Full Text Available This paper outlines the Exceptional Teachers for Disadvantaged Schools (ETDS) project which began in June 2010 with the aim of developing and documenting an Australian university-based teacher education program specifically focusing on the preparation of high quality teachers for the disadvantaged school sector. ETDS constitutes a novel model of teacher education targeting disadvantaged schooling in that the selection of participating pre-service teachers has been based on their proven academic performance over the first 2 years of their 4-year Bachelor of Education degree. ETDS has established a modified curriculum that better supports the on-campus training of this cohort while also targeting the role of field experience within partner disadvantaged school settings. This paper offers a rationale for the model, unpacks its various phases and provides a justification of the model’s selection criteria based on high academic achievement.
Bruce Burnett; Jo Lampert
BACKGROUND: It is recognised that CVD affects an individual's financial situation, placing them in income poverty. However, recent developments in poverty measurement practice recognises other forms of disadvantage other than low income, such as poor health and insufficient education also affect living standards. METHODS: Using the Freedom Poverty Measure, the multiple forms of disadvantage experienced by those with no health condition, heart disease, other diseases of the circulatory system, and all other health conditions was assessed using data on the adult Australian population contained in the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. RESULTS: 24% of those with heart disease and 23% of those with other diseases of the circulatory system were in freedom poverty, suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage. Those with heart disease and those with other diseases of the circulatory system were around three times more likely to be in freedom poverty (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 2.29-3.99, p<.0001; OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.94-3.98, p<.0001) than those with no health condition. CONCLUSIONS: Recognising the multiple forms of disadvantage suffered by those with CVD provides a clearer picture of their living standards than just looking at their income alone and the high proportion of individuals with CVD that are suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage should make them a target for policy makers wishing to improve living standards.
Callander EJ; Schofield DJ; Shrestha RN
BACKGROUND: Ventures in Education is an independent, nonprofit educational organization established by the Josiah H. Macy, Jr. Foundation to improve the academic achievement of minority and economically disadvantaged students, particularly in science and mathematics. One specific objective has been to increase the number of students who enter schools of the health professions, in particular schools of medicine, which was the focus of this study. METHOD: A search was conducted of the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC's) Student and Applicant Information Management System database, to determine whether any of the 981 graduates in the first five Venture classes (1985 to 1989) of the original five New York City high schools in the program had pursued medical education. RESULTS: The search located 160 of the 981 Ventures graduates, and, of those, 136 had taken the Medical College Admission Test (13.9%), 109 (11.1%) has applied to medical school, 75 (7.6%) had been accepted, and 72 (7.3%) had matriculated into medical school. All of these percentages were significantly higher than the corresponding percentages for the general population. CONCLUSION: The findings have important implications for the AAMC's Project 3000 by 2000, showing that a rigorous academic curriculum with resources for individualized attention can facilitate the entry of minority and economically disadvantage students into medical education, with at least 7.3% of the Ventures graduates entering medical school and nearly 70% of those applying subsequently being accepted.
Bediako MR; McDermott BA; Bleich ME; Colliver JA
This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with those in the…
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the international literature on the validity of self-report of cervical cancer screening, specifically of studies that made direct comparisons among women with and without social disadvantage, based on race/ethnicity, foreign-born status, language ability, income, or education. METHOD: The databases of Medline, EBM Reviews, and CINAHL from 1990 to 2011 were searched using relevant search terms. Articles eligible for data extraction documented the prevalence of cervical cancer screening based on both self-report and an objective measure for women both with and without at least one measure of social disadvantage. The report-to-record ratio, the ratio of the proportion of study subjects who report at least one screening test within a particular time frame to the proportion of study subjects who have a record of the same test within that time frame, was calculated for each subgroup. RESULTS: Five studies met the extraction criteria. Subgroups were based on race/ethnicity, education, and income. In all studies, and across all subgroups, report-to-record ratios were greater than one, indicative of pervasive over-reporting. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that objective measures should be used by policymakers, researchers, and public-health practitioners in place of self-report to accurately determine cervical cancer screening rates.
Lofters AK; Moineddin R; Hwang SW; Glazier RH
The PhD research question ‘how can educationally disadvantaged employees gain the necessary qualifications to secure employability status and contribute to competitiveness in a knowledge based economy ’ is addressed through case study research using Waterford Crystal Ltd, an indigenous, manufacturin...
Cooke , Senan
PURPOSE: Numerous surgical procedures and instrumentation techniques for lumbosacral fusion (LSF) have been developed. This is probably because of its high mechanical demand and unique anatomy. Surgical options include anterior column support (ACS) and posterior stabilization procedures. Biomechanical studies have been performed to verify the stability of those options. The options have their own advantage but also disadvantage aspects. This review article reports the surgical options for lumbosacral fusion, their biomechanical stability, advantages/disadvantages, and affecting factors in option selection. METHODS: Review of literature. CONCLUSION: LSF has lots of options both for ACS and posterior stabilization procedures. Combination of posterior stabilization procedures is an option. Furthermore, combinations of ACS and posterior stabilization procedures are other options. It is difficult to make a recommendation or treatment algorithm of LSF from the current literature. However, it is important to know all aspects of the options and decision-making of surgical options for LSF needs to be tailored for each patient, considering factors such as biomechanical stress and osteoporosis.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this demonstration program was to examine the effectiveness of peer education in disseminating tobacco related information and influencing knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to smoking in socially disadvantaged youth communities. METHOD: Peer educators were trained to become messengers of tobacco issues. Intervention sites were selected. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Recommendations were drawn up on the inclusion of peer conducted health education into the comprehensive program of the Ministry of Health to improve the health situation of Roma (Gypsy) and disadvantaged population groups. RESULTS: Peer educators were recognised as trustworthy mediators of tobacco related information. Interventions resulted in an improved level of knowledge of and changes in attitudes towards smoking in the targeted youth communities. CONCLUSIONS: The program demonstrated that peer education is an effective tool to raise awareness on smoking issues in communities of Roma and disadvantaged children, when multiple socio-cultural-environmental factors facilitate the taking up of unhealthy habits. If disseminated, this tool could be effective in helping reduce teenage smoking in these communities.
The objectives of the current study were (a) to develop a measure of children's analogical thinking modifiability (CATM) based on the Feuerstein, Rand, and Hoffman (1979) theory of dynamic assessment of cognitive modifiability, (b) to compare the performance of groups assumed to be differentially modified by intervention, (c) to compare CATM performance with performance on a conventional test, and (d) to study qualitative changes after a learning process. Subjects were disadvantaged, regular, and special education kindergarten children (N = 140), and mentally retarded children (N = 20). The CATM was administered together with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) in a balanced order. Disadvantaged and regular children achieved higher gain scores than other groups in both none-or-all and partial credit methods (p less than .01). The MR and the special education groups showed small gains according to the none-or-all credit method; however, according to the partial credit method, the MR group showed high gains and the special education group a performance decrease. Performance scores on the CATM were higher than on the RCPM, especially in comparison to the B8-B12 items--differences reach a peak of 61% and 67% for the disadvantaged and regular groups, respectively. Qualitative analysis indicated that form mistakes were most resistant to change, whereas color mistakes were most easy to modify. Results were explained within Feuerstein's theoretical framework of cognitive modifiability. Impaired cognitive functions as well as analytic versus synthetic processes were suggested to explain group differences.
Tzuriel D; Klein PS
The objectives of the current study were (a) to develop a measure of children's analogical thinking modifiability (CATM) based on the Feuerstein, Rand, and Hoffman (1979) theory of dynamic assessment of cognitive modifiability, (b) to compare the performance of groups assumed to be differentially modified by intervention, (c) to compare CATM performance with performance on a conventional test, and (d) to study qualitative changes after a learning process. Subjects were disadvantaged, regular, and special education kindergarten children (N = 140), and mentally retarded children (N = 20). The CATM was administered together with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) in a balanced order. Disadvantaged and regular children achieved higher gain scores than other groups in both none-or-all and partial credit methods (p less than .01). The MR and the special education groups showed small gains according to the none-or-all credit method; however, according to the partial credit method, the MR group showed high gains and the special education group a performance decrease. Performance scores on the CATM were higher than on the RCPM, especially in comparison to the B8-B12 items--differences reach a peak of 61% and 67% for the disadvantaged and regular groups, respectively. Qualitative analysis indicated that form mistakes were most resistant to change, whereas color mistakes were most easy to modify. Results were explained within Feuerstein's theoretical framework of cognitive modifiability. Impaired cognitive functions as well as analytic versus synthetic processes were suggested to explain group differences. PMID:4078185
Tzuriel, D; Klein, P S
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the level of knowledge of a group of children from disadvantaged backgrounds regarding the prevention of teeth decay, after having participated in courses of dental health care. The study is based on 107 socially disadvantaged children. They have been applied questionnaires referring to the scope of the study. After having completed the courses in the dental health field and dental hygiene, the children became more aware of the importance of a proper tooth brushing (77.6%) than they were before the educational program (66.3%). The number of children who acknowledged that the toothbrush is a personal property has increased in percent from 96.5% to 99.1%. After the first educational program they became more aware of the role of mouthwash (the percentage increased from 79.1 % to 91.5%) and of the use of the dental floss (from 50% to 91.5%). Psychologically, a very useful procedure to make children aware of the importance of the oral hygiene is to highlight the loss of a beautiful smile (96%) because of tooth decay or of extractions (72%). All the indicators measured have shown an increase in the knowledge level of dental health care. The knowledge level of the use of dental floss and mouthwash proved a statistically significant increase. The results we obtained showed that the knowledge gap between the use of dental floss and mouth wash observed at the beginning of the study was closed after just one educational lesson. At the end of our program we were able to create an assessment loop process that can offer enough feedback to the management team so as to deliver the most suitable dental healthcare education for the socially disadvantaged children.
Mona IONAS; Laura STEF
Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, ?2 p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 ?2 p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility.
Almeida TL; Alexander NB; Nyquist LV; Montagnini ML; Santos A CS; Rodrigues G HP; Negrão CE; Trombetta IC; Wajngarten M
Few studies have evaluated the benefit of providing exercise to underprivileged older adults at risk for falls. Economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with previous falls (mean age 79.06, SD = 4.55) were randomized to 4 mo of multimodal exercise provided as fully supervised center-based (FS, n = 45), minimally supervised home-based (MS, n = 42), or to nonexercise controls (C, n = 32). Comparing groups on the mean change in fall-relevant mobility task performance between baseline and 4 mo and compared with the change in C, both FS and MS had significantly greater reduction in timed up-and-go, F(2,73) = 5.82, p = .004, ?2p = .14, and increase in tandem-walk speed, F(2,73) = 7.71, p < .001 ?2p = .17. Change in performance did not statistically differ between FS and MS. In community-dwelling economically and educationally disadvantaged older adults with a history of falls, minimally supervised home-based and fully supervised center-based exercise programs may be equally effective in improving fall-relevant functional mobility.
Almeida TL; Alexander NB; Nyquist LV; Montagnini ML; Santos A CS; Rodrigues G HP; Negrão CE; Trombetta IC; Wajngarten M
THIS INVENTORY WAS DEVELOPED TO IDENTIFY EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN THE TEN RACINE, WISCONSIN, SCHOOLS ELIGIBLE FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT, TITLE I FUNDS. THE ASSESSMENT CAN ALSO SERVE TO EVALUATE THE MOST PRESSING STUDENT NEEDS AND TO DEVELOP TITLE I PROGRAMS. THE INVENTORY CONSISTS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE AND A RATING…
Racine Unified School District 1, WI.
Full Text Available Black women in previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa carry the burden of triple oppression: (a) the social engineering policies synonymous with apartheid have marginalised women economically and socially; (b) patriarchy, embedded in cultural and religious discourses, has rendered women voiceless and powerless and (c) HIV/AIDS targets the most vulnerable: women and children. The authors describe a research experience in Atteridgeville, a historically disadvantaged community in South Africa, with a family of women infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS, about their experiences of care and or the lack thereof. A narrative approach offers useful ideas to facilitate a process in which African women in historically challenged communities can speak out about their experiences of care and or the lack of care.
Julian C. Müller; Sunette Pienaar
To ascertain which aspects of environmental quality of life affect neighbourhood satisfaction, a study was conducted with 303 tenure allocated residents of an informal settlement in Soweto, 160 residents of a squatter camp in the same informal settlement, and 375 black and 358 white residents of a m...
Westaway, Margaret S.
In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (?g mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.
Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís
The effects of early educational treatment upon the components of psychological development of children at high risk for sociocultural retardation were examined in 50 children. Twenty-six children attended, from infancy, a day-care center where educational treatment in the form of systematic curriculum was provided; 24 control children were educationally untreated. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities were administered to both groups at 42 months of age. The educationally treated group's scores were superior to the educationally untreated group on the Verbal, Perceptual-Performance, Quantitative, and Memory Scales but not on the Motor scale. Early education appeared to improve the children's ability to attend to, comprehend, and carry out abstract and complex tasks.
Ramey CT; Campbell FA
The evolution of biodiversity is a major issue of modern biology, and it is becoming increasingly topical as the ongoing erosion of diversity puts serious threats on human well-being. An elementary mechanism that allows maintaining diversity is the interplay between dispersal and heterozygote selective disadvantage, which can lead to self-sustainable spatial genetic structures and is central to the stability of hybrid zones. Theoretical studies supporting the importance of this mechanism assume a balanced sex-ratio and a heterozygote disadvantage equally affecting both sexes, despite the multiplicity of empirical evidence that (i) adult sex-ratio is usually biased towards either male or female and that (ii) heterozygote disadvantage often affects a single sex. We expanded the existing theory by weighting the strength of selection against heterozygote according to the biased in sex-ratio and in heterozygote disadvantage. The range of conditions allowing for the maintenance of polymorphism can then either double or vanish. We discuss the implications of such finding for birds, mammals and insects diversity. Finally, we provide simple analytical predictions about the effect of those biased on the width and speed of hybrid zones and on the time for the spread of beneficial mutations through such zones.
Nouvellet P; Gourbière S
This paper analyses the development and implementation of the European Union's policies in distance higher education and elearning since the 1957 Treaty of Rome. Distance education emerged in the 1960s and 70s as an instrument at national level to redress disadvantage, and to provide flexible, high-...
Higher education in the United States has a history of opening its doors to broader populations of students as exemplified by the Morrill Act and the GI Bill. The reality, however, of modifying curricula and courses already parceled among faculty with varying specialties, varying levels of expertise related to diversity, and with already full…
Allan, Elizabeth J.; Estler, Suzanne E.
Full Text Available This study looked at how a group of South African secondary school mathematics teachers regarded the concept of gradient (slope). Results are reported from nine free-response items on a paper-and-pencil test administered to practising teachers who were pursuing qualifications to teach Grades 10–12 mathematics through an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) programme. The findings suggest that teachers’ understanding of gradient varies greatly. A number of teachers in the study demonstrated very little to no understanding of this important concept, whilst others demonstrated a strong understanding of gradient and were able to conceptualise it in many different ways. Implications for teacher professional development are considered.How to cite this article: Mudaly, V., & Moore-Russo, D. (2011). South African teachers’ conceptualisations of gradient: A study of historically disadvantaged teachers in an Advanced Certificate in Education programme. Pythagoras, 32(1), Art. #25, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/pythagoras.v32i1.25
Vimolan Mudaly; Deborah Moore-Russo
A 16-week continuing education course in clinical chemistry provided for a group of laboratory professionals was evaluated in terms of those factors in the participants' backgrounds which influenced their performance on precourse and postcourse examinations. Work setting, facility size, educational background, and sex influenced precourse scores. Educational background and occupational function influenced postcourse test scores.
Parker SL; Davis SH
|In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…
Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez
|The No Child Left Behind education act mandates that school districts develop supplemental educational service programs for students not demonstrating mathematical proficiency on state standardized math assessments. Yet there is limited understanding of issues related to supplemental educational service math programs. The purpose of this…
A body of research data is reviewed pointing to considerable intellectual lag and nonstandard linguistic abilities among the disadvantaged. While "difference" and "deficit" theorists interpret these findings differently, many observers agree that early educational intervention may be a useful approach to such problems. A series of early intervention programs is reviewed for three young disadvantaged groups: infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Findings from these programs suggest that early intervention helps materially to reduce the intellectual and linguistic problems of the young disadvantaged.
|The study examines the effectiveness of theme-centered group counseling conducted by experienced professional counselors in impacting the self-confidence of disadvantaged adults and also the development of interpersonal and intrapersonal sensitivity. Major questions focused on ascertaining if: (1) self-concept developments of a sample of entering…
Mayotte, Alan C.; Conrad, Rowan W.
In 2003, Texas initiated an experiment to address enrollment disparities in its medical schools. With bipartisan support from key Texas legislators, funding was allocated in 2002 to establish the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP). Texas' then eight medical schools created, through JAMP, a partnership with the state's 31 public and 34 private undergraduate colleges and universities. Cognizant of legal prohibitions against reliance solely on race or ethnicity in promoting diversity, JAMP is designed to enhance opportunities for economically disadvantaged students from across the state, including those from (1) rural and remote areas of the state, and (2) institutions that have historically sent few students to medical school. Now in its seventh year of operation, JAMP is overseen by a council with representatives from all nine Texas medical schools. For the six years-2003 to 2008-for which data are available, indicators of JAMP performance can be seen in (1) the numbers of applicants to JAMP (1,230 applicants in the first six years), (2) levels of JAMP participation (480 participants), and (3) matriculation of JAMP participants into medical schools (164 of 288 of those accepted into the program in the years 2003-2006).The authors provide a brief history of JAMP, describe its structure and operation, summarize objective performance data, and identify some of the challenges still faced. These include increasing the participation of students from underrepresented minority groups within the legal structure for the program, and fostering substantive participation in JAMP by all of Texas' undergraduate institutions. A focused effort is under way to strengthen the evaluative aspects of JAMP so that more comprehensive data, including subjective evaluation data from participants, can be shared with colleagues in the future. PMID:19881424
Dalley, Bernell; Podawiltz, Alan; Castro, Robert; Fallon, Kathleen; Kott, Marylee; Rabek, Jeffrey; Richardson, James; Thomson, William; Ferry, Pamela; Mabry, Budge; Hermesmeyer, Paul; Smith, Quentin
In 2003, Texas initiated an experiment to address enrollment disparities in its medical schools. With bipartisan support from key Texas legislators, funding was allocated in 2002 to establish the Joint Admission Medical Program (JAMP). Texas' then eight medical schools created, through JAMP, a partnership with the state's 31 public and 34 private undergraduate colleges and universities. Cognizant of legal prohibitions against reliance solely on race or ethnicity in promoting diversity, JAMP is designed to enhance opportunities for economically disadvantaged students from across the state, including those from (1) rural and remote areas of the state, and (2) institutions that have historically sent few students to medical school. Now in its seventh year of operation, JAMP is overseen by a council with representatives from all nine Texas medical schools. For the six years-2003 to 2008-for which data are available, indicators of JAMP performance can be seen in (1) the numbers of applicants to JAMP (1,230 applicants in the first six years), (2) levels of JAMP participation (480 participants), and (3) matriculation of JAMP participants into medical schools (164 of 288 of those accepted into the program in the years 2003-2006).The authors provide a brief history of JAMP, describe its structure and operation, summarize objective performance data, and identify some of the challenges still faced. These include increasing the participation of students from underrepresented minority groups within the legal structure for the program, and fostering substantive participation in JAMP by all of Texas' undergraduate institutions. A focused effort is under way to strengthen the evaluative aspects of JAMP so that more comprehensive data, including subjective evaluation data from participants, can be shared with colleagues in the future.
Dalley B; Podawiltz A; Castro R; Fallon K; Kott M; Rabek J; Richardson J; Thomson W; Ferry P; Mabry B; Hermesmeyer P; Smith Q
We investigate whether the academic performance of non-eligible students - in an institutional setting of full inclusion - are affected by special education resources. Special education resources are per definition provided in a compensatory manner, and are increasingly being targeted to misbehaving...
Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans; Pettersen, Ivar
The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…
Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen
The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent is there an understanding among physicians as to how continuing professional education (CPE) and Continuing Medical Education (CME) affect physicians practice? To address the question, focus groups were used to begin a process of identifying the components within each type of education so that…
Johnson, Kathleen A.
Full Text Available College physical education is one of the important contents in promoting the college students' quality education. Improving teaching quality and building up the students' physical quality have become the problems that the society is concerned. Through practices, the application of the idea of happy physical education can not only improve teaching quality effectively but also improve the students' physical conditions greatly. It not only has some advantages but also has some limitations. How to balance their relationships is one of the primary research contents in college physical education teaching.
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Sabia, Joseph J.
|The recent growth in the racial and cultural heterogeneity of college students in the United States has increased the demand for higher educational policies that will accommodate the needs of an increasingly diverse collective student body (Kao & Thompson, 2003). Traditionally, underrepresented minority students (i.e., African American, Hispanic…
Preparing future nurses to care for dying patients and their families represents a challenge for nursing education. Affective learning, essential to nurture a caring perspective in end-of-life care, can elicit strong emotional reactions in students, to which nurse educators must remain keenly sensitive. This article presents the experience of nurse educators and students with experiential and reflective activities addressing the affective domain of learning, within an intensive 4-week undergraduate course on end-of-life care, developed with a competency-based approach. It stressed the importance of strategic teaching for developing interpersonal competencies in end-of-life care, but revealed difficulties for both nurse educators and students in assessing outcomes derived from affective learning.
Brien LA; Legault A; Tremblay N
Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.
The manual is intended to help South Carolina school systems administer programs for handicapped and disadvantaged persons enrolled in vocational education programs. The manual focuses on: legal mandates; how students are identified; how students are assessed; the assessment instruments utilized; services that can be provided; how student progress…
Winstead, Annie S.
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess whether the organization and structure of inpatient team rounds affects medical student perception of the overall quantity and quality of teaching on an inpatient general medicine service. Methods: A pilot project to improve inpatient care was launched at the Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System (VAAAHS). General medicine attending physicians involved in the pilot followed a "non-traditional" rounding structure (accentuating senior resident-run "work rounds" while time for "attending rounds" focused on critical issues and teaching). The remainder kept the "traditional" rounding structure (entire team rounds on patients one-by-one). In a cross-sectional design, third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of Michigan were surveyed after their rotation about their experience. Students were asked to rate their educational experience in 21 domains. Responses were evaluated by rounding structure. Results: A total of 90 students (59 responded. Across every domain surveyed, students rated the quantity and quality of teaching higher after experiencing "non-traditional" rounds. Statistically significant increases were seen in ratings for "teaching during rounds from senior resident", "teaching during rounds from attending", "sit-down teaching from attending", "overall amount/quality of teaching", and "overall improvement in internal medicine knowledge", among others. Conclusions: The organization and structure of inpatient rounds can significantly impact medical student education. Teaching physicians and medical school clerkship directors should consider this when organizing inpatient team workflow.
Timothy W. Bodnar; Karen E. Fowler; Sanjay Saint
Poor-quality, or completely absent, data deny millions of children the right to an education. This is often the case in conflict-ridden areas. The 2011 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (UNESCO 2011b) identified four failures that are holding back progress in education and damaging millions of children's lives: failures of protection,…
BACKGROUND: The male:female (M:F) mortality ratio for under-five mortality varies considerably across and within societies. Maternal education has been linked to better outcomes for girls, but the evidence is mixed. We examined how the M:F ratio for under-five mortality varies by maternal education in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. METHODS: We used recent Demographic and Health Surveys from 31 sub-Saharan African and 4 southern Asian countries. M:F mortality ratios were determined using information on 49 769 deaths among 521 551 children. We estimate M:F ratios for under-five (month 0-59), neonatal (month 0), post-neonatal (month 1-11) and child mortality (month 12-59) by maternal education while controlling for demographic and household characteristics. M:F ratios for under-five mortality and child mortality are compared with more 'gender neutral' thresholds (of 1.25 and 1.17, respectively) estimated on the basis of the Human Mortality Database. RESULTS: In sub-Saharan Africa, the M:F ratio for under-five mortality is 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.13] among non-educated mothers, 1.14 (95% CI 1.09-1.19) among mothers with some primary education and 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.34) among mothers with some secondary or more education. For southern Asia, the ratios are 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.95), 1.10 (95% CI 0.97-1.25) and 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.26), respectively. The M:F ratio for child mortality also shows an educational gradient in both regions, with the M:F ratio being lower among non-educated mothers. In southern Asia, the M:F ratio for child mortality is particularly low among mothers with no education, M:F ratio = 0.54 (95% CI 0.41-0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Among mothers with more education, the difference in the mortality chances of boys and girls more closely resembles a 'gender neutral' situation than among women with no or little education. Girls benefit both in absolute and relative terms from having a more educated mother.
Monden CW; Smits J
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the current status of school based sex education and to determine predictors of providing a comprehensive sex education curriculum. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey SETTING: Hawaii PARTICIPANTS: Seventh and eighth grade health teachers INTERVENTIONS: Participants were surveyed regarding the content, quality, and influences on sex education for the 2007 to 2008 academic year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures of association (chi-square, ANOVA) and multiple logistic regression were used to determine predictors for teaching comprehensive sex education topics including sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of teachers incorporated some form of sex education into their curriculum and 54.4% of teachers incorporated a comprehensive education. Teachers indicated that personal values and the availability of curriculum had the greatest influence on the content of the curriculum. Specific factors which were associated with an increased likelihood of providing a comprehensive curriculum included teaching in a public school (public 66.7% versus private 34.6%, P = 0.01), receiving formal training in sex education (received training 77.8% versus did not receive training 50.0%, P = 0.03) and having contact with a student who became pregnant (contact 72.7% versus no contact 46.7%, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Although most teachers incorporate some form of sex education, only half incorporate a comprehensive curriculum. Personal values as well as teacher resources play an important role in the content of the curriculum.
Woo GW; Soon R; Thomas JM; Kaneshiro B
While examining the macroeconomic effects of government taxand punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector generalequilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wagebargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choiceof education is determined endogenously. Job opportunities in an informalsector are available only to workers who choose not to acquirehigher education. We find that increased punishment of informal activitiesincreases the number of educated workers and reduces the number of unemployed workers. Considering welfare, we show it isoptimal to choose punishment rates so to more than fully counteractthe distortion created by the government's inability to tax theinformal sector.JEL-codes: H26, I21, J64Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, education, matching,unemployment.
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
Of various means to prevent alcohol-related problems among adolescents, school-based educational approaches are very prevalent. The potential effectiveness of such programs will be limited, however, if teenage drinking is determined by factors beyond the influence of school-based interventions, such as demographic characteristics or quality of family environment. On the other hand, educational programs would have greater potential efficacy if teenage drinking is influenced mainly by factors more amenable to change, such as characteristics of individual adolescents like their alcohol expectancies or social reasoning. We evaluated in this study whether drinking among high school students was related more to factors "unchangeable" versus "changeable" by school-based intervention. We found that drinking varied with different types of "unchangeable" and "changeable" factors for male and female students. Implications for alcohol education programs are discussed.
Kline RB; Canter WA
While examining the macroeconomic effects of government tax and punishment policies, this paper develops a three-sector general equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining. Workers are assumed to differ in ability, and the choice of education is determined endog...
Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
Full Text Available Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 about inhibiting factors. We used Likert score to measure questions. Data analysis performed by SPSS software. Statistical test were Chi square, t test, variance analysis and correlation of variance. Results: The highest percentage of nurses (52.1%) believed that enough attention is not being paid to facilitating factors such as considering patient education as priority in patient care, nurses being responsible for patient education, considering patient education as a criteria in nurses annual evaluation, importance of patient education for nurse administrators, having in-service education about patient teaching and having proper time, place and personnel for patient education. Majority of nurses (57.4%) believed factors such as shortage of nurses, lack of proper place, time and patient motivation for receiving education, nurses and nurse administrators’ inattention to patient education and negative attitude of doctors toward patient education by nurses are inhibiting factors in process of education. Statistical tests showed a meaningful relation between demographic variables such as sex, clinical background, shift work and position and facilitating factors. There was also a meaningful relation between variables like working in more than one shift, having clinical experience of patient education and being evaluated for patient education during study of nursing and inhibiting factors. Conclusion: This study shows low level of facilitating factors for patient education in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science. To improve patient education in these hospitals it is necessary to improve facilitating factors.
Goudarzi Z; Khosravi Kh; Bahrani N; Vaskooii Kh; Valipourgavgany P; Ghoghaei S; Mosaviniasigari M; Khayatali M; Zahedi H; Basiri A
In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478
Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S
In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms.
Franz CE; Spoon K; Thompson W; Hauger RL; Hellhammer DH; Jacobson KC; Lupien S; Lyons MJ; McCaffery J; McKenzie R; Mendoza SP; Panizzon MS; Ramundo A; Shahroudi A; Kremen WS
New tactics for teaching the disadvantaged must be developed which are significantly different from traditional approaches which have been used with advantaged children. Creative strategies in teaching must be developed which utilize sound teaching and learning theories and which, at the same time, are able to be continuously evaluated in a…
White, William F.
Públicos e (des)vantagens em educação: escolas e famílias em interacção/ Publics and (dis)advantages in education: schools and families in interaction/ Publics et (dés)avantages dans l'éducation: écoles et familles en interaction
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste texto pretendemos apresentar alguns resultados provisórios de uma investigação em curso centrada nos processos de regulação da educação. O estudo desenvolve-se num concelho do norte de Portugal (convencionalmente designado Vila Formosa), abarcando as escolas com oferta de ensino secundário, e pretende esclarecer, um conjunto de questões envolvidas com a diversidade dos públicos escolares, orientações e práticas das escolas e estratégias das famílias. (more) Os elementos que nos propomos apresentar decorrem da análise de uma parcela do material empírico recolhido na primeira fase do estudo e centram-se, no essencial, na articulação entre duas vertentes: i) lógicas e processos mobilizados pelas escolas nos momentos em que efectivam determinadas escolhas organizacionais (nomeadamente, quando procedem à constituição das turmas e à gestão de determinados recursos); ii) determinadas estratégias de investimento escolar das famílias (materializadas, por exemplo, em 'escolhas' diversas e no recurso a 'explicações'). Os dados preliminares da investigação em curso, sugerem, ainda que de uma forma não linear nem consolidada, estamos perante um acesso desigual a um bem fundamental - a educação -, sobretudo nas suas fileiras mais prestigiadas, desigualdade essa que parece penalizar sobretudo os grupos sociais que já sofrem de outros défices. Abstract in english In this text we intend to present some preliminary results of an inquiry in progress centred in the processes of regulation of education. The study is developed in one municipality of the north of Portugal (conventionally assigned Vila Formosa), including the schools that supply secondary education, and it intends to clarify a set of questions envolved whit the diversity of school publics, families strategies and orientations and practices of schools. The elements that we (more) intend to present result from the analysis of a parcel of the collected empirical material in the first phase of the study and they are focused, in the essential, over the articulation between two sources: i) logics and processes mobilized by the schools at the moment where they accomplish organizational choices (namely, when they proceed to the constitution of pupil groupings and the management of some resources); ii) some family strategies of school investment (materialized, for example, in "different choices" and the use of "private individualized lessons"). The preliminary data of the research, suggest that we are in presence of an unequal access to a basic good - education -, over all in its most privileged courses, inequality that seems to penalize those social groups that already suffer from other disadvantages.
Sá, Virgínio; Antunes, Fátima
...sale of controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use that...COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD Â§ 2526.30 How do convictions...sale of controlled substances affect an education award recipient's ability to use...
Designed as a resource guide for teachers and teacher educators, this annotated bibliography contains 102 citations (e.g., journal articles, program descriptions, research reports) most of them dated between 1968 and 1970. There are five sections: 1) Characteristics and Problems of the Disadvantaged--22 items; 2) Attitudes Toward the…
Mathieson, Moira B., Comp.; Tatis, Rita M., Comp.
|This guide resulted from the work of 14 colleges and universities participating in the Red River Valley Inter-Institutional Project, which related to the education of the culturally disadvantaged child. The project included two field experiences, one urban and the other rural; orientation meetings; and discussions. The aims of the Red River…
This study analyses the citizenship experiences of young non-western migrants in the Netherlands. Young migrants are in a disadvantaged position in education and in the labour market and this leads to concerns about their integration in Dutch society. The focus of this study is on the participation ...
Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities.
Brenner AB; Zimmerman MA; Bauermeister JA; Caldwell CH
Full Text Available A number of students in the urban and rural areas of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group were collected to examine the various socio-economic factors which affect our education system. A logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate) person(s) and the risk factors are Father literacy [FE], Father income[FI] Parents’ attitude towards education[PA], Mother literacy [ME], Present examination system [PE], Present education curriculum [PC].The results of the analysis show that the factors Father Education combined with Parents’ Attitude towards Education, Father Income combined with Mother Education, Father Income combined with Parents’ Attitude towards Education are some of the factors which affect the education in N-W.F.P. Thus we concluded that there are a number of socioeconomic factors which affect our education.
Atta Ur RAHMAN; Salah UDDIN
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a conceptual model of the psychosocial pathways linking socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI) among smokers. METHODS: A latent variable modeling approach was used to evaluate the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect, and BMI among smokers recruited from the Houston metropolitan area (N = 424). RESULTS: A total of 42.4% of participants were obese, with the highest prevalence of obesity among Latinos followed by African Americans. Across all racial/ethnic groups, perceived neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect functioned as pathways linking socioeconomic status and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate the need for interventions that target obesity among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers and provide potential intervention targets for the prevention and treatment of obesity.
Kendzor DE; Businelle MS; Cofta-Woerpel LM; Reitzel LR; Castro Y; Vidrine JI; Mazas CA; Cinciripini PM; Wetter DW
Purpose: Living in disadvantaged urban areas is associated with poor mental health. The purpose of this study was to assess which social characteristics were associated with psychological distress within a disadvantaged, multi-ethnic neighbourhood of Berlin. METHODS: The study was conducted in an area of Berlin with the highest rates of unemployment and highest density of migrants. A total of 143 participants aged 18-57 years were included from a random sample. The social characteristics educational level, employment status, marital status, living alone, per-capita income and background of migration were collected. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-28; scores ? 5 indicated psychological distress corresponding to psychiatric caseness. RESULTS: Psychological distress was found in 40.6% (n = 58) of the sample. Psychological distress was associated with younger age (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.98, p = .004), female gender (OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.55-7.92, p = .003) and living alone (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.58-9.52, p = .003), but not with background of migration, low educational level or with unemployment. CONCLUSIONS: Young age and female gender may predispose for psychological distress in disadvantaged areas. Living alone could be a social indicator of poor mental health within disadvantaged urban areas. The directionality of the association is unclear. BACKGROUND: of migration, low income and educational level do not seem to be associated with poor mental health within those areas. PMID:23117825
Mundt, Adrian; Kliewe, T; Yayla, S; Ignatyev, Y; Busch, M A; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Rapp, M A; Schouler-Ocak, M; Ströhle, A; Aichberger, M C
BACKGROUND: Nicotine cravings are a key target of smoking cessation interventions. Cravings demonstrate circadian variation during abstinence, often peaking during the morning and evening hours. Although some research has also shown diurnal variation in the efficacy of nicotine replacement medications, little research has examined how brief psychosocial interventions affect temporal patterns of craving during abstinence. The present study examined the impact of two brief psycho-education interventions on circadian variations in cravings during a 24-h period. METHOD: 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions. During the first session, participants received (a) mindfulness psycho-education that encouraged acceptance of cravings as a normal, tolerable part of quitting that people should not expect to perfectly control, (b) standard cessation psycho-education, or (c) no psycho-education. Half the sample initiated a cessation attempt the following day. Dependent variables were assessed using ecological momentary assessment (24-h of monitoring, immediately after first lab session) and questionnaires four days later. RESULTS: Partially consistent with hypotheses, both forms of psycho-education were associated with differential diurnal variation in cravings during cessation. Relative to those receiving no psycho-education, standard smoking cessation psycho-education decreased morning cravings. Psycho-education encouraging acceptance of cravings was associated with lower craving in both the morning and evening, albeit only among successfully abstinent smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that brief non-pharmacological interventions can affect circadian craving patterns during smoking cessation. Further investigation of mechanisms of change and of the impact of psycho-education on cessation outcomes is warranted.
Nosen E; Woody SR
|The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in…
Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher
This study was designed to investigate what aspects of teacher education (if any) affect student success. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of high- and low-performing urban and rural public high schools across Arizona. Quantitative variables that were researched include the level of deg...
Faith Elizabeth Andreasen
The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…
Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…
Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah
Effects of Early Educational Intervention in the Lives of Disadvantaged Children. A Report of Six Follow-up Studies of Children Who Were Enrolled in the Five-Year Durham Education Improvement Program, 1965-70. Final Report.
|In 6 follow-up studies, hypotheses and questions regarding the effects of the Durham Education Improvement Program (EIP) were investigated. Grades of graduates were examined by analysis of variance and Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-ranks tests. I. Q. distributions at exit were fitted to the test norms. Tentative measures of hypothesized "ideal"…
Spaulding, Robert L.; Papageorgiou, Mary R.
As South Africa is one of the countries with the highest HIVJAids prevalence in the world, many South Africans are affected by the pandemic. One of the structures being endangered by the HIVJAids pandemic is the education system. Educators are especially affected by the impact of the pandemic due to...
The major catagories and subcatagories of the information needs of disadvantaged adults are listed. The list was compiled by the Appalachian Adult Education Center (AAEC) in its research and demonstration projects and by consultants to the center from oth...
A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.
Orkin M; Boyes ME; Cluver LD; Zhang Y
This investigation examines the role of negative affectivity and educational attainment in newlywed couples' mutual problem solving and marital quality (i.e., personal commitment and divorce proneness). The vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model of marital development was used as a framework to explain the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities, adaptive processes, and marital quality. Dyadic analyses and tests of indirect effects were performed on data from 186 couples who had been married on average for 1.5 years. Spouses' negative affectivity and educational attainment were significantly associated with their own and their partner's mutual problem solving, personal commitment, and propensity to divorce. In addition, there was evidence supporting the assumption that the relationships between enduring vulnerabilities and marital quality can be explained, in part, by mutual problem solving for husbands. This study highlights the important role that enduring vulnerabilities have on mutual problem solving communication and marital quality.
Woszidlo A; Segrin C
On April 1, 2013, sequestration cuts went into effect impacting Medicare physician payments, graduate medical education, and many other healthcare agencies. The cuts range from 2% to 5%, affecting various departments and organizations. There is already a shortage of primary care physicians in general, not including rural or underserved areas, with limited grants for advanced training. The sequestration cuts negatively impact the future of many primary care physicians and hinder the care many Americans will receive over time.
Chauhan B; Coffin J
AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients' knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients' educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients' medication knowledge and the pharmacists' performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants' education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications' side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent knowledge of medication side effects compared to only 12.5% for those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications' side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.
Alkatheri AM; Albekairy AM
Medical College Admission Test scores and undergraduate grade-point averages show that both lower income applicants in general and minority applicants in particular are at a competitive disadvantage in gaining admission to medical school. This study examines the extent to which income and race, viewed independently of one another, affect these selection factors. By analyzing data collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges on applicants to the 1976-77 entering class, factors associated with race were found to have a far more significant influence on applicants' credentials than factors associated with lower family income. An admissions policy based exclusively on GPAs and/or MCAT scores would proportionately exclude minority applicants from medical education but would have no similar effect on lower income white applicants.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the co-occurrence of multiple sources of psychosocial disadvantage in association with risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD). It was hypothesized that increased co-occurring psychosocial disadvantage would be associated with increased risk of CHD in a monotonic fashion. While both social and psychological disadvantage are associated with increased risk of CHD, indicators of psychosocial disadvantage are traditionally examined individually in relationship to CHD. However, multiple sources of psychosocial disadvantage tend to co-occur. METHODS: Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 6913). Indicators of psychosocial disadvantage (education, income, employment, single parenting, marital status, depressive and anxious symptoms) and covariates were derived from baseline interviews and incident CHD from hospital records/death certificates collected over 22 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Results indicated that greater co-occurrence of psychosocial disadvantage conferred increased CHD risk. Relative to no disadvantage, one indicator of psychosocial disadvantage (relative risk (RR) = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.48), two to three indicators of psychosocial disadvantage (RR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.33-1.84), and four or more indicators of psychosocial disadvantage (RR = 2.63; 95% CI = 2.01-3.44) were associated with increased risk of incident CHD. Results persisted in covariate-adjusted models. A significant interaction by gender was observed such that the co-occurrence of psychosocial risk and its association with incident CHD were stronger among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate the importance of considering patterns of co-occurring psychosocial risk factors in relationship to CHD.
Thurston RC; Kubzansky LD
Full Text Available There is a paucity of research about how the policies enacted by states either foster or hinder charter schools’ service to disadvantaged students or how the characteristics of charter schools themselves affect this outcome. By combining data from the US Department of Education’s Schools and Staffing Survey with data on the characteristics of state charter school policies, this article examines how different types of charter schools respond to the policy and market signals established by state charter legislation, and the impact of such signals on the willingness and ability of charter schools to serve disadvantaged student populations. With a sample of 533 charter schools in 13 states, models are estimated to discern whether specific state policies and whether being managed by two types of for-profit educational management organizations (EMOs)—large and small ones—encourages or discourages schools from enrolling low-income and minority students. The results suggest that certain policy characteristics are important for encouraging schools to serve low-income and minority students. Specifically, having multiple chartering authorities and requiring the transportation of students are important for explaining charter schools’ service to low-income and minority students. Being managed by a large-EMO was positively but not significantly related to charter schools enrollment of low-income and minority students. The results differed for small-EMO managed schools. Small-EMOs served significantly lower percentages of minority students. The results suggest that not all charter schools are the same and that policy design and organizational form matters for determining whom charter schools will serve.
PURPOSE: To determine whether the 80-hour resident workweek adversely affects patient outcomes or resident education. METHODS: To assess patient outcomes, the authors reviewed trauma patient morbidity and mortality at the second busiest level I trauma center in Los Angeles County before (July 1998-June 2003, Period 1) and after (July 2003-June 2005, Period 2) implementation of the duty hour limitation via a retrospective review of a prospective database. All patients were operated and managed by residents under faculty supervision. Patient characteristics included the injury severity score (ISS), mechanism of injury, complications, and death. To assess resident education, the authors compared ABSITE percentile scores, first-time pass rates on the American Board of Surgery Qualifying and Certifying Examinations, and total and chief resident operative case volumes. In addition, they estimated institutional costs incurred to comply with the new duty hour rules. RESULTS: Patient outcomes. Over the entire 7-year study period, 11,518 trauma patients were transported to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. Compared with Period 1, Period 2 experienced an increase in average yearly patient volume from 1510 to 1981 (p 0.01). The average ISS also increased, from 7.9 to 9.6 (p < 0.0001), as did the proportion of penetrating trauma from 14.8% to 17.6% (p < 0.0001). Morbidity and mortality rates remained unchanged. Resident education. Mean ABSITE scores and first-time Qualifying and Certifying Exam pass rates were unchanged. Mean resident total major case volumes increased significantly in Period 2 from 831 to 1156 (p < 0.0001), whereas chief resident year case volumes were unchanged. The estimated cost incurred by this institution to conform to the new work hour standards was approximately 359,000 dollars per year. CONCLUSIONS: Despite concerns that the 80-hour workweek might threaten patient care and resident education, the morbidity and mortality rates at a busy level I trauma center remained unchanged. The quality of surgical resident education, as measured by operative volumes, ABSITE scores, and written and oral board examination pass rates were likewise unchanged. The reorganization of the authors' general surgery residency program to comply with the duty hour restrictions was achieved within reasonable cost.
de Virgilio C; Yaghoubian A; Lewis RJ; Stabile BE; Putnam BA
BACKGROUND: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. METHODS: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. RESULTS: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. CONCLUSIONS: Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China.
Yuan B; Qian X; Thomsen S
Full Text Available Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions: Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and monitoring efforts in China.
Beibei Yuan; Xu Qian; Sarah Thomsen
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Es evidente que la afectividad es un elemento a tomar en cuenta en el proceso de educación. Algunas investigaciones recientes muestran la necesidad de armonizar la educación intelectual y la educación de la afectividad para alcanzar una mejor educación del carácter (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 2004). En este sentido, puede resultar oportuno buscar antecedentes en los pensadores humanistas venezolanos. En esta investigación me pregunto: ¿Qué aportes ofrece August (more) o Mijares a la educación de la afectividad? ¿Cuál es la caracterización de la afectividad del venezolano según A. Mijares? ¿Cuál es la propuesta de Mijares para educar mejor la afectividad en Venezuela? Para responder a estas preguntas sigo la metodología del Análisis del Discurso (Van Dijk, 1985; Bolívar, 1995). El corpus está formado por artículos de Mijares publicados en prensa, y los dos discursos de incorporación a las Academias de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, y Venezolana de la Lengua -correspondiente de la Real Academia Española-. Las categorías de análisis son los conceptos de afectividad, virtud de la constancia, educación y perfectibilidad del ser humano; estas categorías se definen desde la perspectiva del Romanticismo según Augusto Mijares. Las categorías se analizan principalmente en las descripciones de personajes históricos, venezolanos, que Mijares relata en sus escritos. Al final de este trabajo, encuentro que Mijares formuló una propuesta para la educación de la afectividad de los venezolanos, y es: Educar en la virtud de la constancia. Pareciera conveniente considerar hoy, en Venezuela, esta alternativa educativa como un medio para armonizar razón y afectividad. La propuesta de Mijares en este corpus invita a continuar profundizando el estudio de la educación de la afectividad en sus obras completas. Abstract in english Affectivity is a relevant element in the educational process. Multidisciplinary international research on character education shows the need for harmonizing intellectual education and the education of affectivity (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 2004). In order to find precedents to improve Venezuelan education of affectivity, we must look to teachers that have made a mark in the nation's history. In this article, we explore the contributions of Mijares to the concept of ed (more) ucation of affectivity, how he characterizes Venezuelan affectivity, and what is his proposal for improving Venezuelan education for affectivity. Mijares' proposal and his conception of the human being are studied within his Possitivist background and considering the effects of previous Romantic ideas. We conclude that Mijares states a viable alternative for the education of affectivity by educating in the virtue of constancy. It seems convenient to consider this educational alternative today in order to harmonize reason and affectivity.
NIETO, María Jesús; OTERO
This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)
This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.
Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar
BACKGROUND: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data from Waves I (1994-1995), II (1996), and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative population-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in 1995 who were followed into young adulthood. We assessed the relationship between obesity in adolescence and young adulthood, and disadvantage (measured by low parent education in adolescence) at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level using multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: When all levels of disadvantage were modeled simultaneously, school-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in adolescence for males and females and family-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in young adulthood for females. CONCLUSIONS: Schools may serve as a primary setting for obesity prevention efforts. Because obesity in adolescence tracks into adulthood, it is important to consider prevention efforts at this stage in the life course, in addition to early childhood, particularly among disadvantaged populations.
Lee H; Harris KM; Lee J
Full Text Available The nature of educators’ work has changed dramatically, in part because of the challenges of the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Despite these multiple and relentless challenges which educators contend with, and despite numerous calls for educator empowerment to cope with HIV -related challenges, little has been done up until now to support educators. By reviewing current literature, this article outlines the HIV-altered professional reality of South African educators and makes the argument that affected educators need support to cope. In conclusion, the support programme, Resilient Educators (REds), is introduced as one possible means of educator support. Opsomming Die aard van onderwysers se werk het dramaties verander, deels as gevolg van die uitdagings van die MIV- en Vigspandemie. Ten spyte van hierdie veelvoudige en onverbiddelike uitdagings waarmee onderwysers gekonfronteer word, en ten spyte van die talle oproepe tot onderwyserbemagtiging om die MIV-verwante uitdagings die hoof te bied, is daar tot dusver min gedoen om onderwysers te ondersteun. Deur middel van ’n literatuuroorsig beskryf hierdie artikel die MIV- veranderde professionele werklikheid van Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysers en word daar geargumenteer dat geaffekteerde onderwysers ondersteuning nodig het om die situasie te hanteer. Gevolglik word die ondersteuningsprogram “Resilient Educators (REds)” voorgestel as moontlike wyse van onderwyserondersteuning.
Linda Theron; Stephan Geyer; Herman Strydom; CSL Delport
Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…
Harding, David J.
|PROGRESS IS BEING MADE TOWARD ERASING THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED. MUCH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN RECOGNIZING THE HEALTH NEEDS OF THE RETARDED CHILD THROUGH SUBSTANTIAL LEGISLATION SPONSORED BY MANY BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT, ACTION PROGRAMS STEMMING FROM BOTH PUBLIC AND VOLUNTARY SOURCES, AND A MOUNTING RESEARCH EFFORT. IN AN EFFORT…
OETTINGER, KATHERINE B.
Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM) y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM.This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM) and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation of mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.
Oswaldo Martínez Padrón
Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME) for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective...
Winzenberg Tania; Higginbotham Nick
Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1) The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2) The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1) Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2) There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.
Therdsak Maitaouthong; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Yupin Tachamanee
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factors and problems associated with the growth of Information and Communication Technologies(ICT)in developing countries and examine the Turkish distance Education System from the point of the factors such as cultural;political;economic;technological..The study,firstly,introduces some applications and problems of instructional technology and distance education in some developed countries and Turkey as a developing country;than examines Turkish distance education system,Open Education Faculty(OEF),from the points of factors such as cultural,political,economic and technological.
AIM: The purpose was to establish how the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risky drinking depends on the indicator of risky alcohol-drinking patterns. METHODS: Alcohol-drinking Finnish men (n = 9316) and women (n = 11,888) aged 20-54 years at baseline participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by low educational level, history of previous unemployment among those currently employed, current unemployment, being on disability pension and history of experiencing financial hardships. Indicators of risky drinking were hazardous weekly intake (?24 and ?16 Finnish standard drinks for men and women, respectively), frequency of intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. The study participants were also followed up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. RESULTS: Socioeconomic gradient in risky drinking was observed across all indicators of risky drinking, but the gradient was relatively larger in patterns of risky drinking representing high-intensity drinking occasions such as alcohol-induced hangovers and pass-outs. No marked gender differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the need to take into account the multidimensionality of risky alcohol-drinking patterns as a contributing factor in the socioeconomic gradient in alcohol use.
Paljärvi T; Suominen S; Car J; Koskenvuo M
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs. This VIDA Report 1 presents the design and methods used in the inclusive ECEC intervention program. TWO MODEL PROGRAMS Two model programs are introduced: the VIDA Basis program and the VIDA+ parental program. Both programs consist of education and training of VIDA staff by means of three elements: presentation of theoretical and empirical knowledge of children’s learning and wellbeing; education, including giving staff the opportunity to refl ect on their own experiences when working with socially disadvantaged children at their center; and, fi nally, training on how to renew practices at local level on the basis of VIDA program guidelines. The aim of the fi rst program (VIDA Basis) is to support children’s learning and well-being and particularly support socially disadvantaged children, i.e. these children’s socioemotional development and learning through inclusive efforts. The aim of the second program is the same kind of improvement of children’s development butin this program parents are involved in the activities too (VIDA+ program). Thus, the two model programsare similar in that they both direct attention to children in general and disadvantaged children’s well-being and learning particular; however they differ in that VIDA+ particularly directs attention to fi nding new methods for involving parents. INTERVENTION: EDUCATION AND IMPLEMENTATION The aim of the VIDA programs is to enhance the innovative competences of managers and daycare teachers with regard to improving the learning and wellbeing of children. The objective of the VIDA educational programs is to improve the way in which staff works with renewing everyday practices in terms of early efforts for socially disadvantaged children. The two model programs are based on recent evidence-based knowledge and, specifi cally for the VIDA+program, the Danish Clearinghouse of Education has made a research review of effective intervention programs that include parental involvement (see Appendix I). A range of materials and tools have thus been developed for the VIDA educational program, including guidelines for working with children’s learning and well-being through social inclusion. The program builds on three perspectives: 1) a resourceoriented and asset perspective on socially disadvantaged children as children with potential (not defi cit), 2) a learning perspective that views participants in the program (children, teachers and parents) as active, refl ective learners, and 3) an organizational learning perspective (staff qualifi cation in the entire daycare center). The VIDA education and training sessions thus build on methods that improve professionals’ ability to convert scientifi c knowledge into practice through knowledge sharing and innovative experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit) knowledge in order to improve the efforts for children. The role of managers is important as they ar
The link between increased education for women and decreased fertility has become a central part of development discourse. To explore this relationship, a three-and-a-half-month research project examined the qualitative aspects of why and how education for girls could lead to a change in fertility behavior. Specifically, the report here offers a…
Full Text Available This study presents the current factors affecting the standard of female education in the Kassena-Nankana district in Upper East Region of Ghana. Poverty, long-held negative attitudes about women's intellectual capabilities, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, examination failure in mathematics and science and the traditional division of household labour are among the many factors that continue to keep vast numbers of girls out of the classroom in the district and country as well.
I. A. Adetunde; Akampae P. Akensina
PURPOSE: Delusional-like experiences (DLE) have been associated with low income, suggesting that more broadly defined socio-economic disadvantage may be associated with these experiences. We had the opportunity to explore the association between DLE and both individual- and area-level measures of socio-economic disadvantage. METHOD: Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and physical disorders. Individual-level and area-level socio-economic disadvantage measures were available based on variables including income, educational attainment, employment status, and housing. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Of the 8773 subjects, 8.4% (n=776) positively endorsed one or more DLE. DLE screen items were more likely to be endorsed by those who were (a) younger, (b) never married, or widowed, separated or divorced status, (c) migrants, or (d) living in rented houses. There were significant associations between socio-economic disadvantage and increased DLE endorsement, and this was found for both individual-level and area-level measures of socio-economic disadvantage. In general, the associations remained significant after adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors and in planned sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: DLE are associated with socio-economic disadvantage in the general population. We speculate that the link between socio-economic disadvantage and DLE may be mediated by psychosocial stress and general psychological distress.
Saha S; Scott JG; Varghese D; McGrath JJ
OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in metabolic outcomes at 1 and 2 yr post type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis in children depending on the site of initial diabetes education: inpatient, vs. outpatient, vs. mixed locations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with new onset antibody positive T1DM, aged 1-18?yr old, diagnosed in 2004-2009, and followed for at least 1?yr in a diabetes program at a tertiary academic health care center. Patients were divided into three groups based on the site of initial diabetes education: inpatient, outpatient, and mixed locations. The primary outcome was A1c at 1 and 2?yr. RESULTS: We enrolled 238 children (133 boys), mean (±SD) age 9.9 (±4.1). A1c levels did not differ among inpatient, outpatient, and mixed location groups at 1 and 2 yr post diagnosis (p?=?0.85 and p?=?0.69, respectively) and the long-acting insulin doses were similar at 1? and 2?yr (p?=?0.18 and p?=?0.15, respectively). There was no difference in the number of acute diabetes complications between the groups. At 1 yr, 21.8% of outpatient-educated children were on insulin pump therapy in contrast to 14.7% of inpatient and 2.7% of mixed educated groups (p?=?0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Families of children with new onset T1DM can be successfully and safely educated in a clinic setting. An 'education' admission for a medically stable patient is not necessary most of the time, however, clinical judgment and careful assessment of the family's coping and learning capabilities are important when determining the site of education.
Tonyushkina KN; Visintainer PF; Jasinski CF; Wadzinski TL; Allen HF
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a structured review of the literature to determine the effect of antenatal education on labour and birth, particularly normal birth. METHOD: Ovid Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane and Web of Knowledge databases were searched to identify research articles published in English from 2000 to 2012, using specified search terms in a variety of combinations. All articles included in this structured review were assessed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). FINDINGS: The labour and birthing effects on women attending antenatal education may include less false labour admissions, more partner involvement, less anxiety but more labour interventions. CONCLUSION: This literature review has identified that antenatal education may have some positive effects on women's labour and birth including less false labour admissions, less anxiety and more partner involvement. There may also be some negative effects. Several studies found increased labour and birth interventions such as induction of labour and epidural use. There is contradictory evidence on the effect of antenatal education on mode of birth. More research is required to explore the impact of antenatal education on women's birthing outcomes.
Ferguson S; Davis D; Browne J
Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again. With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in education, great memories can now be shaped on the go. And of course we need memory to learn. Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for historical reasons, all this useful knowledge rarely reaches teachers or designers of educational games.
|This paper emerges from an ongoing, three-year qualitative study of how adolescents, teachers, and peer sexual health educators interpret the language of abstinence and represent the emotional meanings that enliven sexuality and sexual health. The paper demonstrates how conflicts of thinking and relationality emerge from aesthetic narratives…
Full Text Available Neo-classical economic doctrine dominating governmental policies shows its impact on recent transport policies, causing these policies; tend to base on demand and efficiency criteria instead of equity concerns. Public transit operating for remote areas is less cost-effective eventually leading to have a low level of service quality. In metropolitan areas of developing countries, a large part of socially disadvantaged and vulnerable groups live in outer suburban locations not in the inner-city. Transit equity evaluation is required by in order to consider the requirements of more vulnerable populations, as well as to foster equal benefits. The evaluation approach is based on highlighting the spatial distribution and clustering patterns of bus network and service as well as some disadvantaged social groups including unemployed, migrated, less educated, elderly, young, and disabled. The hypothesis is that vulnerable groups and economically disadvantaged communities receive a less than equal share of public bus services. The findings show that poor accessibility is associated both with low-income neighborhoods and with neighborhoods with disproportionately high populations of migrated, less-educated, unemployed and low-income groups. Modifications need to make in transport planning and policy system to achieve a better distribution of public transport services in hope of increasing level of service for minority groups and economically disadvantaged communities.
Ali Soltani; Yousef Esmaeili Ivaki
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to identify sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics of 'overweight-resilient' women, that is, women who were in a healthy body weight range, despite living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods that place them at increased risk of obesity. The study also aimed to test a comprehensive theoretically derived model of the associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and obesity among this target group. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3235 women aged 18-45 years from 80 urban and rural neighbourhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, participated in the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. MEASUREMENTS: Women reported height, weight, sociodemographic characteristics, leisure-time physical activity, dietary behaviours and a range of theoretically derived cognitive, social and neighbourhood environmental characteristics hypothesized to influence obesity risk. A theoretical model predicting body mass index (BMI) was tested using structural equation models. RESULTS: Women classified as 'resilient' to obesity tended to be younger, born overseas, more highly educated, unmarried and to have higher or undisclosed household incomes. They engaged in more leisure-time physical activity and consumed less fast foods and soft drinks than overweight/obese women. Neighbourhood characteristics, social characteristics and cognitive characteristics all contributed to explaining variation in BMI in the hypothesized directions. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate several characteristics of women appearing 'resilient' to obesity, despite their increased risk conferred by residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, the results advance theoretical frameworks aimed at investigating obesity risk by providing evidence in support of a comprehensive model of direct and indirect effects on obesity of neighbourhood, as well as social, cognitive and behavioural characteristics.
Ball K; Abbott G; Cleland V; Timperio A; Thornton L; Mishra G; Jeffery RW; Brug J; King A; Crawford D
This paper considers an alternative teacher certification pathway known as Teach for Australia (TFA) that is currently operating in the Australian state of Victoria. A discursive approach informed by critical theory is used in the paper to critically examine the specific case of TFA as an alternative teacher certification pathway charged with…
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the introduction of a Writing Center at a university, which aims at improving students' scientific writing abilities. In order to deal with the presumed limited utility of student feedback surveys for evaluating the effectiveness of educational programs, we use students' actual learning outcomes as our quality measure. Based on this objective measure, different statistical evaluation methods established in the labor market treatment literature are applied. We present and discuss the validity of these methods to evaluate educational programs and compare the results of these approaches to implications obtained using corresponding student surveys. Although almost all students reported the writing courses to be helpful, we find no significant effect of course participation on students' grades. This result highlights the need for institutions not to rely solely on student course evaluations for evidence-based policy decisions.
Bredtmann J; Crede CJ; Otten S
OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between material resources and late-life declines in health. METHODS: We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of declines in self-rated health and incident walking limitations associated with material disadvantages in a prospective panel representative of US adults aged 51 years and older (N = 15,441). RESULTS: Disadvantages in health care (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 1.58), food (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.29, 2.22), and housing (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.35) were independently associated with declines in self-rated health, whereas only health care (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.29, 1.58) and food (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.31, 2.05) disadvantage predicted incident walking limitations. Participants experiencing multiple material disadvantages were particularly susceptible to worsening health and functional decline. These effects were sustained after we controlled for numerous covariates, including baseline health status and comorbidities. The relations between health declines and non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, poverty, marital status, and education were attenuated or eliminated after we controlled for material disadvantage. CONCLUSIONS: Material disadvantages, which are highly policy relevant, appear related to health in ways not captured by education and poverty. Policies to improve health should address a range of basic human needs, rather than health care alone.
Alley DE; Soldo BJ; Pagán JA; McCabe J; DeBlois M; Field SH; Asch DA; Cannuscio C
Full Text Available Comprehensively analyzed the various factors that affect the absorption of the students practical course in wrestling. The study involved 98 boys - 3rd year students of the Faculty of Physical Education, who begin the study of the course Combating and methods of teaching. Also, 32 students who are engaged in the struggle. The results of studies of anthropometric, physical, functional, ergonomics students. The input data for the factor analysis were the first 3-ranking figure, biomechanical, physical fitness and functional status, anthropometric. It is established that the content of the first most significant factors included biomechanical parameters that demonstrate the value of balance and coordination abilities of others.
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of smell tests experience and education during residency or in general practice on ENT specialists' attitudes toward smell disorders in concern of their management strategies. Methodology included a voluntary and anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey conducted in Turkey and responses from 218 questionnaires were pooled and evaluated. Results stated that only 7.3% of the respondents reported currently using smell tests in their practice, and most of those had observed a smell test during their residency (p < 0.05) and received education on the olfactory disorders (p < 0.01). Furthermore, these doctors were more likely to manage patients with no assistance from other doctors or institutions (p < 0.01). Moreover, the doctors with more knowledge of smell disorders rated the symptom of smell loss as more important. We concluded that doctors who had training in smell disorders were confident in diagnosing and treating patients with smell disorders and were more likely to perform smell tests and assume all responsibility for diagnostic and treatment procedures. These results demonstrate the importance of both the residency and continuing medical education in training doctors who are confident to treat smell disorders.
Miman MC; Karaka? M; Altunta? A; Cingi C
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. DESIGN: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, AZ. One hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited onsite. INTERVENTION: The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket point-of-purchase healthful shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthful foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (grams/1,000 kcal), and fruits, vegetables, and dark-green/yellow vegetables (servings/1,000 kcal) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. ANALYSIS: Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. RESULTS: The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and dark-green/yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base and to determine the potential for influence on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease incidence.
Milliron BJ; Woolf K; Appelhans BM
Full Text Available Taking higher education in Bangladesh is not as difficult as it was thought a decade ago. No doubt, expansion of private universities has made it so easy. Through the Private University Act-1992, there has been an unbelievable expansion of private universities in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, this growth, in some respect, is contrasted with the quality of higher education these universities provide. The main purpose of this paper is to find out some factors that greatly affect the higher education. To explore the subject matter of this study, considering the research questions and objectives, both the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection have been used. To find out the answers of the research questions survey has been conducted with 42 questions for students in 20 private universities in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. After collecting data and information and analyzing, researchers have found that quality of education of all these universities is not same. It differs on the ground of their different size, location, stuffs, courses, funding authority, service rule, financial and managerial capacity etc. Only a few universities are providing quality education but rests of them are not quality concerned, Most of them are depending on part time teachers, poor infrastructures, without service rules etc. In the same time, researchers have found that students’ satisfaction level is very low on campus, lab and library facilities, though a few universities are trying to ensure standard classroom facility and library facilities. Most of the students are not aware of their degrees and its sale-ability. At last, based on findings, researchers have offered some suggestions that can be takeninto consideration in policy level.
Dr. Md. Habibulah; Md. Addur Rouf; Md. Masud Rana
Refugee and immigrant students face challenges in pursuing higher education. This study examined factors that affect the decision of refugees and immigrant students to pursue higher education in Tennessee. The factors included cultural capital these students acquire from their parents and families; cultural difference they have with the mainstream…
Weldegebriel, Mengistu H.
Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products—an Affective Transformation model, scaffolding schematic, and definition, "providing emotional experiences for visitors which increase caring for animals and nature that may lead to zoo-related nature-protective behaviors"—emerged as a result of ongoing deliberation among professional development community members over two days. Participants, including both management- and non-management-level staff, as well as an expert facilitator, contributed complementary expertise to the process. The discussions, therefore, crossed both vertical and horizontal layers of authority. Moreover, leadership was distributed across these levels in the development of these products. Members used pre-existing resources, as well as tools created in the course of the professional development event. Interactions among participants and resources were instrumental in Affective Transformation product development. Examination of one zoo's construction of understanding of affective goals, therefore, may offer insights to other organizations with similar aspirations.
Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon
|This paper analyses the definition of the appropriate target group for widening participation activities advanced by the Higher Education Funding Council for England in their "Targeting Disadvantaged Learners" advice to Aimhigher and higher education providers. This definition includes components of area deprivation and higher education…
Harrison, Neil; Hatt, Sue
To assist disadvantaged Appalachian nursing students, a grant-supported peer mentor-tutor project was initiated in a regional university. Located in the NURSE Center (Nursing Undergraduate Resource for Successful Education), the goals of the project were to improve participants'academic achievement, increase retention, encourage timely academic progression, and improve NCLEX-RN passing rates. The authors describe the project, the first year of operation, and future directions. PMID:16646182
Ramsey, P; Blowers, S; Merriman, C; Glenn, L L; Terry, L
Full Text Available Children are future leaders of tomorrow and mothers are guardians of the future, and the first aim of every family and society should be to raise healthy and productive individuals who are physically, psychologically, socially, and mentally well developed. These can be achieved through the education of the girl-child who is the mother of tomorrow. Objectives: 1. To study the factors affecting the educational development and teachinglearning conditions of the girl children. Sample: For the study four government primary schools of Nadiad Taluka of Gujarat have been selected a sample of 60 girl children has comprising of 30 rural and 30 urban areas and sample of 6 teachers has comprising of 3 rural and 3 urban areas. 20 parents constituted of 10 rural and 10 urban areas. Tools and Techniques: Socio-economic status by Dr. Neha Thakkar and interview schedules were constructed for collecting data from parents and teachers. Research Method: Survey method was used to conduct the study. Data Analysis: The data were analysed through percentages and content analysis was used for data analysis. Findings: 1. A large majority of the girl children have responded that they are discriminated unfavourably against their brothers. The schools are understaffed. Clerical work is taking lot of time of the teachers. 2. The teachers have been found dissatisfied with the present level of enrolment of the girl children. 3. The socio-economic factors have been found affecting the teaching learning conditions of the girl children.
DIPIKA R. CHAUDHARI
Full Text Available The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including learning, teaching and assessment. This study considers the social media policies of 14 universities in the United Kingdom (UK) that are currently in the public domain. It addresses some of the ways in which Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are responding to both the positive potential of social media as well as its perceived threats. Drawing inspiration, if not actual method, from critical discourse analysis, this study argues that marketisation has been the main policy driver with many social media policies being developed to promote university “brands” as well as protect institutional reputation. The creation and implementation of social media policies are therefore playing a role in helping universities manage both the risks and the benefits of social media in the context of an increasingly marketised Higher Education (HE) environment in which protecting institutional reputation has become a priority. However, in the defence of the metaphorical institutional “share price”, some policies constrain both academic autonomy and the possibilities for innovation and risk-taking.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have decreased due to the increased use of CRC screenings that permit the detection and removal of polyps. However, CRC is still the second most common cause of cancer death among men ages 40 to 79 years; incidence and mortality rates for CRC are higher among African American (AA) men than among white men and AA women. CRC screening rates for AA men are comparable to their counterparts of other racial groups, but adherence to the screening guidelines is less, contributing to disparities in CRC mortality. Internet use is widespread and could be a channel to reach and disseminate health information to AA men; however, there are disparities in Internet use, and limited literature exists on how to best address this divide. This pilot project sought to understand African American male attitudes on colorectal cancer screening (CRCS), receipt of CRCS information, and the best strategy to provide African American men online CRCS education. Three focus groups and a feasibility trial were completed with African American men, ages of 45 to 75. Data suggest that disseminating information online is not a very effective way to reach older African American men with limited education. Although we do not recommend using websites among this population, email was more effective in getting participants to the website even though participants expressed a preference for phone messages. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Cogbill S; Francis B; Thompson VL
Full Text Available The study aims at identifying the psychological pressures that affect Social Studies (SS) teachers. In order to attain the objective of the study a questionnaire composed of 35 items representing the major psychological stress has been prepared. Moreover, the validity and reliability of such items have been verified. The study sample comprises 76 male and female teachers. The study concludes that the level of pressure affecting social studies teachers reaches 88.66%. Some of the major pressures found are the constant change of study books, students insulting teachers, the negative perspective of society toward the teacher, low and insufficient salaries and the large number of daily study classes. Significant statistical differences have been found due to gender variable and in the favor of male teachers. Findings also revealed significant differences due to teaching experience variable.
Khalid abedlraman al_atyat; hani hatmel obeidat
The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.
To study the relationship between neighborhood demographic characteristics (disadvantage, racial concentration) and the birthweight of infants born to adolescent mothers, potentially as mediated by smoking, prenatal care use, or perceptions of neighborhood safety. Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Birthweight (continuous) and low birthweight (<2.5 kg) of singleton infants born to non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers (<20 years) after Wave I were examined as outcomes. Neighborhood demographic characteristics included Census Block Group socioeconomic disadvantage and Black racial concentration. Possible mediators (smoking during pregnancy, early initiation of prenatal care, and perceptions of safety) were also examined. Controls for adolescent baseline age, age at pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) and parental education were included. Analyses were run stratified on race. Baseline continuous birthweight, BMI and neighborhood demographics varied significantly between non-Hispanic Black and White adolescent mothers, with Black adolescent mothers evidencing lower birthweight and higher BMI, neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration. In multivariable analyses among Black adolescent mothers, Black racial concentration was positively associated with birthweight, and negatively associated with low birthweight; no mediators were supported. Neighborhood disadvantage and Black racial concentration were unassociated with birthweight outcomes among White adolescent mothers. Infants born to Black adolescent mothers evidenced higher birthweight with increasing Black neighborhood concentration. Further exploration of mechanisms by which Black racial concentration may positively impact birthweight is warranted.
Madkour AS; Harville EW; Xie Y
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to suggest a model for improving and retaining the highly qualified teachers in higher technical education. There are numerous researches going on all over the world regarding the key quality factors which are directly linked with teacher’s performance and the methods to improve them. Whatever the methods and measures, the teacher’s active participation and dedication is very important to achieve these objectives. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to highly qualified and experienced teachers who are working in engineering colleges for more than five years. Since the variables in this study are quality factors, the collected data is analyzed using the fuzzy logic and inference is drawn for getting more accurate results compared to probability study of the same case. Based on the results obtained from fuzzy inference system, a new model called Adaptive Performance-Incentive-Development (PID) control system for improving the quality as well as retaining the highly qualified teachers in the teaching profession is created.
Sunish Kumar O S
Full Text Available Aesthetic is the branch of philosophy that is discussed about the perception issues including beauty, such as aesthetic experience. John Dewey as a natural philosopher, shared the twentieth century with the possibility of an empirically grounded ethics. There is much to learn from Dewey about how to proceed in an aesthetic experience in quire about morality, so it is important to explore the relation between Dewey's ethics and his aesthetic experience. This essay with analytical method is an effort to explore this relation. The result showed that Aesthetic experience, response to the demand of feeling in difference situation. Therefore, factors of artistic this experience such as feeling, imagination, compassion are the essential components of morality that complete the experience, understanding, and meaning of morality in the people. Moreover aesthetic experience and moral education are inseparable. One of the criticize in this theory is that aesthetic experience is still new and practical application is rare and lacks of a strong theoretical structure.
Maryam Ansary; Nasrabadi Hassanali; Leyaghatdar Javad; Bagheri khosro
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME) for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective types of CME; and to design a survey instrument which can be used to test the applicability of Triandis' model of social behaviour to the provision of CME to general practitioners. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 11 Australian providers of CME for interviews and a random sample of 25 providers for the pilot test. Open-ended interviews structured on Triandis' theory were performed with key informants who provide CME to GPs. These were used to develop a pilot survey instrument to measure the factors affecting intention, resulting in a revised instrument for use in further research. Results There was a broad range of factors affecting providers' intention to deliver more effective forms of CME identified, and these were classifiable in a manner which was consistent with Triandis' model. Key factors affecting providers' intention were the attitude toward CME within organisations and the time and extra work involved. Conclusions We identified a range of potential factors influencing the intention of providers to provide more effective forms of CME, in all categories of Triandis model. Those interested in increasing the choice of more effective CME activities available to GPs may need to broaden the methods used in working with providers to influence them to use more effective CME techniques. The interview material and questionnaire analysis of the pilot survey support the use of Triandis model. Further research is needed to validate Triandis'model for the intention to deliver more effective forms of CME. Such research will inform future strategies aimed at increasing the amount and choice of effective CME activities available for GPs.
Winzenberg Tania; Higginbotham Nick
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of continuing medical education (CME) for GPs, there has been little research into how providers decide what types of CME to deliver to GPs. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the intention of providers to provide more effective types of CME; and to design a survey instrument which can be used to test the applicability of Triandis' model of social behaviour to the provision of CME to general practitioners. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 11 Australian providers of CME for interviews and a random sample of 25 providers for the pilot test. Open-ended interviews structured on Triandis' theory were performed with key informants who provide CME to GPs. These were used to develop a pilot survey instrument to measure the factors affecting intention, resulting in a revised instrument for use in further research. RESULTS: There was a broad range of factors affecting providers' intention to deliver more effective forms of CME identified, and these were classifiable in a manner which was consistent with Triandis' model. Key factors affecting providers' intention were the attitude toward CME within organisations and the time and extra work involved. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a range of potential factors influencing the intention of providers to provide more effective forms of CME, in all categories of Triandis model. Those interested in increasing the choice of more effective CME activities available to GPs may need to broaden the methods used in working with providers to influence them to use more effective CME techniques. The interview material and questionnaire analysis of the pilot survey support the use of Triandis model. Further research is needed to validate Triandis'model for the intention to deliver more effective forms of CME. Such research will inform future strategies aimed at increasing the amount and choice of effective CME activities available for GPs.
Winzenberg T; Higginbotham N
Full Text Available This study examines the earnings of an under-researched group: Asian women in computer science, in the United States (U.S.). I distinguish three subsets of college-educated Asian female computer scientists working full time in the U.S.: 1) U.S.-born, U.S.-educated Asian Americans, 2) Asian-born, U.S.-educated Asian immigrants, and 3) Asian-born, Asian-educated Asian immigrants. Results from multivariate regression and quantile regressions (at the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles) show that U.S.- and Asian-educated Asian immigrant women earn less on average (at the mean level) and at the 10th, 50th, and/or 75th percentile levels than their white male counterparts. Only Asian American women do not earn less than their white male counterparts at any level. Further analysis reveals that Asian immigrant women earn less due to their gender, but not because of a combination of their gender and race. Neither the immigrant women’s birthplace or the origin of their degree further disadvantage their earnings. The lack of multiple disadvantages may be explained by white women earning less than expected, but not Asian immigrant women earning more than expected. Suggestions for further research are discussed.
Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point average promotion. Results. The mean of the days of absence of students with asthma was higher compared to the healthy students (6.2?±?11.7 versus 0.3?±?3.1, resp., P steroid use and the higher parental education level were the most important predicting factors for good school performance in elementary school asthmatic children.
Tsakiris, A.; Iordanidou, M.; Paraskakis, E.; Tsalkidis, A.; Rigas, A.; Zimeras, S.; Katsardis, C.; Chatzimichael, A.
There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues.
BACKGROUND: Good nutrition is crucial. School-aged children battle social and health issues such as poor nutrition, childhood obesity, and minimal nutrition knowledge. This study was a quasi-experimental design analyzing the effects of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) nutrition curriculum with a Farm to School program to assess nutrition knowledge of 3(rd) grade students, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption behavior. METHODS: Third grade boys and girls (n=65) participated in this study. The intervention consisted of two nutrition education classes and a farm tour. Data were collected at baseline and postintervention. Surveys assessed nutrition knowledge, fruit and vegetable consumption behavior, and awareness of farms and farmers. Chi-squared tests of independence were performed to examine the relation between the baseline and postintervention responses. RESULTS: Significant differences were found concerning knowledge of fiber (p<0.001). Knowledge of vitamins and minerals, reported vegetable consumption behavior at school, and farm exposure were also significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CATCH nutrition education and farm tours can positively affect school-aged children's nutrition knowledge and fruit and vegetable consumption behavior.
Moss A; Smith S; Null D; Long Roth S; Tragoudas U
PURPOSE: Inconsistent evidence of a relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent mental health may be, in part, attributable to heterogeneity based on urban or rural residence. Using the largest nationally representative survey of US adolescent mental health available, we estimated the association between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent emotional disorders and the extent to which urbanicity modified this association. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) sampled adolescents aged 13-17 years (N = 10,123). Households were geocoded to Census tracts. Using a propensity score approach that addresses bias from non-random selection of individuals into neighborhoods, logistic regression models were used to estimate the relative odds of having a DSM-IV emotional disorder (any past-year anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder or dysthymia) comparing similar adolescents living in disadvantaged versus non-disadvantaged neighborhoods in urban center, urban fringe, and non-urban areas. RESULTS: The association between neighborhood disadvantage and emotional disorder was more than twice as large for adolescents living in urban centers versus non-urban areas. In urban centers, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood was associated with 59 % (95 % confidence interval 25-103) increased adjusted odds of emotional disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Urbanicity modifies the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and emotional disorder in adolescents. This effect modification may explain why evidence of a relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent mental health has been inconsistent. Recognizing the joint influence of neighborhood socioeconomic context and urbanicity may improve specificity in identifying relevant neighborhood processes.
Rudolph KE; Stuart EA; Glass TA; Merikangas KR
The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area.
Ignatyev Y; Assimov M; Dochshanov D; Ströhle A; Heinz A; Mundt AP
The present study aimed to systematically assess the association of socio-economic characteristics and psychological distress in a disadvantaged urban area of a post-Soviet Republic. Psychological distress was assessed in a random sample of 200 persons, aged 18-57, living in a disadvantaged urban area of Kazakhstan using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association of social characteristics and psychological distress. Female gender (P < 0.05), living without a partner (P < 0.01), higher age (P < 0.01), unemployment (P < 0.01), and low perceived income (P < 0.05) were associated with psychological distress in multivariate analyses. Non-Kazakh ethnicity (P < 0.05) was linked with psychological distress in bivariate analyses. The educational level was not significantly associated with psychological distress. Women, aged 38-57, living without partner and with low access to financial resources, were at a very high risk of psychological distress. Possibly due to social drift or status inconsistency, higher educational levels were not associated with lower levels of psychological distress in the disadvantaged area. PMID:23712308
Ignatyev, Yuriy; Assimov, Marat; Dochshanov, Dauren; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Mundt, Adrian P
This paper investigates how local Forest User Group (FUG) characteristics and household-level awareness of FUG requirements affect household consumption of fuelwood and fodder, and whether traditionally disadvantaged households are affected disproportionately. Results indicate that traditionally disadvantaged households do not use less fuelwood for cooking meals than other households. Most FUG conditions do not appear to have a disproportionately negative effect on fodder or fuelwood use by landless or occupational caste households, and some such as the share of women on the FUG committee have disproportionately positive effects. Results for household awareness of FUG requirements are mixed
Cooke St. Clair, Priscilla (Pacific Lutheran Univ., Parkland, WA (United States))
Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977), inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.
A. Seda YUCEL
Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the literature focused on socioeconomic influences on teen childbearing and suggested directions for future research and practice related to this important indicator of teen sexual health. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of Medline, ERIC, PsychLit, and Sociological Abstracts databases for articles published from January 1995 to November 2011. Selected articles from peer-reviewed journals included original quantitative analyses addressing socioeconomic influences on first birth among teen women in the U.S. Articles were abstracted for key information, ranked for quality according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines, assessed for bias, and synthesized. RESULTS: We selected articles with a range of observational study designs. Risk for bias varied across studies. All 12 studies that considered socioeconomic factors as influences on teen childbearing (vs. moderators or mediators of other effects) reported at least one statistically significant association relating low socioeconomic status, underemployment, low income, low education levels, neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood physical disorder, or neighborhood-level income inequality to teen birth. Few reports included any associations contradicting this pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that unfavorable socioeconomic conditions experienced at the community and family levels contribute to the high teen birth rate in the U.S. Future research into social determinants of sexual health should include multiple levels of measurement whenever possible. Root causes of teen childbearing should be evaluated in various populations and contexts. Interventions that address socioeconomic influences at multiple levels could positively affect large numbers of teens and help eliminate disparities in teen childbearing.
Penman-Aguilar A; Carter M; Snead MC; Kourtis AP
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort study. SETTING: GSPs in pharmacies, hospitals and communities in Denmark, reporting to the national Smoking Cessation Database. PARTICIPANTS: Disadvantaged patients, defined as patients with a lower level of education and those receiving unemployment benefits. INTERVENTIONS: 6-week manualised GSP smoking cessation interventions performed by certified staff. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 6 months of continuous abstinence, response rate: 80%. RESULTS: Continuous abstinence of the 16?377 responders was 34% (of all 20?588 smokers: 27%). Continuous abstinence was lower in 5738 smokers with a lower educational level (30% of responders and 23% of all) and in 840 unemployed (27% of responders and 19% of all). In respect to modifiable factors, continuous abstinence was found more often after programmes in one-on-one formats (vs group formats) among patients with a lower educational level, 34% (vs 25%, p=0.037), or among unemployed, 35% (vs 24%, p=0.099). The variable 'format' stayed in the final model of multivariable analyses in patients with a lower educational level, OR=1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Although continuous abstinence was lower among disadvantaged smokers, the absolute difference was small. If the programme had been as effective in disadvantaged as in non-disadvantaged groups, there would have been an extra 46 or 8 quitters annually, respectively. Promoting individual interventions among those with a low education may increase the effectiveness of GSP.
Neumann T; Rasmussen M; Ghith N; Heitmann BL; Tønnesen H
Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants.
Shameem R; Ansell J
Vitamin K antagonists have been in wide use for over 70 years. Warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, has been shown to be highly effective in treating and preventing thrombosis. Despite this, warfarin has many disadvantages, which has led to the development of a new class of oral anticoagulants targeted to specific coagulation factors designated as target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAs). TSOAs include the thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban). This chapter reviews the disadvantages of warfarin and evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:23953899
Shameem, Raji; Ansell, Jack
In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans' differential disadvantage?Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach. PMID:22865946
Goldberg, Rachel E; Short, Susan E
In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans’ differential disadvantage? Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach.
Goldberg, Rachel E.; Short, Susan E.
In Southern Africa, high adult HIV prevalence has fueled concern about the welfare of children losing parents to the epidemic. A growing body of evidence indicates that parental, particularly maternal, death is negatively associated with child outcomes. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms is needed. In addition, the way orphan disadvantage and the mechanisms giving rise to it are understood on the ground is essential for the successful translation of research into policies and programs. This study employs data from 89 in-depth interviews with caregivers and key informants in Lesotho, a setting where approximately one-quarter of adults is infected with HIV, to elaborate understandings of orphan disadvantage. Our analysis focuses on two questions: (i) Do local actors perceive orphans to be disadvantaged compared to non-orphans, and if so, in what ways; and (ii) How do they explain orphans' differential disadvantage?Analyses suggest that orphans were widely perceived to be disadvantaged; respondents described this disadvantage in material as well as affective domains. Thematic analyses reveal five broad categories of explanation: poverty, love and kin connection, caregiver character, perceptions of orphans, and community norms related to orphan care. These results underscore the need for research and policy to address (i) multiple types of disadvantage, including deficits in kindness and attention; and (ii) the social embeddedness of disadvantage, recognizing that poverty, kinship, and community interact with individual attributes to shape caregiving relationships and child experiences. The findings suggest limited success for programs and policies that do not address the emotional needs of children, or that focus on child or caregiver support to the exclusion of community outreach.
Goldberg RE; Short SE
Objective. Childhood asthma is a frequent cause of absenteeism that affects school performance. We aimed to investigate the impact of asthma on absenteeism and school performance level of elementary and high school students. Methods. Data about sociodemographics, absenteeism, and academic achievement were obtained from 1539 students attending 98 schools in Greece. School performance was assessed for the last two years of school attendance using parents' and teachers' reports and grade point average promotion. Results. The mean of the days of absence of students with asthma was higher compared to the healthy students (6.2?±?11.7 versus 0.3?±?3.1, resp., P < 0.001). Students with reduced healthcare use presented less absenteeism than those with increased healthcare use for asthma (4.3?±?8.6 versus 12.4?±?17.0 days, resp., P < 0.001). Asthma and healthcare use for asthma accounted for an overall estimated variability in absence days of 13.8% and 9%, respectively. Absenteeism was associated with poor school performance for the last two years of school (P = 0.002) and with lower grade point promotion in elementary school students (P = 0.001) but not in high school students (P = 0.316). Higher level of parental education was associated with better school performance (P < 0.001). Asthma was associated with a decreased possibility for excellent performance (OR?=?0.64, P = 0.049, 95%CI?=?0.41-1.00) in elementary students. Students with asthma using inhalers were four times more likely to perform excellently in elementary school (OR?=?4.3, P = 0.028, 95%CI?=?1.17-15.95) than their asthmatic peers with alternative asthma treatments. Conclusions. Asthma and increased healthcare use enhance school absenteeism. Inhaled steroid use and the higher parental education level were the most important predicting factors for good school performance in elementary school asthmatic children.
Tsakiris A; Iordanidou M; Paraskakis E; Tsalkidis A; Rigas A; Zimeras S; Katsardis C; Chatzimichael A
BACKGROUND: Few evidence-based weight loss treatment options exist for medically vulnerable patients in the primary care setting. METHODS: We conducted a 2-arm, 24-month randomized effectiveness trial in 3 Boston community health centers (from February 1, 2008, through May 2, 2011). Participants were 365 obese patients receiving hypertension treatment (71.2% black, 13.1% Hispanic, 68.5% female, and 32.9% with less than a high school educational level). We randomized participants to usual care or a behavioral intervention that promoted weight loss and hypertension self-management using eHealth components. The intervention included tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring, and skills training, available via a website or interactive voice response; 18 telephone counseling calls; primary care provider endorsement; 12 optional group support sessions; and links with community resources. RESULTS: At 24 months, weight change in the intervention group compared with that in the usual care group was -1.03 kg (95% CI, -2.03 to -0.03 kg). Twenty-four-month change in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in the intervention group compared with that in the usual care group was -0.38 (95% CI, -0.75 to -0.004). Intervention participants had larger mean weight losses during the 24 months compared with that in the usual care group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, -1.07 kg; 95% CI, -1.94 to -0.22). Mean systolic blood pressure was not significantly lower in the intervention arm compared with the usual care arm. CONCLUSION: The intervention produced modest weight losses, improved blood pressure control, and slowed systolic blood pressure increases in this high-risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged patient population. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00661817.
Bennett GG; Warner ET; Glasgow RE; Askew S; Goldman J; Ritzwoller DP; Emmons KM; Rosner BA; Colditz GA
Reviews many of the major programs seeking to increase college access among economically disadvantaged and at-risk students. Evaluates the potential of these programs while stressing four conditions that effective programs must meet. (Author/EV)
Swail, Watson Scott
Full Text Available Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism undergraduate programs where they are registered. With this purpose, a questionnaire was performed on 1734 students. The method of classification tree was used in determining the factors affecting students’ satisfaction. As a result of the classification tree analysis, it was observed that the variable, which affected students’ satisfaction most, was the job considered to be done after graduation and that this was followed by sufficiency of job opportunities after graduation, whether the department was chosen after researching or not, whether one can be a good manager with the education received from the department or not, and whether the courses included current subjects or not, respectively.
Lütfi Atay; Hac? Mehmet Yildirim
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate the use of a "Success in Learning: Individualized Pathways Program (SLIPP)" to retain and graduate disadvantaged and ethnically diverse nursing students. DESIGN: A summative evaluative design was used with a population of 77 disadvantaged and ethnically diverse students who were accepted into a pre-entrance preparation quarter. The program based on an academic success model, included six pre-entrance classes, academic, social, and financial support, and seven faculty development workshops. Program outcomes were studied using student records, survey results, and interviews. RESULTS: Following the pre-entrance quarter, all 77 students were accepted into the baccalaureate nursing program, 90.9% graduated with either a Bachelor in Science (75.3%) or Associate in Science (15.6%), and 98.6% of the graduates passed the state board registered nursing examination. DISCUSSION: Outcomes are discussed in light of similar programs. Conclusions: Underprepared disadvantaged and ethnically diverse students can successfully become registered nurses. IMPLICATIONS: Educators and recruiters for nursing practice should accept/hire culturally diverse students/nurses to expand the ethnic diversity of the nursing workforce to meet the needs of culturally diverse clients. Research is needed to determine the classes/components and length of the pre-entrance preparation program to successfully enhance success.
Condon VM; Morgan CJ; Miller EW; Mamier I; Zimmerman GJ; Mazhar W
Full Text Available Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assumptions of this study were an attempt to identify lacquer coating disadvantages. Samples of the parts with disadvantages were prepared with the use of microtome and then viewed on an optical microscope. The defects have been described and the causes of their formation have been identified.Findings: The paper shows the examples of common disadvantages of polymer coatings’ application in automotive industry.Research limitations/implications: In automotive industry, they are often used as a substrate - metals or other materials. The description and identification of disadvantages of coatings on these substrates requires further study.Practical implications: The identification of disadvantages of the applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate allows to eliminate them. Through the improvement and generation of new technologies of coating industry as a major supplier to the very large automotive industry, the industry will continue to thrive, grow and maintain its economical competitiveness in the global marketplace.Originality/value: Applications of multilayer polymer coatings in automotive industry are rarely described in literature - especially the application on polymers substrate. The description and identification for the emergence of the most frequent reasons of lacquer disadvantage is a novelty in this article.
?. Wierzbicki; J. Kulesza
OBJECTIVE: While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to have poor dietary intakes, some manage to eat healthily. Understanding how some disadvantaged adolescents restrict high-energy foods and beverages may inform initiatives promoting healthier diets among this population. The present investigation aimed to: (i) identify disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food and beverage intakes; and (ii) explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and disadvantaged adolescents' high-energy food intakes. DESIGN: Longitudinal online surveys were completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007), each comprising a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions examining intrapersonal, social and environmental factors. SETTING: Thirty-seven secondary schools in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Victoria, Australia. SUBJECTS: Of 1938 adolescents aged 12-15 years participating at both time points, 529 disadvantaged adolescents (whose mothers had low education levels) were included in the present investigation. RESULTS: At baseline and follow-up, respectively 32 % and 39 % of adolescents consumed high-energy foods less frequently (?2 high-energy food meals/week); 61 % and 65 % consumed high-energy beverages less frequently (?1 time/d). More girls than boys had less frequent high-energy food intakes, and baseline consumption frequency predicted consumption frequency at follow-up. Adolescents with less frequent consumption of high-energy foods and beverages seldom ate fast food for main meals, reported reduced availability of high-energy foods at home and were frequently served vegetables at dinner. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition promotion initiatives could help improve disadvantaged adolescents' eating behaviours by promoting adolescents and their families to replace high-energy meals with nutritious home-prepared meals and decrease home availability of high-energy foods in place of more nutritious foods. PMID:23122445
Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…
Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.
Full Text Available The works points to open source approach in software development, which has recorded important results since its beginning. Thanks to it, we are able to use the software representing the fruit of this approach. The work also points to the characteristics of open source approach through the prism of advantages and disadvantages.
Jovica ?urkovi?; Vuk Vukovi?; Lazar Rakovi?
|Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…
Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo.This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.
Aurino Lima Ferreira; Nadja Maria Acioly-Régnier
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma (more) a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo. Abstract in english This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view (more) of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.
Ferreira, Aurino Lima; Acioly-Régnier, Nadja Maria
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282) including emotional support (n = 154), informational support (n = 93), companionship support (n = 36) and instrumental support (n = 23). Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72), the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62), the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49), their accessibility (n = 36), and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30). The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53), inappropriate support (n = 45), the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32) and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20) and the relationship (n = 18). Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers.
Griffiths Kathleen M; Crisp Dimity A; Barney Lisa; Reid Russell
The Brazilian school system offers several programs for gifted students, including: Scientists for the Future (promoting science-related study); programs and a special school for disadvantaged gifted students; and special enrichment programs within regular public education programs. (CB)
Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.
Joint hypermobility (JH) is a feature observed in several inherited conditions in which joints have a range of motion beyond normal limits. Such inherent flexibility makes it relatively easy for hypermobile people to perform certain physical activities, so this characteristic is particularly convenient for certain athletes. However JH also can carry some disadvantages: it has been associated to a higher risk of injury and to states of anxiety. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current evidence concerning the advantages and disadvantages of JH in the field of sport. We emphasize the importance of detecting JH in athletes in order to intervene appropriately through injury prevention programs, and emphasize how inherent anxiety may have a negative impact on sporting performance.
Baeza-Velasco C; Gély-Nargeot MC; Pailhez G; Vilarrasa AB
Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.
Full Text Available It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. “Conventional mortgage-type loan” and “Income contingent loan” has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice for student loans programs in China. These suggestions maybe supply references to other developing countries.
Full Text Available A proposta complexa e transdisciplinar abre novas perspectivas para o campo educacional. Essas perspectivas procuraram religar o conhecimento à vida, reorientando os processos de formação para que se valorize a constituição de um sujeito sensível e afetivo. A vocação transdisciplinar institui novas práticas pedagógicas formadoras de uma razão-afetivo-sensível, capaz de promover uma visão mais integrada do ser humano. Nesta concepção de educação, o processo ensino-aprendizagem supera o processo lógico e intelectual, torna-se um processo dinâmico, coerente, dialógico e criativo. Promover a proposta transdisciplinar na formação docente passa pela vivência de formar pessoas que tornarão nossa experiência no mundo mais cooperativa, amorosa e solidariamente compreendida.A complex and transdisciplinary proposal opens new perspectives in the educational field. Such perspectives seek to reconnect knowledge to life, by redirecting educational processes towards encouraging the creation of sensitive and emotional individuals. A transdisciplinary vocation establishes new pedagogical practices, forming an affectivesensitive-reason, capable of promoting a more integrated vision the human being. In this conception of education, the teaching-learning process surpasses the logical and intellectual process and becomes a dynamic, coherent, dialogic and creative process.To promote a transdisciplinary proposition in teacher training means experiencing the fact of educating people, who will make our experience in the world more cooperative, loving and solidly understood.
Solange Martins Oliveira Magalhães
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the identification of knowledge regarding the prophylaxis of dental caries in a group of children coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. A number of 86 children coming from disadvantaged environments were assessed, registered in SOS Children’s Villages Association of Romania - Counseling and Support Centre for Children and Parents of Cisndie, who received questionnaires applied for this study purpose. Daily brushing requirement is known by a rate of 89.5% children included in the study, 96% of children knowing that they should have their own toothbrush. The toothbrush change frequency is known by 68.6% of study participants. When asked about the technique of brushing, the response rate was only 52.3%, there is a large number of questionnaires that had not marked any answer to this question. The role of auxiliary dental hygiene means is known in the proportion of 79.1% for mouthwash, and 50% for the dental floss. There is a significant difference between flossing and mouthwash (<0,001%), the concepts being known therefore differently. Carioprophylactic nutrition has been recognized by 89,5% of study participants. Most children do not know or they are not enrolled in a program of sealing or fluorization (94,2%). There is a significant difference between the procedures of sealing and fluorization. (<0,001%). A continuing medical education is required for all children, but further efforts should be made to improve the educational level of children from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Mona IONAS; Diana MARZA; Mariana SABAU
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of social networks and a two-day faculty development course on clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation. METHOD: During 2007-2010, 571 residents and 613 clinical supervisors in four specialties in the Netherlands were invited to complete a Web-based questionnaire. Residents rated their clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation, the use of structured and constructive (S&C) feedback. Clinical supervisors self-assessed their adoption of this innovation and rated their communication intensity with other clinical supervisors in their department. For each supervisor, a centrality score was calculated, representing the extent to which the supervisor was connected to departmental colleagues. The authors analyzed the effects of supervisor centrality and participation in a two-day Teach-the-Teacher course on the degree of innovation adoption using hierarchical linear modeling, adjusting for age, gender, and attitude toward the S&C feedback innovation. RESULTS: Respondents included 370 (60%) supervisors and 357 (63%) residents. Although Teach-the-Teacher course participation (n=172; 46.5%) was significantly related to supervisors' self-assessments of adoption (P=.001), it had no effect on residents' assessments of supervisors' adoption (P=.371). Supervisor centrality was significantly related to innovation adoption in both residents' assessments (P=.023) and supervisors' self-assessments (P=.024). CONCLUSIONS: A clinical supervisor's social network may be as important as faculty development course participation in determining whether the supervisor adopts an educational innovation. Faculty development initiatives should use faculty members' social networks to improve the adoption of educational innovations and help build and maintain communities of practice.
Jippes E; Steinert Y; Pols J; Achterkamp MC; van Engelen JM; Brand PL
This report offers a design and recommendations for implementing a program of education to assist Department of Energy buyers and procurement officers in increasing the quality and quantity of small disadvantaged business (DB) participation in their contracted work. The recommendations are based on a previous companion report, ''Issues in Contracting with Small Minority Businesses,'' from which technical assistance and related needs were derived. The assistance program is based on buyer and disadvantaged-business needs, as determined from synthesizing the results of interviews with over two dozen minority business leaders and procurement officers.
Wood, M.T.; Radford, L.R.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.
Similarity in gene expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed to explain the presence of such coexpression patterns. The adaptive model assumes that coexpression is advantageous and is established by relocation of initially unlinked but coexpressed genes, whereas the neutral model asserts that coexpression is a type of leaky expression due to similar expressional environments of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible with several empirical observations. Here, we propose that coexpression of linked genes is a form of transcriptional interference that is disadvantageous to the organism. We show that even distantly linked genes that are tens of megabases away exhibit significant coexpression in the human genome. However, the linkage is more likely to be broken during evolution between genes of high coexpression than those of low coexpression and the breakage of linkage reduces gene coexpression. These results support our hypothesis that coexpression of linked genes in mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous, implying that many mammalian genes may never reach their optimal expression pattern due to the interference of their genomic environment and that such transcriptional interference may be a force promoting recurrent relocation of genes in the genome.
Liao BY; Zhang J
Similarity in gene expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed to explain the presence of such coexpression patterns. The adaptive model assumes that coexpression is advantageous and is established by relocation of initially unlinked but coexpressed genes, whereas the neutral model asserts that coexpression is a type of leaky expression due to similar expressional environments of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible with several empirical observations. Here, we propose that coexpression of linked genes is a form of transcriptional interference that is disadvantageous to the organism. We show that even distantly linked genes that are tens of megabases away exhibit significant coexpression in the human genome. However, the linkage is more likely to be broken during evolution between genes of high coexpression than those of low coexpression and the breakage of linkage reduces gene coexpression. These results support our hypothesis that coexpression of linked genes in mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous, implying that many mammalian genes may never reach their optimal expression pattern due to the interference of their genomic environment and that such transcriptional interference may be a force promoting recurrent relocation of genes in the genome. PMID:18440951
Liao, Ben-Yang; Zhang, Jianzhi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of home stimulation on the language functioning of young children from low income families. METHODS: The language functioning of 102 children (Mean age?=?3.3 y, SD?=?1.3) was assessed by the communication sub-scale of the Indian Developmental Inventory (IDI). Home visits were made to assess the quality of stimulation provided by parents to children. Seven items measuring stimulation of the child were selected from the Mohite Home Environment Inventory, a scale measuring the quality of home environment. RESULTS: Nearly 16 % of children from economically disadvantaged homes had language delay. Children with language delay as compared to children with adequate language skills had significantly lower stimulation at home (t?=?2.59, P?=?0.01), specifically parents were significantly less likely to praise their child (25 % vs. 52 %, ? (2)?=?4.03, P?=?0.045) or provide verbal stimulation (44 % vs. 72 %, ? (2)?=?4.95, P?=?0.026). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that 18 % of the variance in the communication developmental quotient (DQs) of children was accounted by stimulation and age of the child (F?=?10.47, P?=?0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children by providing cognitive-linguistic enriched learning experiences would go a long way in paving the way for improved language, cognition and school performance in young children.
Malhi P; Sidhu M; Bharti B
OBJECTIVE: Using data from the National Child Development Study, an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of British youth born in 1958 (N = 9,107), we investigated the long-term impact of heavy alcohol use at age 16 years on educational qualifications in adulthood. METHOD: We used a propensity score matching approach to examine whether and for whom heavy alcohol use predicted reduced adult educational attainment. Because of gender differences in both heavy drinking and adult socioeconomic attainment, we examined the effects of heavy drinking on educational outcomes separately for females and males. RESULTS: Heavy drinking in adolescence (measured in 1974) had a direct negative effect on the receipt of postsecondary educational credentials by age 42 years among males but not females, independent of child and adolescent risk factors correlated with both heavy drinking and educational attainment. In particular, males from working-class backgrounds were most affected by heavy drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Drawing on a life span developmental contextual approach, we find that heavy teenage alcohol use and disadvantaged social origins combined to diminish male educational attainment. In contrast, heavy alcohol use had little effect on female educational attainment.
Staff J; Patrick ME; Loken E; Maggs JL
Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (%) distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6) and anorexia (% 26,4 ). It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%).It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%), favorite meal (59%, 6) and satisfactory (39.4%) is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High School have inadequate knowledge on nutrition and nutrition education, they often skip meal and most of them have two meals ?n a day. A very low proportion of them have regular breakfast.In addition, it was seen that students who have good economic status and lived in the dormitory and believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast and regular nutrition.
?rfan Y?ld?r?m; Yunus Y?ld?r?m; Yunus Tortop; Yunus Tortop
In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country.
Him MS; Ho?gör AG
Objective:This study aimed to identify factors associated with the high rates of smoking amongst people with psychosis living in a disadvantaged region in Adelaide, South Australia.Methods:Data were collected from 402 people with psychosis, aged 18-64 years, who lived in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. This area is disadvantaged on many measures of socioeconomic well-being and people living in this region have higher rates of smoking compared to the general Australian population. We hypothesised that whilst tobacco use by people with psychosis living in this region was primarily associated with mental illness, factors related to social disadvantage also contributed to the high rates of smoking.Results:Approximately 74% of men and 71% of women with psychotic disorders living in the northern suburbs of Adelaide were current smokers. Factors such as unemployment, lower levels of education and receiving government welfare, factors known to be associated with smoking in the general population, were more prevalent in the northern region. Smokers with psychosis were less likely to participate in recreational programs and physical activity, and more likely to use illicit substances and be a victim of crime. They had poorer health and financial outcomes than non-smokers. There were some gender differences: for men with psychosis, employment and having a post-school qualification decreased the risk of smoking while cannabis use increased the risk; for women with psychosis, a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence, using cannabis and being sedentary were risk factors for smoking, while attending recreational programs reduced this risk.Conclusion:Smoking rates were strikingly high in both men and women, and particularly high in women when compared with previous research. Our study shows that the risk of smoking is increased by factors related to the social disadvantage of living in the northern Adelaide region. Smoking cessation interventions for people with mental illness should take into account the social context, and also address relevant comorbidities such as drug and alcohol disorders. PMID:23739313
Hahn, Lisa; Rigby, Ashlee; Galletly, Cherrie
Medication non-adherence poses a major barrier to reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden globally, and is increasingly recognised as a socioeconomically determined problem. Strategies promoting CVD medication adherence appear of moderate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Potentially, 'one-size-fits-all' measures are ill-equipped to address heterogeneous adherence behaviour between social groups. This review aims to determine the effects of strategies to improve adherence to CVD-related medications in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Randomised/quasi-randomised controlled trials (1996-June 2012, English), testing strategies to increase adherence to CVD-related medications prescribed to adult patients who may experience health inequity (place of residence, occupation, education, or socioeconomic position) were reviewed. 772 abstracts were screened, 111 full-text articles retrieved, and 16 full-text articles reporting on 14 studies, involving 7739 patients (age range 41-66years), were included. Methodological and clinical heterogeneity precluded quantitative data synthesis. Studies were thematically grouped by targeted outcomes; underlying interventions and policies were classified using Michie et al.'s Behaviour Change Wheel. Contrasting with patient or physician/practice strategies, those simultaneously directed at patients and physicians/practices resulted in statistically significant improvements in relative adherence (16-169%). Comparative cost and cost-effectiveness analyses from three studies did not find cost-saving or cost-effective strategies. Unlike much current evidence in general populations, promising evidence exists about what strategies improve adherence in disadvantaged groups. These strategies were generally complex: simultaneously targeting patients and physicians; addressing social, financial, and treatment-related adherence barriers; and supported by broader guidelines, regulatory and communication-based policies. Given their complexity and potential resource implications, comprehensive process evaluations and cost and cost-effectiveness evidence are urgently needed. PMID:23415168
Laba, Tracey-Lea; Bleasel, Jonathan; Brien, Jo-Anne; Cass, Alan; Howard, Kirsten; Peiris, David; Redfern, Julie; Salam, Abdul; Usherwood, Tim; Jan, Stephen
Potential fishery benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely acknowledged, yet seldom demonstrated, as fishery data series that straddle MPA establishment are seldom available. Here we postulate, based on a 15-year time series of nation-wide, spatially referenced catch and effort data, that the establishment of the Goukamma MPA (18?km alongshore; 40?km(2)) benefited the adjacent fishery for roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps), a South African endemic seabream. Roman-directed catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in the vicinity of the new MPA immediately increased, contradicting trends across this species' distribution. The increase continued after 5 years, the time lag expected for larval export, effectively doubling the pre-MPA CPUE after 10 years. We find no indication that establishing the MPA caused a systematic drop in total catch or increased travel distances for the fleet. Our results provide rare empirical evidence of rapidly increasing catch rates after MPA implementation without measurable disadvantages for fishers.
Kerwath SE; Winker H; Götz A; Attwood CG
Infants born preterm are, as a group, at increased risk for a wide variety of later developmental problems (Kopp and Parmelee 1979), although many preterm infants do well (Hack et al. 1983; Saigal et al. 1984). The perinatal vulnerability, however, is amplified in disadvantaged families (Sameroff and Chandler 1975), increasing the likelihood of later emotional and cognitive difficulties (Werner and Smith 1977). A preventive intervention project was designed, therefore, that would provide and then evaluate the effectiveness of supportive home visitor services to parents of infants who were at double jeopardy, both biologically and socially--that is, sick preterm infants being reared by low-income parents. E. Baxter, K. Weiler and I hypothesized that if intervention could increase mothers' involvement and level of responsive interactions with their children, that increased maternal commitment and responsiveness to the infant would act as a protective factor ameliorating or preventing later problems in the child (Beckwith and Cohen 1984; Werner and Smith 1982).
OBJECTIVE: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ? 24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. RESULTS: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents' educational level and the frequency of mother's utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. CONCLUSIONS: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.
Hu Y; Li Q; Chen E; Chen Y; Qi X
We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003-2010 (n = 55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55 % of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2 % lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR = 1.3, 95 % CI 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR = 1.5, 95 % CI 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes.
Mendez DD; Doebler DA; Kim KH; Amutah NN; Fabio A; Bodnar LM
OBJECTIVE: This study begins with interpreting basic academic results from the House of Family (HOF) comprehensive project for HIV/AIDS orphaned children. We reviewed school performance during the academic period from 2007 to 2012. METHODS: All the children in the HOF project have vertically acquired HIV infection, with approximately 90% being with AIDS/Clinical Stage C at the time of admission. Initiation of antiretroviral drugs (ARV) was at the average age of 7 (mean 6.94, median 6.5, and a mode of 6). In the year 2007, 44 children had been receiving ARV. The majority of these children 32 (72.7%) were on ARV for at least 1 year, 6 (13.6%) of the children on ARV for 4 years, 7 (15.9%) were on ARV for 3 years, 5 (11.3%) for 2 years, 14 (31.8%) for 1 year, and 12 (27.2%) started ARV on that year. Later on, an additional 2 children started ARV in 2008, 1 child in 2009, and 4 children in 2010. RESULTS: We found that the total number of children achieving a certain academic level changed very little between each scholastic year. During the four years of school reviewed, it was noted that the Poor performers made improvement and an increase in Good performance grades was also achieved. The trend of Fair levels remained mostly unchanged at 65%, 70.2%, 68.5%, and 64.6% respectively. The overall passing performance, including both Fair and Good scores, improved from 67.5% in 2008 to 80.8% the following year of school. This passing rate of 80.8% in 2009 remains stable over the next two years at 80.3% and 80.3% respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite the late introduction of ARV medicine, limited family and social support, and deficient academic achievement, the children of HOF were able to improve their school performance due to intensified psychosocial and educational support provided at the HOF comprehensive project.
The number of children losing one or both parents to HIV/AIDS has continued to rise in the past decade, with most of them being school-aged children. This study reviews global literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS (e.g., parental HIV-related illness or death) on children's schooling. Systematic review procedures generated 23 studies for examination. Existing studies show educational disadvantages among children affected by AIDS in various educational outcomes, including school enrollment and attendance, school behavior and performance, school completion, and educational attainment. A number of individual and contextual factors potentially moderate or mediate the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's education. These factors include gender of child, pattern of parental loss (maternal vs. paternal vs. dual), living arrangement (relationship with caregivers, gender of the household head), and household poverty. Current literature indicates limitations in number and scope of existing studies and in educational outcome measurements. There is a lack of studies with longitudinal design and data collection from multiple sources (e.g., students, teachers, caregivers), and a lack of studies on the relationship between psychosocial well-being of children affected by AIDS and their educational outcomes. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate both individual and contextual factors for children affected by AIDS in various regions. More efforts are needed to design and implement culturally appropriate and context-specific approaches to improve the educational outcomes of children affected by AIDS.
Guo Y; Li X; Sherr L
|Three papers were presented at a seminar which identified problems in migrant education. Dr. Jess Walker from the Department of Teacher Education at Western Michigan University emphasized the role of the teacher in molding the lives of children and the need for special training for teachers of the disadvantaged. Dr. Mary Harbage, Professor of…
Walker, Jess; And Others
The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.
S.V. Knyaz; N.G. Georgiadi; Y.S. Bogiv
While preschool education in Israel is extensive and has a relatively long history, its scope and traditions act to deter innovation and change. The pressing needs of the disadvantaged may, in the next few years, create enough force to bring about long-awaited changes. (Author)
Lombard, Avima D.
Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) complications are mainly attributable to imperfect cutting with the mechanical microkeratome. The femtosecond laser is an important challenger because it can provide extremely precise cutting beginning at any corneal point. We analyze the potential of this new tool from the results reported in the literature. The optomechanical control of the impact position provides freer and more effective intrastromal cutting than the blade. The best cutting matrix is obtained with the postage stamp method. If the plasma quality is not perfectly under control, side effects such as tissue streaks and secondary ultraviolet radiations can be observed. For LASIK surgery, femtolaser cutting can offer greater safety, reproducibility, predictability and flexibility. The risk of incomplete or irregular cutting and the free cap risk are reduced. Striae, epithelial defects and interface deposits should be minimized. A better flap congruence can limit the risk of secondary displacement and epithelial ingrowth. The results of making thinner flaps should be more predictable. Other than the high cost of the procedure, laser cutting has very few disadvantages. In 1999, Intralase Corporation introduced the first femtolaser microkeratome on the American market. Approximately 120,000 intra-LASIK procedures have been carried out with fewer cutting complications than with the mechanic blade. PMID:15976724
Touboul, D; Salin, F; Mortemousque, B; Chabassier, P; Mottay, E; Léger, F; Colin, J
We review here some recent data about Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the housekeeping X-linked gene encoding the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a NADPH-producing dehydrogenase. This enzyme has been popular among clinicians, biochemists, geneticists and molecular biologists because it is the most common form of red blood cell enzymopathy. G6PD deficient erythrocytes do not generate NADPH in any other way than through the PPP and for this reason they are more susceptible than any other cells to oxidative damage. Moreover, this enzyme has also been of crucial importance in many significant discoveries; indeed, G6PD polymorphisms have been instrumental in studying X-inactivation in the human species, as well as in establishing the clonal nature of certain tumors. G6PD deficiency, generally considered as a mild and benign condition, is significantly disadvantageous in certain environmental conditions like in presence of certain drugs. Nevertheless, G6PD deficiency has been positively selected by malaria, and recent knowledge seems to show that it also confers an advantage against the development of cancer, reduces the risk of coronary diseases and has a beneficial effect in terms of longevity.
Manganelli G; Masullo U; Passarelli S; Filosa S
Full Text Available Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.
Agustina Rodriguez-Granillo, Bibiana Rubilar, Gaston Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo E Rodriguez
Accelerated removal of dense, non-aqueous phase-liquids (DNAPL) at hazardous waste sites was discussed in the light of evidence that natural removal removal could take as much as 100 years or more. One method of accelerated removal was through the injection of chemical surfactants, although it was acknowledged that these chemicals could involve vertical pool mobilization, and result in a worsening of the extent of the contamination of the aquifer. This vertical mobilization could be prevented by using upward hydraulic gradients or by the presence of a suitable capillary barrier beneath the zone of contamination. Despite the risk associated with the use of surfactants, the method was still believed to be well suited to certain situations, as e. g. in the case of sites where only partial mass removal was the objective. Advantages of the method were summarized as rapid initial mass removal, and relatively easy implementation. Principal disadvantages cited were vertical pool mobilization, and rate limited mass transfer. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Kueper, B.H.; Longino, B.L.; Mason, A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering
In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital. PMID:22184876
In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital.
Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.
Rodriguez-Granillo A; Rubilar B; Rodriguez-Granillo G; Rodriguez AE
Full Text Available Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvantagesof accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach.Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by thekeywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health careand Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria.From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages anddisadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were comparedon these.Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO fromUSA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia,New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: qualityimprovement, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confidence,effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards,information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders,agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government.Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have definedfrom a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA ofCanada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programssuch as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accreditationprograms were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision forany country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specificobjectives and needs.
Jafar S. Tabrizi; Farid Gharibi; Jafar S. Tabrizi; Jafar S. Tabrizi; Farid Gharibi; Andrew J. Wilson; Andrew J. Wilson; Farid Gharibi; Andrew J. Wilson
Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully (more) selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education). Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.
Maforah, T P; Schulze, S
This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)
Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education). Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.
T P Maforah; S Schulze
[en] According to current projections of economic development of Ukraine, domestic consumption of electricity will grow from the present level of 190 billion kWh / year to about 280 billion kWh / year in 2030, which determines the prospects of the electricity industry development. Alternative ''green'' energy sources - solar, wind and small hydropower can develop only within a commercially reasonable considering temporary ''green'' tariff, which is far above the rates for traditional sources. According to prognoses the share of ''green'' energy sources in Ukraine in 2030 will not exceed 10-15% regardless of their environmental appeal. The updated nuclear energy development strategy by 2030 will save the share of nuclear electricity generation at the achieved level about half of total domestic electricity production. Development of nuclear power generation in the period to 2030 provides: increase the safety of the operating NPP; efficiency increase of existing nuclear power plants (up to 85% in terms of the basic mode of operation); continued of NPP units operation for 20 years over time, provided the original design; completion of the units 3,4 Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in 2017; construction and commissioning prior to 2027 three new nuclear power units the total capacity to 3.5 GW on new NPP site; beginning in 2022-2029 years construction of new nuclear reactors at sites of existing nuclear power plants to replace existing units that will be decommissioned after 2030; implementation of the units preparation to decommissioning after an additional period of operation; improvement of infrastructure support and development of nuclear power generation. In the article analyzes the necessity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy in Ukraine in the Updated Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2030.(author).
Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS), which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.
Miroslav Škoda; Peter Bilka
Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…
David, Alex Hugh
As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…
This paper provides the groundwork for Active Affective Learning and teaching adapted to the needs of the disadvantaged, at-risk students served by the Accelerated Schools Movement. One of the "golden rules" for the practice of Accelerated Learning, according to psychiatrist Georgi Lozanov, has been to maintain an "up-beat" classroom presentation…
Richardson, Robert B.
Many policymakers and educators see the advancement of educational technology as potentially increasing enrollment of the educationally disadvantaged over time. However, who will benefit most from these changes remains unclear. The nature of the new delivery systems and their impact on educational access and equity are examined here. (MSE)
Gladieux, Lawrence E.; Swail, Watson Scott
Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC) and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE) have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.
Ileana Gabriela NICULESCU-ARON; Laura ASANDULUI; Miruna MAZURENCU MARINESCU; Constanta MIHAESCU
The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) formulated recommendations along which health inequalities can be successfully tackled anywhere in the world. The situation of the Roma minority in Europe provides countless opportunities for the translation of these guidelines into action that should be guided by coherent and evidence-based strategies integrating lessons learned in smaller-scale field projects. Our paper describes the long-term evaluation of a locally initiated housing project in Hungary carried out more than a decade after implementation, which highlights the salience of the CSDH's recommendations and critical factors for success and sustainability. The project provides evidence for the long-term positive impact on education of the social housing project implemented by an empowered community through delegating decision making to a board of representatives of the beneficiaries in all decisions, including financial ones. Educational level greatly improved, and all houses-inhabited by 17 out of 20 families who initially entered the project-remained in good condition, properly equipped and decorated after 13 years of implementation, in spite of an increase of unemployment during the same period which led to reduced income and deterioration of the families' economic situation. Better housing conditions for vulnerable people can be sustained and result in increased educational level if incremental improvement is aimed for and coupled with the redistribution of power at the local level.
Kósa K; Coons B; Molnár A
Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study about the principal stochastic methods that is used in Project Management. Risk determination is a mustfor every Project Manager worldwide, but the methods have, of course, advantages and disadvantages. Further, many Project Managers work withdeterministic methods, but they see only the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. In Subject of this paper it is Risk determination inprojects. The advantages and disadvantages of stochastic methods. Choosing the theme of this paper is not randomly, it continues a series of articlespublished for strengthen of scientific research in the Doctorate studies that I followed since 2005.
This study tested the hypothesis that intuitions about the effect of operations, e.g., "addition makes bigger" and "division makes smaller", are still present in educated adults, even after years of instruction. To establish the intuitive character, we applied a reaction time methodology, grounded in dual process theories of reasoning. Educated…
Vamvakoussi, Xenia; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven
...opportunity or access to those things which would enable the individual to participate more successfully in the American economic system, available to individuals not considered to be members of social or economically disadvantaged...
Contact with the dominant group can increase opposition, among the disadvantaged, to social policies that would benefit their group. This effect can be explained in terms of contact promoting support for an ideology of meritocracy, which privileges the distribution of societal resources based on individual merit, rather than group-level disadvantage. We tested this ideological mechanism in a large, nationally representative sample of M?ori (a disadvantaged group in New Zealand; N = 1,008). Positive intergroup contact with the dominant group (New Zealand Europeans) predicted increased opposition to a topical reparative policy (M?ori ownership of the foreshore), and this was fully mediated by increased support for the ideology of meritocracy. Intergroup contact may enable the ideological legitimation of inequality among members of disadvantaged groups, engendering political attitudes that are detrimental to their group's interests. Contact with ingroup members had the opposite effect, increasing support for reparative policy by reducing subscription to meritocratic ideology.
Sengupta NK; Sibley CG
Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.
S.V. Knyaz; N.G. Georgiadi; Y.S. Bogiv
A substantial and growing share of the population, immigrant children are more likely than children with native-born parents to face a variety of circumstances, such as low family income, low parental education, and language barriers that place them at risk of developmental delay and poor academic performance once they enter school. Lynn Karoly and Gabriella Gonzalez examine the current role of and future potential for early care and education (ECE) programs in promoting healthy development for immigrant children. Participation in center-based care and preschool programs has been shown to have substantial short-term benefits and may also lead to long-term gains as children go through school and enter adulthood. Yet, overall, immigrant children have lower rates of participation in nonparental care of any type, including center-based ECE programs, than their native counterparts. Much of the participation gap can be explained by just a few economic and sociodemographic factors, the authors find. To some extent, the factors that affect disadvantaged immigrant children resemble those of their similarly disadvantaged native counterparts. Affordability, availability, and access to ECE programs are structural barriers for many immigrant families, as they are for disadvantaged families more generally. Language barriers, bureaucratic complexity, and distrust of government programs, especially among undocumented immigrants, are unique challenges that may prevent some immigrant families from taking advantage of ECE programs, even when their children might qualify for subsidies. Cultural preferences for parental care at home can also be a barrier. Thus the authors suggest that policy makers follow a two-pronged approach for improving ECE participation rates among immigrant children. First, they note, federal and state ECE programs that target disadvantaged children in general are likely to benefit disadvantaged immigrant children as well. Making preschool attendance universal is one way to benefit all immigrant children. Second, participation gaps that stem from the unique obstacles facing immigrants, such as language barriers and informational gaps, can be addressed through the way publicly subsidized and private or nonprofit programs are structured.
Karoly LA; Gonzalez GC
Full Text Available The analysis of the development of the phenomenon in Romania has the role to highlight the trend that has been followed by the number of organisational entities that have been affected by the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, the distribution by counties and regions of the number of insolvency cases as well as the activity sectors that have been most affected by this phenomenon. At the same time, in order to provide an overall picture regarding the size of the insolvency phenomenon in Romania, organisational entities with extremely high turnovers have been given as examples, (legal entities) entities which, since 2008 up to the present moment, have been crossing one of the stages of the insolvency procedure. Some of them have been applied the simplified insolvency procedure, since they didn’t have the possibility to reorganise, and others, fewer in number, have used insolvency as a „rescue boat”, following the general insolvency procedure and entering a reorganisation process, in the attempt to avoid bankruptcy.
This annotated bibliography lists 70 documents dealing with cultural differences and cross-cultural educational problems on the elementary-secondary-collegiate level and does not include material on the economically disadvantaged or inner city problems as such. The first section reports citations drawn from Research in Education and the…
Mathieson, Moira B.; Tatis, Rita M.
This article explains the difficulties anatomy education in Pakistan is facing. The article highlights the concern about how the changes to the traditional curriculum decreases the quality of education medical students are receiving. Issues discussed are the advantages/disadvantages of PBL learning, lack of trained faculty, lack of cadaver access among others.
Full Text Available Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but the views are so diverse and contradictory that it still is not reached even a universally accepted definition. Perhaps it is the so controversial topic that makes him so attractive. If some persons believe that the phenomenon of globalization ends before reaching its peak, others consider that the current situation is just the beginning of an era in which there are no boundaries.
Adriana Manolic?; Teodora Roman
OBJECTIVE: To present research findings on access to, and use of, digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) by Australians from lower income and disadvantaged backgrounds to determine implications for equitable consumer access to digitally-mediated health services and information. METHODS: Focus groups were held in 2008-09 with 80 residents from lower income and disadvantaged backgrounds in South Australia, predominantly of working- and family-formation age (25 to 55 years). Qualitative analysis was conducted on a-priori and emergent themes to describe dominant categories. RESULTS: Access to, and use of, computers, the Internet and mobile phones varied considerably in extent, frequency and quality within and across groups due to differences in abilities, resources and life experience. Barriers and facilitators included English literacy (including for native speakers), technological literacy, education, income, housing situation, social connection, health status, employment status, and trust. Many people gained ICT skills by trial and error or help from friends, and only a few from formal programs, resulting in varied skills. CONCLUSION: The considerable variation in ICT access and use within lower income and disadvantaged groups must be acknowledged and accommodated by health initiatives and services when delivering digitally-mediated consumer-provider interaction, online health information, or online self-management of health conditions. If services require consumers to participate in a digitally-mediated communication exchange, then we suggest they might support skills and technology acquisition, or provide non-ICT alternatives, in order to avoid exacerbating health inequities.
Newman L; Biedrzycki K; Baum F
It is well appreciated that malnutrition in early life has an adverse impact on the overall health of adults. In this review, we address the impact of malnutrition, social disadvantages, and poverty on the lives of children. An integrated response to these difficulties associated in the lives of children, families and the communities in which they live - the "Medical Home" - is suggested as a means to promote health for all ages. The four types of malnutrition delineated by the World Health Organization are discussed, as are differences between "socioeconomic status" and "social gradient." The latter construct is more meaningful from a health care standpoint as differences within each of the socioeconomic groupings are greater than differences between them. Poverty affects food choices with a profound impact on nutritional status. This review suggests how providing a "Medical Home" can improve dietary habits, improve overall nutrition and prevent disease. PMID:21820827
Karp, Robert J; Shlomovich, Mark; Bruno, Laura
It is well appreciated that malnutrition in early life has an adverse impact on the overall health of adults. In this review, we address the impact of malnutrition, social disadvantages, and poverty on the lives of children. An integrated response to these difficulties associated in the lives of children, families and the communities in which they live - the "Medical Home" - is suggested as a means to promote health for all ages. The four types of malnutrition delineated by the World Health Organization are discussed, as are differences between "socioeconomic status" and "social gradient." The latter construct is more meaningful from a health care standpoint as differences within each of the socioeconomic groupings are greater than differences between them. Poverty affects food choices with a profound impact on nutritional status. This review suggests how providing a "Medical Home" can improve dietary habits, improve overall nutrition and prevent disease.
Karp RJ; Shlomovich M; Bruno L
Three years of Italian experience of an educational program for parents of young children affected by atopic dermatitis: improving knowledge produces lower anxiety levels in parents of children with atopic dermatitis.
The chronic course of atopic dermatitis is a problem for children and their families: it can be extremely disabling, and may cause psychologic problems for both child and family. As atopic dermatitis affects 10% of the pediatric population, pediatricians and dermatologists spend much time on the treatment of this disease, which requires a multidisciplinary approach. To improve the quality of life of children and families affected by atopic dermatitis we have offered an educational program to the parents of young children affected by the disease. The program consists of six meetings at weekly intervals involving a pediatric allergist, a dermatologist, and a psychologist. Our experience has been positive. This type of program may help to improve the quality of life of families with children affected by atopic dermatitis. Lower levels of anxiety were observed among parents at the end of the program. We believe that educational programs of this type, in association with conventional treatment, can be useful in the long term management of the disease. They may be considered to improve the quality of life of the family and children and to create more interaction and compliance between physicians, parents, and children.
Ricci G; Bendandi B; Aiazzi R; Patrizi A; Masi M
BACKGROUND: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. METHODS: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. RESULTS: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods. CONCLUSION: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.
Aremu O; Lawoko S; Dalal K
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children's internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.
Rijlaarsdam J; Stevens GW; van der Ende J; Hofman A; Jaddoe VW; Mackenbach JP; Verhulst FC; Tiemeier H
Full Text Available Backgrounds and Aim: Physical activity is one of lifestyle components. 2010 report of health people indicates that physical activity in young people is a high priority of health. A youth attends to maintenance self physical activity till adulthood, since lifestyle is forming mainly in this period. Insufficient physical activity and inactivity with unhealthy nutrition causes chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, ostheoporoses , etc.Materials and Methods: This study was an interventional educational upon female school students in Tonkabon in 2008 in two groups, intervention and control (each group 300). Data gathering tools included demographic, knowledge/attitude and practice assessment questionnaires. First knowledge ,attitude and practice of whole students was assessed.Then the interventional educational programe: 8 hours education (weekly sessions, every session one hour), lecture, question and answer ,pamphelet, and movies about advantages and disadvantages of physical activity and the nessecity of continuing till the future was done. After two month of intervention ,two groups were compared in knowledge,attitude and practice.The data were analized with SPSS and STATA.Results: After the intervention, there was a significant increase in mean of knowledge, attitude and practice, in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.05). Educational intervention caused 15 score on knowledge ,5 score on attitude and 1.6 score on practice improvement. Among effective factors variable Such as :mothers literacy and fathers job affected knowledge ,and level of literacy affected attitude , and mothers education affected practice of student.Discussion and Conclusion: Physical activity is one of the lifestyle components and in young people is a high priority of health. This study shows that Educational intervention caused improvement on knowledge attitude, and practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 low-risk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.
Overgaard Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn Morten; Sandall Jane
Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.
Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-GrØn, Morten
Full Text Available Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Information and communications are closely linked to power and the ability to affect change. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer etc. Socially the majorities of Indian women are still tradition bound and are in disadvantageous position. ICTs are emerging as a powerful tool for women empowerment in a developing country like India. The sample size of the research was 200 by no. of trainees and 30 by no of instructors of different Governmental and Nongovernmental Organizations of Jaipur district. Researcher used random sampling technique to select the sample for the study. The data was collected with the help of self constructed questionnaire. The analysis of mean and graphical representation used for the analysis of data indicated that the Age group, Marital status, Educational level had significant effect on different variable of women empowerment like Self confidence, Self awareness, Independence and Feeling of freedom. The study can be used to create awareness among women for betterment of their live. This research concluded that the information and communication technology empower a women in various areas like social, educational, personal, psychological, political, technological and economical.
Ms. Beena [Research Scholar; Dr. Madhu Mathur [Dean , Faculty of Education
An overview of continuing education in South Africa reveals that despite strong philosophical support a number of factors impede the developmental of an effective system of such education. Existing inadequacies have been exacerbated by the introduction in 1986 of a comprehensive program for entry into the profession, resulting in an overwhelming demand for continuing education for nurses who trained prior to that. Rural nurses in particular are disadvantaged, with nondegree continuing education being largely inaccessible. However, efforts to meet these needs are afoot, and two recent initiatives are described.
Grainger LD; Uys LR
non-peer-reviewed , ICT use in the classroom is very important to provide the opportunities for adult students to learn in this information communications technology (ICT) age. Studying the barriers to the use of ICT in education may assist teachers to overcome these barriers and have successful integr...
O'Shaughnessy, Kathleen T.
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking television advertising campaign in motivating smokers to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up.?DESIGN—A prospective, controlled trial was conducted in four TV regions in ...
McVey, D.; Stapleton, J.
All travelers have concerns about safety and security. For transportation-disadvantaged persons (i.e., older adults, persons with disabilities, and low-income individuals), these concerns are amplified by the vulnerability of the individuals. Safety and security can be improved for transportation-disadvantaged populations through the use of technology. Specific technologies include vehicle tracking systems, silent alarm systems, security cameras, and way-finding navigation systems. Other innovative safety devices and programs provide additional safety and security. Five sites across the United States were visited to determine how agencies of different sizes using different approaches meet the needs of these special populations. The agencies noted that technologies of benefit to the transportation-disadvantaged communities generally benefit all users of public transportation.
Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL
The current study examines the link between climate change and neighborhood levels of violence using 20 years of monthly climatic and crime data from St. Louis, MO, USA. St. Louis census tracts are aggregated in neighborhood groups of similar levels of social disadvantage, after which each group is subjected to time series analysis. Findings suggest that neighborhoods with higher levels of social disadvantage are very likely to experience higher levels of violence as a result of anomalously warm temperatures. The 20 % of most disadvantaged neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO, USA are predicted to experience over half of the climate change-related increase in cases of violence. These results provide further evidence that the health impacts of climate change are proportionally higher among populations that are already at high risk and underscore the need to comprehensively address climate change.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between economic disadvantage and adolescent and developmental outcomes as well as perceived family qualities in 3580 Secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes include positive youth development constructs, problem behavior and drug taking behavior, whereas perceived family qualities include perceived family interaction and parental parenting. Generally speaking, poor and non-poor adolescents differ in terms of overall positive youth development and family life quality. Although adolescents experiencing poverty do not display significant differences from non-poor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and psychosocial competencies, adolescents with economic disadvantage show lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than do those without economic disadvantage.
Shek DT; Tsui PF
The current study examines the link between climate change and neighborhood levels of violence using 20 years of monthly climatic and crime data from St. Louis, MO, USA. St. Louis census tracts are aggregated in neighborhood groups of similar levels of social disadvantage, after which each group is subjected to time series analysis. Findings suggest that neighborhoods with higher levels of social disadvantage are very likely to experience higher levels of violence as a result of anomalously warm temperatures. The 20 % of most disadvantaged neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO, USA are predicted to experience over half of the climate change-related increase in cases of violence. These results provide further evidence that the health impacts of climate change are proportionally higher among populations that are already at high risk and underscore the need to comprehensively address climate change. PMID:23435543
This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.
Valverde M; Vidal M; Jansa M
This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective. PMID:23157069
Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida
Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods.
Lewis C; Hill M; Skirton H; Chitty LS
Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods. PMID:22453293
Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S
PURPOSE: To address how Madagascar is improving nursing education and the profession to strengthen their nursing workforce. BACKGROUND: The sub-Saharan Africa nursing workforce shortage is more than 600,000. Madagascar measures among affected countries. Nursing in Madagascar with reference to the Malagasy Lutheran Church Health Department (SALFA) is examined in this paper. The Malagasy Lutheran Nursing School (SEFAM) was established in 1956 to prepare nurses and midwives. The school recently relocated to better meet SALFA goals to increase nurses in the system and improve nursing education. A US nursing faculty and the SEFAM director proposed to conduct programme assessment to ensure that nursing and midwifery education meet health, social and community needs in Madagascar. DATA SOURCE/METHODS: An in-depth needs assessment of the school programme, facilities and resources occurred. Site visits and informal interviews were held. Field study visits to nursing schools and health-care facilities in Kenya and Tanzania assisted the authors in learning how nursing developed in those countries. Data analysis included comparison of the authors' comprehensive notes for congruity and accuracy. OUTCOMES: Strategies are needed to support and maintain quality education, improve quality and quantity of nursing care services in hospitals and dispensaries, and improve conditions for nurses and other health-care workers. Compared with Madagascar, Kenya and Tanzania have more well-developed systems of nursing education and professional development. LIMITATIONS: There were limited written sources for some information but methods, such as verbal accounts, compensated for this limitation. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Implications include advantages, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers to nursing educational and professional development in Madagascar. Development of nursing education, regulation and the profession will continue with support from key stakeholders. Kenya and Tanzania can serve as role models for Madagascar nurses. Countries with similar nursing education and professional development issues can be informed by lessons learned in this project.
Plager KA; Razaonandrianina JO
Background Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortality between 1983 and 2003 in Nigeria. We assessed whether urban area socioeconomic disadvantage has an impact on under-5 mortality. Methods Urban under-5 mortality rates were directly estimated from the 1990, 1999, and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed on data for 2,118 children nested within data for 1,350 mothers, who were in turn nested within data for 165 communities. Results Urban under-5 mortality increased as urban population steadily increased between 1983 and 2003. Urban area disadvantage was significantly associated with under-5 mortality after adjusting for individual child- and mother-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusions Significant relative risks of under-5 deaths at both individual and community levels underscore the need for interventions tailored toward community- and individual-level interventions. We stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.
Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh
|This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses.
Nee C; Witt C
This paper discusses the Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project within the decommissioning projects at the Hanford Site and reviews the lessons learned from performing four large reactor decommissioning projects sequentially. The advantages and disadvantages of this multi-reactor decommissioning project are highlighted.
Morton, M.R.; Nielson, R.R.; Trevino, R.A.
|Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent…
This paper discusses the Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project within the decommissioning projects at the Hanford Site and reviews the lessons learned from performing four large reactor decommissioning projects sequentially. The advantages and disadvantages of this multi-reactor decommissioning project are highlighted.
Traditional teaching methodology and materials are founded on the premise that all U.S. born citizens speak English as the mother tongue. Precedence is given to the development of reading and writing at an early level. The disadvantaged Mexican-American lacks the necessary linguistic experiences in the English language to assure him success in…
Perales, Alanso M.; Howard, Lester B.
[en] This study deals with the principal advantages and disadvantages of the five types of proven commercial reactors. A description of each class of commercial reactor (light water, gas-cooled, and heavy water) and their proven reactors is followed by a comparison of reactor types on the basis of technical merit, economics of operation, availability of technology, and associated political issues. (author)
We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage exacerbates the intergenerational transmission of substance dependence. Among 3056 community-based young adults (18-22 years, 2007), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7.3%) was dou...
Melchior, Maria; Choquet, Marie; Le Strat, Yann; Hassler, Christine; Gorwood, Philip
|A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…
|TO ATTRACT OUTSTANDING ARTS AND SCIENCE GRADUATES INTO TEACHING CAREERS, AND TO GIVE THEM THE SPECIAL TRAINING NEEDED FOR WORK WITH DISADVANTAGED YOUTH, JOHN CARROLL UNIVERSITY IN COOPERATION WITH THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFERS A TWO-SUMMER PLUS TWO-SEMESTER PROGRAM LEADING TO A MASTER'S DEGREE, A SECONDARY TEACHING CERTIFICATE WITH 1/2-YEAR TEACHING…
Cleveland Public Schools, OH.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This article aims to analyse the part played by successive waves of nurse migration in changing patterns of division and disadvantage within nursing. We argue that migration has in part acted to reinforce disadvantage based on class and gender, race and ethnicity and identify the influence of changes in nursing structure and commercialization of care in these processes. BACKGROUND, DESIGN AND METHODS: The historical analysis of division within nursing and the impact of migration are based on secondary sources (literature review) and primary research undertaken by ourselves and colleagues. The paper develops a concept of 'remaking' disadvantage drawing on analysis in social history of the interplay between agency and economic position in the 'making' of class. It uses the extended case method to focus on the residential care sector, showing how global and national influences operate at the frontline of service delivery. RESULTS: We show how social class and gender, race and ethnicity have interacted and are reflected in the division of labour within nursing. We demonstrate how the employment conditions of nurse migrants have reinforced patterns of disadvantage. The case study of the residential care home sector deepens our analysis of intersecting sources of professional disadvantage including aspects of commercialization, in a sector where they have severe effects for vulnerable staff and patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the UK, migrant professional nurses have repeatedly acted both as a highly valued labour force on whom patients and clients rely and as involuntary contributors to remaking disadvantage. This situation is sustained by the current international labour market and rising commercialization which facilitate nurse migration and the segmentation of care work based on a 'pecking order' of specialties that reinforce existing divisions of social class, gender and race within nursing. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Migrant nurses play a key role in the delivery of 'frontline' care to patients. The role many currently play reinforces disadvantage within nursing in ways that are problematic for the profession, patients and clients. The recognition and valuing of their skills is critical to the promotion of their own morale which in turn has an impact on their relationship with colleagues and the delivery of patient and client care.
Smith P; Mackintosh M
BACKGROUND: The role of ambulance clinicians in providing psychosocial care in major incidents and emergencies is recognised in recent Department of Health guidance. The study described in this paper identified NHS professional first responders' needs for education about survivors' psychosocial responses, training in psychosocial skills, and continuing support. METHOD: Ambulance staff participated in an online Delphi questionnaire, comprising 74 items (Round 1) on 7-point Likert scales. Second-round and third-round participants each received feedback based on the previous round, and responded to modified versions of the original items and to new items for clarification. RESULTS: One hundred and two participants took part in Round 1; 47 statements (64%) achieved consensus. In Round 2, 72 people from Round 1 participated; 15 out of 39 statements (38%) achieved consensus. In Round 3, 49 people from Round 2 participated; 15 out of 27 statements (59%) achieved consensus. Overall, there was consensus in the following areas: 'psychosocial needs of patients' (consensus in 34/37 items); 'possible sources of stress in your work' (8/9); 'impacts of distress in your work' (7/10); 'meeting your own emotional needs' (4/5); 'support within your organisation' (2/5); 'needs for training in psychosocial skills for patients' (15/15); 'my needs for psychosocial training and support' (5/6). CONCLUSIONS: Ambulance clinicians recognise their own education needs and the importance of their being offered psychosocial training and support. The authors recommend that, in order to meet patients' psychosocial needs effectively, ambulance clinicians are provided with education and training in a number of skills and their own psychosocial support should be enhanced.
Drury J; Kemp V; Newman J; Novelli D; Doyle C; Walter D; Williams R
This paper reviews recent studies on the effectiveness of services and incentives offered to disadvantaged youths both in the US and abroad. We focus our analysis on three types of interventions: mentoring, educational services, and financial rewards. The objective of this article is threefold. First, we explain alternative theoretical points of view in favor (or against-when applicable) each of these interventions. We then discuss how recent empirical work has affected that view and summarize the latest findings. We conclude by considering which questions remain to be examined. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand which educational interventions work and for whom, and to be used as a starting point for the debate on where to go next.
A qualitative case study using the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) push-in model was conducted on the perceptions of 3 itinerant deaf educators and 3 general educators working in 1 school district. Participants worked in pairs of 1 deaf educator and 1 general educator at 3 elementary schools. Open-ended research questions guided the study, which was concerned with teachers' perceptions of the model in general and with the model's advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness. Data collected from observations, one-to-one interviews, and a focus group interview enabled the investigator to uncover 4 themes: Participants (a) had an overall positive experience, (b) viewed general education immersion as an advantage, (c) considered high noise levels a disadvantage, and (d) believed the effectiveness of the push-in model was dependent on several factors, in particular, the needs of the student and the nature of the general education classroom environment.
At the end of a century of mining education in South Africa it is appropriate to reflect on the past, take stock of the present and ponder over the future of mining education. While it is likely that changes in the mining industry will generate an increased demand for mining graduates, the number of suitably qualified applicants to study mining is worryingly small. While good progress has been made in unifying the education system that previously provided schooling on a racially separate basis, it appears that a decade or more will be required to raise competency levels in mathematics, science and English and this paper describes the process as it affects mining engineering programmes. It also describes the initiatives currently being undertaken by the University of the Witwatersrand and the mining industry to ensure that the South African industry receives an adequate flow of well qualified mining graduates, despite more than 70% of the intake coming from severely disadvantaged educational backgrounds. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
Phillips, H.R. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering
Afetividade, cognição e educação: ensaio acerca da demarcação de fronteiras entre os conceitos e a dificuldade de ser do homem/ Affectivity, cognition and education: essay about the demarcation of borders between concepts and the difficulty of being human
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Busca-se discutir os conceitos afetividade e cognição, e suas implicações na educação. Parte-se da ideia de que a diferença entre humanos e demais seres decorre da necessidade de aprender a ser; ou seja, das dificuldades de ser do homem, advindas desse exercício, e não o emprego puro e simples da racionalidade. Schopenhauer apresenta a hipótese de que as noções de tempo e espaço são resultado da sensibilidade e percepção acerca, respectivamente, dos fenôm (more) enos do movimento e das relações das coisas no mundo. Infere-se, então, que das relações estabelecidas ao longo de suas trajetórias existenciais entre as coisas e seres nascem os afetos, ou seja, os modos como as coisas (ou seres) afetam ou são afetadas em suas diversas manifestações. A tese deste ensaio sugere que a razão nada mais é do que a afetividade formatada ao modo humano: a resultante do sentido existencial entrecruzado à realidade. Logo não haveria supremacia da cognição em detrimento da afetividade, por serem um e mesmo fenômeno: o do entendimento da realidade; baseando-se nos afetos sentidos e percebidos pelo sujeito. Tal premissa pode contribuir com o pensamento educacional ao (re)integrar a afetividade e a cognição, ao contrário do que se vem praticando: um privilégio exacerbado da educação racionalista. Essa (re)integração pode ocorrer pela conjunção da Arte, da Filosofia e da Psicologia, o que, de certo modo, defende a Pedagogia Waldorf, de Rudolf Steiner. Abstract in english The goal of this article is to discuss the concepts of affectivity and cognition, and their implications to education. The main idea is that, what really differentiates mankind from the other forms of life is not the simple use of rationality, but rather originates from the necessity of learning to be, that is, man's difficulty of being. A hypothesis by philosopher Schopenhauer presents the notions of time and space as being a result of human sensibility and perceptions a (more) bout the movement and the relationship among elements in the world, respectively. As such, it is inferred that, affects are originated from these established relations; that is, how things or beings affect or are affected in their different manifestations. The thesis of this essay defends the possibility of reason being the affective root between the existential feelings and reality. Therefore, there would be no supremacy of the cognitive aspects granted by rationality in regards to affective aspects, inasmuch as they are the same phenomenon: the knowledge, which is built on interpretations of reality - interpretations based on affects felt and acknowledged by an individual. Such premise could contribute to education by integrating affectivity and cognition, as opposed to the common exacerbated privilege of rational education. Such integration can be accomplished by the integration of Art, Philosophy and Psychology, which in a way supports the Waldorf Pedagogy, by Rudolf Steiner.
Sant'Ana, René Simonato; Loos, Helga; Cebulski, Márcia Cristina
BACKGROUND: Low health literacy affects 80-90 million Americans with low-income, minority populations being more vulnerable to this condition. One method of addressing limited literacy that may be particularly well accepted within vulnerable populations is the use of educational board games in order to emphasize seeking health information from reliable sources such as pharmacists. OBJECTIVE: The research objective was to determine if the use of educational board games could impact community pharmacy patron intentions to seek pharmacist advice in an urban, minority, economically-disadvantaged population. METHODS: Four medication-related educational games were played at an urban community pharmacy under the leadership of pharmacy students in the setting of a health party. Game messages, design, and evaluation processes were uniquely guided by community members' input. A verbally administered questionnaire measured game impact via knowledge and perception questions with responses compared between a non-randomly allocated intervention group and a control group. RESULTS: Ninety-nine adults were included in the intervention (or game) group and 94 adults were in the control group. Game participants were significantly more likely than the control group to indicate they would seek pharmacist medication advice in the future. CONCLUSION: Educational board games played in the setting of a health party can be a fun and effective way to convey selected health messages within an urban, minority, economically disadvantaged population. Community input into game development and layering multiple strategies for overcoming health literacy barriers were essential components of this initiative.
Burghardt KJ; Bowman MR; Hibino M; Opong-Owusu BK Jr; Pokora TD; Reeves K; Vile KM
Full Text Available This article reviews separate education for ethnic minorities in two Central Asian countries - Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Students and teachers from minority and majority groups in each country were asked 1) whether separate schools for minorities persevered minority cultural identity and 2) whether such schools undercut equal educational opportunities for minority students. Analysis indicates that in some political, social and educational contexts separation puts minority youth at a disadvantage, which in turn keeps them from fully integrating into society. Redressing this situation requires a commitment to guaranteeing rights and full citizenship for minorities. This paper explores how separate school systems deepen ethnic and political divisions in society rather than promote equality and equity. It begins with a number of questions. How much emphasis do current education reform initiatives put on equity and equality in minority schools? What is the balance between economic and civic imperatives in the education policy process in the two countries? What are the main features of post-transition phase in education and how it affects separate education? As mentioned in the foreword of this issue, data analyzed for this study was collected under the auspices of the “Divided Education, Divided Citizens” project, which was conducted in seven post-socialist countries. This article concentrates on separate schooling for different ethnic and linguistic groups and issues related to the civil enculturation of minorities in two Central Asian countries, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Study participants from minority and majority language-track schools in each country were asked to observe whether separate schools for minority ethnicities served to preserve culture or instead undercut equal educational opportunity. Pervious investigations have found that education plays a fundamental role in shaping individuals’ perceptions of their own ethnicity. Korostelina (2008) in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea) found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005) found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.
Bilingual speakers access individual words less fluently, quickly, and accurately than monolinguals, particularly when accessing low-frequency words. Here we examined whether the bilingual speech production disadvantage would (a) extend to full sentences above and beyond single word retrieval and whether it would be modulated by (b) structural frequency and (c) syntactic properties of the bilingual speakers' other language. English monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals and Mandarin-English bilinguals were tested in a sentence production task conducted exclusively in English. Response times were modulated by bilingualism, structural frequency, and structural similarity across the bilingual speakers' two languages. These results refine our knowledge regarding the scope of the bilingual disadvantage, demonstrate that frequency effects apply to syntactic structures, and also suggest that syntax is partially shared across bilinguals' two languages.
Runnqvist E; Gollan TH; Costa A; Ferreira VS
The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a group of socially and economically disadvantaged Spanish gypsy children was compared to that of a group of non-gypsy middle-class children. The study included 438 children, 73 gypsies (38 girls and 35 boys, mean age 8.5 years, age range 2-16 years) and 365 non-gypsy controls, randomly selected by age. The presence of anti-HAV was investigated using ELISA. Among the gypsy children, 82% had antibodies to HAV compared with 9.3% of the children in the control group. The unfavourable living conditions of the gypsy population (e.g. homes with poor sanitary conditions, overcrowding) may explain the high prevalence of HAV infection. These findings underline the need for specific action which targets disadvantaged populations.
Cilla G; Perez-Trallero E; Marimon JM; Erdozain S; Gutierrez C
The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a group of socially and economically disadvantaged Spanish gypsy children was compared to that of a group of non-gypsy middle-class children. The study included 438 children, 73 gypsies (38 girls and 35 boys, mean age 8.5 years, age range 2-16 years) and 365 non-gypsy controls, randomly selected by age. The presence of anti-HAV was investigated using ELISA. Among the gypsy children, 82% had antibodies to HAV compared with 9.3% of the children in the control group. The unfavourable living conditions of the gypsy population (e.g. homes with poor sanitary conditions, overcrowding) may explain the high prevalence of HAV infection. These findings underline the need for specific action which targets disadvantaged populations.
Cilla, G.; Perez-Trallero, E.; Marimon, J. M.; Erdozain, S.; Gutierrez, C.
This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children.
Brown ED; Ackerman BP; Moore CA
Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients.
Seabrook JA; Avison WR
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the association between religious coping and mental health in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. METHODS: Participants were selected as they presented for mental healthcare at a community health center for patients with little, if any, financial resources or insurance. A total of 123 patients participated in this study. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify religious coping predictors for mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Positive religious coping (PRC) was significantly associated with and predictive of better mental health (P < .01). Conversely, negative religious coping (NRC) was found to be significantly associated with poorer mental health scores (P = .031) with gender, income, and ethnicity controlled for in the model. The relationship between NRC and inferior mental health outcomes was more robust than the relationship between PRC and improved mental health scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the important association between PRC and NRC and mental health outcomes among economically disadvantaged patients. Interpretation of these findings and clinical implications are offered.
Olson MM; Trevino DB; Geske JA; Vanderpool H
Bilingual speakers access individual words less fluently, quickly, and accurately than monolinguals, particularly when accessing low-frequency words. Here we examined whether the bilingual speech production disadvantage would (a) extend to full sentences above and beyond single word retrieval and whether it would be modulated by (b) structural frequency and (c) syntactic properties of the bilingual speakers' other language. English monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals and Mandarin-English bilinguals were tested in a sentence production task conducted exclusively in English. Response times were modulated by bilingualism, structural frequency, and structural similarity across the bilingual speakers' two languages. These results refine our knowledge regarding the scope of the bilingual disadvantage, demonstrate that frequency effects apply to syntactic structures, and also suggest that syntax is partially shared across bilinguals' two languages. PMID:23948209
Runnqvist, Elin; Gollan, Tamar H; Costa, Albert; Ferreira, Victor S
Full Text Available Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory devices. This is particularly important for soft materials, since their permeability could vary within several orders of magnitude depending on the variation of void ratio. The article presents advantages and disadvantages of the flow-pump method performed in a modified triaxial cell and hydraulic oedometer, in comparison with conventional constant head and falling head methods. The specimens were prepared from the waste stone dust, which is the product of final dimension stone processing.
Želimir Veinovi?; Biljana Kova?evi?-Zeli?; Predrag Kvasni?ka
Studies using the lexical decision task with English stimuli have demonstrated that homophones are responded to more slowly than nonhomophonic controls. In contrast, several studies using Chinese stimuli have shown that homophones are responded to more rapidly than nonhomophonic controls. In an attempt to better understand the impact of homophony, we investigated homophone effects for Japanese kanji words in a lexical decision task. The results indicated that, whereas a processing disadvantage emerged for homophones when they have only a single homophonic mate (as in the English experiments), a processing advantage occurred for homophones when they have multiple homophonic mates (as in the Chinese experiments). On the basis of these results, we discuss the nature of the processes that may be responsible for producing the processing advantages and disadvantages for homophones.
Hino Y; Kusunose Y; Lupker SJ; Jared D
Despite an overall improvement in the educational situation of girls and women in India, there are considerable gender inequalities in education. In the last decade, the Government of India introduced the campaign approach to tackle the problem of widespread illiteracy among women and other socio-economically disadvantaged groups in collaboration…
Srivastava, Komal; Patel, Ila
AIM: To report on baseline outcomes of body mass index, eating habits and physical activity of a cohort of urban disadvantaged children from a longitudinal evaluation of a school based, health promoting initiative. BACKGROUND: The healthy schools programme was developed for implementation in schools located in disadvantaged areas of Dublin, Ireland. DESIGN: A prospective, cohort study design was implemented. METHOD: A 3-year longitudinal evaluation was conducted in five intervention and two comparison schools between 2009-2011. Data were collected on each participating child to determine their eating habits, levels of physical activity and body mass index at year 1 (baseline), year 2 and year 3. Independent t-tests were used to compare mean values, chi-square and Fishers exact tests were used to compare proportions at baseline. RESULTS: Participation rates were over 50%. Older children reported eating on average more fruit and vegetables than younger children; breakfast was often eaten on the way to, or in school and in one age group 16.7% of intervention children reported they did not eat breakfast that day. Levels of physical activity varied with over 70% of younger children stating they never played a sport. In intervention schools over one quarter of all children were either overweight or obese. A comparison was conducted between the proportion of 9-year olds overweight and obese in our disadvantaged cohort and a national random sample of 8500 9-year olds and no important differences were observed. CONCLUSION: Baseline results indicate that body mass index rates particularly among pre adolescent, urban disadvantaged girls are of concern.
Hollywood E; Comiskey C; Begley T; Snel A; O'Sullivan K; Quirke M; Wynne C
In this work the main advantages and disadvantages of the installation of a new type of nuclear reactor different to the BWR type reactor in Mexico are presented. A revision of the advanced reactors is made that are at the moment in operation and of the advanced reactors that are in construction or one has already planned its construction in the short term. Specifically the A BWR and EPR reactors are analyzed. (Author)
Depression debilitates the lives of millions and is projected to be the second leading disease burden worldwide by 2020. At the population level, the causes of depression are found in the everyday social and physical environments in which people live. Research has shown that men and women often experience neighbourhood environments differently and that these variations are often reflected in health outcomes. The current study examines whether social and environmental correlates of depression are similar in men and women. This study examines whether (i) there are gender differences in the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depressive symptoms, and (ii) dimensions of social capital and cohesion mediate these associations. Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study, which consists of a cluster stratified sample of Montreal census tracts (nct?=?300) and individuals within those tracts (ni?=?2707). Depressive symptoms and social capital were measured with a questionnaire. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured at the census tract level using data from the 2006 Canada Census. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender and a three-step mediation analysis procedure were used. Final sample size for these analyses was 2574 adults. Depressive symptoms had a prevalence of 17.3% in the overall sample. Disadvantage was associated with depressive symptoms in women only (OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.01–1.55). Perceived neighbourhood cohesion was shown to mediate the association of disadvantage and depressive symptoms in women (ab?=?0.02; 95% CI?=?0.003–0.04, p<0.05). Other socio-relational variables, specifically generalized trust and trust in neighbours were associated with depression in women but did not act as mediating variables. Health promotion initiatives meant to combat depression may wish to consider gender differences in the design and implementation of neighbourhood or peer-based programs.
Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer
INTRODUCTION: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. METHODS: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14-16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. RESULTS: Participants' main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. CONCLUSIONS: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers.
Donaghy E; Bauld L; Eadie D; McKell J; Pringle B; Amos A
Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.
Nomaguchi K; House AN
The aim of this study was to describe the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Germany and Kazakhstan. Random samples of people living in disadvantaged areas of Berlin, Germany, and Almaty, Kazakhstan, were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The association of both current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress was assessed for each sample using linear regression analyses and compared between the two samples calculating t-values for the comparison of B-coefficients. Current smoking was equally associated with psychological distress in both countries, whereas the association of nicotine dependence and psychological distress was only seen for the Kazakh sample and significantly stronger than for the German sample. The results could not be explained by social characteristics. Possibly due to the lack of outpatient community mental health services for the treatment of common mental disorders, nicotine dependence was associated with psychological distress in the disadvantaged area of Kazakhstan.
Ignatyev Y; Mundt AP
OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilisation and institutional deliveries among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants living in Delhi, India. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, 809 rural-urban migrant mothers with a child aged below 2 years were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Data on receiving antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, migration history and other social, demographic and income were collected. RESULTS: Recent migrants used the services significantly less than settled migrants. ANC was adequate only among 37% (35% of recent migrant women and 39% of settled migrants). Multinomial regression revealed that being a recent migrant, multiparous, illiterate and married to an unskilled worker were significant risk factors for receiving inadequate ANC. Around 53% of deliveries took place at home. ANC seeking has a strong influence on place of delivery: 70% of births to women who received inadequate ANC were at home. Women who are educated, had their first delivery after the age of 20 years and received adequate ANC were more likely to deliver their child in hospital. Post-natal care is grossly neglected among these groups. CONCLUSION: Migrant women, particularly recent migrants, are at the risk of not receiving adequate maternal healthcare. Because migration is a continuing phenomenon, measures to mitigate disadvantage due to migration need to be taken in the healthcare system.
Kusuma YS; Kumari R; Kaushal S
Current U.S. policy initiatives to improve the U.S. education system, including No Child Left Behind, test-based evaluation of teachers, and the promotion of competition are misguided because they either deny or set to the side a basic body of evidence documenting that students from disadvantaged households on average perform less well in school…
Ladd, Helen F.
BACKGROUND: Disadvantaged smokers are less likely to be successful when trying to stop smoking than more affluent smokers. In the UK, NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) provide a range of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support, delivered by advisors with a range of backgrounds. Whether the types of support provided and who provides it influence differences in quit rates amongst low SES smokers compared with high SES smokers has not previously been examined. METHODS: 202,084 records of smokers in England who attended a NHS Stop Smoking Service between July 2010 and June 2011 were acquired. Smokers were followed-up by services at four weeks post quit date. Multilevel logistic regression models of CO validated quits were employed. Disadvantage was explored through the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) and by eligibility for free prescriptions, an indicator of low income amongst adults aged between 19 and 59 in England. RESULTS: Affluent smokers were more likely to quit than disadvantaged smokers (OR 1.38 (1.35 to 1.42) for clients who paid for prescriptions compared to those eligible for free prescriptions). 80% of service clients received one-to-one counselling but open group forms of behavioural therapy were more successful (main effect OR 1.26 (1.12 to 1.41)) except amongst some of the most disadvantaged clients (long-term unemployed and prisoners). Closed groups were little deployed and they were not significantly more successful than one-to-one behavioural therapy after controls. Who delivered treatment did make a difference for some clients, with all but the most affluent less likely to be successful if they had been treated by a nurse compared with other types of advisers, including smoking cessation specialists (main effect OR 0.73 (0.65 to 0.83)). CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that disadvantaged smokers find quitting more difficult even when they have attended a smoking cessation programme. The findings suggest that open groups should be promoted, although they may not be as effective as other forms of behavioural therapy for the long-term unemployed or prisoners. Further research is required to explore why most groups of smokers who attended services staffed by nurses were less likely to quit than those who received treatment from other types of advisors.
Hiscock R; Murray S; Brose LS; McEwen A; Bee JL; Dobbie F; Bauld L
|This paper argues that whilst equitable educational pathways are integrated into educational policy discourses in Australia, there are significant gendered barriers to educational participation among members of the Sudanese refugee groups. The specific conditions of forced migration reinforce disadvantage and further limit opportunities. Cultural…
Hatoss, Aniko; Huijser, Henk
Full Text Available The great Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a destructive tsunami which devastated coastal communities bordering the Indian Ocean, killing thousands of people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, the Maldives, Malaysia, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen and Kenya. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history. In India, the death toll and damages were severe, particularly along the southern and eastern coastal regions. Subsequently, central and state government authorities in the state of Tamilnadu - one of the most severely stricken regions - took immediate measures for tsunami preparedness and rehabilitation. The media played a major role in this effort by communicating to the public information related to the science and technology facts of tsunami hazards and to ways of mitigating their impact with better understanding and preparedness. Through its superior ability to communicate effectively information, the media became the role model in helping people make decisions for their own welfare. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the media’s role in the post-rehabilitation efforts and particularly in improving the status of affected women of the north Chennai region, who were forced to migrate from Ernavour and Ennore, in Chennai district, in the India state of Tamilnadu, by providing them science and technology communication.
P. Sri Jothi; M. Neelamalar
Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.
A survey of infant-feeding practices in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in the Cape Peninsula was undertaken. By the age of 6 weeks 47,3% of the infants were receiving bottle feeds, and this had increased to 76,3% by the age of 7-12 weeks. Analysis of factors which might have influenced this pattern indicated that subjective dissatisfaction with the quantity and quality of milk dominated the mothers' reasons for stopping breast-feeding. Since contact between the local authority and mothers often took place only after breast-feeding had been discontinued, it is suggested that concentrating on education and support during the perinatal period may have a positive influence on this disturbing trend.
Hoffman MN; Durcan NM; Disler PB
Studies of theoretically prescribed behavior change strategies associated with adequate fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption are lacking. This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of five daily servings of FVs among economically disadvantage...
Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families are at risk for malnutrition, learning disabilities, and many other problems associated with poverty. Increasing application of event-related potentials (ERP) methods has been made in studies of aberrant development, although...
...Spouse's financial situation. SBA may consider a spouse's financial situation in determining a woman's...an individual claiming economic disadvantage must submit...a spouse's financial situation in determining an...
Full Text Available Objective: To determine how socially active elderly who complain of auditory difficulty perceive the disadvantages associated with their auditory condition. Methods: A total of 59 socially active elderly were questioned about hearing difficulties. In 2005, they participated in “Acampavida”, an event organized by Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, to provide senior citizens the opportunity to participate in workshops and lectures, and to socialize. We selected those, who answered that had had some hearing difficulty. They were invited to identify the disadvantages caused by hearing loss and answered the Portuguese version of “The hearing handicap inventory for the elderly – screening version”, comprising ten questions (possible answers: “yes”, “no” and “sometimes”). Rresults: From 59 elderly people interviewed, 32 reported hearing difficulty. Six were male and 26 were female. The age range was 60-88 years. The question that led to more (75%) positive answers (“yes”) was: “Does a hearing problem cause you difficulty when talking in noisy environments?”. The “no” answer, predominated in the questions “Do you feel that any difficulty with your hearing limits or hampers your personal or social life?” (84.4%) and “Does a hearing problem cause you to attend religious services less often than you would like?” (90%). The option “sometimes” was answered in less than 26% of cases. Cconclusions: Although the elderly studied reported some hearing difficulty, they felt such problem did not prevent them from going to church and it did not restrict or interfere in their individual and social lives. Communication in noisy environments was the disadvantage more often reported.
Larissa Lautenschlager; Tania Tochetto; Maiara dos Santos Gonçalves; Daniele Coronel Mena Barreto; Michele Paula Moro; Geovana de Paula Bolzan
Ozone and chlorine dioxide present definite advantages and disadvantages over chlorination. Chlorination, particularly for the removal of ammonia and the maintenance of a disinfectant residual in the distribution system has decisive advantages and will be difficult to replace. Ozone and chlorine dioxide seem to produce fewer carcinogenic by-products but the risk for acute toxicity, especially from the chlorites which follow chlorine dioxide, is higher than with chlorine. Chlorine dioxide and more particularly ozone should be considered as useful complements to chlorination, but no strong oxidative treatment should be applied before most of the organic matter has been removed.
Fiessinger, F.; Richard, Y.; Montiel, A.; Musquere, P.
With respect to epidemiology of carbon monoxide poisonings, the diagnostic management of poisonings caused by this xenobiotic is among the fundamental objectives of forensic toxicology. In forensic practice, to determine carbon monoxide, colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods, as well as gas chromatography are used. Based on literature data and their own experience, the authors discuss analytical methods universally applied in determinations of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the cause of errors resulting from the specificity of the examined material (postmortem blood) are indicated. PMID:22117494
Nowicka, Joanna; Grabowska, Teresa; Kulikowska, Joanna; Celi?ski, Rafa?; Korczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Dro?dziok, Kornelia
Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations are constantly looking for methods to improve their efficiency and to guarantee them a competitive advantage, sustainable profitable growth and ability to survive in a turbulent environment. An increasing popularity of implementation of certified management systems has been noticed. The most often integrated management system are eg. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 18001. The paper presents the conditions for the implementation of an integrated management system (IMS), the characteristics of the most integrated management systems, the advantages and disadvantages of integration and the difficulties in the implementation of IMS and recommendations regarding the effectiveness of the integration of IMS.
Aneta Wysoki?ska-Senkus; Henryk Wyr?bek
Full Text Available The analysis of the Romanian agricultural and food products performance on the foreign markets, applying the classification method by the main categories of products that had positive or negative trade balance, reveals the competitive advantages and disadvantages respectively of the agri-food trade, at the level of traded groups of products. The yearly variations of exports, imports and trade balance indicate a fluctuating evolution of the agri-food foreign trade, both in correlation with the variations in the agricultural supply, the performance deficiencies of the agri-food sector, which induced disequilibria on the export market, and with the effect of political changes upon the trade flows.
MIRELA RUSALI; CAMELIA GAVRILESCU
Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could
Scantamburlo G; Pitchot W; Ansseau M
|Examines unclear and sometimes erroneous notions about multicultural education (e.g., it is the same as ethnic studies and it is an effort to affect college admissions), discussing: the relationship of multicultural education to education in general; the theoretical basis of the field; the relationship between multicultural education and the…
Birkel, Lane F.
PURPOSE: Research on the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model and practice redesign has not focused on the unique challenges and strengths of very small primary care practices serving disadvantaged patient populations. We analyzed the practice characteristics, prior experiences, and dimensions of the PCMH model that exist in such practices participating in the Primary Care Information Project (PCIP) of the New York City Department of Mental Health and Hygiene. METHODS: We obtained descriptive data, focusing on PCMH, for 94 primary care practices with 5 or fewer clinicians serving high volumes of Medicaid and minority patient populations in New York City. Data included information extracted from PCIP administrative data and survey data collected specifically for this study. RESULTS: Survey results indicated substantial implementation of key aspects of the PCMH among small practices serving disadvantaged patient populations, despite considerable potential challenges to achieving PCMH implementation. Practices tended to use few formal mechanisms, such as formal care teams and designated care or case managers, but there was considerable evidence of use of informal team-based care and care coordination nonetheless. It appears that many of these practices achieved the spirit, if not the letter, of the law in terms of key dimensions of PCMH. CONCLUSIONS: Small practices can achieve important aspects of the PCMH model of primary care, often with informal rather than formal mechanisms and strategies. The use of flexible, less formal strategies is important to keep in mind when considering implementation and assessment of PCMH-like initiatives in small practices.
Berry CA; Mijanovich T; Albert S; Winther CH; Paul MM; Ryan MS; McCullough C; Shih SC
Although Americans make up just 5% of the world's population, they represent more than half of every medical dollar expended on the planet. Yet, American life expectancy appears near the bottom of rankings by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and American adults live in poorer health than most Europeans. In this issue of the Journal, Martinson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(8):870) provide us with further evidence of the generality of this phenomenon, showing a pattern of poorer health in the United States relative to England across the entire life course. Recent research points at single risk factors such as smoking as potential explanations, but such hypotheses are of limited scope to explain the pervasive US health disadvantage across the entire life course. In this commentary, a potentially promising line of inquiry based upon differences in social policy contexts is proposed. Life in the United States can be distinguished from that of the rest of the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in terms of the weakness of its social safety nets, the magnitude of social inequalities, and the harshness of poverty. The authors argue that broadening the scope of their inquiry to include the social and policy contexts of nations might help to solve the puzzle of the US health disadvantage.
Avendano M; Kawachi I
Although Americans make up just 5% of the world's population, they represent more than half of every medical dollar expended on the planet. Yet, American life expectancy appears near the bottom of rankings by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and American adults live in poorer health than most Europeans. In this issue of the Journal, Martinson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(8):870) provide us with further evidence of the generality of this phenomenon, showing a pattern of poorer health in the United States relative to England across the entire life course. Recent research points at single risk factors such as smoking as potential explanations, but such hypotheses are of limited scope to explain the pervasive US health disadvantage across the entire life course. In this commentary, a potentially promising line of inquiry based upon differences in social policy contexts is proposed. Life in the United States can be distinguished from that of the rest of the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in terms of the weakness of its social safety nets, the magnitude of social inequalities, and the harshness of poverty. The authors argue that broadening the scope of their inquiry to include the social and policy contexts of nations might help to solve the puzzle of the US health disadvantage. PMID:21389039
Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro
Full Text Available Objectives: to verify the main reasons that justify the acupuncture treatment’s search among Rheumatoid Arthrit’s patients; to identify advantages and disadvantages of this therapy. Methods: this is about a case study, performed in Hospital de Medicina Alternativa and a Private Clinic that use acupuncture as therapy, both in Goiânia. That were cases 18+, rheumatoid arthrit’s patients, acupuncture at least a month, self-evaluation and talking capables. This study was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás (028/2005). Results: four patients participate, and they were interviewed after the acupuncture session. Data were analyzed based on Content Analysis Technique. After interviews’ analysis, we identified two thematic categories: “Acupuncture’s attractives” and “Acupuncture: advantages and disadvantages”. Conclusions: it’s known that Acupuncture is an efficient Rheumatoid Arthrit’s therapy, so is necessary that Health Professionals does more divulgation and dedication. And so is necessary to study more this therapy, in case to describe their benefits, as an alternative therapy for Reumatoid Arthrit’s patients.
Laidilce Teles Zatta, Leonora Rezende Pacheco, Marcus Antônio de Souza, Juliano Ricardo Santana dos Santos, Karina Machado Siqueira, Virginia Visconde Brasil
OBJECTIVE: To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. DESIGN: Descriptive, exploratory design. SETTING: Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. PARTICIPANTS: Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. METHODS: Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed 3 days and nights of sleep diaries at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. RESULTS: The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly one half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25% with the infant, and 20% with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eighty-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24% smoked. CONCLUSIONS: These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions.
Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal) middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition.
Faurie C; Russell AF; Lummaa V
To improve the standard of living in many parts of the world, an efficient energy-storage medium with low-maintenance requirements is essential. Valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries (VRBs) have the potential to offer such a service at a competitive cost. Since there have been few critical analyses of the efficacy of this technology, this discussion examines the advantages and disadvantages of using VRBs in energy-storage applications. VRBs possess the following advantages: no water maintenance; little chance of acid spillage; negligible emission of acid and hydrogen; no special ventilation needs; minimal overcharge required at normal temperatures; easy to transport, and can be operated on their side. In addition, the gelled-electrolyte design of VRB is resistant to acid stratification, while the absorptive glass-microfibre type has an excellent high-rate discharge performance. On the other hand, VRBs are not as resistant to overcharge as flooded-electrolyte units and must be charged very carefully to reach an acceptable service life. Other disadvantages include: specific gravity cannot be measured; a limited shelf life of two years, and an increased likelihood of thermal runaway. (orig.)
Newnham, R.H. (CSIRO, Div. of Mineral Products, Port Melbourne (Australia))
Ongoing socioeconomic and racial and ethnic gaps in access to healthcare make it vital to examine the relationship between characteristics of communities and their impact on the availability of healthcare services. This study investigates how community-based resource constraints influence the provision of healthcare services in the United States. Drawing on several theoretical frameworks including research in the spatial distribution of healthcare, we compile data on 3141 U.S. counties in order to investigate the argument that gaps in the provision of substance abuse treatment are a function of resource constraints experienced by disadvantaged communities. Our principal aim is to demonstrate that socioeconomic privation, racial and ethnic isolation and limited healthcare infrastructure constrain the provision of substance abuse treatment services. Since prior research shows spatial clustering of socioeconomic privation, racial and ethnic isolation, and healthcare resources, we explicitly model the spatial dimensions of community-based resource disadvantage. Central findings support our chief expectations: counties with greater socioeconomic privation and diminished healthcare infrastructure experienced limited access to substance abuse treatment. Moreover, treatment clusters themselves were significantly related to socioeconomic privation and diminished healthcare infrastructure. Counties with a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority members, however, did not experience less access to substance abuse treatment, with one exception, although post hoc analyses showed poverty had a moderating effect on race and ethnicity. Study limitations and implications for the organization of treatment resources are discussed.
Archibald ME; Putnam Rankin C
Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge. PMID:23986365
Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie
Intervención educativa para disminuir las afectaciones producidas por la lipemia en el envío de plasma para fraccionamiento/ Educational intervention to reduce the affections caused by lipemia in delivery of plasma
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: el Banco de sangre provincial cuenta, entre sus principales prioridades, con el envío a la Industria médico farmacéutica de la materia prima fundamental para la obtención de medicamentos utilizados en el tratamiento de numerosas afecciones médicas, en aras de mejorar la salud de nuestra población. Objetivo: disminuir las bajas de plasma producidas por lipemia y aplicar un plan de acciones para minimizar estas afectaciones Método: se realizó un estudio (more) descriptivo y de intervención educativa en el Banco de Sangre de la provincia de Camagüey, desde julio de 2007 a diciembre de 2008. Resultados: se obtuvo como resultado la disminución de las bajas por lipemia para su envío a la planta de hemoderivados para su utilización. Conclusiones: la aplicación del plan de acciones produjo una disminución notable de las bajas en el segundo semestre del 2008. Abstract in english Background: the provincial Blood Bank has among its main priorities, the delivery to the medical pharmaceutical Industry of the fundamental raw material for obtaining medications used in the treatment of numerous medical affections, for improving our population's health. Objective: to reduce the drops of plasma caused by lipemia and to apply a plan of actions to minimize these affections Method: a descriptive and an educational intervention study in the Blood Bank of Cama (more) güey province was carried out, from July 2007 to December 2008. Results: as result was obtained the decrease of drops by lipemia for its delivery to the hemoderivative plant for its use. Conclusions: the application of the plan of actions produced a remarkable decrease of the drops in the second semester of the 2008.
Leyva Diviú, Angelina; Sariol Matías, Ana R; Rosquete López, Gricel; Larquin Comet, José I
BACKGROUND: High rates of smoking and lower rates of smoking cessation are known to be associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and with individual and community measures of socioeconomic status. It is not known to what extent mental illness and socioeconomic status might be jointly associated with smoking behaviour. We set out to examine the relationship between mental illness, measures of socioeconomic disadvantage and both current smoking and smoking cessation rates. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between mental illness, socioeconomic status and both current smoking and smoking cessation. We used cross-classified tables and logistic regression to examine the relationship between psychosocial and sociodemographic predictors and current smoking. We also used proportional hazards regression to examine the relationship between the factors and smoking cessation. RESULTS: Both mental illness and socioeconomic status were independently associated with current smoking and with lower likelihood of smoking cessation, with gradients in smoking by mental health status being observed within levels of socioeconomic indicators and vice versa. Having a mental illness in the past 12 months was the most prevalent factor strongly associated with smoking, affecting 20.0% of the population, associated with increased current smoking (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.97-3.01) and reduced likelihood of smoking cessation (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: The association between mental illness and smoking is not explained by the association between mental illness and socioeconomic status. There are strong socioeconomic and psychosocial gradients in both current smoking and smoking cessation. Incorporating knowledge of the other adverse factors in smokers' lives may increase the penetration of tobacco control interventions in population groups that have historically benefitted less from these activities.
Lawrence D; Hafekost J; Hull P; Mitrou F; Zubrick SR
'n Voorlopige impakstudie van 'n vennootskapsprojek tussen universiteit, skole en die privaat sektor: hoop vir benadeelde studente danksy mentorskappe/ A preliminary impact study of a university, school and private sector partnership project: hope for disadvantaged students through mentorships
Abstract in english Successful access to higher education for black students in particular remains a challenge to all tertiary institutions in South Africa. This is the opinion of Prof. Russel Botman, Rector of Stellenbosch University (SU). It is therefore of concern that the SU strategic framework document (SU 2010a) states that the increase in our country's student population projected by the National Commission for Higher Education in 1997 (DBO 1997) has not been attained. This is in cont (more) rast with the University's vision for the future, which commits itself to an academic institution of excellence and a respected knowledge partner that contributes towards the development of South Africa and welcomes a diversity of people and ideas. But according to a report by the Centre for Higher Education Transformation (CHET)¹ little demographic transformation had occurred in respect of who participates in higher education. This is an indication that black students' chances of gaining access to university have in fact decreased. Despite this authorities continue to insist that the percentage of black students in public higher-education institutions be increased. The Ministry's vision is of a transformed, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist system of higher education that will promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education (DBO 1997). The Vice-Rector of SU (Fourie 2009b:16) expands on this: "Besides the moral-ethical considerations, pressure is also being placed on universities by higher education policy to diversify their student and staff compositions and to remove measures that could exclude certain groupings". Stellenbosch University is thus under pressure to align its diversity profile with the transformation goals set by the government, as proclaimed in the White Paper on Higher Education of1997. At the same time the University also experiences pressure from the broader community to answer to the call of alleviating poverty in disadvantaged communities (SU 2010a). However, the standard of teaching in previously disadvantaged schools in the surrounding areas is such that very few students qualify to further their studies at university level. The question therefore is what the University can do to draw students that will rise to these challenges. In his response the University announced a strategy referred to by the current vice-chancellor (Botman 2007) as a "pedagogy of hope". This seems to have been inspired by the neo-Marxist Brazilian educationalist Paulo Friere'spublication Pedagogy of the oppressed (1970). According to this strategy the University will search for and exploit opportunities that will lead to "the farm owner's daughter and the farm worker's son sitting in the same class" (Botman 2007). This gave rise to initiatives such as the Rachel's Angels Schools Partnership Project, which is based on the principles of community interaction.² The project aims to build the capacity of promising students from disadvantaged communities with the aid of a mentorship programme. This will enable them to bridge the gap between school and university successfully. This article presents an overview of the project as well as a report on its impact. The educational theories which underpin the Rachel's Angels project can be considered to be constructivist in nature, founded upon a philosophy that is student centred and based on a view in which knowledge is not absolute, but is actively constructed by the student. The study aims to establish whether the project has achieved the desired outcomes. If employed successfully, SU will give effect to its transformation agenda, which includes increased participation by a diverse corps of students, willingness to react to social and economic needs and growing cooperation between higher education institutions and all sectors of society. The results of the impact study indicate that, despite growing pains, the project has already made a meaningful contribution in building the capacity of disadvantaged stu
le Cordeur, Michael
|This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have…
Full Text Available Background: For the last 20 years, Sweden has changed from a homogeneous to multicultural society with about 20% of immigrants born in other countries. The existing Swedish studies have not shown coherent results on how access to health care services varies by ethnicity. The aim of this paper was to analyze the association between country of birth and refraining from seeking medical treatment and whether socioeconomic disadvantage modifies this association. Methods: Cross-sectional Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004. A population-based sample comprising of 14,732 men (1,382 immigrants) and 17,115 women (1,717 immigrants) aged 21 to 84 years. Country of birth was categorised as being born in Sweden, other OECD countries or other countries (non- OECD). The main outcome was the self-reporting of refraining from seeking medical treatment during the past three months. Data was collected within a three-month period during the spring of 2004 and was based on a postal self-administered questionnaire linked to registry data from Statistics Sweden. The nonresponse rate was 37%. Main results: In spite of the fact that immigrants reported poorer health status, they were more likely to refrain from seeking medical treatment as compared to Swedish-born residents (odds for immigrants from other OECD countries were ORmen = 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6 and ORwomen = 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and for immigrants from other countries (ORmen = 3.1, 95% CI 2.4-3.4 and ORwomen = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9). Socioeconomic disadvantage (SDI) did not explain why immigrants fromother OECD countries had increased odds for refraining fromseekingmedical treatment. However SDI explained about 20%of the increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment among immigrants from other (non-OECD) countries. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disadvantage does not fully explain why immigrants refrain from seeking medical treatment. Public health strategies towards the goal “care on equal terms” cannot be achieved without addressing wider socioeconomic determinants including interactions between class and ethnicity.
Sarah Wamala; Gunnel Bostrom; Sharareh Akhavan; Carina Bildt
Full Text Available Abstract Background With surveys suggesting that exceeding guidelines for 'sensible' alcohol intake is commonplace, the health and social impact of modifying intake on a population level is potentially considerable. If public health interventions are to be successfully implemented, it is first important to identify correlates of such behaviours, including socioeconomic disadvantage. This was the aim of the present study. Methods Population-representative cohort study of 576 men from the West of Scotland. Data on life course socioeconomic position were collected in 1988 (at around 55 years of age). Alcohol consumption patterns (detailed seven day recall) and problem drinking (CAGE questionnaire) were ascertained in 1990/2 (at around 59 years of age). A relative index of inequality was computed to explore the comparative strength of different indicators of social circumstances from different periods of the life course. Results Socioeconomic adversity in both early life and in adulthood was related to an increased risk of exceeding the weekly and daily alcohol guidelines, with adult indicators of socioeconomic position revealing the strongest associations. Of these, material indicators of socioeconomic deprivation in adulthood – car ownership, housing tenure – were marginally more strongly related to heavy alcohol intake and problem drinking than education, income and occupational social class. A substantial proportion of the influence of early life deprivation on alcohol intake was mediated via adult socioeconomic position. Similar results were apparent when problem drinking was the outcome of interest. Conclusion In men in this cohort, exposure to disadvantaged social circumstances across the lifecourse, but particularly in adulthood, is associated with detrimental patterns of alcohol consumption and problem drinking in late middle age.
Batty G David; Lewars Heather; Emslie Carol; Benzeval Michaela; Hunt Kate
Guided by evolutionary game theory (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005), this study aimed to identify the genetic precursors and the psychosocial sequelae of inhibited temperament in a sociodemographically disadvantaged and racially diverse sample (N = 201) of 2-year-old children who experienced elevated levels of domestic violence. Using a multimethod, prospective design across 3 annual measurement occasions, the authors conducted structural equation modeling analyses indicating that trained observer ratings of inhibited temperament at age 2 were uniquely predicted by polymorphisms in dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Children's inhibited temperament, in turn, indirectly predicted decreases in their externalizing problems at age 4 through its association with greater behavioral flexibility at age 3. Results highlight the value of integrating evolutionary and developmental conceptualizations in more comprehensively charting the developmental cascades of inhibited temperament. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Davies PT; Cicchetti D; Hentges RF; Sturge-Apple ML
In this paper we propose a critical investigation of the founding assumptions for the legitimacy of the (internationally accepted) geological disposal option through a reading of Nietzsche's second untimely meditation 'On the uses and disadvantages of history for life'. In particular, we propose an interpretation of some of the central concepts in this text - History, the present, discourses and attitudes towards the past, etc. - and investigates in particular the effects of the confrontation between the Nietzschean concept of 'active forgetting' and present practices in the management of medium- and high-level long-lived radioactive waste (cat. B and C). Furthermore, we argue that this untimely meditation comes at a timely moment, i.e. at a time when modernity's way of dealing with waste could be undergoing a major transformation. The paper ends with some reflections on our nuclear inheritance and its link with nuclear power of the future (Gen IV) inspired by Nietzsche
This paper presents the experiences and reflexions of a design practitioner working in the field of community development. The case illustrates how participatory design processes can contribute to social change. The paper tells a story of design process where youths from a local school in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the suburbs of Copenhagen, designed and constructed colourful and imaginative dustbins to handle problems with local littering. The project was successful in creating an increased local awareness of waste management and reducing the amount of litter. However, the more important but less tangible result of the design process was the change it produced in the social relations in the neighbourhood. By giving them the opportunity to work as designers, the process contributed to a shift in the image of the youths from one of 'troublemakers' to a positive image of collaborative problem solvers.
Frandsen, Martin Severin; Pfeiffer Petersen, Lene
Full Text Available The present study is focused on one of the most important steps in embryo technology evaluating embryo quality. During three years, we have conducted embryo transfer experiments on sheep. The evaluation of embryo quality was made using morphologic methods. We have evaluated embryos immediately after recovery (surgical methods recovery) or after throwing of frozen embryo under a optical microscope were used for evaluation. International Embryo Transfer Society standards for embryo quality classification. There are four grades of quality: excellent, good, medium and poor. The morphological method’s advantages are: it is very fast, not so expensive and does not require excessive embryo manipulation. Disadvantages of this method are: grading is subjective, depending on the experience of the evaluator, metabolic, genetic or epigenetic disorders of embryos are not detectable.
S. Angela; G. Prefac; T. Paul; S. Alexandru; T. Dana
Nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds must overcome many barriers in order to succeed. This article will focus on how a multidisciplinary team helped 76 percent of these high-risk students persist in their nursing programs by addressing some of these barriers. Three baccalaureate nursing schools in the Texas Medical Center embarked on a three-year retention program designed to enhance the success of students identified by federal criteria as being at risk. Multidisciplinary teams led various activities, including a study skills component, which included preparing for lectures, taking notes, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies. Also addressed were written and oral communication skills, medical terminology, critical thinking, career coaching, and socialization activities. Collaboration among faculty and students at the three schools was key to the success of the program. PMID:22235693
Igbo, Immaculata N; Straker, Kathleen C; Landson, Margie J; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian F; Hughes, Lisa A; Carroll, Theresa L
Nursing students from disadvantaged backgrounds must overcome many barriers in order to succeed. This article will focus on how a multidisciplinary team helped 76 percent of these high-risk students persist in their nursing programs by addressing some of these barriers. Three baccalaureate nursing schools in the Texas Medical Center embarked on a three-year retention program designed to enhance the success of students identified by federal criteria as being at risk. Multidisciplinary teams led various activities, including a study skills component, which included preparing for lectures, taking notes, critical thinking, and test-taking strategies. Also addressed were written and oral communication skills, medical terminology, critical thinking, career coaching, and socialization activities. Collaboration among faculty and students at the three schools was key to the success of the program.
Igbo IN; Straker KC; Landson MJ; Symes L; Bernard LF; Hughes LA; Carroll TL
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an ongoing debate concerning the optimal choice of urinary diversion following bladder extirpative surgery. Among others, several factors including patient preferences, age, sex and baseline renal function play an important role in the ultimate decision. This review describes the major types of urinary diversions performed, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each. RECENT FINDINGS: There continues to be an underutilization of continent diversions despite their recent popularization. However, recent evidence suggests their increased use, particularly at academic centers. Patient factors and surgeon preference finally dictate the choice of diversion. It is still unclear whether outcomes are superior with one type of diversion over another. SUMMARY: Various types of diversions continue to be performed throughout the world following radical cystectomy. Future prospective randomized trials comparing different diversions can help counsel patients. Regardless of type of diversion, patients will require life-long postoperative care.
Bachir BG; Kassouf W
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered analysis of 207 Hispanic American preschoolers (ages 4 and 5 years) yielded 6 distinct profiles, 2 of which were socially competent and 1 of which was vulnerable. Findings revealed profile differences in social competence and a significant relationship between bilingualism and social-emotional development. In Study 2, the authors determined which profiles were associated with later academic achievement and growth of English proficiency. Findings indicated a significant relationship of early social-emotional development to later academic success and English acquisition, highlighting the role of bilingualism.
Oades-Sese GV; Esquivel GB; Kaliski PK; Maniatis L
Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0·05) in ?-cryptoxanthin (28·9 nmol/l, 18 %), vitamin C (10·1 ?mol/l, 21 %) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39·3 nmol/l, 11 %) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.
Black AP; Vally H; Morris P; Daniel M; Esterman A; Karschimkus CS; O'Dea K
Five studies support the hypothesis that beliefs in societal fairness offer a self-regulatory benefit for members of socially disadvantaged groups. Specifically, members of disadvantaged groups are more likely than members of advantaged groups to calibrate their pursuit of long-term goals to their beliefs about societal fairness. In Study 1, low socioeconomic status (SES) undergraduate students who believed more strongly in societal fairness showed greater intentions to persist in the face of poor performance on a midterm examination. In Study 2, low SES participants who believed more strongly in fairness reported more willingness to invest time and effort to achieve desirable career outcomes. In Study 3, ethnic minority participants exposed to a manipulation suggesting that fairness conditions in their country were improving reported more willingness to invest resources in pursuit of long-term goals, relative to ethnic minority participants in a control condition. Study 4 replicated Study 3 using an implicit priming procedure, demonstrating that perceptions of the personal relevance of societal fairness mediate these effects. Across these 4 studies, no link between fairness beliefs and self-regulation emerged for members of advantaged (high SES, ethnic majority) groups. Study 5 contributed evidence from the World Values Survey and a representative sample (Inglehart, Basañez, Diez-Medrano, Halman, & Luijkx, 2004). Respondents reported more motivation to work hard to the extent that they believed that rewards were distributed fairly; this effect emerged more strongly for members of lower SES groups than for members of higher SES groups, as indicated by both self-identified social class and ethnicity.
Laurin K; Fitzsimons GM; Kay AC
Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal) middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition. PMID:19492096
Faurie, Charlotte; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi
Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.
Smith KJ; McNaughton SA; Cleland VJ; Crawford D; Ball K
Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains, which should be considered when developing strategies to promote physical activity amongst women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.
Cleland V; Ball K; Hume C; Timperio A; King AC; Crawford D
Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ?2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), and have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001); and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ?2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.
Smith KJ; McNaughton SA; Cleland VJ; Crawford D; Ball K
Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, "learning at bedside," aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education - their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education.
Masic I; Pandza H; Toromanovic S; Masic F; Sivic S; Zunic L; Masic Z
The term Electronic Learning or e-Learning is being used in Russia rather rarely. It integrates a number of terminological notions in the sphere of application of modern information and communication technologies in education such as multimedia, education on the base of web-technologies, etc. Teache...
Sheypak, Olga; Artyushina, Galina; Artyushina, Anna
Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…
Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-learning in the context of its advantages and disadvantages. The first part presents brief survey of the changing views of this topic. The next part gives an overview of the advantages and disadvantages from the different points of view. Finally, attention is paid to e-learning emerging issues and key trends influenced advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.P?edložený ?lánek se zabýva e-learningem v kontextu jeho výhod a nevýhod. Úvodní ?ást p?edkladá stru?ným exkurz do vývoje zpracování dané problematiky. Nasleduje vlastní p?ehled s odkazy na zdroje a diskusní témata. Pozornost je v?nována rovn?ž aktuálním záležitostem a aktivitám, které v sou?asné dob? m?ní e-learning a dopl?ují a inovují seznam položek výhod a nevýhod e-learningu.
Full Text Available Socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood has lasting effects on adult health. Children raised by less educated parents are at higher risk for later cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms through which childhood socioeconomic status (SES) affect health are unclear. Childhood SES may shape stress physiology, including neuroendocrine processes, which may negatively impact health in adulthood. Prior literature shows that less educated individuals have flatter cortisol slopes across the day compared to those higher in education. Flattened slopes have been linked to chronic stress, CVD outcomes, breast cancer mortality, and both all-cause and CVD mortality. It is unknown whether one's childhood SES, approximated by parental education level, predicts diurnal cortisol trajectories independent of one's individual education. To this end, we recruited 20 Black and 20 White women who previously participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-supported National Growth and Health Study (NGHS) to complete a daily stress assessment, which included salivary cortisol sampling at four times per day over two consecutive days. Mixed modeling indicated that cortisol slope across the day was a function of individual education (b time×individual education=???0.04, SE?=?0.02, p=0.045). Simple slope analyses revealed that women with only a high school diploma had significantly flatter cortisol slopes (b=???0.22, SE?=?0.06, p<0.001) than those with more than a high school diploma (b=???0.26, SE?=?0.02, p<0.001). Cortisol slopes were also a function of parental education (b time*parental education=???0.04, SE?=?0.02, p=0.038). Simple slopes analyses revealed that women with parents who received only high school educations had significantly flatter cortisol slopes (b=???0.20, SE?=?0.06, p<0.001) compared to those with parents who received more than a high school diploma (b=???0.24, SE?=?0.02, p<0.001). Importantly, the effect of parental education was independent of individual education. These findings provide preliminary evidence that parental education, a marker of childhood SES, can influence neuroendocrine activity beyond childhood, having lasting effects into adulthood with important implications for health.
Pardis Esmaeili; Eli Puterman; Aric Prather; Sheila Loharuka; Elissa S. Epel; David Rehkopf; Zoe Evans; A. Janet Tomiyama; Barbara Laraia
Full Text Available Our paper researches the economic and social causes which turned Baia Mare, Bor?a-Vi?eu, and Rodna into disadvantaged zones, the initial and the extant legislation, the decision-making factors, the desiderata of the national and regional policy, and their consequences. This paper claims to identify the mechanism of a key phenomenon that has led to the appearance of several economic and, implicitly, social problems specific to the disadvantaged areas (the reform of the mining sector). It also claims to answer a very frequent question in the last 15 years: “What are the development desiderata and alternatives?” for the disadvantaged areas of northern Romania from the North-Western Development Region: Baia Mare, Vi?eu-Bor?a, and Rodna. The economy of these areas is characterized by the dominance of the industrial activities and the underdevelopment of the service sector. This is why the loss of jobs in industry has been significant at the level of the local communities and has led to chronic economic and social imbalance (e.g. degraded economic development, long-term unemployment, the deterioration of the living standards). As we have pointed out in a previous study (Ilovan, 2005c), the economic rehabilitation of these disadvantaged mining zones has been possible only by granting them the status of “disadvantaged area”. At present, the “assisted zones” appear as an alternative to the disadvantaged areas where the fiscal facilities have disappeared. This leads to a status of normal functionality, observing the laws of competition. This way the implementation of several programmes with the involvement of local communities will eliminate the above-mentioned flaws and will solve the extant economic and social problems of these areas.
Online education is established, growing, and here to stay. It is creating new opportunities for students and also for faculty, regulators of education, and the educational institutions themselves. Much of what is being learned by the practitioners will flow into the large numbers of blended courses that will be developed and delivered on most campuses. Some of what is being learned will certainly improve pedagogical approaches and possibly affect other important problems, such as the lengthening time to completion of a degree. Online education is already providing better access to education for many, and many more will benefit from this increased access in the coming years.
Mayadas AF; Bourne J; Bacsich P
This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…
Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and…
Kirk, David S.; Sampson, Robert J.
|This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It…
Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…
Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn
This publication explores the variety of notions that exist regarding the diversity of higher education. It favors efforts to keep differences of quality and function within higher education in check, thus ensuring chances for socially and economically disadvantaged students to share common experiences with others and facilitating a…
Full Text Available In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is built upon a psychology of hope and provides pathways not only to new hope but also to a new sense of identity and independence. Clemente Australia (CA) is an example of community embedded, socially supported university education (CESS). Essential elements of CA are respecting people for who they are and for where they are within their individual life journeys; building student capacity to be more proactive in reflecting upon and engaging with the world; learning with and relating to others; and promoting educative justice through the recognition of the students’ human rights to participate in tertiary education in a way that meets their personal and academic learning needs. For the students, the university (Australian Catholic University) and other partners in CA, it is evident that there has been an ongoing shift from dependence upon the provision of materials and services to empowerment and enhanced capabilities in identifying the supports and processes required to meet the personal and professional needs of students, staff and community agencies. This shift has occurred through the scaffolding processes provided, the establishment of innovative partnerships and purposeful reflection. It has involved listening to one another, welcoming people into new worlds and challenging one another in the provision of transformative education to realise the fulfilment of hope for many Australians experiencing disadvantage. key words: transformation; education; community; hope; homelessness; disadvantage
Peter Howard; Jude Butcher; Luke Egan
Full Text Available In the past years there has been a growing concern in Europe with the drawbacks in youth transition from education to employment and social participation more generally (European Commission (EC) 2001
Full Text Available Tanzania in response to the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) – Universal Primary Education by 2000, Millennium Development Goals, and the Dakar EFA Goals embarked on different programmes and initiatives to address the issue of education as the major strategy to development challenges. The adoption of Education and Training Policy(1995) and subsequently the launching of Education Sector Development Programme (1997) were fundamental in reforming education in the country. Then, in the 2000s, two programmes [Primary Education Development Programme and Secondary Education DevelopmentProgramme] were launched to deal with issues of education in primary and secondary schools. By 2010, Tanzania has attained gender parity in primary school enrolment and near parity in lower secondary school enrolment. However, it remained difficult to resolve genderinequalities through education as many gender disparities persevere in higher levels of education and science fields; education for vulnerable and disadvantaged population groups is not well addressed; and, the quality of education has deteriorated overtime. It is high time then, for Tanzania to address gender equality through education and improve the quality of education by investing in Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED), educating the vulnerable and disadvantaged population groups, developing learning curiosity amongwomen and girls, and improving quality of teachers.
Budeba Petro Mlyakado
In a short period since 1968, higher education institutions have provided the means of upward social mobility to over 250,000 students, many of whom were, at the time of college entry, disadvantaged in status. In the four college years, these students improved their status and their prospects; in spite of a crowded college labor market, they…
Holmstrom, Engin Inel
|The New York Chapter of the American Institute of Banking (AIB) is a sponsor of the Joint Bank Hiring and Education Program for the Disadvantaged (HEP), the purpose of which is to hire and train undereducated adults and provide education that will enable the trainees to compete successfully in the banking industry. Educational Development…
Scheier, Elaine; And Others
Objectives?The primary aims of the study were to: (a) describe the trajectories of adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) medication for a year in economically disadvantaged, African-American youth with asthma based on growth curve modeling; and (b) test the relationship of treatment adhere...
Rohan, Jennifer; Drotar, Dennis; McNally, Kelly; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy
Background: This paper offers critical commentary on the culture of "performativity" that has dominated educational discourse over the last 20 years, affecting the way in which researchers, teachers, pupils and parents think and act toward Physical Education and sport (PESP) in schools. It is a culture that, in the UK, is likely to intensify in…
High rates of asthma treatment nonadherence have been reported, particularly in economically disadvantaged African American youth. The relationship between adherence to combined medication treatment and asthma outcomes has potential clinical significance but is not well understood. Using electronic monitoring, we describe the pattern of adherence to daily corticosteroid (fluticasone) and leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) medication over the course of 1 year in a population of African American youth with moderate to severe asthma. On average, adherence to montelukast was higher than adherence to fluticasone (p < 0.01); however, for both medications, adherence rates significantly declined over the course of the study. After 1 year, participants took only 31% of prescribed doses of montelukast and 23% of prescribed doses of fluticasone. The decline in adherence to both fluticasone (p < 0.05) and montelukast (p < 0.001) was related to increased healthcare utilization. Furthermore, asthma symptom ratings were related montelukast (p < 0.001), but not fluticasone adherence. These results suggest that adherence promotion intervention strategies are warranted to improve health-related outcomes in families who are at-risk for treatment nonadherence. PMID:19905919
McNally, Kelly A; Rohan, Jennifer; Schluchter, Mark; Riekert, Kristin A; Vavrek, Pamela; Schmidt, Amy; Redline, Susan; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Drotar, Dennis
In this paper we propose a critical investigation of the founding assumptions for the legitimacy of the (internationally accepted) geological disposal option through a reading of Nietzsche's second untimely meditation 'On the uses and disadvantages of history for life'. In particular, we propose an interpretation of some of the central concepts in this text - History, the present, discourses and attitudes towards the past, etc. - and investigates in particular the effects of the confrontation between the Nietzschean concept of 'active forgetting' and present practices in the management of medium- and high-level long-lived radioactive waste (cat. B and C). Furthermore, we argue that this untimely meditation comes at a timely moment, i.e. at a time when modernity's way of dealing with waste could be undergoing a major transformation. The paper ends with some reflections on our nuclear inheritance and its link with nuclear power of the future (Gen IV) inspired by Nietzsche
Laes, Erik (Flemish Inst. for Technological Research (VITO)/Univ. of Antwerp, Div. Transition Energy and Environment, Mol (Belgium)), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Schroeder, Jantine (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Society and Policy Support unit, Mol (Belgium))
Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programs work, but less is known about the processes of change, contextual factors or intervention characteristics that influence trial outcomes. This qualitative study assessed the experiences of Irish parents involved in a randomized controlled trial of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting program, with a view to understanding how and why the program works, or does not work, within disadvantaged settings. Data from 33 parents of young children (aged 3-7 years) with conduct problems were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Emerging themes indicated that parents perceived the program to have produced positive changes through learning key parenting skills (e.g. positive attention, empathy and problem-solving skills) and through enhanced parental mood/confidence, derived primarily from gaining non-judgmental support from the group. Parents also experienced cultural, personal and environmental challenges in learning the new skills, including discomfort with praise and positive attention, conflict with their partner and parenting within an antisocial environment. Parents dropped out of the course for largely circumstantial reasons. These findings should help to inform the future implementation of this well-known parenting program both in Ireland and elsewhere.
Furlong M; McGilloway S
Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programs work, but less is known about the processes of change, contextual factors or intervention characteristics that influence trial outcomes. This qualitative study assessed the experiences of Irish parents involved in a randomized controlled trial of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting program, with a view to understanding how and why the program works, or does not work, within disadvantaged settings. Data from 33 parents of young children (aged 3-7 years) with conduct problems were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Emerging themes indicated that parents perceived the program to have produced positive changes through learning key parenting skills (e.g. positive attention, empathy and problem-solving skills) and through enhanced parental mood/confidence, derived primarily from gaining non-judgmental support from the group. Parents also experienced cultural, personal and environmental challenges in learning the new skills, including discomfort with praise and positive attention, conflict with their partner and parenting within an antisocial environment. Parents dropped out of the course for largely circumstantial reasons. These findings should help to inform the future implementation of this well-known parenting program both in Ireland and elsewhere. PMID:22104366
Furlong, Mairéad; McGilloway, Sinéad
Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.
Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households.
Kawai K; Osako M
BACKGROUND: One possible supply-side strategy for the tobacco endgame is a government-mandated 'sinking lid' on tobacco supply (tradeable but decreasing quotas on sales or imports). METHODS: We considered literature on quota systems and from a tobacco endgame workshop at the University of Michigan. FINDINGS: Likely strengths of the sinking lid strategy include: (1) that it can provide a clear timetable and an unambiguous signal of a tobacco end-date; (2) that supply reduction is likely to increase product price levels, and there is very strong evidence that increasing price is a highly effective tobacco control intervention. Its feasibility is also supported by the growing international experience with, and political acceptability of, using quota and auction systems in other domains (eg, greenhouse gases, other air pollutants and for fisheries). However, the main disadvantages of this strategy are probably the need for strong political will and high public support (to pass a new law), potential legal challenges by industry (eg, under trade agreements), and vulnerability to problems from illegal supplies of tobacco and from corruption. CONCLUSIONS: The sinking lid strategy is a plausible option that is worth considering when investigating possible tobacco endgame strategies, though it may be most applicable in well-organised jurisdictions with low (<15%) adult smoking prevalence. This idea could benefit from further research, such as studies in virtual worlds, and real-world testing on small island jurisdictions, or closed systems, such as military bases.
Wilson N; Thomson GW; Edwards R; Blakely T
We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.
Golden SD; Perreira KM; Durrance CP
Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of substance abuse treatment is a proximal indicator of positive treatment outcomes. To design interventions to improve outcomes, it is therefore important to unpack the factors contributing to treatment completion. To date, substance abuse research has not examined the factors associated with treatment completion among poor, disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring client-level factors associated with treatment completion among poor communities in South Africa. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on cross-sectional survey data collected from 434 persons residing in poor communities in Cape Town, South Africa who had accessed substance abuse treatment in 2006. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that therapeutic alliance, treatment perceptions, abstinence-specific social support, and depression were significant partial predictors of treatment completion. Conclusions Findings suggest that treatment completion rates of individuals from poor South African communities can be enhanced by i) improving perceptions of substance abuse treatment through introducing quality improvement initiatives into substance abuse services, ii) strengthening clients' abstinence-oriented social networks and, iii) strengthening the counselor-client therapeutic alliance.
Myers Bronwyn J; Pasche Sonja; Adam Mohamed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65) at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361) across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years) ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000) than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.
Fukuda Yoshiharu; Nakamura Keiko; Takano Takehito
Full Text Available Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) or implantable catheter ports are devices which can be implanted subcutaneously. They enable prolonged and repeated access to the vascular system, into the peritoneal cavity or intravertebral space. This device is particularly useful for repeated medical injection, for blood sampling or transfusion of blood and blood derivatives and for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Although many patients benefit from the insertion of TIVAD without any secondary effects, any surgical implantation can nevertheless lead to complications. ?In this study, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of TIVAD catheter in pediatric age group. A total of 94 cases, 2 to 14 years old, were included in our study. We implanted TIVAD in these patients for chemotherapy in 83 cases (88.29%), for prolonged TPN in 6 cases (6.38%), for corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy after ?Kasai operation in 2 cases (2.12%), for intermittent IV therapy in 2 cases (2.12%) and for need to partial parenteral nutrition in 1 case (1.06%). Out of 94 cases, 14 cases (15%) had some kind of complications and 80 cases (85%) had no complication. There was no mortality. Most patients and their parents (82 cases, 87.23%) were satisfied from TIVAD. ?It seems that TIVAD can be a useful device for many chronic patients who need an IV access for multiple injections.
J. Ahmadi; M. Izadyar; B. Ashjaei; M. Klantari; H. Nahvi; M. Joodi; M. Vali V. Mehrabi
Full Text Available Alois Riegl was one of the seminal art historians of the early twentieth century, but very little is known about his career as adjunct-curator of textiles at the Austrian Museum for Art and Industry. He worked at the Museum from 1884 and combined this position with University teaching until he left this post to become a full Professor of Art History at the University of Vienna in 1897. While interest in Riegl has shown no signs of abating in recent years, most scholars continue to debate Riegl’s theories and methods. The aim of this paper, however, is to demonstrate just how much of Riegl’s theorizing was brought into focus by practical issues at the Museum for Art and Industry. As recent studies have indicated, Riegl was much more than an ivory tower theoretician; his work reverberated with the type of cross-disciplinary cultural criticism we associate with the intellectual life of fin-de-siècle Vienna. Another goal of this paper is to contribute to our expanding understanding of Riegl in his social and institutional contexts. Finally, it traces ways in which Riegl used his early exposure to Nietzsche, particularly Nietzsche’s second Untimely Meditation (The advantages and disadvantages of History to life) to craft his responses to contemporary artistic and social crises in the final decade of the nineteenth century.
Diana Reynolds Cordileone
Full Text Available To judge the advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Insemination (AI) by raw semen in deshi chicken a test experiment was conducted in Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) poultry farm, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Male birds (RIR) were collected from the BAU poultry farm, whereas the female birds (deshi hens) were purchased from nearby local village market. Both types of birds were kept in individual cage with adlibitum food and water and were given abdominal massage at least for three days (at the same time of the day) prior to AI. Collected semen was inseminated (0.20-0.25 ml/hen) directly by soft dropper into the female genital tract. The result of the present experiment showed that 1-2 females could be covered by semen collected from single ejaculate from one cock. It was also found that very small amount of semen was wastage by container. Thus it can be concluded that AI by raw semen is not profitable (except experimental point of view) until we use semen diluents for commercial purpose.
S.K. Das; G.N. Adhikary; M.N. Islam; B.K. Paul; G.G. Das
Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, several steps have been made aiming at rendering human IVF more successful on one side, more tolerable on the other side. The "mild" ovarian stimulation approach, in which a lower-than-average dose of exogenous gonadotropins is given and gonadotropin treatment is started from day 2 to 7 of the cycle, represents a significant step toward a more patient's friendly IVF. However, a clear view of its virtues and defects is still lacking, because only a few prospective randomized trials comparing "mild" vs. conventional stimulation exist, and they do not consider some important aspects, such as, e.g., thawing cycles. This review gives a complete panorama of the "mild" stimulation philosophy, showing its advantages vs. conventional ovarian stimulation, but also discussing its disadvantages. Both patients with a normal ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins and women with a poor ovarian reserve are considered. Overall, we conclude that the level of evidence supporting the use of "mild" stimulation protocols is still rather poor, and further, properly powered prospective studies about "mild" treatment regimens are required.
Revelli Alberto; Casano Simona; Salvagno Francesca; Delle Piane Luisa
Full Text Available Romania and other Eastern European countries have undergone dramatic reforms as they have sought to democratize political institutions, develop their economies, rely on private markets for the provision of goods and services, and pursue a course of economic integration with Western European nations (Lazar, 2005). Of course, these reforms have included the complete overhaul of tax and revenue systems (Lazar, 2005). As these tax reforms mature and are adapted to the differing realities of each country, it might be useful to reflect on the experiences and mistakes of countries whose tax systems they have used as blueprint for their own reforms. This is the spirit in which this analysis is written. The article presents a synthesis of the American experience with tax-exempt municipal bonds, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with this tax exemption. The exemption represents a subsidy from the federal government to states and local governments, and as such, it has powerful incentives with implications from the economic and redistributive standpoints. This article explains these implications and how they have been addressed in the U.S.
Esteban G. DALEHITE
BACKGROUND: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. AIM: To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. DESIGN: Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12-14 years), attending two public schools, were enrolled; one was assigned to intervention (IS), whereas the other served as reference (RS). Subjects in IS were given access to F-salt (250 ppm F) in marked jars at school lunch and through free supply for domestic use. The 2-year caries increment and progression rate, assessed from bitewing radiographs, was scored. Information on diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure was collected through a baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: The dropout rate was high (IS 27%; RS 18%). At baseline, the IS children displayed more unfavourable risk factors and a higher caries experience than RS children. There were no significant differences in total caries increment or proximal progression rate between the two schools. A negative correlation (r = -0.29; P < 0.05) between the amount of delivered salt and the caries progression rate was, however, noted. No side effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: F-salt was not effective in this setting. Still, the findings indicate that salt may be a beneficial source of fluoride in schoolchildren provided that compliance can be secured.
Wennhall I; Hajem S; Ilros S; Ridell K; Ekstrand KR; Twetman S
BACKGROUND: Countries emerging from major conflict commonly experience recurrent periods of communal instability. A psychosocial theory, Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT), suggests that experiences of past human rights abuses interact with socio-economic disadvantage in the postconflict period to generate or maintain explosive forms of anger. Previous research has supported a link between trauma exposure and anger but the role of ongoing socio-economic disadvantage requires further clarification. METHODS: The present study examined a structural equation model based on cross-sectional epidemiological data (n = 1245) collected in post-conflict Timor Leste in 2004. The model included four trauma dimensions derived from a prior factor analysis; a latent variable of post-conflict distress symptoms (derived from measures of PTSD and depression/anxiety); an index of socio-economic distress; and an indigenously-based measure of explosive anger. RESULTS: The final model yielded a good fit (chi-square = 26.59 df = 20 p = 0.15 CFI = 0.99; TLI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.016). Postconflict distress symptoms mediated the associations of trauma dimensions and socio-economic disadvantage with anger. Trauma dimensions associated with human rights violations and witnessing murder were partly mediated by ongoing socio-economic disadvantage in the path to postconflict distress and anger. LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm the chronological sequencing of these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The study offers empirical support for a link between past trauma related to human rights violations and ongoing socio-economic disadvantage in the path to distress and anger.
Brooks R; Silove D; Steel Z; Steel CB; Rees S
OBJECTIVES: Race/ethnicity and education are among the strongest social determinants of body mass index (BMI) throughout the life course, yet we know relatively little about how these social factors both independently and interactively contribute to the rate at which BMI changes from adolescence to midlife. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine variation in trajectories of BMI from adolescence to midlife by mothers' and respondents' education and (2) determine if the effects of mothers' and respondents' education on BMI trajectories differ by race/ethnicity and gender. DESIGN: We used nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our sample included white (n=4433), black (n=2420), and Hispanic (n=1501) respondents. Self-reported height and weight were collected on 16 occasions from 1981 to 2008. We employed two-level linear growth models to specify BMI trajectories. RESULTS: Mothers' education was inversely associated with BMI and BMI change among women. Among men, mothers' education was inversely associated with BMI; these educational disparities persisted for whites, diminished for blacks, and widened for Hispanics. Respondents' education was inversely associated with BMI among women, but was positively associated with the rate of BMI change among black women. Respondents' education was inversely associated with BMI among white and Hispanic men, and positively associated with BMI among black men. These educational disparities widened for White and Black men, but narrowed for Hispanic men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that by simultaneously considering multiple sources of stratification, we can more fully understand how the unequal distribution of advantages or disadvantages across social groups affects BMI across the life course.
Walsemann KM; Ailshire JA; Bell BA; Frongillo EA
A prevention programme for the promotion of psychological health was implemented in six early childhood education institutions, which caters to four different levels (courses for children, courses and counselling for parents, vocational training and supervision for paedagogic professionals, establishing networks within the social environment). New, low-threshold structures have been created in order to simplify the usage of prevention services and to develop meaningful connections between the support systems of health and education. The effects of the programme have been validated by means of a combination research design.
Fröhlich-Gildhoff K; Rönnau-Böse M
Full Text Available This article made an analysis and demonstration of historical influences of modern Chinese overseas students in Japan on education modernization in Zhili Province with the aim of making up for disadvantages regional study in studies of modern Chinese education history, recognizing and evaluating in an impartial and justified way the historical position and influences of Chinese overseas students in Japan on modern Chinese education history and enriching the content and system of study on Chinese modern education history.
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress reactivity and its relationship to histories of child maltreatment and physical aggression. We examined the relation of a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and perpetration of dating violence to patterns of cortisol change before (resting) and after (reactivity) exposure to a laboratory stressor. METHODS: In a sample of 40 disadvantaged sexually active female adolescent patients (ages 14-17 years), we collected self-reports of lifetime child maltreatment (5 types) and past-year female perpetration of physical assault (PA) acts toward a romantic partner. We assessed changes in salivary cortisol trajectories during resting and reactivity phases following the viewing of a teen dating violence vignette. RESULTS: Reports of CSA (CSA+ group) were associated with reports of perpetration of severe dating PA (PA+ group), but the relation of these reports to laboratory-assessed patterns of cortisol changes following the stressor was opposite. As compared with subjects without victimization or perpetration histories (referent group), the CSA+ group showed the most pronounced positive slope (reactivity), whereas the PA+ group showed the least positive slope following the laboratory stressor after the overlap between these groups was statistically adjusted. While showing less reactivity to the laboratory stressor, the PA+ group had higher levels of resting cortisol, which stayed high during reactivity as compared to the referent group. CONCLUSION: The laboratory paradigm to elicit neuroendocrine stress-related cortisol reactivity appears to be a promising tool for identifying altered cortisol physiology among female adolescents with mixed histories of CSA and perpetration of dating PA.
Linares LO; Shrout PE; Nucci-Sack A; Diaz A
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR), applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. METHODS: The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers) was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a) ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b) a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c) a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer.Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer.Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.
Slapa RZ; Jakubowski WS; Slowinska-Srzednicka J; Szopinski KT
Full Text Available Background: Primary care-based smoking cessation interventions are often less effective amonglow-SES groups. Higher stress levels may explain the lower quit rate and higher prevalence ofsmoking in low-SES groups, and why the relative smoking prevalence rate is not declining at anequitable rate (same prevalence rate as higher SES groups). To understand these issues, thispaper sought answers to two questions: is stress perceived by ex-smokers and current smokers asa barrier to quitting; and does stress act as a barrier to quitting in relation to other barriers indisadvantaged areas?Methods: This paper seeks to understand the lived experiences from participants in 2 focusgroups and 11 in-depth interviews, who reside in the most disadvantaged area in metropolitanAdelaide, regarding stress as a barrier to smoking cessation.Results: The data pointed to stress as an ever-present aspect of life for people in low-SES areasfor many reasons, most stemming from the social environment. Perceived stress was also foundto be a major barrier to smoking cessation, more so for current smokers.Conclusions: The data analysis revealed that people in low-SES areas maybe living inenvironments with increased levels of perceived stress, making them more likely to start, andless likely to quit, smoking. It is argued that the “middle-ground” be taken in a structure-agencyapproach regarding smoking cessation, recognising the potential of social systems to create stresswhilst also recognising that individuals have the capacity to change aspects of their lives (e.g. toquit smoking). Without the awareness of such an approach, primary care efforts at smokingcessation may only serve to increase current inequities in smoking prevalence rates.
Dr George Tsourtos; Associate Professor Paul R Ward; Dr Robert Muller
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors and a population-based measure of developmental delay in US children. We identify sociodemographic factors associated with unlikely, probable and possible developmental delay in preschool US children using nationally representative data. METHODS: All children aged 18 months to 5 years in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were categorised into three groups based on the likelihood of developmental delay (unlikely delay, possible delay and probable delay) using a modified survey version of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess relations between sociodemographic variables and risk of developmental delay. RESULTS: Children had increased odds of probable delay (compared with unlikely delay) if they were older (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.41/additional year above the youngest age group (18 months-2 years), p<0.001), male (aOR=1.55, p<0.001), low birth weight (aOR=2.08, p<0.001), non-Hispanic black (aOR=1.50, p<0.01) or Hispanic in a non-English-speaking household (aOR=2.53, p<0.001) versus non-Hispanic white, had lower household income (aOR=1.33 for each decreasing category of poverty level, p<0.001), or received >10 h/week of care at another family's home (aOR=1.71, p<0.05). Only four characteristics (being older, male, low birth weight and Hispanic living in a non-English-speaking household) were associated with increased odds of possible delay compared with unlikely delay. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors, including demographic characteristics and indicators of social disadvantage, distinguish children with probable developmental delay from those unlikely to have developmental delay. Fewer factors identify children with possible delay.
Simon AE; Pastor PN; Avila RM; Blumberg SJ
BACKGROUND: Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. METHODS: There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. RESULTS: Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177-4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003-2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475-3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008-2.648). CONCLUSION: There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies.
Latkin CA; Murray LI; Clegg Smith K; Cohen JE; Knowlton AR
We evaluated the effectiveness of assist-systems such as endoscopy, navigation, and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in terms of improving the safety and accuracy of surgery for cerebrovascular diseases. Since January 2000, the following devices have been used at our institution to assist in surgical procedures: an endoscope (diameter, 2.7 or 4.0 mm; tip angle, 30deg or 70deg) in 69 surgical procedures to treat cerebral aneurysms, a navigation system (Stealth Station) in 22 operations for cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous or cavernous malformations, and MEP monitoring (bipolar or monopolar electrical stimulation of the motor cortex and EMG recording of the face, trunk and upper extremity contralateral to the stimulated side) in 11 operations for cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Endoscopy allowed visualization of the anatomical relationship between the aneurysm neck and the parent or perforated artery before clipping, and the location of the clip tip, occlusion of the perforated artery, or stenosis of the parent artery could be evaluated after clipping. Postoperative MR and/or CT images revealed an asymptomatic infarction of perforated artery in 4 patients. Navigation allowed prediction of the sites of aneurysms, cavernous malformations, or of the feeding arteries of arteriovenous malformations. This resulted in accurate approaches to these structures, although a brain shift in some patients was recognized by ultrasound imaging linked to the navigation system. Although MEP monitoring should have predicted postoperative motor function, MEP findings after clipping the neck of aneurysms or obliterating the arteriovenous malformation of a feeding artery were normal in all of the analyzed patients. Postoperative convulsive seizures developed in patients as a result of 20 mA of bipolar electrical stimulation. Endoscopy, navigation, and MEP monitoring are considered helpful for safe and accurate surgical treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, although the disadvantages of these systems should also be considered. (author)
Full Text Available The elaboration and implementation of clinical practice guidelines has been a novel element, which has been introduced into medical care in health facilities over the last few years. Our country has not been the exception, and especially our Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, adds up to more than a decade with the employment of these tools. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of using guidelines are assessed, according to our own point of view and starting from the referred practice. Better informed patients, health systems who see to keep control of sanitary expenditures and a growing professional competence, are very efficient factors that will keep a process of improvement and efficiency in motion, which will inevitably lead to an objective assessment of the services we provide to patients, mainly for the sake of the ill and the professionals.La elaboración e implementación de guías de práctica clínica ha sido un elemento novedoso, que se ha introducido en la asistencia médica que se brinda en los servicios de salud, en los últimos años. Nuestro país no ha estado exento de ello y, especialmente, nuestro Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”, acumula ya una experiencia de algo más de una década con el empleo de estas herramientas. En este trabajo se valoran las ventajas y desventajas que se presentan con la utilización de las guías, a nuestro modo de ver y a partir de la práctica referida. Pacientes mejor informados, sistemas de salud veladores de mantener controlado el gasto sanitario y una creciente competencia profesional, son factores muy eficaces que mantendrán en marcha un proceso de mejora y eficiencia que necesariamente conllevará la evaluación objetiva de lo que se brinda a los pacientes. Es muy probable que sea para bien de los enfermos y de los profesionales.
Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito; Luis Gustavo Del Sol Padrón; Alfredo Alberto Espinosa Roca; José Luis Garriga Valdés; Brandy Viera Valdés
|L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.
L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…
Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.
This report presents the results of a five-year longitudinal study designed to examine the effect of career-based comprehensive school reform on creating a successful high school experience and preparing youth for the adult world of postsecondary education and work. The study included three feeder patterns of middle schools, high schools, and…
Castellano, Marisa; Stone, James R., III; Stringfield, Sam; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.; Overman, Laura T.; Hussain, Roshan
Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.
Rees CA; Long KN; Gray B; West JH; Chanani S; Spielberg F; Crookston BT
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of standardization in education which is a very important problem of ensuring the objective character and system in assessment Of learning success achievements. The aim of the article is consideration the possibility of rating approach usage in assessment of learning success achievements that unlike the traditional approach allows assessing not only the outcomes but the process of their achievement. Having its own advantages and disadvantages this approach, nevertheless, gives an opportunity to assess not by “deducting” but by “summing” the achievements. It is a stimulus for school children to a deliberate management of their own learning trajectory. Rating charts usage is one of the effective ways to maintain a student’s interest to his cognitive activity since these charts show the actual state in mastering a school subject and let him make necessary corrections in his learning trajectory in order to improve the outcomes according to his wishes.
Mikhailova Elena Konstantinovna
Full Text Available The competent youth is the real wealth of nation. Education plays an important role in the progress of nation because it is the education that can give dutiful citizen to the nation. Social environment affects children's education. Educated families contribute highly to their children's education. Theirs is the vital role. Generally, children from educated family background make much progress whereas the children from uneducated background do not. In some exceptional cases children make remarkable development even though they have uneducated background and sometimes hostile circumstances.
Archana Bhupal Nandagave
|International experience with student loans as a means of financing higher education is examined, with particular reference to developing countries. After summarizing the main purposes and kinds of student loan programs and practices in developed countries, advantages and disadvantages of loans as a means of financing higher education are…
Full Text Available This article examines the educational possibilities of the online environment of Second Life, by Linden Labs. Second Life’s economic growth has attracted the attention of corporations, non-profit organizations and government entities. Unlike traditional web-based instruction, Second Life provides a three-dimensional interface through which teachers and students can enjoy a limited form of eye-contact and body language. It also permits collaboration and learning in groups. The article goes on to discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the interface for online learning. It goes on to examine current educational applications and possible future enhancements.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between Indigenous social disadvantage and serious mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly changing patterns of mental disorders in Indigenous populations indicate the importance of social determinants. Canadian research on Native American suicide has demonstrated a clear link between social control factors and one mental health issue - completed suicide - a finding with major social policy implications. This work has not been replicable in Australia, reflecting the particular political and social circumstances of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Recent research motivated by clinicians' observations of an increase in psychotic disorders in the Indigenous populations of Cape York and the Torres Strait has demonstrated that the prevalence is high and that there are within-population differences. Given similar exposure to social disadvantage, these findings raise the possibility of utilising Indigenous psychosis prevalence as a metric to inform a more nuanced understanding of the predictors of wider vulnerability and resilience at a setting level, and as a policy and service development lever.
Full Text Available The Racial-Ethnic Group Disadvantage Scale (REGDS) is a new brief (7-item) measure of general perceptionsof racial/ethnic group disadvantage, designed for use with multiple racial/ethnic groups in diverse geographicalcontexts. The scale measures the extent to which individuals believe that their racial/ethnic group has lowersocial status, fewer economic resources, and less political power than other racial/ethnic groups in society,combined with collective experiences of discrimination, social exclusion, and negative stereotyping. We reportthe results of several studies conducted with international and American college students (White, Asian-, Latino-,and African-American students), and present evidence establishing the reliability and validity of the REGDS,including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion (known-groups) validity, and concurrent validity.
Julie Spencer-Rodgers; Meaghan Gilbert; Kaiping Peng
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged groups are an important target for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking rates are markedly higher among severely socially disadvantaged groups such as indigenous people, the homeless, people with a mental illness or drug and alcohol addiction, and the unemployed than in the general population. This proposal aims to evaluate the efficacy of a client-centred, caseworker delivered cessation support intervention at increasing validated self reported smoking cessation rates in a socially disadvantaged population. Methods/Design A block randomised controlled trial will be conducted. The setting will be a non-government organisation, Community Care Centre located in New South Wales, Australia which provides emergency relief and counselling services to predominantly government income assistance recipients. Eligible clients identified as smokers during a baseline touch screen computer survey will be recruited and randomised by a trained research assistant located in the waiting area. Allocation to intervention or control groups will be determined by time periods with clients randomised in one-week blocks. Intervention group clients will receive an intensive client-centred smoking cessation intervention offered by the caseworker over two face-to-face and two telephone contacts. There will be two primary outcome measures obtained at one, six, and 12 month follow-up: 1) 24-hour expired air CO validated self-reported smoking cessation and 2) 7-day self-reported smoking cessation. Continuous abstinence will also be measured at six and 12 months follow up. Discussion This study will generate new knowledge in an area where the current information regarding the most effective smoking cessation approaches with disadvantaged groups is limited. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN85202510
Bonevski Billie; Paul Christine; D'Este Catherine; Sanson-Fisher Robert; West Robert; Girgis Afaf; Siahpush Mohammad; Carter Robert
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years) from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99), overweight (BMI: 25-29.99) or obese (BMI: 30+). Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental). In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34) and physical activity (OR = 1.11) despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28) remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81) with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.
MacFarlane Abbie; Abbott Gavin; Crawford David; Ball Kylie
BACKGROUND: Opioid therapy for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial, primarily because of safety concerns and the potential for abuse. The objective of this study was to examine trends in opioid utilization for nonmalignant pain among recipients of social assistance and to explore the relation between dose of analgesic and mortality. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, we characterized annual trends in prescriptions for and daily dose of opioid analgesics between 2003 and 2008 for beneficiaries (aged 15 to 64 years) of Ontario's public drug plan. We defined moderate, high and very high dose thresholds as daily doses of up to 200, 201 to 400, and more than 400 mg oral morphine (or equivalent), respectively. In an exploratory cohort study, we followed, over a 2-year period, patients who received at least one prescription for an opioid in 2004 to investigate the relation between opioid dose and opioid-related mortality. RESULTS: Over the study period, opioid prescribing rates rose by 16.2%, and 180 974 individuals received nearly 1.5 million opioid prescriptions in 2008. Also by 2008, the daily dose dispensed exceeded 200 mg morphine equivalent for almost a third (32.6%) of recipients of long-acting oxycodone but only 20.3% of those treated with fentanyl or other long-acting opioids. Among patients for whom high or very high doses of opioids were dispensed in 2004, 19.3% of deaths during the subsequent 2 years were opioid-related, occurring at a median age of 46 years. Two-year opioid-related mortality rates were 1.63 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-1.85) among people with moderate-dose prescriptions, 7.92 per 1000 population (95% CI 5.25-11.49) among those with high-dose prescriptions, and 9.94 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.78-25.12) among those with very-high-dose prescriptions. INTERPRETATION: Among socio-economically disadvantaged patients in Ontario, the use and dose of opioids for nonmalignant pain has increased substantially, driven primarily by the use of long-acting oxycodone and, to a lesser extent, fentanyl. The findings of our exploratory study suggested a strong association between opioid-related mortality and the dose of opioid dispensed.
Gomes T; Juurlink DN; Dhalla IA; Mailis-Gagnon A; Paterson JM; Mamdani MM
Background Opioid therapy for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial, primarily because of safety concerns and the potential for abuse. The objective of this study was to examine trends in opioid utilization for nonmalignant pain among recipients of social assistance and to explore the relation between dose of analgesic and mortality. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we characterized annual trends in prescriptions for and daily dose of opioid analgesics between 2003 and 2008 for beneficiaries (aged 15 to 64 years) of Ontario’s public drug plan. We defined moderate, high and very high dose thresholds as daily doses of up to 200, 201 to 400, and more than 400 mg oral morphine (or equivalent), respectively. In an exploratory cohort study, we followed, over a 2-year period, patients who received at least one prescription for an opioid in 2004 to investigate the relation between opioid dose and opioid-related mortality. Results Over the study period, opioid prescribing rates rose by 16.2%, and 180 974 individuals received nearly 1.5 million opioid prescriptions in 2008. Also by 2008, the daily dose dispensed exceeded 200 mg morphine equivalent for almost a third (32.6%) of recipients of long-acting oxycodone but only 20.3% of those treated with fentanyl or other long-acting opioids. Among patients for whom high or very high doses of opioids were dispensed in 2004, 19.3% of deaths during the subsequent 2 years were opioid-related, occurring at a median age of 46 years. Two-year opioid-related mortality rates were 1.63 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–1.85) among people with moderate-dose prescriptions, 7.92 per 1000 population (95% CI 5.25–11.49) among those with high-dose prescriptions, and 9.94 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.78–25.12) among those with very-high-dose prescriptions. Interpretation Among socio-economically disadvantaged patients in Ontario, the use and dose of opioids for nonmalignant pain has increased substantially, driven primarily by the use of long-acting oxycodone and, to a lesser extent, fentanyl. The findings of our exploratory study suggested a strong association between opioid-related mortality and the dose of opioid dispensed.
Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M
Physical activity is important for preventing weight gain and obesity, but women experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage are at high risk of inactivity. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among women experiencing disadvantage, and the intervention factors (i.e. physical activity measure, delivery mode, delivery channel, setting, duration, use of theory, behavioural techniques, participant age, risk of bias) associated with effectiveness. We conducted a meta-analysis of controlled trials using random-effects models and meta-regression. Seven databases were searched for trials among healthy women (18-64 years), which included a physical activity intervention, any control group, and statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome at baseline and post-intervention. Nineteen studies were included (n = 6,339). Because of substantial statistical heterogeneity (?(2) = 53.61, df = 18, P < 0.0001, I(2) = 66%), an overall pooled effect is not reported. In subgroup analyses, between-group differences were evident for delivery mode, which modestly reduced heterogeneity (to 54%). Studies with a group delivery component had a standardized mean difference of 0.38 greater than either individual or community-based delivery. Programs with a group delivery mode significantly increase physical activity among women experiencing disadvantage, and group delivery should be considered an essential element of physical activity promotion programs targeting this population group.
Cleland V; Granados A; Crawford D; Winzenberg T; Ball K
Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. OBJECTIVE The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. METHODS Data from birth register are analysed. Marital status (married vs. unmarried) disparities in low birth weight are modelled using logistic regression. Further analyses are then performed with a detailed measurement of partnership status. This detailed variable is partially missing and is thus supplemented with multiple imputation. RESULTS The main explanation for the narrowing gap between the outcomes of children born to married and unmarried mothers is the increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Unmarried motherhood has become less detrimental to a child's birth weight net of maternal demographic characteristics. The decline in selection from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups has also contributed to the convergence. However, the convergence of birth weight trends towards marital children seems to refer mostly to children of partnered mothers, with children of single mothers lagging behind. CONCLUSIONS The positive trends in the health of non-marital children are interpreted as being the result of the increasing institutionalisation of parenthood in non-marital unions. However, this does not apply to unpartnered motherhood, which continues to represent a health disadvantage.
Driver in-vehicle cell phone use presents a dangerous distraction for adolescent drivers for whom motor vehicle crashes represents the leading cause of death. We used the National Young Driver Survey (NYDS), a nationally representative (N=5665) cross-sectional study of adolescent driving behavior, to examine potential psychosocial correlates of cell phone use while driving (CPWD). Results indicated that stronger beliefs about the advantages of abstention from CPWD were associated with less frequent CPWD, adjusted OR: 0.46 95% [CI: 0.40-0.53]), while stronger beliefs about the disadvantages of abstention were associated with more frequent CPWD, adjusted OR: 1.41 95% CI: [1.21-1.64]. In the absence of strong advantage beliefs, disadvantage beliefs did not have a meaningful association with less frequent CPWD. Almost 30% of adolescents held weaker advantage beliefs coupled with stronger disadvantage beliefs, placing them most at risk. These findings offer guidance for a wide range of intervention and health promotion efforts.
Hafetz JS; Jacobsohn LS; García-España JF; Curry AE; Winston FK
This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. Participants indicated the most and least appealing of nine hypothetical strategies, strategies most likely to use and strategies most likely to increase physical activity. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic and interpretive content analyses were used to identify emergent common and contrasting themes. A community centre-based program with free childcare, the provision of a cleaner while physical activity is undertaken and a neighbourhood-based program were the three most popular strategies. Mobile-telephone-delivered text messages, an online interactive diary and subsidized gym memberships were considered least useful. Irrespective of the strategy, components of importance commonly identified were social support; being accountable to someone; having the option of a structured or flexible attendance design; integration of multiple strategies and financial considerations. Issues around trust and privacy and weight loss also emerged as important. The findings provide important insights for the development of physical activity programs targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged women.
Cleland V; Ball K
The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.
Intress, C. [New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Differenze di genere e genitorialità: lo stile educativo di padri e madri. Risultati di una ricerca empirica Gender differences and parenting: the educational style of fathers and mothers. Results from an empirical study
Full Text Available Quantitative empirical study presented here concern two main dimensions: on the one hand the participation of fathers and mothers to housework and child care, considering the educational outcome that this has on children and on other hand the fathers' and mothers' educational style, comparing also each other's perceptions. The leading objective underlying the investigation consist on understanding whether, in the rapidly changing actual social context, the parental couples reproduce family and educational patterns based on a traditional conception of gender roles, or, instead, present elements of transformation and, in case, in what direction they are going. The data from the sample, couples of parents living in a rural town (222 subjects), showed the presence of some changes that least affect the redistribution of family work between men and women (work that still disadvantage women), and that deal with father’s functions and characteristics: the fathers appear less normative and more inclined to involvement with their children. Finally, mothers and fathers seam found the educational relationship primarily on dialogue, with some differences in the type of approach depending on the children gender.Quantitative empirical study presented here concern two main dimensions: on the one hand the participation of fathers and mothers to housework and child care, considering the educational outcome that this has on children and on other hand the fathers' and mothers' educational style, comparing also each other's perceptions. The leading objective underlying the investigation consist on understanding whether, in the rapidly changing actual social context, the parental couples reproduce family and educational patterns based on a traditional conception of gender roles, or, instead, present elements of transformation and, in case, in what direction they are going. The data from the sample, couples of parents living in a rural town (222 subjects), showed the presence of some changes that least affect the redistribution of family work between men and women (work that still disadvantage women), and that deal with father’s functions and characteristics: the fathers appear less normative and more inclined to involvement with their children. Finally, mothers and fathers seam found the educational relationship primarily on dialogue, with some differences in the type of approach depending on the children gender.
Indirectly affected by professional nurse educators are the clients (patients), practitioners, policymakers, and educators themselves. Because much of their work is hidden, they should emphasize collaboration and develop a stronger voice to explain why their work is important. (SK)
Analysis of the 1973 Canadian Mobility Study revealed that the occupational status of Canadian female immigrants is lower than that of immigrant male workers and male and female native-born Canadians. However, considerable stratification exists within the foreign-born population: American and British immigrant women are less affected by the double…
|The extent to which income and race, viewed independently, affect selection factors is examined, based on data collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges on applicants to the 1976-77 entering class. Factors associated with race had a far more significant influence on applicants' credentials. (Author/LBH)|
Full Text Available Control chart is one kind of the most common and effective tools for SPC quality control, however, it is not infallible for ever. The results of actual data processing have proved that the conventional control chart may educe the opposite conclusions to other evaluating methods in some special cases. For solving the above problems, we use Bayes theory to introduce proper ‘correction coefficient’ to amend the control parameters so that the control limit is more accurate and the judgment is more reasonable and reliable.
Chen Peng; Kenny Liu; Xiaohui Gu
As a result of the increasing number of serious injuries, and/or deaths caused by automobile accidents, seatbelts, along with other safety items are installed in cars. The idea of having automobile seatbelts came from the aircraft seatbelt. In our country there is no law requiring installation of seatbelts in all automobiles. Most imported cars, however do have built-in seat builts which are more or less used by the drivers and passengers. Wearing seatbelts is a necessity because, according to statistics, of 100,000 registered vehicles, 340.8 drivers and/or passengers lose their lives. In Sweden however, this value is 44.1 or eight times less. The number of injuries in Yugoslavia is also great. One of every three injuries are serious with chances of causing invalidity. The basic cause of death in an automobile accident is being thrown out of the vehicle by inertia during a collision has a five fold less a chance of surviving than if he were not thrown out. Secondary impacts of the passenger's body with objects within the automobile are: dashboard, doors, steering wheel, etc. are also a significant cause of many severe injuries. The force of inertia of a 70 kg passenger when the vehicle in which he is riding decelerates from a speed of 80 km/hr to 0 km/hr in a time span of 0.14 sec, and distances of 2 meters equals 878.83 kg. The greater the force of inertia is: (sometimes reaching 2000 kg). The advantages of the safety belt are in that they prevent ejection and secondary impacts of the passenger with protruding objects within the passenger compartment. Today the 2-point seatbelt is no longer in use, having been replaced by the 3-poing seat belt. The 3-point seatbelt must fit snugly about the wearers body so that it cannot be pulled away more than a distance of one or two fingerbreadths. The automatic 3-point seat belt, (the latest of designs), permits freedom of body movement. Should a collison occur, the seat belt locks in position holding the passenger back against the force of inertia. Disadvantages of the seat belt are illustrated by what is reffered to as the seat belt syndrome which was introduced by the American authors Garrett, and Baraunstein (1962). The presented 2,778 cases involved in automobile accidents, in which at least one passenger in each of the vehicles involved was wearing a seatbelt: 2,325 people). Of these 2,325, 944, 29%, or every third person was injured. 150 of them were injured on their lower torso. 26, or 0.8% were seriously injured. Not one case, however resulted in death. The seatbelt syndrome can be recognized by several characteristic injuries. In the event of a collision, those wearing seatbelts usually sustain multiple bruises and/or lacerations of the head, contusions of the lower abdomen with excoriation, adrasions, internal hemorraging, fractured ankle of foot. When such injuries are confirmed it is necessary to carefully search for injuries to internal organ as they usually accompany the above mentioned...
As a result of the increasing number of serious injuries, and/or deaths caused by automobile accidents, seatbelts, along with other safety items are installed in cars. The idea of having automobile seatbelts came from the aircraft seatbelt. In our country there is no law requiring installation of seatbelts in all automobiles. Most imported cars, however do have built-in seat builts which are more or less used by the drivers and passengers. Wearing seatbelts is a necessity because, according to statistics, of 100,000 registered vehicles, 340.8 drivers and/or passengers lose their lives. In Sweden however, this value is 44.1 or eight times less. The number of injuries in Yugoslavia is also great. One of every three injuries are serious with chances of causing invalidity. The basic cause of death in an automobile accident is being thrown out of the vehicle by inertia during a collision has a five fold less a chance of surviving than if he were not thrown out. Secondary impacts of the passenger's body with objects within the automobile are: dashboard, doors, steering wheel, etc. are also a significant cause of many severe injuries. The force of inertia of a 70 kg passenger when the vehicle in which he is riding decelerates from a speed of 80 km/hr to 0 km/hr in a time span of 0.14 sec, and distances of 2 meters equals 878.83 kg. The greater the force of inertia is: (sometimes reaching 2000 kg). The advantages of the safety belt are in that they prevent ejection and secondary impacts of the passenger with protruding objects within the passenger compartment. Today the 2-point seatbelt is no longer in use, having been replaced by the 3-poing seat belt. The 3-point seatbelt must fit snugly about the wearers body so that it cannot be pulled away more than a distance of one or two fingerbreadths. The automatic 3-point seat belt, (the latest of designs), permits freedom of body movement. Should a collison occur, the seat belt locks in position holding the passenger back against the force of inertia. Disadvantages of the seat belt are illustrated by what is reffered to as the seat belt syndrome which was introduced by the American authors Garrett, and Baraunstein (1962). The presented 2,778 cases involved in automobile accidents, in which at least one passenger in each of the vehicles involved was wearing a seatbelt: 2,325 people). Of these 2,325, 944, 29%, or every third person was injured. 150 of them were injured on their lower torso. 26, or 0.8% were seriously injured. Not one case, however resulted in death. The seatbelt syndrome can be recognized by several characteristic injuries. In the event of a collision, those wearing seatbelts usually sustain multiple bruises and/or lacerations of the head, contusions of the lower abdomen with excoriation, adrasions, internal hemorraging, fractured ankle of foot. When such injuries are confirmed it is necessary to carefully search for injuries to internal organ as they usually accompany the above mentioned... PMID:941617
Improving health care providers' knowledge and ability to provide culturally competent care can limit the health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations. As racial and ethnic cultures dominate cultural competency topics in education, alternative cultures such as disability have consistently been underrepresented. This article will make the case that persons with disabilities have a unique cultural identity, and should be addressed as an important component of cultural competency education in pharmacy schools. Examples of efforts in pharmacy education to incorporate cultural competency components are highlighted, many of which contain little or no mention of disability issues. Based on initiatives from other health professions, suggestions and considerations for the development of disability education within pharmacy curricula also are proposed. PMID:21519416
Smith, W Thomas; Roth, Justin J; Okoro, Olihe; Kimberlin, Carole; Odedina, Folakemi T
Improving health care providers' knowledge and ability to provide culturally competent care can limit the health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations. As racial and ethnic cultures dominate cultural competency topics in education, alternative cultures such as disability have consistently been underrepresented. This article will make the case that persons with disabilities have a unique cultural identity, and should be addressed as an important component of cultural competency education in pharmacy schools. Examples of efforts in pharmacy education to incorporate cultural competency components are highlighted, many of which contain little or no mention of disability issues. Based on initiatives from other health professions, suggestions and considerations for the development of disability education within pharmacy curricula also are proposed.
Smith WT; Roth JJ; Okoro O; Kimberlin C; Odedina FT
BACKGROUND: Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. STUDY DESIGN: Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, nonpregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, audio-taped and transcribed. Four independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into overarching themes. RESULTS: Contraceptive knowledge was limited, with formal contraceptive education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative, with method effectiveness being judged by the presence of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions, while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible, although compliance is considered a barrier. CONCLUSIONS: Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals.
Hodgson EJ; Collier C; Hayes L; Curry LA; Fraenkel L
Full Text Available With the development of economy and progress of society, the viewpoints of ecological balance and sustainable development have extended to lots of other fields. Educational ecologicalization and sustainable development are becoming more and more important day by day. As a type of higher education, higher vocational education has not only unique developmental advantages but also many disadvantage factors. Basing on the clarification of connotation of education ecologicalization and analysis of the ecological environment of higher vocational education, this paper discusses the thinking and method of sustainable development of higher vocational academies in the atmosphere of ecological consciousness.
This is a commentary on the personal account of Jane Everywoman. It reflects on her experiences and thoughts. The author adds context from her own work with the Progress Educational Trust, the Daisy Network Premature Menopause Support Group and the National Infertility Awareness Campaign. Examples of the mixed messages and the confusion surrounding fertility, infertility and the possible solutions which appear in the media have been included to further illustrate many of the issues raised by Jane. The updated NICE fertility guideline is discussed together with its implementation.
Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support (ATS) versus educational teacher support (ETS) (CBT + ATS vs. CBT + ETS). Method: Screening (n = 1,929) and assessment (n = 224) led to the inclusion of 173 children ages 8-12 years from 17 elementary schools. Most of the children were boys (n = 136, 79%) of low or low-to-middle class socioeconomic status (87%); the sample was ethnically diverse (63% of non-Western origin). Children received CBT + ATS (n = 29) or CBT + ETS (n = 41) or were entered into a waitlist control condition (n = 103) to be treated afterward (CBT + ATS, n = 39, and CBT + ETS, n = 64). Effect sizes (ES), clinical significance (reliable change), and the results of multilevel modeling are reported. Results: Ninety-seven percent of children completed treatment. Teachers and parents reported positive posttreatment effects (mean ES = .31) for CBT compared with the waitlist control condition on disruptive behavior. Multilevel modeling showed similar results. Clinical significance was modest. Changes had remained stable or had increased at 3-months follow-up (mean ES = .39). No consistent effect of teacher condition was found at posttreatment; however, at follow-up, children who received ETS fared significantly better. Conclusions: This study shows that a school-based CBT program is beneficial for difficult-to-reach children with disruptive behavior: The completion rate was remarkably high, ESs (mean ES = .31) matched those of previous studies with targeted intervention, and effects were maintained or had increased