Children: The Palm Beach County Family Study Fourth Annual Report," see ED529450.
The College English Test (CET) is an English language test designed for educational purposes, administered on a very large scale, and used for making high-stakes decisions. This paper discusses the key issues facing the CET during the course of its development in the past two decades. It argues that the most fundamental and critical concerns of large-scale high-stakes testing are test validity and fairness as defined in the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999). The CET has a current annual test population of over 18 million, and the results of the test, intentionally or unintentionally, may affect university graduates' employment opportunities, the conferment of a bachelor's degree, and the granting of a residence permit in big cities. The CET test developer, therefore, has been taking measures to make sure that no test taker will be potentially disadvantaged by such factors as test content, test condition, response mode and format, scoring of constructed-response items, and use of test results. Considerable care has been given to the test's validity as well as its operational standardization, which is critical to fairness in high-stakes testing. The paper begins with an overview of the major developmental stages of the CET since its inception in 1987 and the standardized procedures involved in the CET design, item construction, test administration, test form equation, scoring and score reporting. Following the introductory part, the paper discusses in turn the CET validation efforts in the late 1990s, major revisions of the test with a view to aligning its content and task format with the College English curriculum requirements, and the recent research on the validity of the newly developed internet-based CET, a central focus of which has been on possible biases against test takers who are less proficient in computer operation. Validity and fairness, however, cannot be exclusively addressed in psychometric and technical terms. The use of the test in a particular social context or with particular groups of test takers may be valid and fair or invalid and unfair. In the final part, the paper concludes with a brief discussion of the political dimension of high-stakes testing, with a special focus on Messick's (1992) unified construct validity argument, which views validity not as a feature or a possession of a test, but a process to validate in a multifaceted approach the uses and interpretations of tests and their scores (Davies, 2003). (Contains 1 table.)
This book looks at the current spectrum of programs dealing with education for disadvantaged youth in Thailand. In spite of a lack of literature on the subject, it presents a diversity of information collected from various public and private organizations. The first chapter brings into focus the negative effects of the recent economic crisis, which has aggravated the problems of disadvantaged youth in Thailand. Chapter 2 analyzes the different types of programs aimed at assisting this group and divides these programs into six categories: compensatory programs, basic education programs, vocational training programs, integrated basic/vocational programs, programs for children in especially difficult circumstances, and other types. On this basis, policy and strategy-related recommendations are set out in chapter 3, with a view to accommodating them to the present framework of structural and substantive reforms of the educational system of the country. The book concludes by highlighting the need for a clear-cut coordination of, and linkages between, the various players involved and their respective roles: the development of curricula and activities by the central authorities; a more active involvement of local authorities and communities; and assistance from the private sector both in service and in kind. (Contains 23 tables, 3 graphs, and 28 references.) (Author)
The economic, social and educational needs of rural youth in England and Wales are not being met. Rural youth are defined as all young people between the ages of 10 and 25 living in areas more than 30 miles from towns of 250,000 inhabitants, or 20 miles from towns whose population is between 50,000 and 250,000. The rapid decrease in the agricultural workforce, due to mechanisation and the increased skills level required of farm workers, has caused a high level of unemployment for young people in rural areas, leaving them little choice of high level job satisfaction in their own communities. Lack of accessibility to community resources, based on poor public transportation and decreased car ownership, has caused disadvantages to rural youth in traveling to leisure and social events, work sites, and schools. Low levels of educational attainment have come about because of disadvantaging family circumstances, such as low income, poor housing, social stress, and low educational aspirations, as well as the factor of remoteness. Serious attention from local governments and policy makers, and especially from the Youth Service, is needed so that the neglect of rural youth can be acknowledged and corrected. (JD)
The Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), UNESCO, is a cooperative program designed to promote education for all in the region. Its principal aim is to promote primary education, literacy, and continuing education for all and particularly for disadvantaged groups. APPEAL/PROAP has instituted the project, Promotion of Basic Education and Lifelong Learning for Gender Equality through CLCs, to improve and strengthen basic education and lifelong learning for gender equality. The project will build upon the expertise and experience of community learning centers (CLCs), which have been providing non-formal education for over 3 years, with girls and women one of their target groups. CLCs provide a supportive atmosphere for learning and have helped improve the status of girls and women in their communities. Objectives of the technical workshop held in Indonesia in March 2001 were to: review the situation in the region regarding basic education and lifelong learning for gender equality; develop a framework for undertaking a pilot study on innovative strategies for basic education and lifelong learning for gender equality through CLCs in the region; and formulate an action plan for undertaking research. Attending the workshop were 23 participants from 13 countries implementing learning centers projects supported by UNESCO APPEAL and 11 observers from Indonesia. The 13 countries are Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Work groups participated in: presentations on concepts and requirements related to basic education, lifelong learning, and gender equality, and guidelines for sharing; undertook a field visit; and discussed how to carry out their research and reach their objectives. Annexes to this final report contain a schedule of work, list of participants, opening remarks, sharing country experience works groups, and guidelines for group discussion. (BT)
Mother tongue-based education perpetuates equity in education, especially among girls who are often regarded as disadvantaged in access to education. The Asia and Pacific region is characterized by its rich ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity. Such diversity is found missing in many school systems in the region which often leads to gaps in accessibility and inclusiveness in education regardless of wealth, background or sex. Marginal groups such as ethnic minorities (also referred to as linguistic minorities) are often deprived of access to the "prestige language" used in education and governance. In some countries, speakers of mother tongue languages outnumber the speakers of "prestige language". For linguistically diverse countries such as Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and India, studies found that the poorest groups are only engaging in the informal sector which makes their access to the dominant language unfeasible. Girls and women being confined to their social roles and responsibilities are also disadvantaged in the context of equity in education even if they come from advantaged social groups. In many instances, the female population is restricted to household activities when only the local language is used. As a result, they have fewer opportunities to learn the dominant language unless they are working in the market or factories. Some girls are simply never given the opportunity to receive formal schooling due to their gender or a family decision. A mother tongue-based bilingual education is proposed that will encourage more girls to go to school. Mother tongue-based bilingual education aims to develop the learner's knowledge through reading, writing and thinking skills in the mother tongue (L1) while teaching a second or foreign language (L2) as a separate subject. Apart from encouraging more girls into formal schooling, bilingual education that starts with the mother tongue also addresses other issues. First, girls learning less intimidating using their mother tongue. Second, instruction in the mother tongue encourages parents' participation and influence. Finally, teachers in mother tongue would gain the trust of girls and reduce the risk of abuse. Case examples from the Philippines and Papua New Guinea confirm the proposition that girls stay longer in formal schooling and get positive results from mother tongue bilingual education.
In a world of increasingly complex health care choices, those with limited health literacy are at a disadvantage. Most health materials are written at higher levels than most adults can understand. Limited literacy impacts health behaviors, decisions, and outcomes. Research suggests patient knowledge and comprehension can be increased by incorporating visual images and words using video technology. A lack of videos that are sensitive to health literacy makes routine cost-effective implementation difficult. Development and implementation of appropriate videos can be achieved cost effectively. This article discusses implementation of a cost-effective and literacy-sensitive video-education program.
This ex post facto, causal-comparative research study examined student reading performance data within a school district before and after a school district-wide decision to alter the reading curriculum in response to local political pressure from parents. Data analysis revealed that test scores dropped to a significantly lower level, especially for students who were economically disadvantaged, after the reading curriculum was altered. This study underscores the importance of making data-driven, rather than politically-influenced, decisions related to pedagogy, curriculum, instruction, and assessment by educational leaders. (Contains 2 tables and 6 figures.)
While researchers have begun to examine the experiences of working class students in undergraduate education more closely, we know less about the experiences of working class students in graduate school. Through a nationwide survey of graduate students enrolled in Ph.D. programs in Sociology, we examined the extent to which working class students face greater challenges or barriers in completing their degrees compared to their middle class peers. We found working class students to be comparatively disadvantaged in academic integration and financial support. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the graduate school experiences of working class students.
Student-run clinics (SRCs) are widespread, but studies on their educational impact are limited. We surveyed preclinical medical, nursing, and pharmacy students about their experiences in a hepatitis B elective which provided opportunities to they could volunteer at hepatitis B screening and vaccination SRCs. Student responses revealed positive perceptions of the volunteer experience. Benefits included interacting with patients, developing clinical skills, providing service to disadvantaged populations, and collaborating with health professional peers. Students who participated in clinic reported enhanced skills compared to those who did not attend. SRCs play a valuable role in instilling positive attitudes and improving skills.
Operation Success at Wichita State University provides a supportive framework for assisting disadvantaged students in successfully completing their college education. It is organized in three complementary components; (1) tutorial, (2) cultural enrichment activities, and (3) research and evaluation. This report thoroughly outlines the organization and objectives of the program as well as its components. It provides demographic information on program participants and results of surveys which measure participant perception of the various aspects of the program. Responses were varied and primarily positive. The report closes with a photo album of Operation Success students, staff, and tutors. (LHW)
Ethnic and gender differences in perceptions of graduate job acquisition difficulty among U.K. post-higher education job seekers were investigated. Two main hypotheses were compared: the double jeopardy hypothesis (DJH), suggesting an additive or interactive increase in perceived difficulty associated with membership of different disadvantaged demographic categories; and the ethnic prominence hypothesis, arguing for the salience of ethnicity over gender in perceptions. Graduates and final year students (N= 800) from Black, Indian, Pakistani/Bangladeshi, and White ethnic backgrounds rated the level of difficulty that a suitably qualified man and woman from their own ethnic background would encounter in attaining 10 graduate jobs. Interactions between participant ethnic background and gender...
Some researchers in China believe that the rural poor's earlier disadvantaged education experiences stopped them to get into the leading research universities. In my research, I find equal access to leading research universities relates with many issues, the gross enrollment rate disparity among provinces, the change of enrollment policies, the distributions of enrollment quotas, the urban/rural residence and disciplinary distribution all are the factors that put the rural poor in a difficult position to access the leading research universities. The paper concludes that in the race for creative minds, the leading research universities have forgotten their social responsibility of equity.
This study examines women's attitude towards intimate partner violence among 331 Bangladeshi women in five selected disadvantaged areas of Dhaka city. This study used a shorter version of the Inventory of Beliefs about Wife Beating (IBWB) to measure women's attitude towards intimate partner violence. The results revealed that the mean score on the wife-beating scale of 15 items was 7.81 (SD = 4.893). Significant amounts of the variance (42.9%) in women's attitude towards intimate partner violence can be attributed to respondent's education (B = -0.60, p paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings. PMID:22687269
Associations among maltreatment and traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescence, later substance use, and subsequent mental health outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have been initially explored in previous studies; however, research on these factors in socially disadvantaged patients with first-episode psychosis is unavailable. This exploratory, correlational analysis examined associations between maltreatment and trauma-related variables (e.g., traumatic experiences, parental harsh discipline, violence exposure) and: social variables (years of education attained and extent of Axis IV psychosocial problems at initial hospitalization), substance abuse (age at initiation of alcohol and cannabis use, as well as estimates of lifetime intake of both), and pos...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an oral health educational intervention on knowledge and behavior-specific cognitions and affect in caregivers of children from 2 to 5 years of age. This was a descriptive study, with a convenience sample of 425 Head Start caregivers who attended one of 18 oral health educational programs throughout Miami-Dade County. Four research questions addressed the relationship between the oral health educational intervention and prior related behavior, personal factors, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, knowledge, and intent. The educational program was found to have a significant effect on caregivers' knowledge, cognition, affect, and intent to provide oral healthcare to their children. Educational programs have a positive impact on caregivers to increase oral health knowledge and intent to perform preventive oral health-promoting behaviors in this underserved population. Effective educational interventions are necessary in order to increase overall health in children and to decrease oral disease. PMID:23061170
In October 2010 the government confirmed it would introduce a "pupil premium" payable to schools with disadvantaged pupils. This shift towards resourcing by group rather than area may mark the closing of another chapter in efforts to produce a more meritocratic education system utilising what might be termed "intermediate" institutions. Their predecessors opened more than 3500 Children's Centres to develop new strategies for working with the families of preschool children in order to alter long-term educational trajectories. This paper reflects on an earlier chapter in public efforts to secure greater educational equality, the first three years of the Red House Education Centre in Denaby Main, a mining village in Yorkshire's West Riding, in the period 1969 to 1972. Red House was the most significant development arising from the West Riding Educational Priority Area (WREPA) Project and was an example of area-based positive discrimination. The paper explores two key questions. Can schools be re-positioned so that they offer the community an opportunity to develop as active participants in reshaped democratic processes, or are new institutional forms required? Did Red House offer parents and professionals the opportunity to improve educational outcomes in a neutral space where both felt a sense of ownership? (Contains 111 notes.)
Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation regulating donations, and a deficiency of effective channels for cadaver donations. Cadaver dissection has always been the most important method of teaching anatomy to medical students. Today, ethics courses have also become essential to a complete medical education. Contemporary physicians need to be equipped to navigate the myriad of moral and ethical issues inherent to modern medicine. In China, cadaver donations lag behind those in other countries, threatening to create valid disadvantages in medical education. New legislation and public education are necessary to remove cultural barriers and change Chinese views on cadaver donation. For this reason, the Department of Human Anatomy at Nanjing Medical University has established the "Educational Center for Medical Ethics." The goal of the Center is to promote proper respect for cadavers used for medical research and education, cherish the human lives the cadavers represent, and gain the trust of potential donors.
As described in earlier articles, children whose parents have higher income and education levels are more likely to grow up in stable two-parent households than their economically disadvantaged counterparts. These widening gaps in fathers' involvement in parenting and in the quality and stability of parents' relationships may reinforce disparities in outcomes for the next generation. This paper reviews evidence about the effectiveness of two strategies to strengthen fathers' involvement and family relationships--fatherhood programs aimed at disadvantaged noncustodial fathers and relationship skills programs for parents who are together. Fatherhood programs have shown some efficacy at increasing child support payments, while relationship skills approaches have shown benefits for the couples' relationship quality, coparenting skills, fathers' engagement in parenting, and children's well-being. The research evidence suggests that parents' relationship with each other should be a fundamental consideration in future programs aimed at increasing low-income fathers' involvement with their children. (Contains 2 figures and 4 notes.) [A version of this paper (and four other policy papers) was presented at the Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP) conference on "Young Disadvantaged Men: Fathers, Families, Poverty, and Policy" which was held September 14-15, 2009, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service[R] (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health importance to ensure that the program reaches disadvantaged groups. This paper describes the socio-demographic and risk profile of participants (n = 4828) in the first 18 months of operations, determines how representative they are of the population, assesses changes in participants' socio-demographic profile and compares "information-only" and "coaching" participants. The results show that GHS users are representative of the adult population in relation to education, employment status, Aboriginal status, fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol use. However, more female, middle-aged, English-speaking, rural and socially disadvantaged adults participated in GHS. Coaching Participants were more likely to be overweight and to be ex-smokers than the general population. There was substantial variability in GHS recruitment, when mass-reach television advertising was used, participants enrolled from a major city and from more disadvantaged communities. The GHS has broader population reach than many local interventions, but further efforts are needed to increase reach by Aboriginal communities, other minorities and men.
This article argues that the way in which research training is affected by national policies aiming at modernizing graduate education is shaped by the way in which national characteristics of state policies, academic institutions and disciplines interact. The argument is applied in an analysis of the consequences of policy changes and higher education reform in England, Norway and Sweden, focusing on how research training was shaped by reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. The article first presents the status before the reform period with an emphasis on the salient characteristics that affect research training and graduate education. Secondly, we briefly present the main lines of the reform policies and how they affected the higher education systems and careers to which researchers are supposedly trained. Finally, we focus on changes in research education and how the introduction of PhD training affected and was shaped by national system characteristics.
In this conceptual paper I draw on narratives from several contexts in my own educational history--a student-teaching experience, a graduate course in educational theory, and my work as a preservice teacher educator--to consider, first, the Winnicottian notion of the split-off intellect, in which individual subjectivity is skewed toward thinking and away from affect, and second, an inversion of that notion, in which affect splits off to form the central domain of experience, relationship, and defense against difficulty. Theorizing some of the ways in which thinking and affect can at times seem to get in each other's way, and reflecting on what individuals might use that "getting in the way" to do, I explore some ways in which educators in general, and teacher educators in particular, might facilitate the working-through of intellect/affect splits with the aim of helping students integrate thinking and feeling as they begin or continue their work in the classroom. (Contains 6 notes.)
Aim: This paper reports on a literature review conducted to explore whether there is evidence that postgraduate nursing education at master's level affects patient care. Background: Continued nursing education has been shown to benefit nurses' development, though little research has been conducted in relation to patient benefit. It is increasingly widespread that nurses pursue education to master's level. Method: Following a systematic review of the literature fifteen studies of mixed methodology and design were examined and data extracted using thematic analysis. Five common themes emerged relating to master's level nursing education that may ultimately affect patient care: increased confidence and self esteem; enhanced communication; personal and professional growth; knowledge and applic...
The structure and admission policy of secondary and postsecondary education in Egypt constitutes a culture of great prestige in general school and university education, as opposed to vocational school and technical education. Youth mainly from rural and underdeveloped urban areas enroll in technical education. Because of poverty, many girls and young women throughout Egypt neglect their education in order to marry early, help in the fields, gain immediate employment, or carry out domestic labor to meet family needs. Females who do enroll in schools, mainly opting for technical education, not only face gender bias in the classroom but also lack a positive attitude to support and inspire them, which limits their economic, political, and social empowerment. This article describes the Academy for Educational Development's Community YouthMapping (CYM), which has been structured to provide a solid foundation for a systemic approach to education reform. The goal of CYM is to effectively and efficiently prepare both adults and economically disadvantaged youth between the ages of thirteen and twenty for entry into unsubsidized employment or attainment of basic education or occupational skills leading to employment. Over 1500 young people (40% of them young girls from rural areas) have used CYM as a tool for training and leadership development for exposure to a variety of professions, and as a means for using creativity to provide meaningful contributions to community development, changing the perceptions of young people along the way. CYM has validated to many potential employers that young women are knowledgeable and possess the necessary skills to serve their communities effectively. (Contains 2 figures.)
Background: High rates of teacher turnover likely mean greater school instability, disruption of curricular cohesiveness, and a continual need to hire inexperienced teachers, who typically are less effective, as replacements for teachers who leave. Unfortunately, research consistently finds that teachers who work in schools with large numbers of poor students and students of color feel less satisfied and are more likely to turn over, meaning that turnover is concentrated in the very schools that would benefit most from a stable staff of experienced teachers. Despite the potential challenge that this turnover disparity poses for equity of educational opportunity and student performance gaps across schools, little research has examined the reasons for elevated teacher turnover in schools with large numbers of traditionally disadvantaged students. Purpose: This study hypothesizes that school working conditions help explain both teacher satisfaction and turnover. In particular, it focuses on the role of effective principals in retaining teachers, particularly in disadvantaged schools with the greatest staffing challenges. Research Design: The study conducts quantitative analyses of national data from the 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2004-05 Teacher Follow-up Survey. Regression analyses combat the potential for bias from omitted variables by utilizing an extensive set of control variables and employing a school district fixed effects approach that implicitly makes comparisons among principals and teachers within the same local context. Conclusions: Descriptive analyses confirm that observable measures of teachers' work environments, including ratings of the effectiveness of the principal, are generally less positive in schools with large numbers of disadvantaged students. Regression results show that principal effectiveness is associated with greater teacher satisfaction and a lower probability that the teacher leaves the school within a year. Moreover, the positive impacts of principal effectiveness on these teacher outcomes are even greater in disadvantaged schools. These findings suggest that policies focused on getting the best principals into the most challenging school environments may be effective strategies for lowering perpetually high teacher turnover rates in those schools.
This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design, we test whether seemingly `gender neutral' institutional reforms result in a structural disadvantage for women in particular. Our results demonstrate a striking gender similarity in terms of shorter unemployment durations and ultimately less favorable labor market outcomes (lower occupational class, lower wage, part-time and temporary contracts) among both men and women affected by these reforms. Findings also indicate that disadvantaged groups (...
Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP data from 4,771 twins was merged with their parents? social and economic data, available from Statistics Denmark. Low back pain data [?any low back pain? and ?persistent low back pain (more than 3...
This research is located within the call for schools to raise the achievement of students from culturally, linguistically and economically diverse (CLED) backgrounds. It combines quantitative and qualitative research methodologies to compare and contrast preservice teachers' (PSTs) responses to "scenarios" that explore beliefs regarding students from disadvantaged communities. Demographic data is used to determine an innovative Cultural Capital Index, while qualitative responses are coded on a continuum of Cultural Responsiveness to establish and analyse pre-service teachers' beliefs. This paper finds that many PSTs hold deficit attitudes regarding disadvantaged groups of students that may render these teachers unable and subconsciously unwilling to affect a system in need of reform. (Contains 7 notes and 6 figures.)
As technological advances continue to expand connectivity and communication, the number of patients and nurses engaging in social media increases. Nurses play a significant role in identification, interpretation, and transmission of knowledge and information within healthcare. Social media is a platform that can assist nursing faculty in helping students to gain greater understanding of and/or skills in professional communication; health policy; patient privacy and ethics; and writing competencies. Although there are barriers to integration of social media within nursing education, there are quality resources available to assist faculty to integrate social media as a viable pedagogical method. This article discusses the background and significance of social media tools as pedagogy, and provides a brief review of literature. To assist nurse educators who may be using or considering social media tools, the article offers selected examples of sound and pedagogically functional use in course and program applications; consideration of privacy concerns and advantages and disadvantages; and tips for success. PMID:23036058
How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history, and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping supports the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the M...
Since the beginning of the Great Recession, many community colleges have experienced significant declines in state revenue, increases in enrollment, higher tuition, and flat or declining state student aid. These conditions have also occurred in an environment of heightened accountability with pressure to advance a student success agenda and to meet workforce training needs. Findings from the annual survey of state community college directors conducted by the Education Policy Center at the University of Alabama, in partnership with Iowa State University and The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, show that the majority of state directors feel states are moving toward a privatized model of higher education and that structural deficits exist in state budgets disadvantaging community colleges. The concern is that these and other related findings demonstrate a situation that may not improve as the nation climbs out of recession; this situation is creating a new norm in community college funding. (Contains 1 table.)
We examine the association of adolescents? self-reported sexual assault victimization with their living arrangements, parent?s education, and plans for college. Participants included 1,634 ethnically-diverse and economically-disadvantaged high school students in southeast Texas. Lifetime history of forced sexual assault was reported by 8.3% of girls and 9% of boys. No association with gender, age, or parent?s education was detected. However, adolescents in non-traditional households (living with one parent, grandparents, or other) were more likely to report rape than youth living with both parents. Adolescents who were one race/ethnicity were less likely to report being raped than those in the multiple race category. Sexual assault intervention programs should account for a teenager?s livi...
This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners are in the classroom. However, beyond access there are several factors that compromise quality of education and raise issues for gender equity as an element of social justice. These issues are examined in the context of a professional development intervention on promoting gender awareness among secondary mathematics teachers in disadvantaged schools in rural Pakistan. Drawing upon the seminal work of Sen (1999) the paper posits that teacher profess...
This article describes the results of a study of community colleges in the US, based on measures of student engagement and graduation rates. The authors found that graduation rates INCREASE when students are held to high standards, that traditionally disadvantaged populations are no exception to this principle, and that per-student spending has no correlation to student learning - that is, a great education need not cost a lot of money. Finally, they found that students at the best community colleges may well be getting a better education than those at four-year colleges and universities; they are more engaged, get prompter feedback (a key factor in learning), and the level of academic challenge is comparable.
This article explores the process of gliding segregation in two Danish workplaces. We address the questions of how and why women and men at the same workplace, with the same levels of education, often end up doing different work tasks. Drawing on a gendered organization perspective and sense of entitlement theory we illustrate the processes whereby structural and cultural expectations place women in predictable and routine work, and men in more developmental work. We also show that the level of education makes a difference to women's sense of entitlement to developmental work, but that the discourse of family friendliness disadvantages women in the allocation of interesting and valued work tasks. The findings illustrate the resilience of gendered work practices and the importance of focusi...
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between school decline and changes in school demographics. Using a population of 981 (N = 981) elementary schools, the authors identified samples of declining schools: Relational Decline (n = 510), Absolute Decline (n = 217), and Crossing the Line (n = 165). Latent growth models assessed longitudinal relationships between 4 demographic factors and school performance. Of the 4 tested predictors, only changes in the percentages of disadvantaged students maintained significant structural relationships with declining academic performance. Associations between school size on school performance varied depending on sample. Findings suggested that changes in school demographics challenge educators, but that internal school processes account for school decline. Future research might search for a school decline threshold, as well as common processes responsible for the phenomenon. Educators might design procedures so that no one school must face continuous or extensive increases in at-risk student populations. (Contains 7 tables and 4 figures.)
School systems are a major social change agent capable of challenging social inequalities and economic disadvantages. Yet, while schools in Australia are being confronted with increasingly culturally diverse populations as well as an increasing focus on student retention, this transformative role is increasingly being played out in a broader educational context that has been found to replicate rather than challenge patterns of social inequality. Successive governments in Australia have responded to this context with a raft of policy initiatives. This paper, based on three-year longitudinal research undertaken in the city of Melbourne, outlines this policy context and introduces the theoretical approach that underpins its innovative approach to managing cultural diversity in educational institutions. It argues for, and presents, a multidimensional model for managing cultural diversity in schools, one that provides the tools for transformative practices to be undertaken to effect positive change in school environments for the benefit of all students.
School systems are a major social change agent capable of challenging social inequalities and economic disadvantages. Yet, while schools in Australia are being confronted with increasingly culturally diverse populations as well as an increasing focus on student retention, this transformative role is increasingly being played out in a broader educational context that has been found to replicate rather than challenge patterns of social inequality. Successive governments in Australia have responded to this context with a raft of policy initiatives. This paper, based on three-year longitudinal research undertaken in the city of Melbourne, outlines this policy context and introduces the theoretical approach that underpins its innovative approach to managing cultural diversity in educational ins...
The stories of 10 outstanding Pennsylvania men and women in this booklet illustrate the determination of educationally disadvantaged people to overcome insurmountable obstacles. They were aided in their successful struggles to enhance their reading and math skills as well as their careers by their participation in various adult basic education and literacy programs throughout Pennsylvania. The 10 people represented various counties in Pennsylvania: (1) Donna Smith, Allegheny County; (2) Donald Zeigler, Berks County; (3) Dawn Yates, Bradford County; (4) Carmen Harvison, Lebanon County; (5) Deborah Holmes, Montgomery County; (6) Michael Murray, Montgomery County; (7) Vincent Luettgen, Northampton County; (8) Darling Gregory, Philadelphia County; (9) Steven Parker, Philadelphia County; and (10) Patricia Williams, Susquehanna County. (NLA)
When integrating a new online tool in university educational system, it is necessary to know its features, applications and functions in depth, advantages and disadvantages, and the results obtained when it has been used by other educational institutions. Synchronous communication tool, "Elluminate Live" can be integrated into a virtual platform and has different resources that enable virtual communication in real time. Elluminate Live, online tutoring provides, through a process of audiovisual and written communication in real time and it incorporates the possibility of sharing the board (workspace) and content and files in different formats. It is evident that the use of communication tools in real time, reinforces the professional interaction, socio-emotional relationships and personal interactions, in short, it is a tool that facilitates and enhances interpersonal communication between users. The immediacy of communication and fostering rapid response to a bilateral discussion gives a greater degree than in any asynchronous communication.
Aim The study evaluates a community-based intervention programme, using a peer approach. The programme?s objective is to improve life opportunities for children from disadvantaged families in a poor district of Berlin by empowering their mothers. Women of varying cultural backgrounds?most of them from immigrant families?are educated in subjects like child development, early education and health in order to work as community mothers (CMs). Their major task is to obtain access to the families, strengthen the mothers? parenting and personal skills, and promote early nursery school attendance and access to social support systems. Community settings are integrated in the programme through the establishment of family cafés in nursery and primary schools. Methods The evaluation analyses the organ...
Aim The study evaluates a community-based intervention programme, using a peer approach. The programme?s objective is to improve life opportunities for children from disadvantaged families in a poor district of Berlin by empowering their mothers. Women of varying cultural backgrounds?most of them from immigrant families?are educated in subjects like child development, early education and health in order to work as community mothers (CMs). Their major task is to obtain access to the families, strengthen the mothers? parenting and personal skills, and promote early nursery school attendance and access to social support systems. Community settings are integrated in the programme through the establishment of family caf?s in nursery and primary schools. Methods The evaluation analyses the organ...
Teacher preparation has been called the "bete noire" of geography education in the United States (Boehm et al., 1994). Despite progress in other areas of geography, teacher education remains a significant issue affecting the quality of geography instruction nationwide. It is a multifaceted, multidimensional problem tied inextricably to national trends in education and teacher education reform. Some problems have resulted from a spatially dispersed and decentralised system of teacher education and certification. Today, many of the tensions within teacher education are the result of ideological arguments that have become highly politicised, pitting conservatives against liberals, Republicans against Democrats, in increasingly polarised discussions. As a consequence, geographers and professional geography societies have less influence in teacher preparation. This article briefly explores some of the significant issues affecting teacher preparation in the United States. The authors focus first on the volatile national context, particularly on changes in the last decade. The implications on teacher preparation of recent federal legislation entitled No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in general, and geography education specifically, are explored. Next, the authors describe the changing models of teacher education, including alternative certification, and the implications for geography education. They conceptualise teacher preparation as a three-stage process, and describe mentoring and professional development in geography education in the induction and early professional development stages. The authors conclude by reviewing the issues geography educators face in the next decade, suggesting research that may address them.
Managing people requires ongoing living in a harmony and to educate citizens who would support this status. It is not easy to continue the existence of management which can perform different cultures. The different management style is different educational systems. The management style also directly affects the country's educational philosophy. Countries have differences in respect to economic, social and educational boundaries. In addition, globalization affects countries' management styles. Thus, governments of different cultures and educational systems need to recognize their own education system to compete with the world. In this study, Malta, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Portugal, Finland, Greece, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Turkey, of which the educational systems structuring, financing, training programs, the school principal to choose the format of formal education objectives, admission requirements and funding are compared. In this study, education and training related to different education system managers will be introduced, and it is intended to gain different perspectives. (Contains 4 footnotes, 6 tables, and 7 figures.) [This paper was presented at XIV WCCES "Bordering, Re-Bordering and New Possibilities in Education and Society" Istanbul June 14-18, 2010.
Educational equity is often discussed as a moral issue. Another way to think about equity is as a way to promote productivity and economic efficiency. Traditionally, equity and efficiency are viewed as competing goals. One can be fair in devising a policy, but often what is fair is not economically efficient. Conversely, what is efficient may not be fair. What is remarkable is that some policies are both fair--i.e., promote equity--and promote economic efficiency. Investing in the early years of disadvantaged children's lives is one such policy. A large body of data shows that educational equity is an economic imperative that has far-reaching implications for America. The nation can make serious inroads toward reducing inequality, elevating the underclass, and generating more productivity from its investments in people. But to do so requires that one accepts the facts and rethink one's notions of parenting, education, and the development of human potential. Since inequality starts at or before birth, it can and should be corrected at or before birth with the resource of early childhood and parental education. Gains made in early childhood should be followed through with quality elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education that promote the development of cognition and character. Investing early allows people to shape the future; investing later chains them to fixing the missed opportunities of the past.
This paper reports on a qualitative case study undertaken in a remote part of Queensland, Australia. While there is some modest agreement about the capacity of contemporary information technologies to overcome the problems of schooling in areas of extreme remoteness, generally, children educated in such contexts are considered to be disadvantaged. The experiential areas of the curriculum, which often require specific teaching expertise, present the greatest challenge to teachers, and of these, physical education is perhaps the most problematic. This research reports on a case study of three remote Queensland multi-age primary (elementary) schools that come together to form a community of practice to overcome the problems of teaching physical education in such difficult circumstances. Physical education is constructed in these contexts by blurring the school and community boundaries, by contextualizing the subject content to make it relevant, and by adjusting the school day to accommodate potential physical education experiences. Each community gathers its collective experience to ensure the widest possible experiences are made available for the children. In doing so, the children develop a range of competencies that enable seamless transition to boarding high schools. (Contains 1 footnote.)
The CASPER Educational Outreach program with support from the Department of Education, the Department of Labor and the National Science Foundation advances physics education through a variety of avenues including CASPER's REU / RET program, High School Scholars Program, spiral curriculum development program and the CASPER Physics Circus. These programs impact K-12 teachers and students providing teachers with curriculum, supporting hands-on material and support for introducing plasma and basic physical science into the classroom. The most visible of the CASPER outreach programs is the Physics Circus, created during the 1999-2000 school year and funded since that time through two large grants from the Department of Education. The Physics Circus is part of GEAR UP Waco (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) and was originally one of 185 grants awarded nationwide by the U. S. Department of Education in 1999 to help 200,000 disadvantaged children prepare for and gain a pathway to undergraduate programs. The CASPER Physics Circus is composed of intense science explorations, physics demonstrations, hands-on interactive displays, theatrical performances, and excellent teaching experiences. Examples and efficacy data from the above will be discussed.
Commuting or re-location costs could be an in important influence on students' university choices and might even deter some from going to university. The barriers presented by these costs may be high for lower-income students, and students for whom there are cultural incentives to remain in or close to the parental home. If this is the case, then the geographical accessibility of universities has an important bearing on differences in higher education choices for different income and ethnic groups, and, in turn, on their earnings and life chances. Existing evidence has shown that university places are not evenly spatially distributed in Britain. Research has also found that "non-traditional" students--those from backgrounds in which higher-education participation is emerging--cite the location of institutions as a factor affecting their decision to go in to higher education. However, it is easy to make the mistake of attributing behaviour to ethnicity, gender or income when these behaviours are really due to other differences, like academic achievement, or home location which will have strong bearing on if and where students go to university. In fact, there is no large scale, systematic evidence for the UK that shows that proximity to a university really matters for higher education participation or choice amongst universities, or that it matters more for specific ethnic or income groups. The authors' research looks at these questions using administrative data on the population of school leavers and university entrants in England. These data allow the authors to link the choices of students from different ethnic and income backgrounds to distances between home and university, whilst accounting for schooling, neighbourhood and other background characteristics. Their key findings are: (1) Universities are not evenly distributed around the country but 90% of locations have three institutions and 4000 first degree places within 100km; (2) Non-white ethnic groups and low-income students actually live closer to their nearest three higher education institutions and closer to their nearest three high-quality research institutions than their white and high-income counterparts. These facts suggest that disparities in geographical access are unlikely to be a source of disadvantage to ethnic minorities and poor students; (3) Home-to-university distance has only a tiny influence on the probability of participation in higher education, relative to achievement and other background factors. Their statistical models imply that doubling the distance to the nearest institution would reduce the probability of white female participation by at most 4.5% in relative terms--reducing the probability of participation at the mean from 28.4% to 27.1%. For males, the effect is only half that, but there are no systematic differences by ethnic or income group; (4) In contrast, distance is the strongest factor influencing university choice amongst those who participate. The probability that a student attends a specific university decreases by 8%-15% with each 10% increase in home-to-university distance. This distance cost is observed for all ethnic and income groups, but is highest for Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and low income students, and lowest for Black students and those from Professional backgrounds; and (5) The influence of distance on choice of institution could make a difference to the type of higher education received by different demographic groups. This is a moot point for ethnic minorities, who have high participation rates at "elite" research intensive universities relative to whites, but provides a potential explanation for lower participation rates amongst women and low income groups in top ranked research universities. The findings therefore offer no support for the idea that improving the accessibility of higher education institutions is an effective route to raising participation. However, targeting the accessibility of higher-quality institutions could increase uptake of high quality HE places amongst suitably qualified students from lower-occupational status backgrounds. Such policies might include action to reduce the role of distance (distance learning) but also policies to encourage higher status institutions to undertake outreach activities further afield. In any case, the authors find no evidence to suggest that such a policy need be gender or ethnically targeted. One further important spatial implication from this work is that the type and quality of higher education in which students enroll is in part governed by the type and quality of local institutions, which in turn partly determines the skill composition of the local population. Given this, the local mix of institution types and quality could have a strong bearing on the quality and composition of the local human capital stock. (Contains 11 tables, 4 figures and 23 footnotes.)
As the governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007, Mitt Romney championed aggressive education policies later embraced by the Obama administration and by other states. But for most of his second run at the Republican presidential nomination, voters have heard little about his education record in Massachusetts or initiatives that Mr. Romney was largely unable to sell to that state's Democratic-controlled legislature. Instead, in a high-profile May 23 speech on education, Mr. Romney spoke at length about school choice, pushing a bold--but administratively tricky--plan to let disadvantaged students and those in special education take their federal aid to any campus, including a private school. Mr. Romney, who secured enough delegates to clinch the 2012 GOP nomination, is pushing hard to distinguish his education policies from those President Barack Obama espouses. The former business executive has floated market-based proposals that appeal to a conservative electorate, and leveled criticism of teachers' union influence on school policy--and with the Obama administration. At the same time, Mr. Romney continues to share some administration policy priorities, particularly Mr. Obama's fondness for charter schools and insistence on tying teacher evaluation in part to students' outcomes on standardized tests, both of which have rattled union leaders. Mr. Romney's decade-long evolution on education issues also has seen him move away from some of the most extreme positions taken by some in his party, including abolition of the U.S. Department of Education and repeal of the No Child Left Behind Act, which he nonetheless would like to overhaul. The policy overlap between Mr. Romney and the man he is seeking to replace comes as no surprise to William H. Guenther, the president of MassInsight, a nonpartisan research organization in Boston that advised Mr. Romney on K-12 issues during his tenure as governor. He places Mr. Romney among a set of "liberal and conservative education reformers" focused on a combination of "excellent goals and no excuses."
Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report suggesting that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers with respect to variety of available experiences and opportunities. The $2.34 million a year program, with full-time staff of approximately 60, services 244 schools and 36,000 students, and includes such projects as: itinerant teacher service, mobile manual arts, mobile classrooms, special education, mobile field study, instrumental music programs, opportunities for exceptional children, cultural activities, mini-buses and subsidized coaches, audiovisual maintenance, summer schools, speech therapy services, hydroponics, video recording/library services, microcomputers, and science series. Thirteen of the original pilot projects have been completed, including television programs, remedial/resource services, specialist recreation support, career information, regional newspaper development, teacher aides, updating school libraries, regional home economics and music centres, resource kits, manual arts by correspondence, and vocational reference centers. Revised in July 1983, profiles for each project (including those completed) list title, location, contact address, budget, type of project, personnel, purpose, background, operations, evaluation, and comments. (NEC)
Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to variety of available experiences and opportunities. The $1 million a year program with a full-time staff of over 40 funded such projects as: (1) itinerant teacher service; (2) mobile manual arts; (3) specially produced television programs; (4) mobile classrooms; (5) isolated children's special education; (6) mobile field study; (7) instrumental music programs; (8) remedial/resource services; (9) specialist recreation support; (10) opportunities for exceptional children; (11) cultural activities; (12) career information; (13) mini-buses and subsidized coaches; (14) audiovisual maintenance; (15) regional newspaper development; (16) teacher aides; (17) summer schools; (18) updating school libraries; (19) regional home economics and music centres; (20) speech therapy services; (21) outback mobile teaching services; (22) hydroponics; (23) video recording/library services; (24) resource kits; (25) manual arts by correspondence; and (26) vocational reference centres. Profiles for each project list project title, location, contact address, budget, type of project, personnel, purpose, background, operations, evaluation, and comments. (AW)
Older teens living in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) face serious sociodemographic disadvantages. When combined with the characteristic risk-taking behaviors of adolescence, these disadvantages pose a threat to TANF teens' immediate and future physical, psychological, and emotional health and to their long-term academic and economic well-being. Older TANF youths who are "child-only cases" (minors whose TANF benefits are determined without considering caregivers' needs and income) often face additional problems, including experiences of dysfunctional home situations, separation anxiety, and emotional and academic problems. Youth development programs aim to prepare young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through various experiences and activities that increase social, moral, emotional, physical, and cognitive competency. They can include state-based, community-based, and school-based efforts. The following types of programs and activities are important components of state and local efforts to promote self-sufficiency among older TANF teens transitioning off cash assistance: teen pregnancy prevention; family violence services; school completion/dropout prevention; and general education development (GED) certificate programs. Programs for in-school youth include career academies and vocational-technical education. Programs for out-of-school youth include YouthBuild and Department of Labor youth employment programs. Research has documented the negative effects of poverty and welfare receipt on youth outcomes but has also identified effective and innovative programs for at-risk youth. (Contains 40 references.) (MN)
Abstract in english The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attendance and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families an (more) d dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.
This paper presents data from a 1989 survey of 48 state higher education executive officers regarding the use of fiscal enhancement programs as a strategy to influence higher education performance. The paper reports on the purposes and objectives most often funded through specific incentives, and on the key advantages and disadvantages of this budget tool. Guidelines for structuring or evaluating such programs are suggested. It was found that 32 states had established enhancement programs which could be classified as categorical programs, competitive programs, or incentive programs. While overall budget conditions have led to reduced dollars being channeled to campuses through enhancement programs, the number of programs and the degree of commitment on the part of states to use enhancement funding techniques is increasing. The purposes most often served by incentive programs were economic growth, technology transfer, and applied research. Advantages of the use of enhancement programs are that they make state policy concrete through the mechanism of the budget, are based on performance indicators, reward and encourage meaningful institutional differentiation, and work as change strategies. Among disadvantages are that these programs emphasize short-term goals over long-term planning and distract public attention away from the necessity to adequately fund the base budget. A postscript discusses the formative and summative uses of incentive program results. (16 references) (JDD)
Framed within a shift from a highly centralized system of higher education (HE) to a de-regulated system in Norway, this article addresses how the foci upon student recruitment and incentives in the governmental funding of HE have stimulated market dynamics which affect local configurations of bachelor degrees in sport, physical education and outdoor pursuits, which in turn, can affect the content knowledge of physical education teacher education (PETE) degree. Analyzing data generated via in-depth interviews with Deans and Heads of programs at three significant national providers in the field of HE sport and physical education, this article illuminates how marketization permeates the communication of education values and, thus, the institutional pedagogical discourse. This article problem...
The main goal of this paper is to analyse factors (accessibility, attendance rates and quality of preschools) that may be affecting the educational readiness of China's rural children before they enter the formal school system. Using data from a survey of 82 preschools and 492 households in six counties in three provinces of China, this paper documents the nature of early childhood education (ECE) services and the educational readiness of children aged four to five years in rural China. We present evidence that ECE services are seriously deficient. We show that China's rural children score much lower on standardised tests of educational readiness than their urban counterparts and that more than one half of the rural children in our sample are "not ready" to continue on to the next level of formal education, possibly owing to the poor quality of early childhood education and low participation rates in early childhood education. (Contains 5 tables and 2 figures.)
This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the recall and recognition of the studied word and nonstudied lures. A low education level had a negative effect on memory performance for both young and middle-aged adults. Older adults with a high level of education had a higher level of false memory than those with a lower education level. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of education on false memory and mechanisms that create false memory of words in older adults. (Contains 2 tables.)
This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach to achieve them, 'national' education policy-making has become relatively unimportant if not meaningless because the documents produced within the parameters of global education targets have become the de facto policies. Moreover, the traditional policy-making function of the Ministry of Education (MOE) has 'transcended' to a higher donor - MOE level, relegating the role of the Ministry to 'managing' aid and aid agencies. This increased donor-minis...
The induction of the tuition fee for higher education in Sweden for students arriving from outside the European Economic Area will affect Swedish universities and in particular Jönköping University considering its position on the educational market as one of the most international universities in Sw...
In this text about the mathematics education in a primary school in the Gambia, I am researching what this mathematics education consists of and what surrounding factors might be affecting it. The pupils of the school in question speak several different languages. This language situation is one o...
Factors affecting the future of faculty collective bargaining are reviewed, including economic and political developments, the rest of the union movement, shifts in public policy concerning the private sector of higher education, and the subjects and effects of bargaining: comparable worth, reshaping the workforce, concession bargaining, and educational quality. (MSE)
Educators are affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic in many different ways. At this stage, most people are focusing on how to support people that are infected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The youth of South Africa are in the hands of these educators that are struggling under the effects of this pan...
Examines school enrollment and educational attainment in Kinshasa, Congo, focusing on how poverty, household structure, gender, and economic well-being affect investments in children's education. Increased economic well-being translates into greater attainment for both females and males, but does not necessarily reduce gender differences in school outcomes. (Contains 37 references.) (MLH)
Instructional designers and teachers, at all levels of education and training, try to put in common, to share and to reuse the practices affecting their pedagogical design and expertise. However, the instructional environment, and in particular the design and development of educational systems, can ...
The purpose of this study will be to determine if there is a relationship between Hispanic student achievement and the percentage of Hispanic teachers per district in the state of Texas. Specifically, this study will investigate the relationship between the percentage of Hispanic students per district who pass the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test in eleventh grade and the percentage of Hispanic teachers in their corresponding districts. This correlational investigation will include data from the Texas Education Agency (TEA). This data will consist of the 2007-2008 academic school year. TEA database data collected will include district type and district percentages of eleventh grade Hispanic students passing TAKS, economically disadvantaged students, at risk students, Hispanic teachers, teachers by years of experience, and teacher turnover rates. The main predictor variable identified was the percentage of Hispanic teachers per district. To determine if district community type is a significant factor in student achievement, an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will be employed. If significance is found by district type, then a minimum of six key informant interviews will be conducted to investigate this difference. These key informants would include two Hispanic teachers from urban, suburban, and rural districts. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to explore Hispanic student achievement based on district type and evidence of statistical significance was not found due to a lack of homogeneity. A multiple regression analysis was conducted on Hispanic students in 11th grade who passed all portions of the TAKS test based on district percentages of Hispanic teachers, at-risk students, economically disadvantaged students, teacher turnover, and teacher experience. A statistically significant relationship was observed, and district percentage of at-risk students and teacher turnover was a statistically significant predictor of Hispanic student achievement on all portions of the TAKS test in 11th grade. A multiple regression analysis was conducted on Hispanic students in 11th grade who passed the English Language Arts (ELA) TAKS test based on district percentages of Hispanic teachers, at-risk students, economically disadvantaged students, teacher turnover, and teacher experience. A statistically significant relationship was observed, and district percentage of at-risk students was a statistically significant predictor of Hispanic student achievement on the ELA TAKS test in 11th grade. A multiple regression analysis was conducted on Hispanic students in 11th grade who passed the Mathematics TAKS test based on district percentages of Hispanic teachers, at-risk students, economically disadvantaged students, teacher turnover, and teacher experience. A statistically significant relationship was observed, and district percentage of at-risk students, economically disadvantaged students, and teacher turnover was a statistically significant predictor of Hispanic student achievement on the Mathematics TAKS test in 11th grade. A multiple regression analysis was conducted on Hispanic students in 11th grade who passed the Science TAKS test based on district percentages of Hispanic teachers, at-risk students, economically disadvantaged students, teacher turnover, and teacher experience. A statistically significant relationship was observed, and district percentage of at-risk students and teacher turnover was a statistically significant predictor of Hispanic student achievement on the Science TAKS test in 11th grade. A multiple regression analysis was conducted on Hispanic students in 11th grade who passed the Social Studies TAKS test based on district percentages of Hispanic teachers, at-risk students, economically disadvantaged students, teacher turnover, and teacher experience. A statistically significant relationship was observed, and district percentage of at-risk students and economically disadvantaged students were a statistically significant predictor of Hispanic student achievement on the Social Studies TAKS test in 11th grade
This nine-chapter monograph deals with the purpose and context of basic education, starting with the basic learning needs that education must meet. Chapter 1 focuses on the rationale for education for all. Chapter 2 explores the interplay between the educational process and culture, including the complex issues associated with language. Chapter 3 considers the implications of new and broader concepts of literacy in designing strategies to reach adult learners. The impact of scientific discovery and technological change on learning needs and on the content and processes of basic education to meet those needs are examined in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 takes a closer look at the relationship of education and training to economic and social development including the world of work. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 focus on three major educational components that can affect the quality of life and that deserve space in basic education programs: environmental education, population education, and health education. The final chapter draws attention to some of the main questions that will have to be addressed in the areas of cultural maintenance and development, language policy, achieving adult literacy, preparation for life in an increasingly technological world, and quality of life. The World Declaration on Education for All is appended. (YLB)
... sensory integration, providing tactile, visual and auditory stimulation. Music therapy is good for speech development and language comprehension. ... families affected by autism and other disabilities a special opportunity to enjoy their favorite films. Learn ... education, advocacy, services, research and support.
After School Astronomy clubs are an important method of exposing students to astronomy at the critical middle school age when sparking an interest can inspire a lifelong career or hobby. We know that teachers complain that they can spend little time on astronomy in the classroom since they must teach to the test and the curriculum requirements do not have very extensive astronomy coverage. We also know that space is a very popular subject with students that can motivate them to join an after school club. One of the problems with after school astronomy clubs is that they don't often have a chance to observe the night sky. We propose to train club mentors on how to do daytime solar observing so students fulfill the IYA goal of looking through a telescope. We propose to provide a half day workshop for elementary and middle school teachers on starting and maintaining After School Astronomy clubs with special emphasis on observing the Sun not only in the visible spectrum but with radio waves and other parts of the spectrum as well. We will use NASA-oriented or NASA-funded educational materials and websites to bring a variety of ideas to the mentors and a broad knowledge of astronomy to the students. Attendees will be given an overview of the science of the Sun and how it can affect us on the Earth. They will be shown the dynamic nature of the Sun and what to look for to track the events happening there. The educators will be shown simple approaches to directly observing the Sun such as pinhole cameras, use of projection techniques with telescopes or binoculars, etc. They will be acquainted with sunspotter scopes and the advantages and disadvantages (such as expense) they pose for getting students involved. We will also point out the possibilities of using regular telescopes with solar filters and the specialized solar viewing telescopes such as the Coronado. Once the educators are comfortable with the simple approaches to viewing the Sun we will expose them to advanced topics such as remotely viewing the Sun using telescopes available on the web. Resources such as the Sun-Earth Viewer will allow them to study near real-time images of the Sun in multiple wavelengths. They will also be shown how they can monitor the Sun at radio wavelengths via remote telescopes or even how to purchase and build their own radio telescopes for hands-on monitoring of the Sun and other radio sources. We will conduct a brief evaluation of the participants knowledge of the Sun as they come into the workshop. We will also ask them to complete a brief knowledge survey at the end to determine if their knowledge and comfort level with solar science has improved significantly.
Culturally/linguistically diverse and economically disadvantaged students are under-represented in gifted education programs. White middle-class children tend to be afforded the opportunity of gifted education services. This study analyzed Ashe City Schools' journey to implement Project U-STARS-PLUS in order to identify and serve culturally/linguistically diverse and economically disadvantaged students. The methods employed for this research included: analysis of existing data, focus groups with teachers, interviews with administrators and a director, interviews with fourth grade children, and document reviews of AIG plans. Qualitative methods were employed to summarize the effect of Project U-STARS-PLUS in Ashe City Schools. The purpose of this study was to analyze Ashe City Schools' journey to recognize, nurture, and respond to the potential in all children via U-STARS-PLUS. The data obtained from the focus groups, interviews, and document analysis were analyzed to determine the overall effect of Project U-STARS-PLUS in Ashe City Schools. Findings indicate that when teachers were trained to utilize systematic observations over time for students, then "at potential" traits emerged. In this study, eighty-three children were recommended for gifted services that would have otherwise been overlooked over the course of the four year research. Teachers felt that Project U-STARS-PLUS impacted their interactions with possible gifted students or students with academic potential by allowing the teachers to see gifted potential. However, even though possible strengths were noticed, gifted identification still belonged to the student who could score high on a standardized test. Another benefit of this study revealed that science was energized in the classroom through inquiry based methods and hands-on family take home science kits. The written district gifted education plan indicated that Ashe City was intentionally exploring multiple pathways to gifted identification for all children. This study is important because children from culturally/linguistically diverse and economically disadvantaged households should have equitable access to gifted education services. This study will be beneficial to other school districts facing the same challenges of recognizing and nurturing their brightest children. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.
Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right. Several millions of people, mainly in developing countries are affected by arsenic in drinking water and the global impact now makes it a top priority water quality issue. A wide gap between the number of exposed people and the pace of mitigation programmes in rural areas of developing countries is the main problem in providing safe drinking water. The main challenge is to develop a sustainable mitigation option that rural and disadvantaged people can adopt and implement themselves to overcome possible public heath hazards. During the recent years, new approaches have emerged in Bangladesh, primarily emerging out of people's own initiative. The local drillers target presumed safe aquifers on the basis of colour and texture of the sediments. A recent study by our research group revealed a distinct correlation between the colour characteristics of the sediments and the groundwater redox conditions. The coupling between the colour of sediments and the redox characteristics of groundwater may thus be used as a tool to assess the risk for As mobilization from the aquifers. The study showed that it is possible to assess the relative risk of high concentrations of As in aquifers if the colour characteristics of the sediments are known and thus, local drillers may target safe aquifers. For validating the sustainability of this mitigation option geological, hydrogeological and microbiological investigations are needed. The sustainability of the aquifers needs to be assessed by combining results from various field and laboratory investigations and by running predictive models. There is also a need to raise the awareness and thereby create a platform for motivating the local drillers to be educated in installing safe tubewells. Awareness raising and community mobilisation are two top priorities for implementing a sustainable safe water project in rural village areas. Significant preparation, attention, and focus must be given to the human resource development stage of any project implementation. Local drillers need to be trained on how to handle and disseminate the invented method of installing safe tube wells. Capacity of the local level stakeholders and end users must be improved by providing training and conducting awareness campaigns. Based on the experiences and multidisciplinary research, Water Safety Plans needs to be formulated as well as adopted for long term monitoring and management of implemented mitigation options.
Technological innovation is sweeping the world into an unimaginable future. These forces are affecting all aspects of how people live and work. What will be the role of museums and museum educators in this future? This article surveys some of the technologies that have profoundly affected museums and museum education and poses some questions: what trends in technology do museum professionals need to watch? Will museums remain relevant? Do museum collections matter? (Contains 15 notes.)
This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the level of government funding towards improving science education program in Uganda? (2) Have recent initiatives, such as free Primary and Secondary education, compulsory science, and 75% sponsorship for science-based courses, had a measurable impact on the proportion of students from the conflict-affected regions who enter tertiary institutions to pursue science and technology programs? (3) To what extent do the Ugandan Education Policy and, in particular, the Science Education Policy effectively address the educational needs of students affected by armed conflicts? The study employed a mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Quantitative data were obtained from a comprehensive search of policy documents and content analysis of literature on education policy, science education programs, and impact of conflicts on educational delivery. Qualitative data were obtained from surveys and interviews distributed to policy makers, central government and the local government officials, teachers, and students from the war-ravaged Northern Uganda. Analysis of policy documents and respondents' views revealed that Uganda does not have a science education policy, and the present education policy does not fully address the educational needs of students studying in conflict-affected regions. It was further observed that fewer students from the conflict-affected regions qualify for government scholarship to study science courses in higher institutions of learning. The study recommended the following policy interventions: (a) affirmative admission in higher institutions of learning, (b) curriculum reform, (c) professional development of teachers, (d) school security and safety, (e) science and technology education, and (f) increased funding for emergency education. The study proposes a model of "Schools as Islands of Peace and Hope" with science education as the tool for post-conflict economic recovery, as a blue print for emergency education policy framework.
This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers - and those trying not to be smokers - in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. PMID:23145793
There is a shortfall in the provision of guidance programs to meet the specific educational and vocational needs of girls and women in Asia and the Pacific. Unemployment rates of women are higher than those of men, the lack of articulation between vocational education and the realities of the labor market lead to unemployment, and the narrow range of educational attainment of girls and women increases their vulnerability to displacement in the wake of rapid technological change. Employer bias reinforces these factors. The Australian perspective on services for girls and women is described. From general observations as well as the Australian experience, three key areas in which interventions are necessary to improve vocational guidance and career awareness for women and girls emerged: awareness, teacher practices, and primary education. A rationale, proposed activities, expected outcomes, and resources required are provided for each of the three key areas. A framework for the improvement of educational and vocational guidance services for girls and women, based on needs, actions required, institution or agency responsible, and resource implications, is presented in the following areas: (1) planning, administration, and policy making; (2) curriculum and teaching; (3) educational materials; (4) teachers; (5) educational and vocational guidance; (6) nonformal vocational training; and (7) disadvantaged groups. Appendix 1 provides plans for 17 countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, and Western Samoa. Appendix 2 gives examples of teacher training units on women in nontraditional jobs, action research, and setting up a career club.) (CML)
In most parts of the world today, the goal of providing all children with free and Universal Primary Education (UPE) has received broad national and international support and some educational systems have evolved from predominantly "fee-charging" towards "fee-free" status in recent times. In Ghana, for example, the endorsement of Education for All (EFA) and millennium development goals (MDGs) agreements coupled with commitment to internal constitutional reforms have resulted in the initiation of the Free Compulsory Universal, Basic Education (fCUBE) policy. Dishearteningly however, in many low-income countries (including Ghana), verbal commitments to these laudable social goals do not appear to be translated into the needed changes in policy and practice. This article draws on a case study of the fCUBE policy implementation to provide insights into the complexities involved in operationalising UPE policy initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa. The methodological approach involved the critical discourse analysis of interviews with Ghanaian education officials who mediate policy at the "meso-level". Owing to the commitments of the fCUBE policy to enhancing the educational opportunities and outcomes for the socially and economically disadvantaged, the paper sees it (i.e. the fCUBE policy) as deeply rooted in social democracy. However, it is argued that as long as there is a blurring in meaning of the intentions encapsulated in its title, primary education in Ghana cannot be said to be "free", "compulsory" and "universal". It is concluded that accentuating policy purposes in low-income countries is not inherently problematic but that the challenges lie with how the intentions and provisions of policy are conceptualised and operationalised in context.
In the UK there is much concern about the educational progress of children from areas of significant social disadvantage entering primary school with impoverished language skills. These children are not routinely referred to speech and language therapy services and therefore education practitioners in schools deliver intervention to facilitate their language learning. The evidence base to support these interventions is small and more needs to be known about their effectiveness. However, evaluating such interventions in an educational context can be challenging due to limited opportunities and resources. The study evaluated small-group language intervention for Key Stage 1 children with impoverished language delivered by trained education practitioners in schools. Children receiving the language intervention were compared to a matched comparison group not receiving the intervention. Baselines of receptive and expressive language ability were taken pre-intervention and post-intervention using standardized language assessments. The intervention consisted of eight sessions delivered over eight weeks by trained education practitioners. The children in the intervention group made significant gains in their expressive language compared to the comparison group in the length and complexity of their utterances. Neither the intervention group nor the comparison group made any gains in their receptive language. This effectiveness study showed that small-group language intervention for children with impoverished language delivered by trained education practitioners in schools is effective in facilitating children's expressive language. It is proposed that education practitioners would benefit from more knowledge of children's speech, language and communication development and training in how to assess and measure these skills in young children appropriately in a school context. (Contains 4 tables.)
The ocean sciences suffer from a lack of diversity, particularly among indigenous peoples, despite the fact that indigenous peoples often have deep, cultural knowledge about the marine environment. Nowhere is this inequity more glaring than in Hawaii. Traditional knowledge in marine science enabled Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) to become world leaders in transpacific canoe voyaging, aquaculture, and fisheries. Yet today, NHPI are severely underrepresented in the ocean sciences (and in STEM fields in general) at all levels of education and employment. When compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii, NHPI students as a group have among the poorest educational performance, indicated in part by underrepresentation in college enrolment and pre-college gifted and talented programs, as well as overrepresentation in eligibility for special education and free and reduced lunch programs. The Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE), a NSF-funded, multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai (UH), is determined to address this inequity. C- MORE is committed to increasing diversity in the ocean sciences, particularly among NHPI, at all levels of education and research. Our approach is to work with existing programs with a track record of increasing diversity among NHPI. We are currently developing culturally relevant materials including educational games for K-12 students, mentorships for high school and community college students, and laboratory and shipboard experiences for teachers and undergraduates in partnership with minority-serving organizations. Some of our main partners are EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research), Ka `Imi `Ike (an NSF- funded program to recruit and retain NHPI undergraduates in geosciences), Upward Bound (an enrichment program for economically disadvantaged high school students which includes intensive summer courses), the UH Center on Disability Studies (which is developing culturally relevant curriculum to address the overrepresentation of NHPI in special education classes) and the UH Louis Stokes Program (which we plan to use as a model). For more information, please refer to: http:cmore.soest.hawaii.edu
Real-time affect detection from open-ended text-based dialogue is challenging but essential for the building of effective intelligent user interfaces. In this paper, we report updated developments of an affect detection model from text, including affect detection from one particular type of metaphorical affective expression (cooking metaphor) and affect detection based on context. The overall affect detection model has been embedded in an intelligent conversational AI agent interacting with human users under loose scenarios. Evaluation for the updated affect detection component is also provided. Our work contributes to the conference themes on engagement and emotion, interactions in games, storytelling and narrative in education, and virtual characters/agents development.
Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 To provide care and be cared for in a multiple-bed hospital room Aims:? To illuminate patients' experiences of being cared for and nurses' experiences of caring for patients in a multiple-bed hospital room. Background:? Many patients and healthcare personnel seem to prefer single-bed hospital rooms. However, certain advantages of multiple-bed hospital rooms (MBRs) have also been described. Method:? Eight men and eight women being cared for in a multiple-bedroom were interviewed, and two focus-group interviews (FGI) with 12 nurses were performed. A qualitative content analysis was used. Results:? One theme -Creating a sphere of privacy- and three categories were identified based on the patient interviews. The categories were: Being considerate, Having company and The patients' area. In the FGI, one theme - Integrating individual care with care for all - and two categories emerged: Experiencing a friendly atmosphere and Providing exigent care. Both patients and nurses described the advantages and disadvantages of multiple-bed rooms. The patient culture of taking care of one another and enjoying the company of room-mates were considered positive and gave a sense of security of both patients and nurses. The advantages were slight and could easily become disadvantages if, for example, room-mates were very ill or confused. The patients tried to maintain their privacy and dignity and claimed that there were small problems with room-mates listening to conversations. In contrast, the nurses stressed patient integrity as a main disadvantage and worked to protect the integrity of individual patients. Providing care for all patients simultaneously had the advantage of saving time. Conclusions:? The insights gained in the present study could assist nurses in reducing the disadvantages and taking advantage of the positive elements of providing care in MBRs. Health professionals need to be aware of how attitudes towards male and female patients, respectively, could affect care provision. PMID:22390650
This book examines recent school reforms in England and Wales, the U.S.A., Australia, New Zealand and Sweden. It suggests that, at the same time as appearing to devolve power to individual schools and parents, governments have actually been increasing their own capacity to "steer" the system at a distance. Section 1 sets the scene by outlining and exploring the various policies seeking to restructure public education systems via decentralized decision making. Chapter 2 summarizes recent educational reforms in each country; chapter 3 attempts some cross-national comparisons. The second section examines the consequences of recent restructuring initiatives. Chapter 4 focuses on school leaders' changing roles, and chapter 5 explains incursions on teachers' workload. Chapter 6 explores restructuring's effects on classrooms and the curriculum. Chapter 7 explores school governance changes in different national contexts. The third section synthesizes the issues and research of previous sections. Chapter 8 examines consequences of choice and devolution for patterns of social differentiation. Recent research suggests that fragmentation of bureaucratic educational systems is leading to a polarized system, with "good" schools being rewarded and able to choose their (advantaged) students, while "failing" schools are thrown into a cycle of decline from which they and their socially disadvantaged students may not recover. Currently, choice is as likely to reinforce hierarchies as to improve educational opportunities and overall schooling quality. (Contains 433 references.) (MLH)
In 1997, Arizona enacted a tuition tax credit law. Supporters consider this law a model for improving public education. Opponents believe it is a model for seriously undermining public education, particularly public schools serving poor children. The two types of tax credits Arizona offers are a private tuition tax credit and tax credit for public school extracurricular activities. Over 3 years, the Arizona policy has largely subsidized education for middle- and upper-income families, while lower-income families have not benefited. Opponents argue that this law diverts significant resources away from programs that could otherwise support and strengthen public education for poor and disadvantaged students. There are few regulations governing the operation of school tuition organizations (STOs). State officials demand little accountability from STOs and do not require them to provide scholarships based on financial need or previous inability to attend private school. Evidence shows that a large majority of STOs provide tuition payments primarily to religious schools, often specific schools that reflect the religious views of the affiliates of the STOs. Arizona taxpayer dollars going to public schools or private STOs under the tax credit law are not donations, as supporters call them. While a state can earmark funds based on the needs of public schools and students, Arizona's tuition tax credit interferes with this ability, effectively reallocating funds in a patently inequitable manner that hinders school improvement and reinforces economic divisions. (SM)
The educational needs of the long-term unemployed and elderly in Europe's migrant communities should be understood in a context of state diversity and migration complexity. This report examines the role education plays in alleviating long-term unemployment in Europe's migrant communities and socioeconomic isolation among older migrants. Compared to nonmigrant communities, figures show migrant communities' continued disadvantages in employment. Xenophobia, discrimination, and racism are all influential factors regarding migrant unemployment. Recently, however, governments and communities have created effective educational interventions, including some researched by the Council of Europe. Success rates are higher when four conditions are met: (1) students are motivated; (2) the"skills gap" and labor need are effectively identified; (3) general rates of unemployment are low; and (4) the status of training courses is perceived by participants to be high. A field survey of migrant households found that most older migrants lacked social support and social roles, were distressed by shame and guilt, and had lost contact with their families. Older migrant adults require effective educational models and professional services to help them combat a series of social, health, and psychological problems. New citizenship rights for migrants, a pan-European race-relations policy against discrimination and racism, along with further study are called for. (TES)
Abstract in portuguese Atualmente, o livro didático vem sendo reconhecido, por parcela significativa dos estudiosos da educação, como um material relevante ao processo de escolarização. No campo da Educação Física a produção e estudo do livro didático permanecem praticamente negligenciados. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicabilidade de um livro didático da modalidade basquetebol, construído especificamente para esse estudo, junto a cinco professores de Educa? (more) ?ão Física. A metodologia utilizada foi de natureza qualitativa, tendo a entrevista semi-estruturada como instrumento de coleta de dados. Os resultados apontaram que os professores estabeleceram uma relação crítica frente ao livro didático de basquetebol e indicaram vantagens e desvantagens de sua utilização no contexto escolar. Abstract in english Nowadays, textbook has been recognized, to a significant portion of education experts, as a relevant material to education process. In the field of Physical Education the textbook's production and study became practically neglectful. The objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a basketball textbook, built specifically for this study, with five teachers of Physical Education. The methodology used was qualitative, the interview was a data collection ins (more) trument. The results pointed that teachers established a critical relationship against the textbook of basketball and they pointed advantages and disadvantages for its use in school context.
The employability of secondary-level youth is considered by a youth employment company official in testimony to the National Commission on Excellence in Education. Attention is directed to ways in which young people, and particularly the economically disadvantaged, can acquire the necessary reading, writing, and math skills for on-the-job success. Educating youth in life skills, work habits, and positive attitudes for productive employment is also addressed. The work of 70001 Ltd, a youth employment company that helps high school dropouts overcome educational and employment barriers, is described, and the following conclusions based on the company's experiences are offered: young people learn better if they understand why the material is important to them; people of all ages will perform in accordance to expectations set for them; people will perform best when they feel they are making a contribution; although jobs require increasingly sophisticated skills, employers are willing to train people who demonstrate good work habits and attitudes; the concept of public/private partnership is a working reality; and the federal government has an important role to play in efforts to link education to higher productivity. (SW)
Recent advances in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in dentistry have identified the importance of providing outcomes related to the appropriate use of this innovative technology to practitioners, educators, and investigators. To assist in determining whether and what types of evidence exist, the authors conducted PubMed, Google, and Cochrane Library searches in the spring of 2011 using the key words "cone beam computed tomography and dentistry." This search resulted in over 26,900 entries in more than 700 articles including forty-one reviews recently published in national and international journals. This article is based on existing publications and studies and will provide readers with an overview of the advantages, disadvantages, and indications/contraindications of this emerging technology as well as some thoughts on the current educational status of CBCT in U.S. dental schools. It is the responsibility of dental educators to incorporate the most updated information on this technology into their curricula in a timely manner, so that the next generation of oral health providers and educators will be competent in utilizing this technology for the best interest of patients. To do so, there is a need to conduct studies meeting methodological standards to demonstrate the diagnostic efficacy of CBCT in the dental field. PMID:23144478
This article attempts to unpack the policy vision and discourse driving community management of schooling in Nepal and to consider the ways in which these policies are being experienced by bureaucrats, teachers, parents and children. The focus is on the World Bank funded Community School Support Project (CSSP) launched by the Government of Nepal in June 2003 and currently being used as a basis for extending community management to all of the country's 26,000 public schools. The article illustrates how national level policy prescriptions lead to a range of outcomes, many of which are unintended. Community-based schooling in Nepal is intended to shift the role of the State from manager to facilitator of schooling. However, the article suggests that reforms carried out in the name of greater efficiency, accountability and empowerment are driven primarily by a desire to limit the role of the State in the provision, but not necessarily control, of public education. The consequences of this include the on-going marginalisation of many of the country's poor and disadvantaged groups, a de-motivated and further politicised teaching force and continued chronic under-funding of public education. (Contains 2 notes.) [An earlier version of this paper was presented at the United Kingdom Forum for International Education and Training (UKFIET) International Conference on Education and Development (Oxford, 2005).
The influence of family background, including parental education, on college student attrition was evaluated with first- and second-generation American students. A total of 701 enrolled students and those who left before graduation were surveyed at a primarily residential private liberal arts college and at a primarily commuter state-supported liberal arts college. It was found that first-generation students approach the college experience with about the same degree of normative congruence as second-generation students with regard to their expectations. They value higher education for the intellectual growth and for the career preparation they anticipate receiving. In respect to a second aspect of social integration, structural or affiliational integration, first-generation students were at a disadvantage in comparison to the students whose parents had significant experience with the college or university setting. First-generation students suffer from a lower level of structural integration since they are less likely to live on campus, be involved in campus organizations, meet or pursue their most important friendships on campus, or work on campus. As for academic integration, first-generation students appear to have equally high aspirations regarding level of education they expect to attain, but those who withdraw are not as strongly convinced that college is the only or best route to life success. First-generation students appear to have lower congruity between their values toward education and their parents' values; receive less support of all types from their parents; and have heavier job loads. These factors increase their vulnerability to attrition. A bibliography is appended. (SW)
The philosophy of phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, who views the individual and society as contributors to a dynamic, ambiguous process, is applicable to educational philosophy. Merleau-Ponty's concern with free men and their relationship to the world centers on his concept of self, others, intersubjectivity, and morality. The self's contact with the social represents the origin of truth; persons discover themselves only in the social milieu where subjectivity and objectivity meet. Intersubjectivity refers to the impenetrable private world inhabited by everyone. Although unique to the individual, intersubjectivity creates a unity in which individual dreams are forged into a common goal, e.g., freedom. Merleau-Ponty suggests that change occurs only through institutional structures, that morality stems from respect for others, and that virtue is an affirmation of a universal bond among all human beings. From his perspective, education would combine groups with diverse viewpoints in school-inspired activities which focus on communication. While encouraging change through institutions, educators would alert learners to the threat of bureaucracy to the creative mind. Moral education would focus on the dilemmas of the human condition with the concern of extending justice to all, especially the weak and disadvantaged. (KC)
This paper draws on an extensive review of literature associated with telecommuting and looks at features that might affect the offering and take-up of distance education, particularly distance education involving computer applications, telecommunications and web-based, off-campus delivery of courses or components of courses. The issue is discussed from the perspective of the individual, the organization (the educational institution) and the wider community. The aim of the paper is to put forward a possible research model for the evaluation of distance education. Includes two figures: a task model and a research model. (Contains 43 references.) (Author)
Purpose - Service firms constantly look for ways to differentiate their offering. Recently, personal values have emerged as a way to understand how customers fulfill deeper needs when consuming a service. This paper aims to examine how personal values operate in the evaluation of higher education services. Like other services, marketing has become essential to higher education as universities compete aggressively for students and differentiate their service offerings. Although attribute-based measures such as SERVQUAL provide useful information to service providers, personal values may offer a deeper understanding of how customers judge the quality and desirability of an educational institution's services. This study seeks to determine whether personal values in higher education affect per...
It is time to revisit the way we describe and advocate for the "learning power" of museums. Museum learning is unique, multi-faceted and inspires higher-order affective and cognitive development. Yet, when museums describe their educational impact to stakeholders, it is often described narrowly, using the measures of formal education rather than focusing on its capacity to model intrinsically-motivated, joyful, open-ended learning that supports self-knowledge and positive social behavior. Museum educators are not doing enough to make a case for the value of museum learning in its own right with political, civic, educational and even museum entities. (Contains 17 notes.)
This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in Switzerland the opposite is true. Analysis shows that while differences in immigration policy play a significant role, there are many other variables which affect educational attainment in immigrants, such as the education level of the parents, source region and home language. Tables are appended. (Contains 14 tables and 20 footnotes.)
Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have influenced education policies in aid-receiving countries. This includes "harmonization" processes through which policies are formed and promulgated, and some implications for national ownership and the quality of education in relation to these processes. (Contains 4 tables and 4 footnotes.)
This ethnographic study examined beliefs about disability and related socialization and educational practices at a Japanese elementary school. Disability is a universal issue affecting child welfare and educational systems around the world. Yet, relatively little sociocultural research has focused on non-Western children with disabilities. This limitation restricts our understanding of the extent to which and how cultures vary in their responses to disability, and the impact of these variations on children's development. Public schools in Japan recently implemented formal special education services for children with ''developmental disabilities,'' a new category used by educators to refer to ''milder'' difficulties in children's acquisition of social and academic skills, for example, learn...
This paper examines the past, present and future context of geographical education in Brazil and the issues that, in our view, are relevant to understand its ebb and flow in the complex reality of the country. Various trends have affected the development of geographical education since the 1970s. Two pillars of training and school practice reflect the current content of geographical education. Beginning with a historical overview of geographical education in Brazil, we identify the main issues that need to be addressed: What conceptions of geography and geographical education are reflected in the educational materials at schools? How do these reflect the teaching practices? What is the "place" of geography in the official curriculum? From the examination of the past and present of geographical education in Brazil, we see that Brazil is currently best suited for an ideal synthesis in geographical education: at the level of theory, a synthesis of aspects of critical geography and civic education; at the level of public policy, a synthesis of centralization and decentralization in geography curricular designs; and at the level of practice, a synthesis of education "about" and "for" sustainable development with education "about" and "with" geospatial technologies.
Despite national calls to conceptualize education as a continuous P-16 system, most high schools cease to serve their students at the point of graduation. For their part, colleges provide relatively few students with formal bridge programs during the summer transition between secondary and postsecondary education. Even among low-income students accepted into four-year colleges with financial aid, the period between spring admission and fall matriculation features a "summer flood" in which graduates continue fundamental decision-making about where--and even whether--to attend college. Although this summer flood is familiar to secondary educators who work with low-income students, this phenomenon has been invisible in scholarly and policy circles. Pre-college enrollment changes can only be discovered by following students closely across the transition from high school to college. One such research project, the Big Picture Longitudinal Study (BPLS), uncovered the phenomenon of the summer flood. Begun in 2006 with funding from the Lumina and Irvine Foundations, the BPLS follows 500 graduates from over 50 innovative urban high schools that have gained national attention for graduating socioeconomically disadvantaged students of color and working in partnership with these students to assure their admission to college. The troubling gap between admission and matriculation led the authors to design a qualitative study with a specific focus on summer college planning among socioeconomically disadvantaged high school graduates who have already been accepted to college. They found that the Big Picture's exemplary college-going figures masked a summer pattern of ongoing deliberation about enrolling in college. Focus groups of transition counselors and school principals, and in-depth case studies with 13 recent Big Picture graduates, confirmed that the summer following graduation is a turbulent period for most of these high school graduates. (Contains 14 endnotes and a Bibliography.)
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.
This paper analyses a "critical moment" in the educational trajectories of young indigenous children in Peru: the transition to primary school. It addresses the inequalities in educational services that affect indigenous children, before looking at the micro-level processes that take place in school settings, through a focus on two selected case studies from the Young Lives study of childhood poverty. Using longitudinal information collected in two consecutive years, the case studies show how the children's language and culture are excluded from school premises and their very identity as children and indigenous people is disregarded, negatively affecting their educational performance.
Globally, early years policies and documents have set out aspirational outcomes and benefits for children, their families and the wider society. These policies have emphasised the place of early childhood provision within the wider global agenda, by tackling inequality and disadvantage early on in children's lives. However, these strategies have also raised further debates regarding the way they have informed and shaped curricula frameworks and pedagogical approaches. The international team of contributors to this book argue that if these issues are not explicitly acknowledged, understood, critiqued and negotiated, emerging policies and documents may potentially lead to disadvantaging, marginalising and even pathologising certain childhoods. Divided into two parts, the volume demonstrates the dialectic nature of both policy and practice. The chapters in this wide-ranging text: (1) explore and articulate the philosophical premises and values that underpin current early childhood policy, curricula and pedagogies; (2) explicitly acknowledge and articulate some of potential conflicts and challenges they present; (3) provide examples of divergent and creative pedagogical thinking; and (4) highlight opportunities for enabling pedagogical cultures and encounters. This book is divided into two parts. Part I, Early Childhood Policies: Implications For Provision And Practice, contains the following chapters: (1) Balancing Traditions And Transitions: Early Childhood Policy Initiatives And Issues In Germany (Pamela Oberhuemer); (2) Piracy In Policy: Children Influencing Early Childhood Curriculum In Norway (Elin Eriksen Odegaard); (3) Pre-school Education In Bulgaria: Achievements And Challenges (Rozalina Engels-Kritidis); (4) Early Childhood Care And Education In Uzbekistan (Carol Aubrey); (5) Emerging Models For Early Childhood Development From Birth To Four In South Africa (Hasina Banu Ebrahim); (6) Early Childhood Education In The Philippines: Administration And Teaching Practices (Percyveranda A. Lubrica, Chul Woo Lee And Evelyn Angiwan); (7) Early Childhood Curriculum, Policy And Pedagogy: The Nigerian Perspective (Monica Odinko); (8) A Pedagogy For Educating "new Professionals" (Sue Callan, Michael Reed And Sharon Smith); And (9) Ireland: The Early Childhood Pedagogical Dilemma (Florence Dinneen). Part Ii, Early Childhood Practice: Enabling Pedagogical Cultures And Encounters, contains the following chapters: (10) The Japanese And Western View Of Nature: Beyond Cultural Incommensurability (Manabu Sumida); (11) Integrating Dance And Visual Arts In Taiwanese Early Childhood Education (Shu-ying Liu); (12) Working Theories and Learning Dispositions In Early Childhood Education: Perspectives From New Zealand (Sally Peters And Keryn Davis); (13) The Integration Of Young Children With Special Needs In Mainstream Nursery Schools (Athina Kammenou); (14) Promoting Emotional Well-being Or Mental Health? What's The Difference? (Anita Soni); (15) Engaging "hard-to-reach" Families: A View From The Literature (Gill Boag-Munroe); (16) A Relational Pedagogy In Community-based Early Childhood Development (Peter Rule); And (17) Architexture: Reading The Early Years Environment (Jan Georgeson and Gill Boag-Munroe).
Abstract Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of modern educational computer games. A case study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the adoption of Dimenxian, which was a new educational computer game designed to teach Algebra to middle school students. The diffusion of innovations theory was used as the conceptual framework of this study. The results indicated that compatibility, relative advantage, complexity and trialability played important roles in the game adoption. The...
Among the 61 papers in this volume (some in French) are the following: "Problems and Pitfalls in a Naturalistic Inquiry into the Relationship between Environmental Remembrance and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly" (Barrick); "Educating the Adult Educator" (Baskett); "Socio-Psychological Factors in Electronic Networking" (Boshier); "Study of the Impact of Education on Nursing Students' Attitudes toward Cancer and Cancer Patient Care Using a Solomon-Four Group Design" (Boyd, Law); "Team Tutoring" (Brook, Owens); "Self-Directed Learning" (Brundage); "Distance Delivery to Northern Sites by Computer Conference" (Carney, Archer); "Educational Information Brokering and Referral Services in Alberta" (Chapman et al.); "University Program for Adults with Severe Mental Disabilities" (Chapman, Tautchin); "Politics of Evaluation Studies in Adult Education" (Chaytor, Murphy, Chaytor); "Overview of Research into Adult and Continuing Education in Scotland" (Cooke); "Perceptions of Professionalism of the RN to BSN Student Pursuing a Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing" (Critzer, Groeneweg); "Issues in Distance Education from the Faculty Point of View" (Cruikshank, Gillen); "Alberta Profile of Adult Basic Skills" (Deane, Martin); "International Connections in Adult Education" (Draper): "Human Service Worker as an Adult Educator" (Farquharson); "Intergrated Community-Based Human Resource Development in the Republic of the Philippines" (Griffith); "Learning Partnerships in Adult Education" (Hey); "Factors Affecting Information Preferences of Seriously Ill Adults" (Hinds);"Effectiveness of Education and Development of Work" (Kauppi); "Using Focus Group Interviews to Assist Program Planning" (Kops, Percival); "Ensuring 'Guidance and Control'" (Law); "Training Administrators of Adult Education" (Lusthaus); "Lifelong Education" (Mathieson); "Delivering a Baccalaureate Program for Registered Nurses by Distance Education" (McDonnell et al.); "Futures Research" (Milk); "Theoretical Perspectives of Recurrent Education" (Minnis); "Discourse of Dropout in Distance Education" (Munro); "Internationalisation of Distance Education" (Othick); "Experience of Learning through Home Study" (Passmore, Haughey); "Life Satisfaction of the Elderly in a Nursing Home" (Pattison); "Life Situation and Prior Learning of Adult Learners Studying at a Distance" (Peruniak); "Origins of the Community Development Concept" (Pyrch); "Examination of the Field of Adult Education as Conceptualized in Knowles' Theory of Andragogy Utilizing Kuhn's Model" (Radkowksi); "Heroine's Journey" (Rowe); "Historical Study of Advocacy on Behalf of Adult Education in British Columbia" (Selman); "Evaluating a Telewriter System to Enhance Audio-Teleconferencing" (Shale, Garrison); "'Need' in Adult Education" (Sork); and "Educational Equivalents" (Thomas). Twenty-three other papers are also included. (MN)
This paper presents the experience of the company Ericsson Nikola Tesla (ETK) in the application of VRLA batteries. After a short comment on conventional lead acid batteries, the paper explains the reasons for introduction of VRLA batteries and presents our experience considering their quality, performance, hydrogen evolution, safety, service life etc. Stress is put on some internal and external factors which affect useful life, such as positive grid corrosion, ambient temperature and charging voltage. ETK also gained experience in relation to adaptation of some UPS systems to VRLA batteries. The article concludes with the list of important advantages and disadvantages of VRLA batteries compared with the flooded ones. (orig.)
Radiation curing technology brought new life to the coating and ink industries which has been affected by strict environmental regulations. In the last decade a technique was developed known as radiation curing. This paper will compare the advantages and disadvantages of electron beam, ultraviolet and infrared curing systems against conventional air dry or baking systems. The role of oligomers, monomers (reactive diluents), photoinitiators or photosensitizers is discussed. Film properties of polyurethane acrylate and epoxy acrylate formulations will be evaluated. Other important properties such as stability, color of cured films and handling are considered. 5 figures, 2 tables.
The paper analyzes the advantageous and disadvantageous factors affecting the development of coalbed methane in China and proposes a reference framework for the development of coalbed methane in China, referring to 10 technological fields and 12 research projects for technological advances. The paper focuses on the major barriers in coalbed methane development and indicates that the low permeability of coalbeds is the most critical factor that hinders the development of coalbed methane in China. It is proposed that the emphasis in current technological advancement should be placed on the pragmatic technology for increasing the permeability of coalbeds. 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Previous empirical research has shown that Mexico’s Oportunidades program has succeeded in increasing schooling and improving health of disadvantaged children. This paper studies the program’s potential longer-term consequences for the poverty and inequality of these children. It adapts methods developed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996) and incorporates existing experimental estimates of the program’s effects on human capital to analyze how Oportunidades will affect future earnings of program participants. We nonparametrically simulate earnings distributions, with and without the program, and predict that Oportunidades will increase future mean earnings but have only modest effects on poverty rates and earnings inequality. PMID:12119239
As predictive genetic testing availability increases so does our need to understand factors associated with test uptake. This study tests whether the order positive and negative information about genetic testing for breast cancer is presented in affects intention to take a genetic test. Eighty-four women were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) positive then negative information; (2) negative then positive information; and (3) a control group. A significant effect was found in relation to perceived risk, attitudes towards genetic testing, perceived disadvantages of testing and intention. Our findings point to a primacy effect, whereby information presented first has the greatest effect. PMID:20472604
Crisis planning is an important strategy for developing more resilient tourism organisations. Given this, it is important to examine how managers perceive crisis planning because managers' attitudes and perceptions may affect behavioural intentions. The objective of this study, then, is to identify the attitudes and perceptions of crisis planning behaviour held by managers in the accommodation sector in Australia, and to analyse the relationships between the belief-based measures (behavioural, normative and control beliefs), direct measures (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control), and behavioural intentions. At the first stage, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine managers to discover the perceived advantages and disadvantages for implementing crisis...
Abstract This work reviews the basis and all the existing publications on the hyphenation of chromatography-based techniques to MC-ICPMS for isotopic studies that were published until the end of 2010. A brief historical retrospective of the measurement of isotope ratios from transient signals by ICPMS with different sample introduction techniques is also included. The most important experimental parameters and data reduction strategies affecting the accurate and precise measurement of compound-specific isotope ratios by either HPLC or GC coupled to MC-ICPMS are discussed. All the applications are reported and critically reviewed in terms of analytical characteristics, performances, optimization, advantages and disadvantages and future applicability to the environmental, geochemical, or bio...
Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stak...
Abstract in english This study focuses on social patterns, socioeconomic mediations, and conditional relations characterizing racial inequalities in health in Brazil. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association between racial division and poor health status. Socioeconomic factors explain a high proportion (84%) of racial inequality in health, which depends heavily on asymmetries in resources, power, and valuable contexts. When social class contexts interact with r (more) ace, they reveal nonequivalent (conditional on class) health advantages or disadvantages between racial groups. Racial divisions affect the actors' capacities and opportunities to achieve their ends by mobilizing the available means.
This paper explored the key factors affecting catching up through technology standard development by studying the evolution of TD-SCDMA, one of the three international standards of 3G mobile communications, in China. It was found that this was a complex co-evolution process between firm strategy and government policy aimed mainly at solving the challenges of late-comer disadvantages. The paper also examined the unique features of this co-evolution process, including the importance of the informal social network of non-customer stakeholders, and discussed the theoretical and practical implications of the key findings.
The disadvantages of water influx into a producing well include reduced relative permeability to hydrocarbon and increased expenses for both water handling and corrosion control. An effective water control technique is, therefore, highly desirable. One potential solution for reducing excessive water production is the injection of ?Relative Permeability Modifier?? (RPM) chemicals into producing wells. The work described in this paper is concerned with finding a highly selective chemical to reduce water production without affecting oil production. Presented herein are results of laboratory tests using relative permeability modifiers in conjunction with core samples from the Wanaea field. The oil producing Wanaea field is operated by Woodside Energy. This field is in offshore Western Australi...
Objectives: Impaired decision making is seen in several problem behaviours including alcoholism and problem gambling. Decision-making style may contribute to driving while impaired with alcohol (DWI) in some offenders as well. The Somatic Marker Framework theorizes that decision making is the product of two interacting affective neural systems, an impulsive, rapid, amygdala-dependent process for emotionally signalling the immediate negative or positive consequences of an option, and a reflective, longer-lasting, ventral medial prefrontal cortex dependent system for emotionally signalling the future negative or positive prospects of an option. This study tested the hypothesis that offenders who showed disadvantageous decision-making would be at higher risk for recidivism than those who show...
Lone Star Industries, Inc., operates a precalciner kiln in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. In May 1992, the company started burning hazardous waste in the hot end of the kiln as a partial fuel replacement. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages Lone Star has experienced since it began using hazardous waste as an alternate fuel supply. The use of hazardous waste has produced a number of ancillary benefits and a few hindrances to kiln operations. How each of these aspects has affected kiln operation and performance will be examined. 4 tabs.
For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important to take stock of how well the states are currently meeting the health and development needs of all adolescents, and particularly disadvantaged youth. This report presents information from NCCP's (National Center for Children in Poverty) Improving the Odds for Adolescents project about state policy choices that affect the health and well-being of adolescents. (Contains 3 tables and 129 endnotes.)
The random architecture is one of the main interest subject related to the third world architecture. The random housing in Yemen, Sana`a city as well as other big cities is mainly affected by several reasons such as industrial activities government planning and conditions. In the present study, the development and growing in random housing, causes, effects, advantages, disadvantages and recommendation as one of the main sectors in Sana`a city are expressed in details with the some properties of the random housing in some other cities in the third world.
Agriculture and forestry will be particularly sensitive to changes in mean climate and climate variability in the northern and southern regions of Europe. Agriculture may be positively affected by climate change in the northern areas through the introduction of new crop species and varieties, higher crop production and expansion of suitable areas for crop cultivation. The disadvantages may be determined by an increase in need for plant protection, risk of nutrient leaching and accelerated breakdown of soil organic matter. In the southern areas the benefits of the projected climate change will be limited, while the disadvantages will be predominant. The increased water use efficiency caused by increasing CO2 will compensate for some of the negative effects of increasing water limitation and extreme weather events, but lower harvestable yields, higher yield variability and reduction in suitable areas of traditional crops are expected for these areas. Forestry in the Mediterranean region may be mainly affected by increases in drought and forest fires. In northern Europe, the increased precipitation is expected to be large enough to compensate for the increased evapotranspiration. On the other hand, however, increased precipitation, cloudiness and rain days and the reduced duration of snow cover and soil frost may negatively affect forest work and timber logging determining lower profitability of forest production and a decrease in recreational possibilities. Adaptation management strategies should be introduced, as effective tools, to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on agricultural and forestry sectors.
Many countries that have undergone expansion of access to public education still face significant disparities in school enrollment and attendance rates at sub-national levels, and fail to reach a high proportion of children who are outside of the government system. Completion and student learning have also continued to be system-wide challenges that many Ministries of Education struggle to address. Educational Policy, Systems Development, and Management (EQUIP2) identified nine case examples of complementary, community-based approaches to schooling from around the world, and developed a research methodology for analyzing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of those models. Data were gathered on student enrollment, completion and learning, management, governance, organization, costs and financing. Cases demonstrate that complementary education programs can provide a unique and critical role to addressing Education for All (EFA) goals, particularly for disadvantaged and underserved populations. Additionally, the results of complementary education program are frequently equal to or better than to the government schools in terms of improving access, completion, and learning outcomes. Four features are identified as critical to the success of complementary programs: (1) Locally recruited teachers and ongoing, regular supervision and training; (2) School-based decision making and community-based management and governance; (3) Small schools located close to the communities they serve; and (4) Mother tongue instruction is used to deliver a simplified curriculum devoted to basic literacy and numeracy skills. Cases studies are included for Afghanistan Home-Based Schools, Afghanistan Community Schools, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) Primary Schools, Egypt Community Schools, Ghana School for Life, Guatemala PRONADE, Honduras Educatodos, Mali Community Schools, and Zambia Community Schools. References and unnumbered figures and tables are included by individual chapter.
In the hills of central Virginia, the extraordinarily dark nighttime skies of southern Albemarle County provide a natural outdoor classroom for local science education. Until recently, this rural area lacked the financial and educational support to take full advantage of this rare and valuable natural resource. With funds provided by the NSF, a team of volunteers from the University of Virginia introduced a new program this fall called "Dark Skies - Bright Kids," which promotes science education at the elementary school level through a wide range of activities. The program volunteers (comprising undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, and faculty) have sought to develop a coherent schedule of fun and educational activities throughout the semester, with emphases on hands-on learning and critical thinking. For example, students learn about the constellations by making star-wheels, about rocketry by building and launching rockets, and about comets by assembling miniature analogs. Additional activities include stories about the scientific and cultural history of astronomy, visits by professional astronomers and popular book authors, and astronomy-themed exercises in art, music, and physical education. These projects are designed to make astronomy, and by extension all science, accessible and appealing to each student. Family involvement is important in any educational environment, particularly at the elementary school level. To include the students' families and the larger community in "Dark Skies," we hold weekly telescope observing sessions at the school. Here, all interested parties can come together to hear what the students are learning and view astronomical objects through a small telescope. We hope that this well-received program will soon expand to other disadvantaged schools in the area. The "Dark Skies" team is proud and excited to have an impact on the scientific literacy of the students in these starry-skied communities!
This paper, using five examples (Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union, and the United States), explores some patterns of interactions among social, political, and economic activity (SPEA) and seven influences affecting the character of national systems of education. The educational change and improvement efforts in the five countries are described. Discussions about Kenya, Japan, and Malaysia illustrate the interplay of SPEA that have resulted in their educational systems successfully coping with the need to adapt to a rapidly changing world. A discussion of the United States and USSR illustrates how the interaction of SPEA can lead to unsuccessful educational improvement outcomes. A review of the five countries indicates that a sense of national unity, the general economic situation, and basic beliefs and traditions influence the success of efforts at educational reform and improvement. These factors interact with SPEA variables to initiate, drive, and sustain efforts toward educational reform. (SM)
We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also overwhelm the direct effects, such that individuals with higher education are more likely to express rightwing preferences than those with lower education.
Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other. This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political, cultural and affective dimensions of educational equality.
This paper draws together research on seasonality, child labour and education in the context of primary education in sub-Saharan Africa. It describes how income poverty and demand for labour can fluctuate within and between years, affecting participation and progression through school systems. It highlights how analysis of the private and public costs of education frequently ignore the significance of seasonal patterns related to the agricultural cycle and migration. It argues that education policy and practice should be more clearly articulated with fluctuations in household income, demand for labour (especially school age children), and seasonal migration cycles. Educational reforms to improve school enrolment and lessen the burden of education on poor will not succeed unless seasonality is recognised. (Contains 2 tables, 18 figures, and 18 footnotes.)
This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however, public education--particularly, but not exclusively, at the university level--is used as a tool for the promotion of ethnic Malay interests. These two objectives are not necessarily contradictory; indeed the assertion that a vital ingredient in the creation of a "Malaysian nation" is the eradication of inter-ethnic economic disparities has been at the heart of the Malaysian regime's discourse on nation building since the ethnic riots of May 1969. Hence, in this view, preferential policies for the economically disadvantaged but numerically dominant Malays are a necessary component of the nation-building project. Nonetheless, there are at least clear tensions between these two functions of education--tensions, which, I shall argue, help explain both the particularly sensitive politics of education in Malaysia, and the discursive stance the Malaysian regime has adopted within the educational field. Through an analysis of the dynamics of the politics of education, I argue that non-Malay educationalist activism has been characterised by a broad acceptance of the regime's strategic objectives, whilst simultaneously seeking to ensure that educational opportunities for non-Malays do not suffer as a result of these policies. I argue that whilst the expansion of private tertiary education during the 1990s has largely ameliorated non-Malay concerns on this level, pre-university schooling remains a politically sensitive issue on all fronts that continues to threaten precisely the inter-ethnic harmony it seeks to promote. Here, I argue that the Malaysian regime has sought to resolve the tensions between nation-building and ethnicity through a didactic and pedagogical approach to educational development, which promotes a concept of nationhood that, rather than transcending ethnic alligiances, is explicitly based on ethnic stratification. I argue that these "ethnic citizens" are encouraged to participate in the Malaysian nation uncritically through the virtual worship of development symbols and unquestioning deference to political leadership.
Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy, and gender and Latino ethnicity seem to be the best predictors of affective outcomes. Since the results of this research suggest that student thinking can be modified beyond cognitive content, science educators now have access to an interdisciplinary approach to affective outcomes that is both grounded in the literature and empirically tested. Future students may now be more likely to be exposed to a teaching methodology that is quite possibly deeper and richer.
Pseudoscience beliefs (e.g., astrology, ghosts or UFOs) are rife in American society. Most research examines creation/evolution among liberal arts majors, general public adults, or, infrequently, middle or high school science teachers. Thus, research truncates the range of ersatz science thinking and the samples it studies. We examined diverse beliefs, e.g., extraterrestrials, magic, Biblical creation, and evolution, among 540 female and 123 male future teachers, including 325 elementary education majors. We study how these cognitions related to education major and, because popular media often present pseudoscience "information", student media use. Future elementary educators most often rejected evolution and endorsed "creationism" or Intelligent Design. Education majors held similar beliefs about astrology, UFO landings, or magic. Compared with other education students, elementary education majors watched less news or science television and read fewer popular science magazines. However, religious and media variables explained more variation in creation/evolution beliefs than education major. We discuss implications of our findings for elementary school science education and how teacher educators may be able to affect pseudoscience beliefs among their elementary education students.
"Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue is based on an earlier study, "Squeeze Play: How Parents and the Public Look at Higher Education Today," from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and Public Agenda. This "Policy Alert" summarizes the findings of the study, which explores how the American public views higher education today. This report revealed a considerable unease among the public regarding their perceptions about higher education because, while ever larger numbers see a college education as an absolute necessity for success, many believe that opportunity for higher education is slipping out of reach for a growing number of individuals. Over half of people surveyed think colleges are like a business, focusing more on the bottom line than on education. Nearly half say they want to overhaul public colleges. Nevertheless, these concerns remain in the background, and tend not to be seen as a top priority. Numerous factors have prevented the public from going into a panic about higher education availability, but people are increasingly nervous. Higher education leaders might be well advised to get out in front of this issue before the situation comes to a head. (Contains 20 figures.) [This "Policy Alert" is the most recent in a series of reports entitled, the National Center and Public Agenda Public Opinion Research Series, commissioned by the National Center and conducted by Public Agenda.
The Escambia County School District JTPA Vocational Program: How the Escambia County School District and the Private Industry Council of SDA #1 Are Working Together to Prevent High School Dropouts, Boost Economic Development, and Put People Back to Work. Computer Assisted Instruction.
In March 1985, the Escambia County School District in Florida entered a public-private partnership with more than 500 employers through the Private Industry Council and began a series of Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs to meet the employment and training needs of disadvantaged youth and adults living in the local community. The program provides a continuum of remedial education, job training, and employment services that has achieved the following results: 291 disadvantaged youth achieved a half-grade level gain in their academic functioning after only 3 months of remedial instruction in a computer-assisted instructional program, 993 non-JTPA students were also able to benefit from the program during fiscal 1987, 8 recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children completed teachers' aide training and found employment in the Escambia County School District, 348 youth and adults were recruited and referred to occupational skills training at the George Stone Area Vocational Technical Center, and 53 handicapped students received training in the construction trades. The JTPA employment component of the continuum has helped 511 special needs youth find employment through several different placement programs. This project report includes an operating procedures guide (covering start-up, laboratory set-up, student management, proctor activities, and laboratory behaviors); information sheets for students and teachers; project forms; and training materials for students, teachers, and proctors. (MN)
This report examines preschool and early primary education in the Chicago (Illinois) public schools, and its impact on disadvantaged minority children. Statistical data were gathered by a survey of 196 kindergarten teachers. For comparison, the survey was also sent to kindergarten teachers in Wilmette (Illinois), a Chicago suburb. Part 1, "City Kids Behind at the Start," compares the entry-level skills of kindergarten students in the city schools with those in the suburbs. Part 2, "Preschool Can Benefit Low-Income Children," discusses the advantages of preschool programs for low-income minority children, criticizes a proposed state spending plan for preschool programs, and examines a proposal for combining preschool and day care facilities. Part 3, "The Play's the Thing in Kindergarten," reviews preschool and primary basic skills curricula and learning activities, and discusses the negative effects of summer vacation on disadvantaged students. Part 4, "How Parents Are Failing to Prepare Kids," examines the parents' role in helping their children to learn, and parenting skills. Part 5, "'Invisible' Gifted Lost Forever," discusses the need for programs for gifted minority students. Statistical data are included on seven graphs and charts. (FMW)
A Longitudinal Study of Growth and Development and the Incidence of Physical Defects at Ages 9 and 10. A Progress Report to the Bernard van Leer Foundation on the Growth and Development Study of the Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study.
A longitudinal comparative study was made of the physical growth and development of Australian fourth-grade students from low, medium, and high socioeconomic groups. Specific questions addressed were (1) Do children differing in socioeconomic status differ in anthropometric characteristics and incidence of physical defects? (2) What is the incidence of physical defects among 9-year-olds, and is the incidence of physical defects associated with lower school achievement? (3) Are differences in school achievement levels and IQ related to anthropometric differences? and, (4) Have the stature and weight of 9- and 10-year-olds increased since 1970? Findings indicated that physical defects were no greater within an economically disadvantaged group than in a more advantaged group. Defects were not found to be associated with lower levels of school achievement. However, significant differences were found in the mean height, weight, and head circumference of disadvantaged and advantaged children. Mean height for both males and females increased over the period between 1970 and 1982-83. Findings supported the claim that height and educational achievement are positively related within each socioeconomic group. (Appended are the medical record form used and other related materials, including a screening test for speech and language, speech therapy data, and a staff conference paper describing the Mt. Druitt longitudinal study and reporting results of the 1982 survey of fourth-graders' physical development and health.) (RH)
This paper qualitatively documents and analyses the attitudes and identities of female students from the urban disadvantaged social class towards English and Hindi in the city of New Delhi. These attitudes include not only instrumental views of English but also the impression that it creates a new personality for an individual. English is part of the daily literacy practices of the students. It is a tool with which they access knowledge in higher education. Hindi is important for their identity; thus they make a distinction between "personality" and "identity". They see Hindi as a "national language" linked with Hinduism and the composite culture of a diverse India when in fact this is not the case demographically or politically. The ideologies of status and solidarity are problematic and can be associated with both languages. The data for this ethnography, presented partially through photographic evidence, come from oral and written interviews conducted with 64 Grade 12 students in Hindi and English at the Rajkiya Sarvodaya Kanya Vidyalaya, a girls' high school in a disadvantaged part of New Delhi, India. (Contains 6 tables and 3 figures.)
Purpose: This study examines sex differences among Baby Boom workers in the likelihood of coverage by an employer-provided retirement plan. Design and Methods: This study used a sample of Baby Boom workers drawn from the 2009 Current Population Survey. Independent variables were selected to replicate as closely as possible those in two 1995 studies of retired workers and pension plans. Three new variables were added to reflect major social and economic shifts since 1995. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the effect of the independent variables on the likelihood of retirement plan coverage. Results: In this cohort, the proportions of men and women included in employer-provided retirement plans were almost the same. The overall odds of women being included in a plan were only slightly less than even and in certain cases were significantly higher than the odds for men. Predictors of inclusion that were most important for both women and men were minority status, employment in a core industry or in a government position, educational level, and marital status. Implications: Although a much larger group of workers is included in retirement plans than in previous studies, and Baby Boom women are less disadvantaged in this regard than women in earlier studies, minority and immigrant workers continue to be disadvantaged, and the security of government retirement plans may be weakening with current economic difficulties.
This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated laboratory for teaching young people in Italy to read and write; (3) European Trainers against Exclusion (a project to facilitate the labor market integration of victims of occupational and social exclusion); (4) a program that champions the cause of people with disabilities in Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom and tries to find solutions to their employment problems; (5) a comparison of innovative models of vocational guidance for young disadvantaged people in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland; (6) KeyNet (a project to give a second chance to unemployed people in areas of high unemployment in Germany, Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom through development of key skills); (7) Entrance (a program to improve prisoners' social and occupational skills); (8) a program to improve the employability of prisoners in Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom; and (9) Sociodroga (a program providing continuous training to social workers and others responsible for education and training in the field of drug addiction). (MN)
While migration in South Africa has been studied on a broad canvas, there have been few accounts of children's migration and the effects on living conditions and wellbeing. This article compares the access to services, housing and household amenities, and family characteristics of children born in the Greater Johannesburg metropolis with those of in-migrant children. The article also examines other indicators of child wellbeing related to parental care and schooling. In-migrant children, particularly children who have lived previously in rural areas and/or have recently migrated into the city, are significantly disadvantaged in comparison to long-term resident children in terms of parental education and occupation, housing type and ownership, access to electricity, refuse removal, water and sanitation. In-migrant children also live in households that are less likely to have amenities such as a refrigerator, television, washing machine, telephone and motor vehicle. In terms of child indicators, in-migrant children enjoy less frequent parental contact and are twice as likely to start school later than resident children. Whilst urbanisation to South Africa's metropolitan centres is generally associated with several widely recognised benefits, for children, these benefits may be tempered by the disadvantages of in-migrant families known to be associated with child wellbeing. PMID:18273401
How can we better educate disadvantaged urban students? Drawing on over five years' experience in a broad partnership involving twelve urban professional development schools in five districts, a teachers' union, a comprehensive public university, and several community-based organizations, the contributors to this volume describe how they worked together to help disadvantaged urban students through an innovative professional development program. By networking with educators at different levels and coordinating curriculum projects, they were able to begin overcoming rigid and ineffective mandates and curricula tied to standardized test scores and get through to their students on more meaningful and productive levels. The contributors share their successes and failures with these efforts, as well as insights related to the ethical, political, and academic challenges faced by professional development schools. This book is divided into three parts. Part I, Toward Improving Urban Children's Lives (Ronald David Glass and Pia Lindquist Wong), contains the following: (1) Floating Boats and Solar Ovens: Involving Candidates in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Learning Communities (Lorie Hammond, Julita Lambating, Michael Beus, Paul Winckel, Jane Camm,and Larry Ferlazzo); (2) Science for Social Responsibility (Claudya Lum, Elizabeth Aguirre, Ricardo Martinez, Mercedes Campa-Rodriguez, and Rita Ultreras); and (3) Education of the Community, by the Community,and for the Community: The Language Academy of Sacramento (Susan Baker, Eduardo de Leon, Pamela Phelps, Mario Martin, and Cynthia Suarez). Part II, The Power of Connections: Re-creating Teacher and Teacher Educator Roles (Pia Lindquist Wong and Ronald David Glass), contains the following: (4) Connecting Teacher Educators Across Roles, Domains, and Knowledge Bases (William Thomas Owens); (5) Beyond the Classroom: Candidates Connect to Colleagues, Children, and Communities (Jeanne Malvetti and Christie Wells-Artman); and (6) Structural Shifts and Cultural Transformations: University Faculty Members and Their Work in PDSs (Jana Noel and Deidre B. Sessoms). Part III, The Politics of Transforming Institutions and Institutional Relationships (Pia Lindquist Wong and Ronald David Glass), contains the following: (7) Perspectives on Negotiation and Equilibrium in the Politics of Knowledge: Transforming the University and the School into a PDS Partnership (Kathryn Hayes); (8) Not Starting from Scratch: Applying the Lessons from a Thwarted PDS Effort (Janet Hecsh); (9) Bridging the Disconnect: The Promise of Lesson Study (David Jelinek and Jenna Porter); and (10) Making History by Creating New Traditions: Concluding Reflections and Future Directions (Ronald David Glass and Pia Lindquist Wong). References and an index are included.
This article reviews strategies designed to improve female participation in ICT studies and careers. In reviewing a range of strategies from around the world, the article identifies the different actors engaging with the "problem" of girls and technology. It points to the many crossovers that occur as governments, higher education providers, industry, and the voluntary sector complement each other in their search for effective solutions to a dilemma that is increasingly recognised as being much more complex than a simple dichotomy of gender and technology. The particular milieu for which this review has been conducted--an educationally and otherwise disadvantaged area of Melbourne, Australia--is reflected in identification of strategies specifically focused on girls and women with low socio-economic status (SES) and students exposed to educational disadvantage. The first section of this article--an introduction to and overview of the global problem of female under-representation in ICT--provides a context in which the problem, as it exists in Australia, may be understood. Section two consists of four sub-sections in which various types of intervention strategies are described. The sub-sections: Government/Policy-Driven Activity, Education Institutions/Research Activity, Industry Groups, and Voluntary Initiatives indicate the breadth of effort being employed in pursuit of solutions to the "problem" of girls and technology. They point also to considerable overlaps in design, delivery, and results, and illuminate many of the problems encountered along the way. The third and final section of this article discusses the pros and cons of the various types of approach, comparing and contrasting the efforts of government, educational institutions, industry-based groups, and voluntary initiatives in their search for successful and sustainable ways of attracting girls to ICT studies and careers. This article brings together in one place a variety of strategies aimed at improving female participation in ICT studies. In doing so, it highlights the difficulty of one-size-fits-all approaches and illuminates the importance of front and back-end processes to the delivery of successful programs. It demonstrates that for those designing programs capable of attracting girls to ICT, failing to prepare is preparing to fail. (Contains 5 footnotes.)
What do we know about the outcomes of education in developing countries? Where are the gaps in our knowledge, and why are they important to fill? What are the policy challenges that underlie these knowledge gaps, and how can education best contribute to eliminating the problem of widespread poverty in the developing world? This book arises out of a five year, DFID-funded programme of research examining the impact of education on the lives and livelihoods of people in developing countries, particularly those living in poorer areas and from poorer households. Based on highly innovative research that addressed common research questions across four countries in Africa and South Asia, the book presents new theoretical and empirical knowledge that will help to improve education and poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, through an enhanced recognition of education's actual and potential role. In addition to introducing the reader to a wide range of conceptual and policy-related problems concerning the impact of education on individuals and society, the book: (1) provides the field of educational research with a contemporary economic and socio-cultural reassessment of educational outcomes in relation to poverty; (2) discusses the challenges and priorities facing policy makers, practitioners and the international development community in improving the outcomes of education, particularly for the most disadvantaged in Africa, South Asia and other low income countries; and (3) identifies the key theoretical and methodological challenges involved in researching the outcomes of education for the poor. This book will appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers in the fields of international and comparative education, education policy, development studies, African and Asian studies and related disciplines, and to those working on education policy at national or international levels in governments and international institutions. Education has an extraordinarily important role to play in efforts to eliminate poverty world-wide. This book reveals the nature and complexity of these relationships and provides indispensible pointers to the kinds and extent of policy changes that are required. Contents include: (1) Introduction (Christopher Colclough); (2) Girls' Schooling And Women's Autonomy In South Asia: Revisiting Old Debates With New Data From India And Pakistan (Roger Jeffery Feyza Bhatti, Claire Noronha And Patricia Jeffery); (3) Schooling, Rights And Urban Poverty: Young People's Narratives Of Citizenship In Two Sub-saharan Cities (Madeleine Arnot, Leslie Casely-Hayford And Fatuma Chege); (4) Increased Expectations, Unrealised Gains: Education Outcomes For Young People With Disabilities In India And Pakistan (Nidhi Singal, Feyza Bhatti And Shehryar Janjua with Neeru Sood); (5) Skill Acquisition And Its Impact Upon Lives And Livelihoods In Ghana, India, And Pakistan (Robert Palmer, Roland Akabzaa, Shehryar Janjua, Kenneth King And Claire Noronha); (6) Economic Returns To Schooling And Cognitive Skills--An Analysis Of India And Pakistan (Monazza Aslam, Anuradha De, Geeta Kingdon And Rajeev Kumar); (7) Changing Forms Of Provision And Impact On Schooling Outcomes In Ghana And Pakistan (Shailaja Fennell, Gideon Agbley, Rabea Malik And Roland Akabzaa); (8) The Practice Of Partnership: Aid And Education Policy In India And Kenya (Christopher Colclough, Anuradha De, And Andrew Webb); and (9) Outcomes Reassessed (Christopher Colclough).
This publication reports on a Regional Workshop held in New Delhi, India, in January 1980, to study major trends in the development of educational goals in Asia. Discussed at the workshops were educational goals, policies, and problems; how belief systems and ethical values affect educational goals; and the role of regional and international cooperation. Representatives from the following countries attended the sessions: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia; Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, and Thailand. The first part of the publication presents an overall review of educational goals and their translation into policies and programs based on reports from the 11 participating nations. The second part contains the reports from the 11 individual countries. In defining the various stated goals of education, the country papers very often present a mixture of moral, religious, political, social, economic, and cultural goals. Moral goals expect education to develop a human being with all humane qualities. National security and solidarity are the prime concern of most of the countries. Cultural goals appear to fluctuate between moral and religious and social goals. There is considerable stress on developing social equalities through education as an instrument of social transformation. There is an overwhelming desire on the part of all the countries to link education with economic development. One of the major goals is to strengthen the base of vocational and technical education to produce the needed skilled manpower and labor force. In most of the countries political goals, followed by economic goals are the determinants of educational policy making, while spiritual and moral values occur more to provide for political ends. Two educational goals for which concrete policies have been generated are equality of educational opportunities and education related to employment. (Author/RM)
Past research has typically focused on educational attainment and achievement to understand the assimilation process for immigrant youth. However, academic achievement constitutes only part of the schooling experience. In this paper, we move beyond traditional measures such as test scores and dropout, and examine patterns of school-sponsored extracurricular activity participation. Analyzing data from Add Health and drawing upon the frog-pond and segmented assimilation frameworks, we find that immigrant minority youth are disadvantaged in regards to activity participation relative to the average student in high- compared to low-SES schools. In high-SES schools, immigrant youth are less similar to their peers in terms of socioeconomic, race, and immigrant status, and as suggested by the frog...
Abstract This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family...
The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved...
Academic libraries in South Africa are increasingly under pressure to provide Internet-based information services. Due to the historical background (i.e., apartheid policies), however, some postsecondary institutions were better endowed than others in terms of financial resources, library personnel, material resources, and with respect to Internet facilities and services. Similarly, library and information science (LIS) education and training departments have in the past differed significantly in terms of resources and staff available to train library personnel who eventually staff academic libraries. Consequently, institutions are categorized as Historically Disadvantaged Institutions (HDIs) and Historically Advantaged Institutions (HAIs). This paper presents survey results of members of the Eastern Seaboard Association of Libraries (esAL) consortium for cooperation among libraries in South Africa that assessed Internet connectivity, ways that the Internet is used, skill or comfort levels with Internet services, problems using the Internet, and training needs. (MES)
The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related illnesses is higher among Hispanics (Latinos) than other racial and ethnic groups, and rates increase exponentially with the number of years living in the United States. Mounting evidence suggests that the origins of many chronic illnesses among disadvantaged minority groups may lie with cumulative exposure to chronic psychological and physiological stressors through the biobehavioral process of allostatic load (AL). Among immigrant Latinos, acculturation stress may contribute to an increase in AL and thus may be an independent risk factor for the development of obesity and obesogenic illnesses. The purpose of this theoretical article is to present a proposed model of the effects of acculturation stress on AL and obesity among Latino immigrants. Such a model can be useful to guide intervention efforts to decrease obesity among immigrant Latinos by adding education, skill building, and social integration strategies to healthy eating and physical activity to reduce the deleterious impact of acculturation stress. PMID:22923710
The opportunities given for medical staff to travel, work and remain in countries other than that of their domicile or graduation have led to the phenomenon of medical migration. This has been supported by ease of travel, improved technology and a drive to share good examples of medical education through improved communication. Whilst these opportunities create positive advantages to the individuals and countries involved, through the transfer of knowledge and medical management, the situation does not always lead to long term benefits, and clear disadvantages begin to emerge. The gulf between the developed and developing countries becomes pronounced, leading to a general drift of resources away from the areas where they are most needed and subsequent profound effects upon the indigenous p...
Thermal processes and composting represent two important elements of modern waste disposal concepts permtting substantial reduction of waste to be deposited at landfills, often in combination with other waste treatment techniques. Composting of organic wastes contributes to the recycling of waste constituents. The book deals with the actual technology of composting to obtain an optimum end-use product and for educing the environmental burden, but discusses also marketing problems of compost and pollutant contamination of compost. Waste combustion will, also in the future, make an indispensable contribution to the disposal of municipal, trade and industrial waste. The book describes the state of the art in wast combustion, taking new developments into account. In addition, the combination of combustion and pyrolysis in the form of the semicoking process is deals with. The range of the different disposal techniques with their respective advantages and disadvantages is described. (BBR). 89 figs., 78 refs.
Spoken words have always been an important component of traditional instruction. With the development of modern educational technology tools, spoken text more often replaces or supplements written or on-screen textual representations. However, there could be a cognitive load cost involved in this trend, as spoken words can have both benefits and disadvantages based on essential characteristics of our cognitive architecture. This paper analyzes factors that might moderate the effectiveness of using spoken text in instruction by reviewing relevant studies in multimedia learning and considering cognitive load consequences of the transiency of spoken information. However, in contrast to earlier studies that considered spoken words in the context of a specific cognitive load effect, this paper provides a framework for evaluating potential instructional benefits of spoken text by analyzing various instructional situations depending on whether spoken text is used together with pictures and written text, and taking into account relations between presented sources of information. (Contains 2 tables.)
The notion of raising the aspirations of socially disadvantaged students is a key policy strategy in for enhancing such students' participation in higher education. However, this strategy runs the risk of being simplistic and ineffective unless it is informed by research on the links between aspirations and such students' changing life experiences particularly with regard to the many, often subtle, ways that power and privilege operate. This paper draws on an ethnographic study of young men in schools in regional Australia and shows how their everyday knowledges inform their aspirations. de Certeau's concepts, "strategy", "tactic" and "spatialized knowledges" assist us to understand the knowledges boys pursue, resist, cling to and relinquish in relation to the shifting knowledge imperatives of their everyday lives. There are two main sets of knowledge they deploy; knowledge about life chances and lifestyle. Each involves diverse strategies and tactics. (Contains 4 notes.)
Many models of timetabling exist in secondary schools in Western educational jurisdictions. This study examines whether or not teachers teaching a full course load without preparation time during a semester are willing to volunteer to participate in extracurricular activities. This research was conducted in a rural school district in British Columbia, Canada. Teacher workload, preparation time and willingness to volunteer for extracurricular activities were addressed. Over 70 per cent of respondents to the survey indicated that they found their workload unmanageable during the semester in which they had no preparation time while over 90 per cent of respondents indicated they wanted to have preparation time distributed evenly over the full school year. A significant majority of teachers do not supervise extracurricular activities when they have no preparation time. A comprehensive literature review examining advantages and disadvantages of the semester timetable and an extensive bibliography are included. (Contains 1 figure and 9 tables.)
The iPad is a useful reference tool for patient education in cosmetic consultations. In this article, we plan to (1) discuss how the iPad can be implemented and used by patients and physicians in consultations, (2) compare the advantages and disadvantages of the iPad with other forms of technology, (3) discuss the optimal way of using the iPad for patient care, (4) see how this tool complies with privacy regulations, and (5) look at other uses of the iPad in the patient care setting. There has been positive feedback from both patients and physicians regarding the addition of the tablet computer during consultations. In addition to showing patients pictures of cosmetic procedures, the iPad also has various multimedia capabilities such as videos and drawing tools that are useful in optimizin...
The historical context in which Fiji's Deed of Cession was formulated satisfied the necessary conditions for British annexation and included safeguards for Fijian land rights. Both Fijian and English texts implied that the incoming government would respect Fijian custom. For over 60 years, Fijians benefited from a special administrative status in territorial government, restrictions on land alienation and privileged access to departments of the colonial executive. But Fijian commoners were disadvantaged in education, and resisted payment of head taxes. The tax crisis exposed the inability of chiefs to grapple with reform of local government. Faced with electoral competition in the post-war period, Fijian leadership took refuge in a racial view of political legitimacy, derived from an inter...
Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers (AIEO's), and an Aboriginal led and developed Steering Committee. It is the first study that contextualises Aboriginal bullying, using a socio-ecological model where the individual, family, community and society are all interrelated and influence the characteristics and outcomes of bullying. This paper demonstrates that for Aboriginal children and youth in one region of Western Australia, bullying occurs frequently and is perpetuated by family and community violence, parental responses to bullying and institutional racism. Addressing bullying requires actions to reduce violence, foster positive cultural identity and reduce socio-economic disadvantage. (Contains 1 figure.)
Vocabulary knowledge is strongly associated with reading achievement and becomes increasingly predictive of overall reading proficiency as children progress through the elementary grades. Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing often begin schooling with small meaning vocabularies, a disadvantage that puts them at risk of struggling to learn to read. Recent research on vocabulary intervention with young children who have typical hearing demonstrates the effectiveness of targeted, contextualized instruction on children's word learning and provides insights for early childhood educators of young d/Deaf and hard of hearing children. In the present essay, which is grounded in the qualitative similarity hypothesis (Paul, 2010, in press; Paul & Lee, 2010) and sociocultural theories of learning, the author argues for evidence-based vocabulary interventions for young d/Deaf and hard of hearing children that are rooted in the contemporary research literature. PMID:22524095
This study reports on the evaluation of a 'summer pre-school model' as an intervention measure. A 10-week program was designed to increase the school readiness of Turkish children from disadvantaged and multilingual environments by supporting their cognitive and linguistic skills during the summer prior to the start of school. The intervention consisted of a Pre-school Education Program with a special focus on Turkish language, pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills. The evaluation study was carried out on its first implementation in a southeastern province of Turkey where it was attended by bilingual six-year-olds. A pre-post, control-group, quasi experimental design was used with 92 intervention trained and 93 non-trained control children from the same neighborhoods. Compared to the contro...
In this forum I expand on the ideas I initially presented in "Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities" by responding to the comments provided by Matthew Weinstein, Francis Broadway and Sheri Leafgren. Focusing on their notion of utopias and superheroes, I ask us to reconsider science as inevitably violent. Utopia is a concept that contributes to articulating our ideals, and serves to give us perspective on how our current reality differs from our goals. I suggest that by recognising alternative views of nature, science and "superheroes" we could see a science that is committed to the lives and struggles of students as well as the lives and struggles of other animals.
Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement serves as a positive turning point and re-directs juvenile delinquents away from subsequent offending. Attention is also given to race/sex contingencies. Using a sample of 4,147 delinquents released from Florida correctional institutions (86% male, 57% non-White, average age at release?=?16.8?years), propensity score analysis yielded two findings: youth with above average academic achievement while incarcerated were significantly more likely to return...
Abstract A significant and growing English learner (EL) population attends public schools in the United States. Evidence suggests they are at a disadvantage when entering school and their achievement lags behind non-EL students. Some educators have promoted full-day kindergarten programs as especially helpful for EL students. We take advantage of the large EL population and variation in full-day kindergarten implementation in the Los Angeles Unified School District to examine the impact of full-day kindergarten on academic achievement, retention, and English language fluency using difference-in-differences models. We do not find signficant effects of full-day kindergarten on most academic outcomes and English fluency through second grade. However, we find that EL students attending full-da...
Project FUSION (Facilitating Urban Science Initiatives by Organizational Networking) links scientifically sound, culturally relevant community-based research initiatives to a network of higher education institutions and community-based organizations. Project participants recognize chemistry as the central science and learn of its importance to science exploration at all academic levels. Roxbury Community College, a bridge for economically disadvantaged students aspiring to attend four-year colleges and universities, serves as the research hub for Project FUSION. Expanding on the model of the previous NIGMS-funded ATOMS program, the efforts of Project FUSION increased student participation while also making it a more stable and transferrable program. Results from this project show that culturally relevant community-based research programs supported by organizational networking can have a profound effect on student participation in undergraduate research.
For hundreds of years, apprenticeship with experts and the method of ???Learning by doing??? represented the gold standard for surgical education and acquisition of surgical dexterity. At the best of times, animals, cadavers and patients constituted the «surface» on which surgeons would train, but whichever the model of simulation, it was not without its disadvantages. The evolution of laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery, mainly based on monitor-image, lacked 3-dimensional image information and haptic feedback; this shortcoming, along with the difficulties in eye-hand coordination, dictated the need to seek a new simulating model. The development of surgical virtual reality-simulators (VR ??? simulators) can offer a much-needed new dimension to the training of novice surgeons, students a...
PurposeA worsening adolescent health disparity issue in the United States is the significant underrepresentation of ethnic minority youth in higher medical education. The Teen Medical Academy (TMA) was developed to increase the number and quality of underrepresented ethnic minority applicants from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. In this study we examine whether participation in the TMA is associated with greater interest, confidence, belongingness, and achievement motivation as related to health careers.MethodsSelf-administered surveys were mailed to all of the 361 youth who had applied to the first 3 years of the TMA. One-way analysis of variance and multivariate backward stepwise linear regression models were used to examine program effects on attitudes.ResultsAmong our sample of...
Readability is an important consideration in assessing healthcare-related literature. In order for a source of information to be the most beneficial to patients, it should be written at a level appropriate for the audience. The National Institute of Health recommends that health literature be written at a maximum level of sixth grade. This is not uniformly found in current health literature, putting patients with lower reading levels at a disadvantage. In February 2012, healthcare-oriented education resources were retrieved from websites obtained using the Google search phrase skull base tumors. Of the first 25 consecutive, unique website hits, 18 websites were found to contain information for patients. Ten different assessment scales were utilized to assess the readability of the patient-...
What are the features of the school environment that make students' of color incorporation greater at some schools than at others? Prudence L. Carter seeks to answer this basic but bedeviling question through a rich comparative analysis of the organizational and group dynamics in eight schools located within four cities in the United States and South Africa-two nations rebounding from centuries of overt practices of racial and social inequality. Stubborn Roots provides insight into how school communities can better incorporate previously disadvantaged groups and engender equity by addressing socio-cultural contexts and promoting "cultural flexibility." It also raises important and timely questions about the social, political, and philosophical purposes of multiracial schooling that have been greatly ignored by many, and cautions against narrow approaches to education that merely focus on test-scores and resources.
Summary Objective: To assess a two-question screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), for identifying depressive symptomatology in economically disadvantaged mothers of children in pediatric settings and to explore risk factors associated with a positive depression screen. Methods: A convenience sample of mothers was enrolled at an inner city well-child clinic with children age 3 days to 5 years. The PHQ-2 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (as reference scale) were completed. Results: Ninety-four mothers participated. Agreement of the PHQ-2 and EPDS was moderate. The sensitivity of the PHQ-2 for identifying a positive screen on the EPDS was 43.5%; the specificity was 97.2%. The sensitivity of the PHQ-2 was higher for mothers with education beyond high school...
Using specially generated tabulations of Muslim and non-Muslim Australians from the 2006 Census, this paper examines the social and economic position of Muslims in Australia and implications for their social inclusion. Although Australian Muslims come from more than 130 countries, the largest number, 38%, are Australian-born and almost 40% are younger than 20 years of age. Educationally they are high-achievers but on all indicators of socioeconomic well-being they fall into a very disadvantaged category. Twenty-one% of adult Muslim men have a university degree compared with 15% of non-Muslim Australians, yet their age-specific unemployment rates are two to four times higher than those of non-Muslim Australian; their rate of home ownership is half the national average; 40% of Muslim childre...
ABSTRACT Background Russia remains in the grip of a mortality crisis in which alcohol plays a central role. In 2007, male life expectancy at birth was 61 years, while for females it was 74 years. Alcohol is implicated particularly in deaths among working-age men. Aims To review the current state of knowledge about the contribution of alcohol to the continuing very high mortality seen among Russian adults Results Conservative estimates attribute 31-43% of deaths among working-age men to alcohol. This latter estimate would imply a minimum of 170 000 excess deaths due to hazardous alcohol consumption in Russia per year. Men drink appreciably more than women in Russia. Hazardous drinking is most prevalent among people with low levels of education and those who are economically disadvantaged, p...
The University of Chicago and the University of Ibadan in Nigeria have partnered to exchange innovative insights into the sexual and reproductive health of disadvantaged populations in Chicago and Nigeria. Youth in both Chicago and Nigeria face disproportionately high rates of mortality and morbidity due to poor sexual and reproductive health. Traditional models have fallen short of the needs of these youth, so the University of Chicago is seeking to reframe and retool adolescent sexual health education. Game Changer Chicago is an initiative that incorporates digital storytelling, new media, and game design to conduct workshops with youth around issues of sexuality and emotional health. Based on the success of storytelling and digital media programs in Nigeria and the success of Game Changer Chicago, we believe this model holds promise for implementation in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries PMID:22916551
Schools alone cannot reverse the high rates of school failure in the poorest communities in Europe; they need the contributions of the entire community. Coordination between families, the larger community, and the school has proven crucial to enhance student learning and achievement, especially for minority and disadvantaged families. However, families from such backgrounds often participate in their schools only peripherally because the schools take a -tourist- approach, call parents to inform them about school projects and teachers' programmes, or consult them about decisions to be made by professionals, rather than engaging them in their children's education. In contrast, the INCLUD-ED project studied schools across Europe whose students are culturally diverse and from low SES backgroun...
This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of household socioeconomic status--household wealth and mother's and father's education--are more important. Studies from a number of nations have found that large differences in the school enrollment rates of rural and urban children, with the disadvantage falling disproportionately on rural children. In addition, consistent with findings from earlier research, children from Christian households are much more likely to be attending school than Muslim children, and the influence of religion on school attendance is second in important only to household wealth. (Contains 1 table and 30 footnotes.)
In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an "age-appropriate level of schooling". Estimation results show strong evidence of gender, birth order and sibling characteristics on schooling attainment, with female and rural children particularly disadvantaged. Interestingly, our results show adverse effects on the schooling outcomes of first-born male children. Finally, we show that an improvement in parental education has large, positive and significant effects on the schooling attainment of children. (Contains 3 endnotes and 5 tables.)
This study investigated the association between SES and psychological distress among Latinos. Data were from the National Latino and Asian American Study?s Cuban (N?=?577), Mexican (N?=?868), and Puerto Rican (N?=?495) adult samples. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between SES measured as education, household income, and wealth and psychological distress for three Latino subgroups, respectively. Results indicate that wealth is the most important predictor for all three Latino groups. Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans are all disadvantaged on wealth possession and being in debt is associated with more psychological distress for them. The health benefit of wealth is especially significant for Cubans and Puerto Ricans. In contrast with findings in many previous studie...
Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction. PMID:15370189
In 2008, school catchment areas were abolished in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), the most populous German federal state. Critics have argued that free school choice will lead to increased segregation and educational disparities. The data used is from Wuppertal, a major city in NRW. Since the Turkish population is the largest minority in Germany, but also one of the least integrated, the focus of this paper is on the effect of the new school law on the school choice of Turkish (Muslim) versus non-Turkish (non-Muslim) families. Free school choice has led, in fact, to increased choice on the part of both advantaged and (to a lesser extent) disadvantaged families. Motives behind choice include proximity and the academic quality of the school. The effect of this increased choice on segregation i...
This study examines current disparities in access to family planning services in developing countries with data drawn from 64 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1994 and 2008. The percent of demand satisfied is used as a proxy measure for access to family planning. In all regions, married women aged 15-19 have greater difficulty than older women in meeting their need for contraceptive services. Inequities in the percent of demand satisfied among individuals of varying economic status, area of residence, and education are observed in all regions except Central Asia. These gaps are larger and more common in sub-Saharan Africa. Strategies that seek to increase contraceptive use rapidly without consideration for disadvantaged groups are likely to increase observed inequities in p...
In Japan eleven research reactors are in operation. After the 19th International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research Reactors and Test Reactors (RERTR) on October 6-10, 1996, Seoul, Korea, the Five Agency Committee on Highly Enriched Uranium, which consists of Science and Technology Agency, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) met on November 7,1996, to discuss the handling of spent fuel from research reactors in Japan. Advantages and disadvantages to return spent fuel to the USA in comparison to Europe were discussed. So far, a number of spent fuel elements in JAERI and KURRI are to be returned to the US. The first shipment to the US is planned for 60 HEU elements from JMTR in 1997. The shipment from KURRI is planned to start in 1999. (author)
Abstract in english Taenia solium is a parasite that causes human cysticercosis. Its life cycle includes the adult stage, the egg and the larval stage. Human cysticercosis is a disease related to underdevelopment, the main clinical manifestation is neurocysticercosis. Control measures include mass cestocidal treatment aimed to cure possible taeniosis cases. Although useful it has certain disadvantages, such as the generation of symptomatology in occult neurocysticercosis. Alternatively, heal (more) th education has been shown to be highly effective since people become aware of the importance of human and porcine cysticercosis and the possibility of eliminating it. Nevertheless it has to be implemented by knowledgeable people. On the other hand, the life cycle can be controlled by avoiding swine cysticercosis. This review describes the studies performed to vaccinate pigs against T. solium and indicate that short time perspectives are very encouraging for the production of an optimal vaccine.
While the recent emergence of private schooling targeting socially and economically disadvantaged groups in India has been noted, the broader educational discourse in India conceptualises what have been termed here 'low-fee private' (LFP) schools, as a loose collection of independent 'teaching shops'. Combining theoretical concepts from new institutional economics and the sociological variant of new institutionalism in organisational theory, empirical results from this study on LFP schooling in Lucknow District, Uttar Pradesh counter such assumptions. Far from being a fragmented set of schools, LFP schools employed the shadow institutional framework, a codified yet informal set of norms and procedures, to operate as part of a distinct private schooling sector. Despite the fact that LFP cas...
Parental involvement in schools is regarded as critical to student success in Australia, Canada, and the USA, the world's top refugee resettlement countries. Refugees can be disadvantaged when they are unfamiliar with the practices and when their own cultural beliefs conflict with expectations in their new communities, or when they are consumed by other pressing needs. As part of an evaluation of a nonprofit US refugee agency's liaison program, three groups of refugee mothers from different world regions spoke about their lives and connections with their children's schools. Focus groups revealed satisfaction with many aspects of their children's schools as well as contrasts between the groups' needs and experiences. Differences indicate the need for the education community and other service providers to be aware of international backgrounds that bring refugees to the countries of resettlement and cultural differences that create diverse concerns of these groups. (Contains 3 notes, 1 table, and 1 figure.)
This paper examines the consequences of changes in Hispanic college enrollment after affirmative action was banned and replaced by an admission guarantee for students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class. We use administrative data on applicants, admittees, and enrollees from the two most selective public institutions and Texas Education Agency data about high schools to evaluate whether and how application, admission, and enrollment rates changed under the three admission regimes. Despite popular claims that the top 10% law has restored diversity to Texas?s public flagships, our analyses that account for secular changes in the size of graduation cohorts show that Hispanics are more disadvantaged relative to whites under the top 10% admission regime at both University of ...
Ideas about how to make interaction between 'a human' and 'a computer' such that our unconscious will embrace it are developed in this tutorial paper. Evidence of impact of the unconscious functioning is presented. The unconscious is characterised as being a responsive, contextual, and autonomous participant of human-computer interaction. Unconscious participation occurs independently of one's cognitive and educational levels and, if ignored, leads to learning inefficiencies and compulsive behaviours, illustrations of which are provided. Three practical approaches to a study of subjective user experience are explored together with new interpretations of the current usability study methods, such as eye-tracking. Conclusions consider advantages and disadvantages of unconscious-embracing design and remind about evolutionary choices to be made as the unconscious functioning is accommodated in computer interfaces and built environment.
Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes provide more of these resources to their daughters than to their sons. Results do not support the popular notion that because minorities and women do less well in science African-American women will be especially disadvantaged in science. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions. PMID:23077638
Competitive intercollegiate debate programs have long been premised on the unique educational opportunity the activity affords its participants. The central problem with National Debate Tournament (NDT) rounds is that policy advocacy too frequently occurs, reducing questions asked to one of whether advantages outweigh disadvantages. While issues of policy feasibility, workability, and practicality are essential tests of the wisdom of any proposed course of action, such issues rarely, if ever, arise in NDT debate rounds. Avoidance of such questions reflects a mindset that casts doubt on educational objectives typically offered in support of college debate. It is often noted that debate skills have value in various occupational fields; however, NDT debate does not stimulate a real world counterpart. Furthermore, NDT debate practice does not promote citizen participation in policy making. Most arguments popular in the NDT circuit would be laughable in most democratic decision making forums. One justification offered in support of debate is that it teaches argumentation skills. In its preoccupation with one level of argument, NDT policy debate has shrunk the opportunity to develop argumentative skill. Perhaps the educational function of collegiate policy debating would be better served by changing the assumptions underlying NDT debate. (One endnote is included; 34 references are attached.) (SG)
This report, the most recent of several SSRC projects related to knowledge production, research networks and capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa, concerns the state of collaboration between U.S. and South African higher education institutions around social science research and other areas linked to the extraordinary changes that have (and are) taking place in postapartheid South Africa's higher education system. Since the end of apartheid in 1994, linkages between U.S. and South African higher education institutions and research organizations have proliferated. Recent changes within the South African landscape present new opportunities and challenges to identifying gaps and priorities in research and training. This study represents an effort to better understand the existing terrain of research and training collaboration between the two countries. The goal of the inventory is to identify existing gaps in U.S.-South African collaborations and to contribute to the development of priorities for future collaborative activities. It focuses on collaborations in social science research, capacity building and training in all fields, and activities designed to strengthen historically disadvantaged institutions and extend access to previously excluded populations in South Africa. It is hoped that this study will serve as an important resource for academic institutions in both countries in identifying potential partners and activities and for donor agencies in determining funding priorities. (Contains 9 tables.)
The consequences of the separate and unequal education policies of the apartheid years in South Africa persist into the present, and without specific redress measures will persist into the future. The disparities are most serious in the higher education gateway subjects Mathematics and Physical Science. In order to track education redress it is necessary to be able to quantify the disparities that the most disadvantaged experience. Unfortunately no reliable data existed before the transition to democracy, and in the period 1994 to 2001 it was policy not to collect racially disaggregated data. A proxy measurement was therefore effected in the period 1999 to 2002. In 2001 a new policy on data collection was agreed upon and with its implementation in 2002 official racially based data were collected. This permitted comparison between the proxy method and the official method of identifying African students in the school system. The article examines the validity and reliability of the proxy method that was previously published in this Journal and identifies a number of effects involving provincial, gender and performance imbalances. It is shown that these imbalances would have remained undetected had the proxy method not been used. Implications of the findings for policy are then offered.
The opportunities given for medical staff to travel, work and remain in countries other than that of their domicile or graduation have led to the phenomenon of medical migration. This has been supported by ease of travel, improved technology and a drive to share good examples of medical education through improved communication. Whilst these opportunities create positive advantages to the individuals and countries involved, through the transfer of knowledge and medical management, the situation does not always lead to long term benefits, and clear disadvantages begin to emerge. The gulf between the developed and developing countries becomes pronounced, leading to a general drift of resources away from the areas where they are most needed and subsequent profound effects upon the indigenous population. This paper suggests that it is a responsibility of medical educators throughout the world to recognize this effect and create opportunities whereby the specialty of medical education positively effects medical migration to the benefit of the less fortunate areas of the world. PMID:18158660
In this paper a critical feminist theoretical framework is used to explore the challenges of creating democratic learning spaces that will foster active and inclusive citizenship for women. Three democratic considerations are addressed to assess how adult educators can create more inclusive opportunities for lifelong education for women. The first consideration is the need for a careful examination of structural inequalities that create disadvantages for women in pursuing lifelong education. The second consideration is the need to create a broader and more gender inclusive understanding of the scope of lifelong learning possibilities, so that women's learning experiences are not devalued. The third consideration explores how to take up gender as a complex variable within the broader discourse of inclusion. This paper is informed by preliminary results from a current SSHRC (Social Science and Humanities Research Council) study on lifelong learning trajectories for women in Canada and a CCL (Canadian Council on Learning) study on active citizenship for women in Nova Scotia. (Contains 1 note.)
An international seminar was held to identify the scope for improving the way in which the school day, school week, and school year are organized; to consider the advantages and disadvantages of different patterns of organization; and to examine the implications for buildings and more widely, for change. The participants, from 16 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, included architects, teachers, and others professionally concerned with the design and use of educational buildings. There are a number of educational, economic, and social objectives of such changes, but the evaluation of local conditions was stressed. Also covered are the topics of possible types of change: increased use of premises during the school day and during nonuse periods, flexible timetables, networking, and year-round schools. A section on the implications of such changes summarizes the findings in the areas of planning, building, funding, and management of the educational buildings. Nine references are included. Appendices include an outline of the purposes and issues discussed during the seminar, a summary of the school year in 13 OECD countries, and a presentation on the building implications of "flexible timetabling." (LMS)
This paper examines the effects of a Child-to-Child (CtC) health education programme designed to assist children in Pakistan to greater participation and voice in both their own education and their families' health by empowering them as change agents. The study compares parental involvement in their children's participation in health promotion activities in two disadvantaged, community-based, primary schools in rural and urban settings. Children's health knowledge and behaviours improved as a result of the intervention but they were less successful in communicating with and influencing their families. This may have arisen from tensions between CtC assumptions and prevailing norms and beliefs in Pakistan (e.g. about family relationships, girls' security and honour). However, there was greater influence when parental education levels and socioeconomic status were higher. Parents in village communities were more accepting of children's health initiatives than city parents, perhaps because of a greater sense of security and familiarity with each other. Programmes that tackle social change must be cognisant not only of the judged desirability of their aims but also of the contextual and cultural realities of the "Southern" societies to which they are imported. (Contains 3 tables and 1 note.)
This water safety study was both descriptive and exploratory in nature. The purpose was for middle school students to assess their own water safety experiences and to help school decision-makers determine the extent of drowning/water accidents. In July 2009, a water safety survey was administered to 122 students participating in the local Summer Connection Program for seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students, which included children of migrant families as well as economically and educationally disadvantaged students. Chi-square analyses found that Hispanics were less likely than either Whites or Others to have worn personal flotation device (p less than or equal to 0.001), low ability swimmers were less likely to wear a personal flotation device, Hispanics were less likely to swim in ponds, health problems were a barrier to swimming for all ethnicities except Whites, more ninth graders had friends who enjoyed swimming, and more females felt their nearest pool was in good condition (p less than or equal to 0.05). Schools and other community resources need to work together and educate more children ages 1-14 to improve water safety awareness. Drowning rates are higher among minorities, which may be related to a lack of water safety education and awareness. Future research should continue to examine causes of drowning for K-12 students. (Contains 3 tables.)
Because service-learning challenges participants to widen perspectives on social issues, we designed and assessed a multi-semester, multidisciplinary project with both academic and service objectives. In this project, undergraduate students developed a script and video centered on a board game designed to educate high-school students about their community, Chester, Pennsylvania. The script and video featured undergraduate students playing "Chesteropoly," with deeded properties reflecting Chester's current community agencies, as well as business, educational, entertainment, and government groups from past and present days. Next, students enrolled in an educational-psychology independent-study class developed a content-knowledge test; this test, along with assessments of social skills and self-concept, was administered to local high-school students from this disadvantaged community. Undergraduate participants assessed experiences through reflection journals, surveys, and focus-group interviews. Overall, the types of outcomes that we observed for our high-school and undergraduate participants reflected development of civic values, improvement of academic learning, and self-motivation. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
The purpose of this study is to address a possible solution to the racial inequality in urban versus suburban public schools. It also addresses the stereotyping and racial bias associated with this issue. Students enrolled in the urban school districts are predominantly African American and are found to be at an educational disadvantage compared to the students attending the predominantly White suburban schools. Three suburban high schools were interviewed on their perception of African American students in general. Results showed that the majority of the respondents which include students and teachers, saw African American students in a very negative light. Teachers, school administrators, parents and the community need to take responsibility in ridding the negative stereotyping associated with students of color. The best possible way to provide equal educational opportunities for all students attending public schools is through a unified school system. But in order for a unified school system to be successful teachers, school administrators, parents and the community are going to have to come together in support of equal educational advancement for all students regardless of race, ethnic group or economic status. (Contains 2 tables.)
An analysis was made of the case histories of two Georgia State University (GSU) "cooperative models" for the delivery of career education and formal academic services to economically disadvantaged groups. One of the models served primarily black, primarily female Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) participants by providing a link between college and CETA to enroll the 18-19-year-old participants in an Associate of Science degree in Urban Life. The other model provided short-term training in job skills for CETA-eligible black female heads of household between the ages of 17 and 58. Information gained from these projects and from data collected through a recent GSU survey of 300 central business district employers in Atlanta was used to identify six problems relevant to the development of such cooperative models. These problems were (1) public sector versus private sector placement of students; (2) incompatible CETA systems and conflicting regulations; (3) lack of coordination among employment and training systems; (4) problems of the block grant approach in an urban environment; (5) undesirability of public employment service clients as perceived by central business district employers; and (6) lack of research concerning postsecondary involvement in cooperative models linking education and work. Specific recommendations to address these problems were made; among them is a cooperative model with an expanded role for the postsecondary education provider that includes a "mediating" or "brokering" role supplementing a formal training role. (Author/KC)
Motivated by very different goals, various interest groups argue that the British government should address problems with citizens' emotional well-being. Concerns about emotional vulnerability and poor emotional well-being amongst growing numbers of children, young people and adults produce ideas and approaches from different branches of psychology and psychoanalysis. These compete for legitimacy throughout the education system. In part, such developments can be seen as the latest manifestation of a long-running tendency to psychologise intractable educational and social problems. The roots of the psychologisation of emotional vulnerability also lie in a deeper philosophical and political disenchantment with an externally-seeking, autonomous human subject and forms of curriculum knowledge that support it. One effect of these related trends is an epistemology of the emotion that privileges an emotionally vulnerable identity as integral to contemporary human subjectivity. One outcome is to offer emotionally-focused pedagogy and knowledge, particularly for those deemed to be educationally and socially disadvantaged. The paper argues that, despite being highly unfashionable in sociological, political and philosophical theory, a humanist view of subjectivity challenges the new inequalities and diminished forms of pedagogy and knowledge this epistemology offers. (Contains 1 note.)
This annotated bibliography is the sixth annual compilation of the abstracts of 228 documents added to the ERIC database during the year 1991 in the area of computer applications in elementary and secondary schools. The types of materials included are administrator guides, bibliographies, conference papers, evaluative reports, literature reviews, program descriptions, research reports, and teaching guides. The material is presented in four major sections: (1) Computer Assisted Instruction: Overview Documents--24 documents of general discussions on the topic; (2) Special Applications--78 documents divided into 14 categories: Artificial Intelligence/Expert Systems, Cognitive Processing/Thinking Skills, Computer Literacy, Computer Networks, Computer Equity, Counseling and Guidance, Courseware and Software, Ethics, Interactive Video, Keyboarding, Logo, Management/Administration, Conference Proceedings, Research, Simulation, and Testing; (3) Subject Areas--85 documents concerned with computer applications in the areas of business, English as a Second Language and foreign languages, language arts, mathematics, music, reading, science, social studies, vocational education, and writing; (4) Special Populations--37 documents on computer applications for adult education, disabled learners, disadvantaged learners, gifted students, and early childhood education. Individual documents are presented alphabetically by author, or title when no personal author is available, within each section. Each entry includes the title and author of the document, information on price, and availability, the publication type, major ERIC descriptors, and an abstract. An alphabetical title of authors and information on ordering ERIC documents are included. (ALF)
A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis were used to identify relationships between demographic characteristics and respondents' individual characteristics and their intention to participate in extension education. The cassava processors were found to be educationally and economically disadvantaged and to have considerable experience and indigenous knowledge about cassava processing. It was concluded that those rural cassava processors most likely to participate in a cassava processing extension program were women who perceive a high need for training, want to cooperate, are willing to share information, want evening programs, and have farmed for longer periods of time. Women who had lower attitudes toward innovation or were unmarried were least likely to attend extension programs. Most (200) of the women interviewed intended to participate in a cassava processing extension program. Twelve recommendations regarding future research were made. (Contains 25 references.) (MN)
The Rwandan government views Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a key tool for transforming the economy, with the education sector playing an important role in developing the necessary human resources. Since 2000 there has been a big push to introduce computers into schools and integrate ICT into the education curriculum through a range of initiatives. Within this paper we draw on the research of EdQual, a DFID funded project in order to examine issues related to the use of ICTs in schools in Rwanda. We argue that the potential of ICT will not be realised by the mere introduction of computers and ICT infrastructure in schools. We show that current policy initiatives appear to be disadvantaging particular groups, such as girls and those living in rural communities. Drawing on Sen's capability approach as a framework for theorising issues of education policy and social justice, we discuss how engagement with ICT can be reconceptualised as access to the capability of what Jenkins calls participatory culture. We also argue that without a shift in practices of teaching and learning with ICT in schools young people are not likely to learn how to exploit the capabilities offered by access to ICT.
The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical information did or did not support sound processing), and similar or dissimilar sounds (thus varying in difficulty with respect to competition at a sub-lexical level). Even though bilinguals had learned English at an early age, and spoke English without an accent, Spanish-English bilinguals produced significantly more twister errors than monolinguals, particularly in the absence of lexical support. Mandarin-English bilinguals were also disadvantaged, but more consistently across all twister types. These results reveal that bilingual disadvantages extend beyond the lexical level to affect the processing of sub-lexical representations. More generally, these findings suggest that experience with sound structures (and not simply their intrinsic complexity) shapes sub-lexical processing for all speakers. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Attachment anxiety and avoidance have been shown to affect how an individual processes social information such as facial expressions. Previous work has not explored perception of couple relationships. The current study had 39 individuals observe images and videos of couples in conflict. Results suggest that individuals with higher attachment anxiety perceived more intensity in negative interactions/affect and less positive interactions/affect in the couples they observed. Implications for therapy, clinical supervision, and family life education are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of measuring efficiency in the context of higher education. The paper begins by exploring the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods for measuring efficiency in the higher education context. The ease with which data envelopment analysis (DEA) can handle multiple inputs and multiple outputs makes it an attractive choice of technique for measuring the efficiency of higher education institutions (HEIs), yet its drawbacks cannot be ignored. Thus, a number of extensions to the methodology, designed to overcome some of the disadvantages, are presented. The paper ends with an application of DEA to a data set of more than 100 HEIs in England using data for the year 2000/01. Technical and scale efficiency in the English higher education sector appear to be high on average. The Pastor, Ruiz, and Sirvent [2002. Operations Research, 50(4), 728-735] test for comparing nested DEA models is useful in reducing the full model to a smaller "significant" set of inputs and outputs. Thus, the quantity and quality of undergraduates, the quantity of postgraduates, expenditure on administration, and the value of interest payments and depreciation are significant inputs to, and the quantity and quality of undergraduate degrees, the quantity of postgraduate degrees and research are significant outputs in the English higher education production process. The possibility of differences in the production frontier (and hence the distribution of efficiencies) of three distinct groups of HEIs is explored using a test proposed by Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes [1981. Management Science, 27(6), 668-697] but no significant differences are found. Bootstrapping procedures, however, suggest that differences between the most and least efficient English HEIs are significant.
Socioeconomic disadvantage can be harmful for mother's health and can influence child's health long term. The aim of this study is to analyse social inequalities between pregnant women from four INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) cohorts. The analysis included 2,607 pregnant women recruited between 2004 and 2008 from four INMA cohorts. Data on maternal characteristics were collected through two questionnaires completed in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal health, dietary intake, lifestyle habits and self-care related variables was modelled using logistic regression analysis. 33.5 % of women had a university level of education and 47 % had high occupational class. Women with higher SES reported healthier habits, fewer complications during pregnancy, better weight gain control and attended more prenatal appointments than women with lower SES. The risk of sedentary behaviour and passive smoking was higher among women with a lower level of education (OR = 1.7, 95 % CI 1.3-2.2 and OR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.2-2.3, respectively) and with less skilled occupations (OR = 1.7, 95 % CI 1.4-2.0 and OR = 1.2, 95 % CI 1.0-1.5, respectively). Although both SES indicators-occupation and education-act as social determinants of diet, occupation was a more powerful determinant than education. For other lifestyle and self-caring variables, education was a more powerful predictor than occupation. Social inequalities were observed in health, habits and self-care during pregnancy. Proper care during pregnancy requires the control of common clinical variables and the knowledge of socioeconomic conditions of the pregnant women. PMID:22983810
Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65) who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level), television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status), social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family) and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities). Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status) and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity) partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity. PMID:12965964
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium, composed of 35 American Indian tribally-controlled Colleges and Universities in the U.S. and Canada, is leading a comprehensive effort to improve American Indian student achievement in STEM. A key component of this effort is the synthesis of indigenous ways of knowing and western education systems. This presentation will provide an overview of culturally responsive, place-based teaching, learning, and research and will discuss potential opportunities and strategies for helping to ensure that education systems and research programs reflect our diversity and respect our cultures. One example to be discussed is the NSF-funded "Tribal College Rural Systemic Ini