WorldWideScience
1

The Kotter Key (To Educating Disadvantaged Students).  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching styles most effective in dealing with educationally disadvantaged students are analyzed. For the purpose of this research disadvantaged students in a secondary school were identified and given a questionnaire to determine the teacher they considered contributed the most and the teacher who contributed least to their education. The…

Benedict, Richard R.

2

Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

Long, Jerry

1982-01-01

3

Teacher Education and the Targeting of Disadvantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper outlines the Exceptional Teachers for Disadvantaged Schools (ETDS project which began in June 2010 with the aim of developing and documenting an Australian university-based teacher education program specifically focusing on the preparation of high quality teachers for the disadvantaged school sector. ETDS constitutes a novel model of teacher education targeting disadvantaged schooling in that the selection of participating pre-service teachers has been based on their proven academic performance over the first 2 years of their 4-year Bachelor of Education degree. ETDS has established a modified curriculum that better supports the on-campus training of this cohort while also targeting the role of field experience within partner disadvantaged school settings. This paper offers a rationale for the model, unpacks its various phases and provides a justification of the model’s selection criteria based on high academic achievement.

Bruce Burnett

2011-12-01

4

Advantages and disadvantages of digital education  

OpenAIRE

The digitization of education in Poland is spreading into more and more areas. Therefore, it becomes necessary to analyse all its aspects, both advantages and disadvantages. In the performed reflection, an attempt to present the current state of the access to computers, the Internet and e-course books in Polish schools has been made. On the basis of the secondary analysis of various recent studies as well as own research performed, it has been determined that the level of digitization of educ...

Ma?kosa, Pawe?

2013-01-01

5

The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

2014-01-01

6

Disrupting Patterns of Educational Inequality and Disadvantage in Malawi  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with the gap in educational provision for vulnerable learners in Malawi who are at risk of falling behind and dropping out of school due to irregular attendance. It draws on a study in high HIV-prevalence areas that explores the patterns of inequality and disadvantage that disrupt learning and uses this knowledge to design…

Pridmore, Pat; Jere, Catherine

2011-01-01

7

Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Students. Data Analysis Support Center (DASC) Task 4. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document comprises six papers that discuss teaching advanced skills to educationally disadvantaged students. An introductory paper, "Models for Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Children" (B. Means and M. S. Knapp), synthesizes the themes that characterize the collection of papers as a whole, and discusses general issues…

Means, Barbara, Ed.; Knapp, Michael S., Ed.

8

Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

Raffo, Carlo

2011-01-01

9

The Teachability Index: Can Disadvantaged Students Learn? Education Working Paper 6  

Science.gov (United States)

Student "teachability"--the advantages and disadvantages that students bring to school--is often offered as an excuse for educational failure. Many claim that students are less teachable than they used to be, and that reforms cannot meaningfully improve student achievement due to problems like poverty and social dysfunction. This study measures…

Greene, Jay P.; Forster, Greg

2004-01-01

10

Imparting Social Capital to Educationally Disadvantaged Students: A Study of the Early Academic Outreach Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the process of an academic preparation program, also known as an outreach program, imparting social capital to educationally disadvantaged students. The particular form of social capital to be examined will be the college knowledge needed to successfully prepare for college admission. The theoretical…

Jackson, Nicole Korgie

2010-01-01

11

Educators' motivation on integration of ICTs into pedagogy: case of disadvantaged areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using th [...] e technology for teaching and learning. Qualitative research approach was used to gather and analyse information from educators from randomly sampled schools located in disadvantaged areas in the Western Cape. The study has shown that educators' motivation to use technology for curriculum delivery could be impacted by satisfaction derived from using the ICTs, individual expectations, responsibility and a sense of achievement experienced when using the technologies.

Agnes, Chigona; Wallace, Chigona; Zane, Davids.

2014-03-01

12

Can Vocational Education Improve the Wages of Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups? Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups?Minorities and Disadvantaged Groups?The Case of Israel  

OpenAIRE

There is a considerable empirical literature which compares wage levels of workers who have studied at secondary vocational schools with wages of workers who took academic schooling. In general, vocational education does not lead to higher wages. However, in some countries where labor markets are characterized by employment growth, skill shortages and a good match between vocational skills and available jobs, the record of vocational schooling has been more positive. Israel constitutes a case...

Neuman, Shoshana; Ziderman, Adrian

2001-01-01

13

The Educationally Disadvantaged Elementary School Child: Anxiety Reduction and Behavioral Change Through Public Commitment and Counseling. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 50 subjects, low in sociometric status and identified as educationally disadvantaged on the basis of high "school anxiety" were drawn from fifth and sixth grade public school children. Control and experimental groups were set up. Elementary counselors worked with the experimental groups using procedures based on the theory of cognitive…

Beggs, Donald L.; Mayer, G. Roy

14

Educators' Perceptions of Barriers to the Identification of Gifted Children from Economically Disadvantaged and Limited English Proficient Backgrounds  

OpenAIRE

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This report presents results from a 10-item survey of 750 educators from 14 school sites, designed to gain insights into the perceptions educators hold regarding the problems of identifying gifted children from economically disadvantaged and limited English proficient backgrounds. Results indicated that major barriers to identification were test bias and teachers' inability to recognize indicators of potential in cer...

Frasier, Mary M.; Hunsaker, Scott L.; Lee, J.; Finley, Vernon S.; Frank, Elaine; Garcia, J. H.; Martin, D.

1995-01-01

15

The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?  

Science.gov (United States)

In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (?g mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

2013-04-01

16

The Issue of Resource Equalization: Funding the Education of Economically Disadvantaged Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The State of Illinois appropriates funds according to a resource equalizer formula which allows a district having a large number and a high percentage of economically disadvantaged school children to gain a sizable bonus in State aid, contingent upon a plan to improve instruction. The Chicago Public Schools have received this bonus without…

Fox, Roger; Lacour, Bernard

17

Empowering Educationally Disadvantaged Mathematics Students through a Strategies-Based Problem Solving Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…

Ramnarain, Umesh

2014-01-01

18

Children's Human Rights Education as a Counter to Social Disadvantage: A Case Study from England  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Children's rights education in schools has many social and educational benefits. Among them are a deeper understanding of rights and social responsibility, an improved school climate, and greater school engagement and achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children's rights education has the power to…

Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; Polegato, Jillian L.

2011-01-01

19

Extending the purposes of science education: addressing violence within socio-economic disadvantaged communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Current discourses about science education show a wide concern towards humanisation and a more socio-cultural perspective of school science. They suggest that science education can serve diverse purposes and be responsive to social and environmental situations we currently face. However, these discourses and social approaches to science education tend to focus on global issues. They do not respond to the immediate needs and local context of some communities. I discuss in this paper why the purposes of science education need to be extended to respond to the local issue of violence. For this, I present a case study with a group of 38 students from a poor population in Bogotá, Colombia, located in one of the suburbs with highest levels of crime in the city. I examine the ways that science education contributes to and embodies its own forms of violence and explore how a new approach to science education could contribute to break the cycle of violence.

Castano, Carolina

2012-09-01

20

Affecting Change in Architectural Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Architecture concerns not so much an explicit body of transmittable knowledge and protocols as it does a set of implicit understandings, sensitivities and sensibilities. The education of an architect therefore concerns the mission of endowing candidates with those implicit traits. This is not to say that architects do not possess and wield prodigious amounts of explicit cognitive knowledge, because they certainly do. But that explicit component of architectural know-how is actually vested in and deployed by the architect not so much because the knowledge has been invented, discovered, or developed by architects; but rather because they have assimilated it from other disciplines in a special way that gives architects adductive and hermeneutic insight into vast, detailed, and complex design challenges. Engineers make better machines, artists make more meaningful artifacts, and psychologists provide better human environments; but architects are trained to see the underlying opportunity and potential celebration of how those constituent menus might become a feast. In any unresolved complex of space, material and form, architects grasp a unique essence in how they perceive the “happily ever after” of what it might be and how that vision might be made whole and concrete. By the time a student of architecture is fully indoctrinated, this grasp of an underlying ideal essence is so potent that it becomes the student’s identity… and the purpose of that insight becomes an irresistible intention.

Leonard R. Bachman

2012-09-01

21

Educational Achievement in Maori: The Roles of Cultural Identity and Social Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic…

Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.

2008-01-01

22

Does parental employment affect children's educational attainment?  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are aged 0-3. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel. Overall, we find little support that parental employment affects children's educational a...

Ho?risch, Hannah

2008-01-01

23

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

DanielA.Hackman

2012-10-01

24

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...disadvantaged students attending vocational...the Secondary School Vocational Education...disadvantaged students attending vocational education...the Secondary School Vocational Education...disadvantaged students attending vocational...

2010-07-01

25

Using biomedical engineering and "hidden capital" to provide educational outreach to disadvantaged populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hands-on learning module called "Science of the Slam" is created that taps into the passions and interests of an under-represented group in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). This is achieved by examining the use of the scientific method to quantify the biomechanics of basketball players who are good at performing the slam dunk. Students already have an intrinsic understanding of the biomechanics of basketball however this "hidden capital" has never translated into the underlying STEM concepts. The effectiveness of the program is rooted in the exploitation of "hidden capital" within the field of athletics to inform and enhance athletic performance. This translation of STEM concepts to athletic performance provides a context and a motivation for students to study the STEM fields who are traditionally disengaged from the classic engineering outreach programs. "Science of the Slam" has the potential to serve as a framework for other researchers to engage under-represented groups in novel ways by tapping into shared interests between the researcher and disadvantaged populations. PMID:25571155

Drazan, John F; Scott, John M; Hoke, Jahkeen I; Ledet, Eric H

2014-08-01

26

Integración educativa de las personas con discapacidad en Latinoamérica / Educational integration of disadvantaged people in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La integración es un proceso continuo y progresivo cuya finalidad es incorporar al individuo con necesidades especiales a la comunidad, y constituye uno de los fenómenos de mayor trascendencia en la educación. El objetivo fue conocer el estado del arte de la integración educativa de las personas con [...] discapacidad en Latinoamérica. Se utilizó el método de investigación documental revisando las bases de datos y localizando 40 documentos: 14 investigaciones descriptivas, 13 fueron investigaciones de base teórica y 13 fueron incluidas en experiencias en el campo. Se vislumbró un movimiento en toda la región a favor de la integración de las personas con discapacidad, con las dificultades de orden económico que prevalecen en todos los contextos. Las experiencias en la práctica docente, a pesar de ser puntuales, representan el proceso donde la sensibilización y el acuerdo consensuado de todos los actores de la comunidad se considera eje fundamental. Abstract in english Integration is a continuous and progressive process, with the finality of incorporating the individual with special need into the community, and it represents a transcendental landmark in education. The objective was to know the state of the art of educational integration for disadvantaged people in [...] Latin America. The document investigation method was used, reviewing databases and finding 40 documents: 14 descriptive researches, 13 theoretical researches and 13 were included as field experiences. A movement was conceived for the whole region to favor the integration of disadvantaged people, with the difficulties of an economic nature that prevail in all the contexts. The experiences in teacher training, in spite of being specific, represent the process where sensibilization and consensual agreement of all the actors in the community are considered as the fundamental axis.

Rosalinda, Romero; Paola, Lauretti.

2006-06-01

27

Redressing disadvantage and ensuring social cohesion: the role of distance education and elearning policies in the European Union 1957-2007  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the development and implementation of the European Union's policies in distance higher education and elearning since the 1957 Treaty of Rome. Distance education emerged in the 1960s and 70s as an instrument at national level to redress disadvantage, and to provide flexible, high-quality and cost-effective access to higher education to adults who were unable, for geographical, employment or personal reasons, to attend on-campus. Analysis of EU policy documents and interview...

Mackeogh, Kay

2007-01-01

28

New approaches for the asessment and education of children under socio-cultural disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper describes the traditional psychometric parameters thal don 't fit by workingwith children who suffer socio-cultural deprivation (or who are living under socio-cultural disadvantagesand the new assessment and education strategies for this population. Vygotsky's socio-cultural approach, that emphasizes the Zone of Proximal Development, and the Dynamic Assessment and the Mediated Learning developed by Feucrstein and complemented by Coll relatedwith the Significative Learning are stressed.

Alegría Majluf

2003-06-01

29

Cognitive skills matter. The employment disadvantage of the low-educated in international comparison  

OpenAIRE

It is now a widely acknowledged fact that the low-skilled are facing important risks of labour market exclusion in modern economies. However, possessing low levels of educational qualifications leads to very different situations from one country to another, as the cross-national variation in the unemployment rates of the low-skilled attest. While conventional wisdom usually blames welfare states and the resulting rigidity of labour markets for the low employment opportunities of low-skilled w...

Abrassart, Aure?lien

2011-01-01

30

Advantages and disadvantages of use of digital collections in the process of education  

OpenAIRE

In last few years the Internet has become a true component part of the process of education in many countries in Europe. This global computer network has brought us many types of applications of computer technology suitable for learning. However, there are still some methods and procedures which are part of this global network and are still not sufficiently used. As a result of this opinion, a small group of students of the 4th year of library and information sciences at the Faculty of Philos...

Vrana, Radovan; Badurina, Boris; Golub, Koraljka

1999-01-01

31

Education of Disadvantaged Groups and Multiple Class Teaching: Studies and Innovative Approaches. Report of a Study Group Meeting (Jakarta, November 17-26, 1980).  

Science.gov (United States)

Participants from India, Korea, Maldives, Nepal, Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia met to formulate strategies and develop alternative methods of teaching multiple classes and educating disadvantaged groups. Activities of the Study Group Meeting included four phases: presentation and discussion of country experiences relating to…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

32

Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity  

OpenAIRE

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier So...

DanielA.Hackman; LauraM.Betancourt

2012-01-01

33

Economically Disadvantaged Children’s Transitions Into Elementary School: Linking Family Processes, School Contexts, and Educational Policy  

OpenAIRE

Working from a core perspective on the developmental implications of economic disadvantage, this study attempted to identify family-based mechanisms of economic effects on early learning and their potential school-based remedies. Multilevel analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort revealed that the accumulation of markers of economic disadvantage reduced math and reading testing gains across the primary grades. Such disparities were partially mediated by corres...

Crosnoe, Robert; Cooper, Carey E.

2010-01-01

34

Counseling the Disadvantaged Student. Research Studies Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide to coping with problems arising from the psychology and needs of disadvantaged youth examines the characteristics of the disadvantaged youth and especially his family background; the role of the counselor, including establishing rapport with the disadvantaged youth and testing and counseling him; educational and vocational counseling;…

Johnston, William Elbert, Jr.; Scales, Eldridge E.

35

Education (of Children Affected by Fragile X Syndrome)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Who Has FXS Halloween Season! Genetic Counselor | Print Education Children whose development is affected by fragile X syndrome are eligible for special education services. Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities ...

36

Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

Efthymios Alepis

2009-04-01

37

Ontario Educators' Perceptions of Barriers to the Identification of Gifted Children from Economically Disadvantaged and Limited English Proficient Backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross section of educators from Ontario, Canada, many of whom were beginning teachers, volunteered to complete the survey at an Ontario Faculty of Education. Of the 121 educators who participated, 55% worked with students at the elementary school level, 24% at the middle school level, and 23% at the high school level. This investigation of…

Ryan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

38

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

39

Family (Dis)Advantage and the Educational Prospects of Better Off African American Youth: How Race Still Matters  

Science.gov (United States)

While the educational difficulties of poor black students are well documented and have been discussed extensively, the academic performance of well-off African American children has received much less attention. Even with economic and educational resources in the home, well-off African American youth are not achieving at the levels of their white…

Gosa, Travis L.; Alexander, Karl L.

2007-01-01

40

Some Problems Affecting Higher Education in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major problems of higher education in Mexico are addressed in the context of the country's developmental stages, socioeconomic conditions, and demographics. Important factors in modern Mexican history include: population growth, public and private investment to stimulate socioeconomic activities in different regions of the country, and financial…

Arredondo, Victor A.

41

Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

2011-01-01

42

Teacher Education at a Distance: Meeting the Needs of the Disadvantaged. Final Report of the Regional Workshop in Distance Education in Teacher Education Organized by Unesco PROAP in Collaboration with Balitbang Dikbud and the Universitas Terbuka (Jakarta, Indonesia, November 1-9, 1988).  

Science.gov (United States)

This regional workshop on teacher education at a distance met to review existing distance education modalities and identify common problems and issues; cooperatively develop innovative strategies and guidelines for meeting the needs of girls, disadvantaged groups, and those in remote areas; review existing networks in distance education for…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

43

A question of quality: do children from disadvantaged backgrounds receive lower quality early years education and care in England?  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines how the quality of formal early childhood education and care is associated with children’s background. By using different indicators of quality, the research also explored how the relationship varies depending on the way quality is measured. The analysis combines information from three administrative datasets – the Early Years Census, the Schools Census and the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) dataset on inspections (2010-...

Gambaro, Ludovica; Stewart, Kitty; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

44

Personality Change Among Educationally Disadvantaged Veterans as a Function of Enrollment in a Junior College Developmental Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the first educational institutions funded for the establishment of a training program for Viet Nam veterans was Oscar Rose Junior College at Midwest City, Oklahoma. The developmental program began in September 1972, with 112 veterans in the original training phase. The present study was conducted during the spring semester of 1972-73, with…

Faubion, Joan H.; Rupiper, O. J.

45

Psychological Stress and Parenting Behavior among Chinese Families: Findings from a Study on Parent Education for Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Science.gov (United States)

With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…

Lam, Ching Man

2011-01-01

46

THE MAHILA SAMAKHYA PROGRAM: EMPOWERING EDUCATION FOR WOMEN’S EQUALITY IN INDIAN DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES AND RURAL AREAS  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT   In India the women’s movement and the government have done much to ameliorate women’s education and to build the gender gap. However, it is argued that India still has much gender inequalities embedded in society and, a...

Gemma Barberillo Nualart

2013-01-01

47

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

48

Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

Sabia, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

49

K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional development will continue through the 2013-2014 academic year. Formative assessment of the ongoing project indicates that students, teachers, parents and school administrators rank their experiences highly and that students are motivated to continue on the path to geoscience careers.

Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.

2013-12-01

50

SLEEP COMPLAINTS AFFECTING SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AT DIFFERENT EDUCATIONAL LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students. Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA’s in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

JamesFPagel

2010-11-01

51

Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

Lynsay A. Shepherd

2014-11-01

52

Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels. PMID:21173894

Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

2010-01-01

53

The Use of Team-Based, Guided Inquiry Learning to Overcome Educational Disadvantages in Learning Human Physiology: A Structural Equation Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of human bioscience is viewed as a crucial curriculum in allied health. Nevertheless, bioscience (and particularly physiology) is notoriously difficult for undergraduates, particularly academically disadvantaged students. So endemic are the high failure rates (particularly in nursing) that it has come to be known as "the human…

Rathner, Joseph A.; Byrne, Graeme

2014-01-01

54

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...disadvantaged students attending vocational education programs under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program? 403.114 Section...Postsecondary, and Adult Vocational Education Programs §...

2010-07-01

55

Voices of HIV&AIDS-affected educators: how they are psychosocially affected and how REds enabled their resilience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is to hear the voices of HIV- and AIDS-affected educators regarding their experiences of the psychosocial effect that the HIV and AIDS pandemic has on them as well as to voice their experiences of how Resilient Educators (REds), a support programme to enable educators affected by HIV and AIDS towards resilience, enabled them. A qualitative study was undertaken with 100 affected educators from different provinces in South Africa. Open-ended questionnaires were used to collect data prior to and after exposure to REds. The results suggested that the pandemic had a devastating effect not only at a professional level, but also at all the personal levels of educators' well-being, namely, at an emotional, spiritual, physical and social level. However, the results also indicated that REds empowered them to cope more resiliently with the overwhelming personal and professional impacts of living and teaching in an HIV- and AIDS-altered milieu. It thus seems as if REds, as an empowering programme, has the potential to become a valuable protective resource in an educational context that is HIV-lacerated. PMID:21218285

Delport, Rina; Strydom, Herman; Theron, Linda; Geyer, Stephan

2011-01-01

56

Governing the Potentials of Life Itself? Interrogating the Promises in Affective Educational Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

This article critically explores how educational leadership is becoming increasingly affective in order to cultivate pupil potential and thereby meet the challenge of creating the best schools in the world. It critically analyses policy and handbook approaches to affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulty in keeping…

Staunaes, Dorthe

2011-01-01

57

The Missing Component in Computer Education: The Affective Domain  

OpenAIRE

Because of the “computer revolution,” health-care professionals are being called upon in academic, continuing education, and on-site settings to teach computer education to students as well as other professionals. It has been demonstrated that education which includes the examination of attitudes, values, and feelings will reduce anxiety and increase interest towards the subject matter and will also help the student integrate the subject matter more effectively into his or her life. There...

Koch, Patricia Barthalow

1984-01-01

58

Factors Affecting Attitudinal Patterns Toward Education in the Dominican Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 380 urban, suburban, and rural persons living in the Province of Santiago, the Dominican Republic, were interviewed to determine their attitudes toward education. A 15 statement attitude instrument, using a Likert response scale, was developed. The major findings of the study were that attitudes toward education were significantly…

Nelson, Bardin H.; And Others

59

Does Participative Decision Making Affect Lecturer Performance in Higher Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The relationship between participation and job performance has captured the interest of not only business researchers but also education researchers. However, the topic has not gained significant attention in the educational management research arena. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of participation in…

Sukirno, D. S.; Siengthai, Sununta

2011-01-01

60

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

61

Affecting Social Change: The Struggle for Educators to Transform Society  

Science.gov (United States)

When addressing the problems for today's educators, Jonathon Kozol has joined with teachers' unions like the National Education Association to "stave off an onslaught of misguided federal dictates" in order to "help mobilize teachers to take action politically and launch a new movement for racial integration" (Jehlen, p. 17). Unfortunately for…

Sewell, William C.

2005-01-01

62

Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for professional practice, and as education of early childhood teachers matters with regard to developmental outcomes of children, knowledge orientations of prospective early childhood teachers attending universities and attending vocational schools are investigated and compared. Knowledge orientations were assessed by means of a questionnaire. After propensity score matching of 402 beginners and 402 graduates, multilevel analyses indicate that scientific orientation at the end of teacher education was higher and subjective orientation was lower than at the beginning. Furthermore, scientific knowledge orientation of BA-students was higher, subjective orientation was lower than of students at professional schools. Implications of these results regarding education of early childhood teachers are discussed.

Christoph Mischo

2014-01-01

63

Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1998-01-01

64

Does Education Affect Risk Aversion?: Evidence from the 1973 British Education Reform  

OpenAIRE

Individual risk attitudes are widely used in order to predict decisions regarding education. These uses of risk attitudes as a control variable for education decisions, however, have been criticized due to potential reverse causality. The causality between risk aversion and education is not clear, and it is hard to disentangle the different directions. We here investigate the causal effect of education on risk aversion by looking at the 1973 British Education Reform. With the educational refo...

Jung, Seeun

2014-01-01

65

Simulation in university chemistry education : cognitive and affective aspects  

OpenAIRE

This thesis undertakes two main tasks; to explore, within the authentic educational context, variables that influence the quality and outcomes of the knowledge-constructing activity during the simulation exercise; and to find appropriate instruments and methods to measure these variables, processes and outcomes. Closed-ended tasks that provided a high degree of structure, i.e., supported students’ regulation of learning during the simulation exercise, were more beneficial for perceived impr...

Winberg, Mikael

2006-01-01

66

Governing the potentials of life? : interrogating the promises in affective educational leadership  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores how educational leadership is increasingly becoming affective in order to cultivate what has been termed “the potentials” of pupils to meet the challenge of bringing schools into “the world class league”. The analysis draws upon the notion of governmentality and the ”affective turn”. It highlights four examples of affective educational leadership technologies as they appear in contemporary leadership handbooks in Denmark. 1) How school becomes the managed heart of society. This reshapes educational leadership as ontopower governing through ideas and materialities of perception and neurons. 2) How affectivity becomes synonymous with positive feelings, while more indeterminate parts of affectivity are neglected. 3) How educational leadership becomes a matter of governing the future through simulation and imagination. 4) How affective leadership is energized by a bio morality structured in a specific time and space. Such discourses tend to maintain the status quo rather than challenging the basic premises or create revolutions as promised. This article critically analyses these policy document and handbook versions of affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulties in keeping the promises made and by introducing the Massumian distinction between possibilities and potentiality. The conclusion states that the edifying nature of the technologies paradoxically overshadows the possibilities promised by the technologies.

Staunæs, Dorthe

67

A study of professional nurses’ perceptions of factors affecting the process of client education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 about inhibiting factors. We used Likert score to measure questions. Data analysis performed by SPSS software. Statistical test were Chi square, t test, variance analysis and correlation of variance. Results: The highest percentage of nurses (52.1% believed that enough attention is not being paid to facilitating factors such as considering patient education as priority in patient care, nurses being responsible for patient education, considering patient education as a criteria in nurses annual evaluation, importance of patient education for nurse administrators, having in-service education about patient teaching and having proper time, place and personnel for patient education. Majority of nurses (57.4% believed factors such as shortage of nurses, lack of proper place, time and patient motivation for receiving education, nurses and nurse administrators’ inattention to patient education and negative attitude of doctors toward patient education by nurses are inhibiting factors in process of education. Statistical tests showed a meaningful relation between demographic variables such as sex, clinical background, shift work and position and facilitating factors. There was also a meaningful relation between variables like working in more than one shift, having clinical experience of patient education and being evaluated for patient education during study of nursing and inhibiting factors. Conclusion: This study shows low level of facilitating factors for patient education in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science. To improve patient education in these hospitals it is necessary to improve facilitating factors.

Goudarzi Z

2004-05-01

68

Does health education affect BMI? Evidence from a school-based randomised-control trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the effects of a comprehensive school-based health education programme (introducing healthy habits in the curriculum) to combat childhood obesity in the mid-size urban city of Granollers (Catalonia, Spain). The intervention was carried out between 2006 and 2008. New anthropometric measurements were obtained in 2008, 2010 and 2012. The length of the intervention evaluation constitutes a valuable contribution to the existing literature. Data refers to 509 schoolchildren aged 6 years old from 16 schools that were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or to the control group. Our results indicate that children's BMI in the treatment group was reduced by 1.13kg/m(2) four years after the intervention, representing on average and for an average height, a loss of 1.6kg. We examine heterogeneity and find that most effect is driven by children coming from disadvantaged backgrounds whilst no differences were obtained differentiating by gender. PMID:25483772

Mora, Toni; Llargués, Esteve; Recasens, Assumpta

2014-11-22

69

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-10-01

70

Turbulence in Intercultural Communication Education (ICE): Does It Affect Higher Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines a rather neglected context of intercultural education: intercultural communication education (ICE). ICE can be found in different fields such as business, applied linguistics, intercultural communication and health education, amongst others. The authors start by reviewing the latest and ongoing changes…

Dervin, Fred; Tournebise, Céline

2013-01-01

71

A study of professional nurses’ perceptions of factors affecting the process of client education  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Education of patients and helping them to be independent in process of self-care in both health and disease is one of the basic responsibilities of nurses. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytic research was done to study perceptions of 317 nurses working in hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences of factors affecting the process of patient education. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire containing 30 questions about facilitating factors and 17 abou...

Goudarzi Z; Khosravi Kh; Bahrani N; Vaskooii Kh; Valipourgavgany P; Ghoghaei S; Mosaviniasigari M; Khayatali M; Zahedi H; Basiri A

2004-01-01

72

Is there a role for affect and emotion in entrepreneurship education?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Questions we care about (Objectives) In this paper we address the question of what role affect can play in entrepreneurship education. In particular we seek to explore how educators can create activities that leverage affect to instigate learning in the students. Approach In the paper we use a single case study to explore the role of affect in entrepreneurial learning. The study focuses on a learning activity involving the creation of a flashmob by the students, as well as the buildup to the flashmob, which included a Lego based exercise. The case study builds on a combination of observation data, interviews with the teacher and the students as well as entries from the students’ learning logs. Results The study shows that the entrepreneurship educator in the case did create platforms for affect that were conducive to entrepreneurial learning. We also found the different platforms created very different patterns of affect. We suggest that these differences are due to differnces in the space in which the learning activity occurs, and the temporal duration of the activity. Implications Our study suggests that entrepreneurship educators can and should seek to address the issue of affect in their teaching. We also provide evidence of how teachers can create learning-conducive platforms. Value/Originality The study bridges theoretical insight into the affective turn and empirical data from an entrepreneurship classroom. This results in useful descriptions of learning activities and the affects created both within and among the students. We also point to challenges and risks involved in leveraging affect in entrepreneurship teaching.

Knudsen, Britta Timm; Robinson, Sarah

73

Públicos e (des)vantagens em educação: escolas e famílias em interacção / Publics et (dés)avantages dans l'éducation: écoles et familles en interaction / Publics and (dis)advantages in education: schools and families in interaction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste texto pretendemos apresentar alguns resultados provisórios de uma investigação em curso centrada nos processos de regulação da educação. O estudo desenvolve-se num concelho do norte de Portugal (convencionalmente designado Vila Formosa), abarcando as escolas com oferta de ensino secundário, e [...] pretende esclarecer, um conjunto de questões envolvidas com a diversidade dos públicos escolares, orientações e práticas das escolas e estratégias das famílias. Os elementos que nos propomos apresentar decorrem da análise de uma parcela do material empírico recolhido na primeira fase do estudo e centram-se, no essencial, na articulação entre duas vertentes: i) lógicas e processos mobilizados pelas escolas nos momentos em que efectivam determinadas escolhas organizacionais (nomeadamente, quando procedem à constituição das turmas e à gestão de determinados recursos); ii) determinadas estratégias de investimento escolar das famílias (materializadas, por exemplo, em 'escolhas' diversas e no recurso a 'explicações'). Os dados preliminares da investigação em curso, sugerem, ainda que de uma forma não linear nem consolidada, estamos perante um acesso desigual a um bem fundamental - a educação -, sobretudo nas suas fileiras mais prestigiadas, desigualdade essa que parece penalizar sobretudo os grupos sociais que já sofrem de outros défices. Abstract in english In this text we intend to present some preliminary results of an inquiry in progress centred in the processes of regulation of education. The study is developed in one municipality of the north of Portugal (conventionally assigned Vila Formosa), including the schools that supply secondary education, [...] and it intends to clarify a set of questions envolved whit the diversity of school publics, families strategies and orientations and practices of schools. The elements that we intend to present result from the analysis of a parcel of the collected empirical material in the first phase of the study and they are focused, in the essential, over the articulation between two sources: i) logics and processes mobilized by the schools at the moment where they accomplish organizational choices (namely, when they proceed to the constitution of pupil groupings and the management of some resources); ii) some family strategies of school investment (materialized, for example, in "different choices" and the use of "private individualized lessons"). The preliminary data of the research, suggest that we are in presence of an unequal access to a basic good - education -, over all in its most privileged courses, inequality that seems to penalize those social groups that already suffer from other disadvantages.

Virgínio, Sá; Fátima, Antunes.

2007-01-01

74

Reform responses : how public management reforms affect managerial relations and loyalties in education  

OpenAIRE

Relations between professionals and managers in public domains are the subject of sharp controversies, especially in domains like education. According to public opinion, the rise of Managerialism has fuelled clashes between managers and professionals. In the past few years, academic research has mainly studied how management reforms affect professionals and their work. How managers, such as school managers, are affected has hardly been studied, however. This paper studies wheth...

Noordegraaf, M.; Wit, B. C.

2009-01-01

75

VOCATIONAL CHOICES OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED ADOLESCENTS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was conducted in Kanyakumari District in Tamilnadu with 500 socially disadvantaged adolescents(MBC, SC and ST selected from 11 schools in to assess their vocational preferences (Scientific, Technology, Agriculture, Mass Media, Artistic, Commercial, Medical, Social service, Law and order and Education using career Preference Record constructed and validated by the investigator

S. Sreelatha

2014-05-01

76

VOCATIONAL CHOICES OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED ADOLESCENTS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT  

OpenAIRE

Present study was conducted in Kanyakumari District in Tamilnadu with 500 socially disadvantaged adolescents(MBC, SC and ST) selected from 11 schools in to assess their vocational preferences (Scientific, Technology, Agriculture, Mass Media, Artistic, Commercial, Medical, Social service, Law and order and Education) using career Preference Record constructed and validated by the investigator

Sreelatha, S.

2014-01-01

77

Relationship between Affective Learning, Instructor Attractiveness and Instructor Evaluation in Videoconference-Based Distance Education Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is intended to reveal the results of a study in which the relationship between learners' perceptions of affective learning, instructors' attractiveness and instructor evaluations in a videoconference based distance education course was investigated. An online survey instrument was used to collect quantitative data. A series of Pearson…

Aydin, Irem E.

2012-01-01

78

"Affection in Education": Edward Carpenter, John Addington Symonds and the Politics of Greek Love  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper examines Edward Carpenter's 1899 essay on education that defended the value of powerful same-sex attachments, either between older and younger boys or between teachers and pupils, in the context of Victorian ideologies of same-sex affection. Linda Dowling has described how "a homosexual counterdiscourse able to justify male love in ideal…

Quinn, Josephine Crawley; Brooke, Christopher

2011-01-01

79

Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

Becerra, David

2012-01-01

80

Population Validity for Educational Data Mining Models: A Case Study in Affect Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced research methods such as educational data mining (EDM) have allowed researchers to effectively model a broad range of constructs pertaining to the student, moving from traditional assessments of knowledge to assessment of engagement, meta-cognition, strategy and affect. The automated…

Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Baker, Ryan; Gowda, Sujith; Heffernan, Neil; Heffernan, Cristina

2014-01-01

81

Developmental changes in achievement motivation and affect in physical education: Growth trajectories and demographic differences.  

OpenAIRE

Objective: We examined changes in student achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and affective responses in secondary school physical education. Method: Greek junior high school students (N ¼ 394; 191 males and 203 females) responded to a multisection questionnaire twice a year from the ages of 12 to 15 years. Results: Multilevel modeling analyses showed significant linear decreases in perceptions of taskinvolving teacher climate, task and ego goal orienta...

Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-ntoumani, Cecilie

2009-01-01

82

Affecting Change? Cultural Politics of Sexuality and «Race»in Norwegian Education  

OpenAIRE

The point of departure for “Affecting change? Cultural politics of sexuality and ‘race’ in Norwegian education” is the reconfiguration of sexual and racial politics in the Norwegian public sphere over the past decade. Both gender equality and homotolerance was transformed from contested political issues to common values that were seen to positively distinguish Norwegian culture in this process. Furthermore, these issues were increasingly taken up to describe both cultural differences ...

Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

2014-01-01

83

A Research on Critical Thinking Tendencies and Factors that Affect Critical Thinking of Higher Education Students  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to determine the relationship between critical thinking tendencies and levels and thefactors that affect the critical thinking tendencies of higher education students. In the study, critical thinkingtendencies of freshman and senior students were analyzed depending on demographic features, faculties anddepartments.The research was done on the students of U?ak University. In the study, the data collected through surveys wereanalyzed through regression analysi...

Ramazan Arslan; Hakan Gulveren; Erhan Aydin

2014-01-01

84

The level of hopelessness in the students of an occupational education center and affecting factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this survey was to define the hopelessness levels in the students of an occupational education center and the definition of the factors affecting them.Materials and methods: The survey is a descriptive type and was made among 630 students who have been taking an apprenticeship, foremanship and proficiency education at an Occupational Education Centre. The whole universe was included in the survey. A questionnaire of a question set, which is made up of health, social and demographic variables and the factors thought to be related with hopelessness and also of Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS was carried out among 600 students.Results: Totally 88.7% of the students are male, 11.3% are female and their mean age was 20.04 ± 6.0 years. Of all, 83.7% were taking foremanship education; 9.5% apprenticeship education and 6.8% were taking a proficiency education. The average point of BHS was found as 7.31 ± 3.78 (min: 1, max: 19. The rate of the students whose BHS point is ?10 is 26.2%. The level of hopelessness was found higher among the men who worked more than five days a week, changed jobs, works more than eight hours, don’t like their jobs, had chronic illnesses and smoking and taking alcohol (p<0.05. Also, perception of their health situation goes from positive to negative parallel to increasing hopelessness (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hopelessness mean point of the students was low. But, approximately one per four students’ BHS point is ?10. Psychological help or guiding activities can be organized, after evaluating the factors affecting their hopelessness.

Süleyman Erhan Deveci

2011-09-01

85

What affects asthma medicine use in children? Australian asthma educator perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global burden of childhood asthma is significant. Health care systems are faced with increasing financial costs, while children with asthma and their caretakers are faced with poorer physical health, emotional health, and quality of life. Despite the availability of effective treatment, the quality use of asthma medicines in children remains suboptimal. An investigation was conducted to explore issues related to children's asthma medicine usage from the perspective of the health care professional. Although current literature has elicited the views of caretakers and children, the health care professional viewpoint has been relatively unexplored. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 21 Australian asthma educators. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and transcripts were thematically analyzed with the assistance of NVivo 7. Emergent themes associated with health care professionals, parents, medicines, children, and educational resources were found. Major issues included a lack of information provided to parents, poor parental understanding of medicines, the high cost of medicines and devices, child self-image, the need for more child responsibility over asthma management, and the lack of standardization, access to, and funding for educational resources on childhood asthma. There are multitudes of key issues that may affect asthma medicines usage in children. This research will help inform the development of educational tools on the use of medicines in childhood asthma that can be evaluated for their effectiveness in getting key messages to target audiences such as children, caretakers, and teachers. PMID:19544161

Chong, Julianne J; Davidsson, Anders; Moles, Rebekah; Saini, Bandana

2009-06-01

86

Schools, education and social exclusion  

OpenAIRE

A review of research evidence suggests that low levels of educational attainment are crucial in generating and sustaining social exclusion. Test scores at school are the most effective predictor of many adult outcomes. School attendance and soft skills are also important. Reviewing the factors accounting for the variance in educational attainment, it is evident that combinations of social disadvantage powerfully affect school performance with up to 75% of school variation in 16 year old attai...

Sparkes, Jo

1999-01-01

87

Helping Children and Youth with Feelings. Affective-Behavioral Science Education Resources for the Developing Self/Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed as a resource for teachers, this bibliography provides reference to materials on affective education from the areas of psychology, education, and mental health published between 1951 and 1975. Included in the listing are professional books, articles, periodicals, children's books, organizations and projects, additional bibliographic…

Morse, William C.; Munger, Richard L.

88

"External Conditions Affecting a Harmonious Family": Lessons Learned from a School-Based Parent Education Programme in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an important…

Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

2013-01-01

89

We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely learning, attention, memory, decision making, and social functioning, are both profoundly affected by and subsumed within the processes of emotion; we call these aspects emotional thought. Moreover, the evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests the hypothesis that emotion-related processes are required for skills and knowledge to be transferred from the structured school environment to real-world decision making because they provide an emotional rudder to guide judgment and action. Taken together, the evidence we present sketches an account of the neurobiological underpinnings of morality, creativity, and culture, all topics of critical importance to education. Our hope is that a better understanding of the neurobiological relationships between these constructs will provide a new basis for innovation in the design of learning environments.

Mary Helen Immordino-Yang

2011-12-01

90

Complementary Expertise in a Zoo Educator Professional Development Event Contributes to the Construction of Understandings of Affective Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultural Historical Activity Theory served as the analytical framework for the study of a professional development event for a zoo's education department, specifically designed to build understandings of "Affective Transformation," an element pertinent to the organization's strategic plan. Three key products--an Affective

Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Kassing, Sharon

2013-01-01

91

La educación de la afectividad en los escritos de Augusto Mijares / Education of affectivity in Augusto Mijares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Es evidente que la afectividad es un elemento a tomar en cuenta en el proceso de educación. Algunas investigaciones recientes muestran la necesidad de armonizar la educación intelectual y la educación de la afectividad para alcanzar una mejor educación del carácter (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 200 [...] 4). En este sentido, puede resultar oportuno buscar antecedentes en los pensadores humanistas venezolanos. En esta investigación me pregunto: ¿Qué aportes ofrece Augusto Mijares a la educación de la afectividad? ¿Cuál es la caracterización de la afectividad del venezolano según A. Mijares? ¿Cuál es la propuesta de Mijares para educar mejor la afectividad en Venezuela? Para responder a estas preguntas sigo la metodología del Análisis del Discurso (Van Dijk, 1985; Bolívar, 1995). El corpus está formado por artículos de Mijares publicados en prensa, y los dos discursos de incorporación a las Academias de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, y Venezolana de la Lengua -correspondiente de la Real Academia Española-. Las categorías de análisis son los conceptos de afectividad, virtud de la constancia, educación y perfectibilidad del ser humano; estas categorías se definen desde la perspectiva del Romanticismo según Augusto Mijares. Las categorías se analizan principalmente en las descripciones de personajes históricos, venezolanos, que Mijares relata en sus escritos. Al final de este trabajo, encuentro que Mijares formuló una propuesta para la educación de la afectividad de los venezolanos, y es: Educar en la virtud de la constancia. Pareciera conveniente considerar hoy, en Venezuela, esta alternativa educativa como un medio para armonizar razón y afectividad. La propuesta de Mijares en este corpus invita a continuar profundizando el estudio de la educación de la afectividad en sus obras completas. Abstract in english Affectivity is a relevant element in the educational process. Multidisciplinary international research on character education shows the need for harmonizing intellectual education and the education of affectivity (Goleman, 1996; Nieto y Otero, 2004). In order to find precedents to improve Venezuelan [...] education of affectivity, we must look to teachers that have made a mark in the nation's history. In this article, we explore the contributions of Mijares to the concept of education of affectivity, how he characterizes Venezuelan affectivity, and what is his proposal for improving Venezuelan education for affectivity. Mijares' proposal and his conception of the human being are studied within his Possitivist background and considering the effects of previous Romantic ideas. We conclude that Mijares states a viable alternative for the education of affectivity by educating in the virtue of constancy. It seems convenient to consider this educational alternative today in order to harmonize reason and affectivity.

María Jesús, NIETO; , OTERO.

2004-09-01

92

Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged

Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

2014-01-01

93

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

94

Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’. (letter)

95

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Sweden: A study of ESD within a transition affected by PISA reports  

OpenAIRE

Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been called for playing a crucial role in integrating principles,values, and practices accorded with sustainable development. Holistic approach, ethical values, norm transitionand behavior changes are required to achieve the aim of ESD. However, while both external and internal impactsof the Swedish education system have affected its fundamental values and aims, core elements of ESD inSwedish curriculum were also influenced. This paper analyzes,...

Chung, Youngeun

2013-01-01

96

An investigation into the use of digital technology in adult education - how does it affect roles in adult education?  

OpenAIRE

Adult education and further training in Ire land is currently undergoing reform. The VEC structure is now abolished and it has been rcplaced by Education and Training Boards. Meanwhile digital technology is also being integrated into adult education and bringing about changes of its own. This case study aimed primarily to examinc how thc use of digital tecliiJgy can impact on the roles of those involved ill adult education. In particular, thc focus of the S!!!bl was ~ ro les...

Murphy, Henrietta Clare

2013-01-01

97

Affectivity in educational context and in the teacher’s formation: mobilization, social participation and ethical-politics suffering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.

Viviane Melo de Mendonça

98

The roots of reds: a rationale for the support of educators affected by the HIV and aids pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of educators’ work has changed dramatically, in part because of the challenges of the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Despite these multiple and relentless challenges which educators contend with, and despite numerous calls for educator empowerment to cope with HIV -related challenges, little has been done up until now to support educators. By reviewing current literature, this article outlines the HIV-altered professional reality of South African educators and makes the argument that affected educators need support to cope. In conclusion, the support programme, Resilient Educators (REds, is introduced as one possible means of educator support. Opsomming Die aard van onderwysers se werk het dramaties verander, deels as gevolg van die uitdagings van die MIV- en Vigspandemie. Ten spyte van hierdie veelvoudige en onverbiddelike uitdagings waarmee onderwysers gekonfronteer word, en ten spyte van die talle oproepe tot onderwyserbemagtiging om die MIV-verwante uitdagings die hoof te bied, is daar tot dusver min gedoen om onderwysers te ondersteun. Deur middel van ’n literatuuroorsig beskryf hierdie artikel die MIV- veranderde professionele werklikheid van Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysers en word daar geargumenteer dat geaffekteerde onderwysers ondersteuning nodig het om die situasie te hanteer. Gevolglik word die ondersteuningsprogram “Resilient Educators (REds” voorgestel as moontlike wyse van onderwyserondersteuning.

CSL Delport

2008-12-01

99

Factors Affecting the Integration of Information Literacy in the Teaching and Learning Processes of General Education Courses  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1) The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director o...

Therdsak Maitaouthong; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Yupin Tachamanee

2011-01-01

100

Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. PMID:23145793

Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

2013-06-01

101

Negative Experiences in Physical Education and Sport: How Much Do They Affect Physical Activity Participation Later in Life?  

Science.gov (United States)

People's feelings toward physical activity are often influenced by memories of their childhood experiences in physical education and sport. Unfortunately, many adults remember negative experiences, which may affect their desire to maintain a physically active lifestyle. A survey that asked 293 students about recollections from their childhood…

Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Marita K.

2013-01-01

102

What Affects Academic Functioning in Secondary Special Education Students with Serious Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…

Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

103

Semblanzas de la línea de investigación: Dominio afectivo en educación matemática Affective Domain in Mathematics Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece información acerca de la Línea de Investigación denominada “Dominio Afectivo en Educación Matemática” (LI-DAEM y da cuenta del horizonte de posibilidades previstas en sus áreas temáticas y objetivos. En dicha línea está contemplada la inmersión en temas relativos a teorías sobre la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de los contenidos matemáticos, así como el abordaje de aplicaciones, lenguaje matemático, discurso en el aula, interacciones comunicacionales, comportamientos, acciones y pensamientos que se generan en torno a los objetos matemáticos y sus representaciones sociales, materiales o mentales. Ello amerita la consideración de modelos, estrategias, métodos, técnicas y recursos; además requiere la revisión de orientaciones epistemológicas, sociológicas, culturales, psicológicas y paradigmáticas, haciendo énfasis en una multiplicidad de factores tales como creencias, concepciones, sentimientos, emociones y actitudes hacia la Matemática que se manifiestan en torno a la enseñanza, al aprendizaje o la evaluación de los aprendizajes matemáticos, en relación con los cuales también se manifiestan aspectos cognitivos, sociales, culturales, políticos, actuativos, económicos y afectivos debidos a tales procesos. Con base en lo anterior, se mencionan algunas opciones temáticas desde donde se pueden diseñar y poner en marcha investigaciones con cuyos productos se espera contribuir con la práctica, el desarrollo y la teoría relacionada con la Educación Matemática ligada con dichos factores del dominio afectivo, mediante la descripción, comprensión y explicación de situaciones educativas debidas al proceso de adquisición de conocimientos y de producción de saberes en el aula de matemática. Finalmente se mencionan algunos de los estudios documentales y proyectos especiales sustentados en actividades lúdicas, llevados a cabo por investigadores adscritos a LI-DAEM.This paper provides information on the Line of research called "Domain Affective in Mathematics Education" (LI-DAEM and realizes the horizon of possibilities in their subject areas and objectives. That line is covered immersion in issues concerning theories about teaching, learning and evaluation of mathematical content, as well as addressing applications, mathematical language, speech in the classroom, communication interactions, behaviors, actions and thoughts generated around objects and their mathematical representations social, physical or mental. That warrants consideration of models, strategies, methods, techniques and resources; also requires the revision of guidelines epistemological, sociological, cultural, psychological and paradigmatic, with an emphasis on a multiplicity of factors such as beliefs, ideas, feelings, emotions and attitudes towards the mathematics that are manifested on teaching, learning and assessment of learning math, on which aspects are also apparent cognitive, social, cultural, political, of action, economic and emotional due to such processes. Based on the foregoing, are some thematic options from which you can design and implement investigations whose products are expected to contribute to the practice, development and theory related to the Math Education linked to such factors affective domain through the description, understanding and explanation of educational situations due to the process of acquisition of knowledge and production skills in the classroom mathematics. Finally mentioned some of the studies documentaries and special projects based on leisure activities, carried out by researchers affiliated with LI-DAEM.

Oswaldo Martínez Padrón

2007-06-01

104

Do Title I School Choice and Supplemental Educational Services Affect Student Achievement? Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief summarizes an analysis of the two educational options provided under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) to students in Title I schools that are identified for improvement: school choice and supplemental educational services. Among the key findings: (1) The students participating in supplemental educational services generally…

Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Razquin, Paula; Booker, Kevin; Lockwood, J.R.; Vernez, Georges; Birman, Beatrice; Garet, Michael; O'Day, Jennifer

2007-01-01

105

Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

2012-01-01

106

Factors Affecting the Integration of Information Literacy in the Teaching and Learning Processes of General Education Courses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.

Therdsak Maitaouthong

2011-11-01

107

Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues, such as human-induced climate change, presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). First, climate science is complex and requires "systems thinking," or the ability to think and reason abstractly about emergent systems (Goldstone & Sakamoto, 2003). Appreciating the intricacies of complex systems and emergent processes has proven challenging for students (Chi, 2005). In addition to these challenges, there are specific misconceptions that may lead thinking astray on the issue of global climate change, such as the distinction between weather and climate (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). As an example, when students are asked about their views on climate change, they often recall individual storm events or very cold periods and use their personal experiences and recollections of short-term temperature fluctuations to assess whether the planet is warming. Beyond the conceptual difficulties, controversial topics offer another layer of challenge. Such topics are often embedded in complex socio-cultural and political contexts, have a high degree of uncertainty, and may be perceived by individuals as in conflict with their personal or religious beliefs (Levinson, 2006, Sinatra, Kardash, Taasoobshirazi, & Lombardi, 2011). Individuals are often committed to their own views on socio-scientific issues and this commitment may serve as a motivation to actively resist new ideas (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Individuals may also have strong emotions associated with their misconceptions (Broughton, Pekrun, & Sinatra, 2011). Negative emotions, misconceptions, and resistance do not make a productive combination for learning. Further, teachers who find human-induced climate change implausible have been shown to hold negative emotions about having to teach about climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation), which could affect how they present the topic to students. In this presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

Sinatra, G. M.

2011-12-01

108

48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.  

Science.gov (United States)

...contains small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets. The Contractor...requirement . If this contract contains SDB participation targets, the Contractor shall report on the participation of SDB concerns at contract completion,...

2010-10-01

109

The role of initial affective impressions in responses to educational communications: the case of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging technologies promise potential benefits at a potential cost. Developers of educational communications aim to improve people's understanding and to facilitate public debate. However, even relatively uninformed recipients may have initial feelings that are difficult to change. We report that people's initial affective impressions about carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), a low-carbon coal-based electricity-generation technology with which most people are unfamiliar, influences how they interpret previously validated education materials. As a result, even individuals who had originally self-identified as uninformed persisted in their initial feelings after reading the educational communication-though perseverance of feelings about CCS was stronger among recipients who had originally self-identified as relatively informed (Study 1). Moreover, uninformed recipients whose initial feelings were experimentally manipulated by relatively uninformative pro-CCS or anti-CCS arguments persisted in their manipulated feelings after reading the educational communication, due to evaluating the educational communication in line with their manipulated impressions (Study 2). Hence, our results suggest that educational communications will have more impact if they are disseminated before people form strong feelings about the topic under consideration, especially if these are based on little to no factual understanding. PMID:24708355

Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2014-06-01

110

Nontraditional Career Development Programs for Women. A Career Exploration Project for Disadvantaged Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a discussion of a Career Exploration Project jointly undertaken by the Seal of Ohio Girl Scout Council and the Division of Continuing Education of Columbus Technical Institute during the Summer of 1975. The participants were economically disadvantaged young women between the ages of 11 and 17. The main objective was to increase…

Sarno, Marie R.

111

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Technology in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programs for current second language learning. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs' report (2002), more than nine million…

Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kritsonis, William Allan

2006-01-01

112

Family Resources and Development of Social Competence in Disadvantaged Children in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored relationship between family resources and social competence of 300 adolescents. Found that parental education, occupation, and family income were related to positive peer and teacher-related social competence among advantaged adolescents. Negative responses and outside family support were positively related to disadvantaged adolescents'…

Muni, Anita Kumari; Rath, Arundhati; Choudhury, Aparajita

1997-01-01

113

A Story of Conflict and Collaboration: Media Literacy, Video Production and Disadvantaged Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Media literacy educators talk about the importance of developing essential social skills, such as collaboration, by using video production in the classroom. Video production with disadvantaged youth can also play a role of art therapy, as students use their creativity to come to terms with traumatizing pasts. This paper offers an account of a…

Friesem, Elizaveta

2014-01-01

114

Arts Integration and the Success of Disadvantaged Students: A Research Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Does arts integration contribute to student success for disadvantaged student populations? The introduction to this article compares students' academic performance and arts education in countries outperforming the United States on the recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading…

Robinson, A. Helene

2013-01-01

115

Developments in UK Early Years Policy and Practice: Can They Improve Outcomes for Disadvantaged Children?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite strenuous attempts made by the New Labour government in the UK to progress towards its goal of eradicating child poverty by 2020, educational outcomes for disadvantaged children remain depressed compared to those of more advantaged children. The fact that children from poorer socio-economic backgrounds are at much greater risk of language…

Potter, Carol A.

2007-01-01

116

Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain  

Science.gov (United States)

Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

2014-01-01

117

Identifying Factors That Affect Higher Educational Achievements of Jamaican Seventh-Day Adventists  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed-method explanatory research examined factors that influenced Jamaican Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) members to pursue higher education. It sought to investigate whether the source of the motivation is tied to the Church's general philosophy on education or to its overall programs as experienced by the membership at large. The question of…

Campbell, Samuel P.

2011-01-01

118

An Empirical Study of the Factors Affecting Weblog Success in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of classroom blogs in higher education serves to engage and motivate students as well as to help them build a professional online profile and connect with fellow classmates. Although many studies have focused on the implementation and benefits of blogging in education, few have investigated best practices in design, which can have a…

Zhang, Sonya

2013-01-01

119

The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches  

Science.gov (United States)

Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational

Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

2013-01-01

120

A Dialogue with Divas: Issues Affecting a Scholarly Agenda in Special Education, from Africana Feminist Perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the unique perspectives of African American women forming special education scholarship. Qualitative research on 10 African American women with doctorates in special education highlighted what it meant to be an underrepresented black female in a broader community of scholars, describing respondents' resistance to the dominant culture…

Carter, Joya Anastasia

2002-01-01

121

Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

2003-01-01

122

Factors Affecting the Standard of Female Education: A Case Study of Senior Secondary Schools in the Kassena-Nankana District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the current factors affecting the standard of female education in the Kassena-Nankana district in Upper East Region of Ghana. Poverty, long-held negative attitudes about women's intellectual capabilities, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, examination failure in mathematics and science and the traditional division of household labour are among the many factors that continue to keep vast numbers of girls out of the classroom in the district and country as well.

I. A. Adetunde

2008-01-01

123

Has the level of achieved education affected the income of Czech households  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with an analysis of the effects of education on the income of Czech households from 2006-2010. EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) review results are the main data source. The paper investigates with the living conditions of households and that is mandatory for all states. Based on the unified methodology, that is then possible to make comparison between countries. Households are divided into five categories according to the education attained ...

Birc?iakova?, Nad?a; Antos?ova?, Veronika; Sta?vkova?, Jana

2013-01-01

124

77 FR 36924 - Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements  

Science.gov (United States)

...OST-2011-0101] RIN 2105-AE10 Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...amends the Department of Transportation's Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise...DBE) rule for highway, transit, and airport financial assistance programs. This...

2012-06-20

125

Disadvantages of Preferential Dispersals in Fluctuating Environments  

CERN Document Server

It has not been known whether preferential dispersal is adaptive in fluctuating environments. We investigate the effect of preferential and random dispersals in bet-hedging systems by using a discrete stochastic metapopulation model, where each site fluctuates between good and bad environments with temporal correlation. To explore the optimal migration pattern, an analytical estimation of the total growth is derived by mean field approximation. We found that the preference for fertile sites is disadvantageous when transportation among sites has a cost or the sensitivity of preference is high.

Morita, Satoru

2014-01-01

126

Social disadvantage and asthma control in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review discusses various aspects of social disadvantage and their association with poor asthma control, including socioeconomic status, exposure to psychosocial stress and violence, minority affiliation, environmental concerns such as allergens and pollution, and poverty in rural settings. Each of these elements has been linked with worsened asthma outcomes in children. Known and hypothesized mechanisms behind these associations are described in an effort to further understand the complex entity of poorly controlled asthma among socially deprived children. Intervention studies to improve asthma outcomes in these vulnerable populations are also described. PMID:24928775

Kopel, Lianne S; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gaffin, Jonathan M

2014-09-01

127

Cancrum oris (noma): Level of education and occupation of parents of affected children in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 173 cancrum oris patients who were brought by their parents to the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, were analyzed. Ninety-one (52.6%) were males and 82 (47.4%) females. Their ages ranged from 1.5 to 11 years with a mean of 4.36 (standard deviation 2.13) years. One hundred and twenty-one (69.9%) and 52 (30.1%) were from monogamous and polygamous family respectively. The average number of children per family was 7.0. The number of parents with no formal education was 148 (85.5%) and 98.3% were low-income earners. The relationships between occupation, income and educational status were highly significant. This study suggests that apart from poverty, large family units and low educational status of parents are contributing factors in the aetiology of cancrum oris. PMID:11372157

Obiechina, A E; Arotiba, J T; Fasola, A O

2000-06-01

128

The science of memory - and how it should affect design of games for outside education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Games are great for learning. They inspire, engage and most importantly of all, they are different from other activities at school. We remember good experiences in unusual settings, and may mentally time-travel back to them again and again. With mobile phones as platforms for games and drama in education, great memories can now be shaped on the go. And of course we need memory to learn. Modern psychology is ripe with information about how we remember and forget the world around us, but for historical reasons, all this useful knowledge rarely reaches teachers or designers of educational games.

Lieberoth, Andreas

2012-01-01

129

The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

2009-01-01

130

How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

2007-01-01

131

Education Affects Attitudes of Physical Therapy Providers toward People with Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was sent to every skilled nursing home (N = 495) in Indiana regarding the demographics, education, and whether the severity of dementia impacts the attitudes of people in physical therapy practice. Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) practicing in nursing homes spend considerable time (44.0%) working with…

Staples, William H.; Killian, Clyde B.

2012-01-01

132

From "Therapeutic" to Political Education: The Centrality of Affective Sensibility in Critical Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

While the need for humanising education is pressing in neoliberal societies, the conditions for its possibility in formal institutions have become particularly cramped. A constellation of factors--the strength of neoliberal ideologies, the corporatisation of universities, the conflation of human freedom with consumer satisfaction and a wider…

Amsler, Sarah S.

2011-01-01

133

A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

2012-01-01

134

Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil  

OpenAIRE

This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011) and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD pos...

Delshad Namin Shirin; Mirzaei Daryani Shahram; Sattari Ardabili Farzad

2013-01-01

135

Inequity in the Provision of Public Bus Service for Socially Disadvantaged Groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neo-classical economic doctrine dominating governmental policies shows its impact on recent transport policies, causing these policies; tend to base on demand and efficiency criteria instead of equity concerns. Public transit operating for remote areas is less cost-effective eventually leading to have a low level of service quality. In metropolitan areas of developing countries, a large part of socially disadvantaged and vulnerable groups live in outer suburban locations not in the inner-city. Transit equity evaluation is required by in order to consider the requirements of more vulnerable populations, as well as to foster equal benefits. The evaluation approach is based on highlighting the spatial distribution and clustering patterns of bus network and service as well as some disadvantaged social groups including unemployed, migrated, less educated, elderly, young, and disabled. The hypothesis is that vulnerable groups and economically disadvantaged communities receive a less than equal share of public bus services. The findings show that poor accessibility is associated both with low-income neighborhoods and with neighborhoods with disproportionately high populations of migrated, less-educated, unemployed and low-income groups. Modifications need to make in transport planning and policy system to achieve a better distribution of public transport services in hope of increasing level of service for minority groups and economically disadvantaged communities.

Ali Soltani

2011-09-01

136

The Effects of Ecology-Based Summer Nature Education Program on Primary School Students' Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Affect and Responsible Environmental Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of ecology-based nature education program on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, environmental affect, and responsible environmental behavior. A total number of 64 elementary school students including 26 females and 38 males who participated in summer natural education organized…

Erdogan, Mehmet

2011-01-01

137

The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended…

Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

2013-01-01

138

Factors that Affect the Decision of Refugee and Immigrant Students to Pursue Higher Education in Tennessee: The Case of Egyptian, Somali, Kurdish and Mexican Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Refugee and immigrant students face challenges in pursuing higher education. This study examined factors that affect the decision of refugees and immigrant students to pursue higher education in Tennessee. The factors included cultural capital these students acquire from their parents and families; cultural difference they have with the mainstream…

Weldegebriel, Mengistu H.

2011-01-01

139

Musical Meaning in the Lives of Those Affected by the Holocaust: Implications for Music Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study investigated the role of music in the lives of those affected by the Holocaust. Participants were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling techniques, and a total of five were selected based on their connection to the Holocaust. Participants included those incarcerated in camps and ghettos, those who escaped…

Cunningham, Deborah A.

2014-01-01

140

How Features of Educational Technology Applications Affect Student Reading Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review is to learn from rigorous evaluations of alternative technology applications how features of using technology programs and characteristics of their evaluations affect reading outcomes for students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards.…

Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

2012-01-01

141

Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

KlausFliessbach

2012-06-01

142

Reproduction of Gender Gaps throughout the Entrepreneurial Career: Disadvantages and Benefits  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Gender gaps pervade human activity. But little is known about forces reshaping gaps across career phases, from education to running a business. The purpose of this study is to account for gender gaps owing to a lack of education and training. Such gaps may accumulate over one’s entrepreneurial career and widen or narrow due both to environmental forces that reconfigure the gap across career phases and to the gendering of competencies and benefits from education and training. Methodology – A representative sample of 110,689 adults around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Gender-related effects were ascertained by odds ratios estimated by hierarchical modelling, controlling for country and attributes of individuals. Findings – Education and entrepreneurial training, both during and after formal schooling, are highly beneficial in developing competencies and during career phases – i.e. intending to start a business, starting a business, and running a business. Early gaps in human capital are reproduced as gaps in careers, and continuous disadvantages in the environment repeatedly widen gaps throughout a person’s entrepreneurial career. That said, gender gaps are reduced slightly over time as women gain greater benefit from training than men. Implications for research – The cumulative effects of early gender gaps in education and training call for research on gendered learning, and recurrent gender effects across career phases call for research on gendering in micro-level contexts such as networks and macro-level contexts such as institutions. Implications for policy and education – Understanding the gendering of human capital and careers has implications for policy and education aimed at developing human resources, especially for mobilising women. The finding that women gain greater benefit than men from training is informative for policies that foster gender equality and empower women pursuing careers. Originality/value – Conceptualising the entrepreneurial career as a sequence of several stages enables the assessment of gender gaps owing to initial disadvantages in education and to recurrent disadvantages on the career path.

Cheraghi, Maryam; SchØtt, Thomas

2014-01-01

143

How evaluation processes affect the professional development of five teachers in higher education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents research that investigates the nature of the connection between the professional development of five teachers in higher education and the evaluation processes they have to undergo. Since teaching, scholarship, and service are the three components that evaluation measures, this research examines how the teachers’ professional development was reflected in these components, and how they viewed the connection between their professional activities and the evaluation process. One conclusion states that while the  evaluation process is intimidating and taxing, it develops the skills for the teaching component. The contribution stems principally from a mentoring channel, which enables teachers to receive counseling and guidance from experienced veteran colleagues. Mentoring encourages the teachers and prompts them to seek advice, study, scrutinize their work methods, and improve the quality of their teaching. Another conclusion reveals that during the first years of work in higher education, evaluation was not found to influence activity in the scholarship and service components. The evaluation requirements notwithstanding, the extent of the activity in these components was limited and non-intensive as a result of the teachers’ focus on teaching. Professional development deepens and expands as seniority increases and confidence in one’s teaching abilities grow. Despite the limited scale of the study, the research conclusions may serve as recommendations for institutions of higher education to consider providing a mentoring channel for the teachers who are in their first years of academic work. Furthermore, institutions should demonstrate flexibility vis-à-vis the extent and depth of such individuals’ activity in scholarship and services when evaluating them. Another recommendation is to encourage institutions to take into account the advantages of veteran teachers, and the fact that professional activities deepen and expand as seniority increases.

Leah Shagrir

2012-02-01

144

Improving Dietary Habits in Disadvantaged Women With HIV/AIDS: The SMART/EST Women’s Project  

OpenAIRE

There is a lack of information on whether brief nutrition education can succeed in improving longer-term dietary patterns in disadvantaged populations with HIV/AIDS. In the SMART/EST II Women’s Project 466 disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS were randomized to one of four groups and received a two-phase training consisting of a coping skills/stress management and nutrition education provided either in a group or individually. At baseline the majority of participants had excessive fat and suga...

Segal-isaacson, C. J.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Stephen M.; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Anita; Wang, Cuiling; Camille, Joanne; Gousse, Yolene; Ishii, Mary; Jones, Deborah; Laperriere, Arthur; Lydston, David; Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail

2006-01-01

145

Use of MOOCs in Teacher Education: advantages, disadvantages and risks  

OpenAIRE

En este artículo se discute la naturaleza de los MOOCs (Massive Online Open Courses) en el contexto de la Formación Docente. Se plantea una reflexión sobre el uso de esta nueva tecnología a la luz de las necesidades de formación de docentes. Se presentan las grandes ventajas que tendrían estos cursos para resolver algunos de los problemas de dotación docente a nivel internacional y actualización del conocimiento del profesorado. Se muestran también algunas desventajas frente a ...

Silva-pen?a, Ilich; Salgado Labra, Isabel

2014-01-01

146

“Don't affect the share price”: social media policy in higher education as reputation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including learning, teaching and assessment. This study considers the social media policies of 14 universities in the United Kingdom (UK that are currently in the public domain. It addresses some of the ways in which Higher Education Institutions (HEIs are responding to both the positive potential of social media as well as its perceived threats. Drawing inspiration, if not actual method, from critical discourse analysis, this study argues that marketisation has been the main policy driver with many social media policies being developed to promote university “brands” as well as protect institutional reputation. The creation and implementation of social media policies are therefore playing a role in helping universities manage both the risks and the benefits of social media in the context of an increasingly marketised Higher Education (HE environment in which protecting institutional reputation has become a priority. However, in the defence of the metaphorical institutional “share price”, some policies constrain both academic autonomy and the possibilities for innovation and risk-taking.

Tony McNeill

2012-08-01

147

Factors affecting the continuing education of hospital CEOs and their senior managers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the influences on executives' continuing education in hospitals. It uses data from a national survey on professional development conducted in 2009 by the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) to explore how organizational and individual characteristics are related to the amount of continuing education (CE) taken by chief executive officers (CEOs) and the commitment to CE by their senior managers. Our findings suggest that the organizational characteristics of ownership, size, and region and the individual characteristics of gender, professional affiliation, and the focus of CE may influence how much CE CEOs take. CEOs from for-profit, larger hospitals and ACHE members tend to take less CE. Likewise, senior managers' commitment to CE is influenced by region, gender, the CEO's personal CE hours, and the focus of the CE. Surprisingly, ACHE membership is associated with lower amounts of personal CEO CE. Also, female CEOs appear to engender greater commitment to CE in their senior managers. Finally, CE focused on change increases the senior managers' commitment, while a focus on new technology lessens it. For those organizations seeking to meet current and future challenges by creating a learning organization, CE is essential. Understanding factors that influence the amount of and commitment to CE is important. We hope our research adds to this understanding and that leaders will seek to improve the dedication and value of CE in their organizations. PMID:21166324

Walston, Stephen L; Chou, Ann F; Khaliq, Amir A

2010-01-01

148

Unequally Distributed Psychological Assets: Are There Social Disparities in Optimism, Life Satisfaction, and Positive Affect?  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health. PMID:25671665

Boehm, Julia K.; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R.; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D.

2015-01-01

149

Family Influences on the Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Students: Implications for Gifted Identification and Programming  

OpenAIRE

This review of the literature looks at family influences on the achievement of economically disadvantaged youth, with an emphasis on relationships among families, academic achievement, and gifted education. Theoretical perspectives on the study of families have focused primarily on families as static systems and families as dynamic systems and, more recently, on families as interactive systems. Correlation between single parenting and low academic achievement has been found, though the presen...

Hunsaker, Scott L.; Frasier, M. M.; King, L. L.; Watts-warren, B.; Cramond, B.; Krisel, S.

1995-01-01

150

Diet and evaluators affect perception of swine waste odor: an educational demonstration.  

Science.gov (United States)

An educational program was developed for extension agents, faculty, and graduate students to illustrate the effect of diet composition on odor from swine manure. Participants in this program first received a 2-h detailed review on odorous compounds in manure and the effect of diet on odor. For the second portion of the training, nine manure samples were used from pigs fed diets formulated with feed ingredients predicted to have different effects on odor emission or a nutritionally adequate corn-soybean meal diet. Participants were instructed to rate the odor from these samples for pleasantness, irritation, and intensity on a scale of 0 (best) to 8 (worst), using manure from the corn-soybean meal fed pig as the reference with a score defined as 4 for each variable. Results obtained were summarized and discussed before concluding the program. Participants were Cooperative Extension Agents (n = 13) with swine responsibilities and graduate students and faculty (n = 8). The manure from the diet with the worst odor scores (1% garlic) was rated at 70% more odorous across the three odor variables (P < 0.05) than the diet with the least odorous manure (purified diet). Even though a reference sample was used, individual participants differed in their perception of irritation across samples (P < 0.05), ranging in average score across diets from 2.4 (moderately better than reference) to 5.0 (slightly worse than reference). With extension agents, a 1 to 7 scale (very interesting to not at all interesting) was used for evaluation of the training session. Participants found the material to be interesting (mean = 1.7, SD = 0.7) and the training exercise to be well organized and coherent in its presentation (mean = 1.8, SD = 0.7). Participants enjoyed this training and learned that differences in odor are achievable through altering diet composition, and that the response to swine odor depends on individual odor perception. PMID:14677877

Moeser, A J; See, M T; van Heugten, E; Morrow, W E M; van Kempen, T A T G

2003-12-01

151

Estudantes com desvantagens econômicas e educacionais e fruição da universidade / Les etudiants defavorises sur le plan economique et educationnel et le profit qu'ils tirent de l'universite / Students with economical and educational disadvantages and fruition of the university  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O texto discute os principais resultados de uma investigação que teve como objetivo apreender a utilização dos recursos e espaços da Universidade de São Paulo por um grupo de estudantes com desvantagens econômicas e educacionais. A partir de uma revisão crítica da bibliografia nacional e estrangeira [...] sobre a trajetória de estudantes provindos das camadas populares que chegam ao ensino superior e da interpretação dos dados empíricos coligidos, reflete-se sobre o que esses alunos, efetivamente, aproveitam da estrutura propiciada pela universidade. Os alvos da investigação voltam-se para verificar como ocorreu o processo de socialização no ambiente familiar; a reconstrução da trajetória de ingresso e o trânsito no ambiente universitário mediante a apreensão do cotidiano, da adaptação à linguagem acadêmica, da realização dos afazeres, além do contato com indivíduos de origem similar bem como de outros estratos sociais. A pesquisa utilizou a metodologia qualitativa, operacionalizada em duas fases: grupos focais e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com o objetivo de refinar as principais categorias surgidas. Espera-se contribuir na reflexão sobre os debates atuais em torno da inclusão social no ensino superior ao integrar à análise do acesso à universidade, uma discussão sobre a efetiva permanência, onde o foco passa a ser um estudo mais pormenorizado das diferenças na qualidade da educação recebida pelos diversos segmentos sociais presentes na universidade pública. Abstract in english This text discusses the main results of an investigation that had as its objective to understand the use of the resources and spaces of the University of São Paulo by a group of students with economical and educational disadvantages. Starting from a critical revision of the national and foreign bibl [...] iography on the path of students stemming from society's poorer layers that arrive at higher education and of the interpretation of the empiric data gathered, a reflection is made about what those students effectively take of the structure propitiated by the university. The investigation aims to verify how the socialization process happened in the family atmosphere; as well as how happened the reconstruction of the entrance path and the traffic in the academical atmosphere through the understanding of daily life, the adaptation to the academic language, the accomplishment of academic tasks, besides the contact with individuals of similar origin as well as from other social strata. The research used the qualitative methodology through two phases: focal groups and semi-structured interviews with the objective of refining the main categories to appear. This paper hopes to contribute in the reflection on the current debates around the social inclusion in the higher education through integrating a discussion on the effective permanence to the analysis of the access to the university, where the focus becomes a more detailed study of the differences in the quality of the education received by the several present social segments in the public university.

Wilson Mesquita de, Almeida.

2007-04-01

152

Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

2012-01-01

153

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

A. Seda YUCEL

2007-01-01

154

Affective Imagination in Science Education: Determining the Emotional Nature of Scientific and Technological Learning of Young Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.

Fleer, Marilyn

2013-01-01

155

Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

Tedesco, Juan Carlos

156

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-01-01

157

The factors affecting the use and integration of information communications technology in an Irish adult education and training centre: a case study approach.  

OpenAIRE

ICT use in the classroom is very important to provide the opportunities for adult students to learn in this information communications technology (ICT) age. Studying the barriers to the use of ICT in education may assist teachers to overcome these barriers and have successful integration of ICT in the future. The purpose of this case study was to examine the factors affecting the use and integration of ICT in an Irish Adult Education and Training Centre (AETC). This study investigates the ...

O Shaughnessy, Kathleen T.

2011-01-01

158

Clinical education and training: Using the nominal group technique in research with radiographers to identify factors affecting quality and capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather t the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues

159

The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the students? parent; related to the parent?s socio-economic background and their involvement strategies in their children?s education at home. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent?s involvement. The findings of this study indicated that most parents from the low socioeconomic background claimed that they showed high involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child?s education success. However, the education level, employment status, and income among the the parents fom the lower socioeconomic background affect their understanding and their knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child?s education. As a result, there is a lack among these children in terms of good skills, behaviour and values which are extremely important for their academic success.

Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

2012-07-01

160

48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.  

Science.gov (United States)

...either be certified as a small disadvantaged business (SDB) concern or have a completed SDB application pending at the SBA or a Private Certifier...accept an offeror's representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes....

2010-10-01

161

48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the following small disadvantaged business (SDB) participation targets proposed by the contractor... (b) The following specifically identified SDB(s) was (were) considered under the Section—SDB participation evaluation factor or...

2010-10-01

162

Disadvantages of linguistic origin: Evidence from immigrant literacy scores  

OpenAIRE

This study quantifies the disadvantage in the formation of literacy skills of immigrants that arises from the linguistic distance between mother tongue and host country language. Combining unique cross-country data on literacy scores with information on the linguistic distance between languages, gaps in literacy test scores are estimated. Linguistically distant immigrants face significant initial disadvantages of linguistic origin that exceed existing differentials across wage distributions a...

Isphording, Ingo Eduard

2013-01-01

163

Soil Stabilization Using Lime: Advantages, Disadvantages and Proposing a Potential Alternative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an overview of previous studies on lime (quick and hydrated -treated soil. Lime is the oldest traditional stabilizer used for soil stabilization. The mechanism of soil-lime treatment involves cation exchange, which leads to the flocculation and agglomeration of soil particles. The high pH environment then causes a pozzolanic reaction between the free Ca+2 cations and the dissolved silica and alumina. Lime-treated soil effectively increases the strength, durability and workability of the soil. Such treatment also improves soil compressibility. A fluctuation behavior was observed on the influence of lime on soil permeability. However, the factors affecting the permeability of the soil-lime mixture should be extensively studied. Nonetheless, lime treatment has a number of inherent disadvantages, such as carbonation, sulfate attack and environment impact. Magnesium oxide/hydroxide are thus proposed as a suitable alternative stabilizer to overcome at least some of the disadvantages of using lime in soil stabilization.

Ibtehaj Taha Jawad

2014-07-01

164

Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

2014-10-01

165

Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to provide greater access and support to academically talented students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Originally intended to provide financial support to lower income students, this NSF program also advocated that additional professional development and advising would be strategies to increase undergraduate persistence to graduation. This innovative program for economically disadvantaged students was extended in 2004 to include students from other disciplines including the physical and life sciences as well as the technology fields, and the new name of the program was Scholarships for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (S-STEM). The implementation of these two programs in Louisiana State University (LSU) has shown significant and measurable success since 2000, making LSU a Model University in providing support to economically disadvantaged students within the STEM disciplines. The achievement of these programs is evidenced by the graduation rates of its participants. This report provides details on the educational model employed through the CSEMS/S-STEM projects at LSU and provides a path to success for increasing student retention rates in STEM disciplines. While the LSU's experience is presented as a case study, the potential relevance of this innovative mentoring program in conjunction with the financial support system is discussed in detail.

Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

2012-10-01

166

A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

Beshers, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

167

Socio-cultural contexts affecting the export of education: the case of Finnish primary schools and the United Arab Emirates  

OpenAIRE

The Finnish education system is known as one of the best performing systems in the world. This has raised a significant international interest, making the export of the Finnish know-how in education a good business opportunity. This thesis considers the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a target market for the export of Finnish primary education and analyzes the business environment particularly from socio-cultural aspects to shed more light on what to consider ahead before venturing in that area...

Hadid, Rima

2013-01-01

168

What We Call What We Do Affects How We Do It: A New Nomenclature for Simulation Research in Medical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid technological advances and concern for patient safety have increased the focus on simulation as a pedagogical tool for educating health care providers. To date, simulation research scholarship has focused on two areas; evaluating instructional designs of simulation programs, and the integration of simulation into a broader educational

Haji, Faizal A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Morin, Marie-Paule; Giannoulakis, Konstantine; Koh, Jansen; Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J. H.

2014-01-01

169

A Structural Equation Model of the Factors Affecting Filipino University Students' Shadow Education Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall intent of this exploratory study is to test a model that considers demographic characteristics, attitudes toward shadow education and shadow education institutions' service attributes as antecedents of satisfaction level and behavioural intentions among a select group of Filipino university students. To test the seven hypotheses…

de Castro, Belinda V.; de Guzman, Allan B.

2014-01-01

170

Teachers' Perceptions of Factors Affecting the Educational Use of ICT in Technology-Rich Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to identify the main factors that influence teachers' decision-making regarding the educational use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in technology-rich classrooms. Method: We collected data from 278 teachers in Catalonia (Spain) working in eight primary and secondary education

Badia, Antoni; Meneses, Julio; Sigales, Carles

2013-01-01

171

Contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação Contributions from Henri Wallon to the relationship between cognition and affectivity in education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo versa sobre as contribuições de Henri Wallon à relação cognição e afetividade na educação. Situa e define os complexos afetivos e cognitivos na teoria waloniana e destaca a noção de pessoa engajada como síntese fundamental para o entendimento da relação entre afetividade e cognição no campo educacional. Busca ainda apontar a importância da visão dialética e humanista da pessoa completa de Wallon para as práticas educacionais e retoma a ideia de "circularidade fundamental" de Francisco Varela para atualizar a visão de Wallon sobre a não separatividade entre homem e mundo.This paper focuses on the contributions from Henri Wallon about the relationship between cognition and affectivity in the education. It also defines the complex interdependency between affective and cognitive dimensions of such theory and emphasizes the notion of engaged person as a fundamental synthesis to understanding the relationship between affectivity and cognition in the educational field. This article also highlights the importance of dialectical and humanist view of integral person for educational practices and it incorporates the idea of "fundamental circularity" of Francisco Varela aiming to updating the view of Wallon about non-separateness between human beings and world.

Aurino Lima Ferreira

2010-01-01

172

Participating in Synchronous Online Education  

OpenAIRE

There is an increasing need for education since the workforce of today is expected to be highly educated and continuously learn. Distance education is a powerful response to meet the growing need for education. Online education, here concisely defined as distance education mediated online, is the most common type of distance education. It mainly relies on asynchronous communication although it is well known that many students regard the lack of synchronous communication as disadvantageous. Th...

Hrastinski, Stefan

2007-01-01

173

Do Jobs Work? Risk and Protective Behaviors Associated with Employment Among Disadvantaged Female Teens in Urban Atlanta  

OpenAIRE

Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15–21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who w...

Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph

2014-01-01

174

What we call what we do affects how we do it: a new nomenclature for simulation research in medical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid technological advances and concern for patient safety have increased the focus on simulation as a pedagogical tool for educating health care providers. To date, simulation research scholarship has focused on two areas; evaluating instructional designs of simulation programs, and the integration of simulation into a broader educational context. However, these two categories of research currently exist under a single label-Simulation-Based Medical Education. In this paper we argue that introducing a more refined nomenclature within which to frame simulation research is necessary for researchers, to appropriately design research studies and describe their findings, and for end-point users (such as program directors and educators), to more appropriately understand and utilize this evidence. PMID:23559018

Haji, Faizal A; Hoppe, Daniel J; Morin, Marie-Paule; Giannoulakis, Konstantine; Koh, Jansen; Rojas, David; Cheung, Jeffrey J H

2014-05-01

175

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Science.gov (United States)

...Associate Administrator for Business Development (AA/BD...mainstream of American society, or other similar causes...disadvantage in American society, not in other countries...or advancement in the business world because of the...in opportunities for government contracts or other...

2010-01-01

176

Methods for Developing Resiliency in Children from Disadvantaged Populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protective factors that contribute to the development of resiliency in children, defined as "unusually good adaptation in the face of severe stress, and an ability of the stressed person to rebound to the prestress level of adaptation," are discussed. The biological, psychological, familial, and social factors related to disadvantages that…

Steinhauer, Paul D.

177

48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...participation of Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) concerns in the performance of a resulting...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the contract...evaluate the extent of participation of SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

178

A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

179

Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

2011-01-01

180

Open Source Approach in Software Development - Advantages and Disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The works points to open source approach in software development, which has recorded important results since its beginning. Thanks to it, we are able to use the software representing the fruit of this approach. The work also points to the characteristics of open source approach through the prism of advantages and disadvantages.

Jovica ?urkovi?

2008-12-01

181

Seeking help for depression from family and friends: A qualitative analysis of perceived advantages and disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background People with depression often seek help from family and friends and public health campaigns frequently encourage such help seeking behaviours. However, there has been little systematically collected empirical data concerning the effects of such informal help seeking. The current study sought to investigate the views of consumers about the advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from family and friends for depression. Methods Participants were the subset of 417 respondents to a survey, sent to 7000 randomly selected members of an Australian electoral community, who indicated that they had sought help for depression from family or friends. One item on the survey asked participants to indicate the advantages or disadvantages of seeking help from family or friends. A coding system was developed based on a content analysis of the responses to the item. Each of the responses was then coded by two raters. Results Respondents identified both advantages and disadvantages of seeking support from friends. The most commonly cited advantage was social support (n = 282 including emotional support (n = 154, informational support (n = 93, companionship support (n = 36 and instrumental support (n = 23. Other advantages related to family's or friend's background knowledge of the person and their circumstances (n = 72, the opportunity to offload the burden associated with depression (n = 62, the personal attributes of family and friends (n = 49, their accessibility (n = 36, and the opportunity to educate family and friends and increase their awareness about the respondent's depression (n = 30. The most commonly cited disadvantages were stigma (n = 53, inappropriate support (n = 45, the family member's lack of knowledge, training and expertise (n = 32 and the adverse impact of the help seeking on the family/friend (n = 20 and the relationship (n = 18. Conclusions Family and friends are well placed to provide support which consumers perceive to be positive and which can assist them in obtaining formal mental health treatment. However, the input of some family members may be unhelpful or toxic. There may be benefits in undertaking community education and destigmatisation programs which target carers.

Griffiths Kathleen M

2011-12-01

182

Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs. Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.

Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; SchØtt, Thomas

2013-01-01

183

Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011 and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD post hoc test was used and it was determined that in organizational culture, the mean of student than the other two groups, in empowering, the mean of employees than other groups, in the motivational factors, the mean of student than another groups and in the way of managing, the mean of employees than other two groups are different. Finally, using the technique of TOPSIS, factors affecting productivity of faculty were ranked. The results showed that the components of empowerment, environmental conditions, organizational culture, leadership method (management and motivational factors are most important in enhancing the productivity of faculty members of Ardebil universities, respectively.

Delshad Namin Shirin

2013-12-01

184

13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?  

Science.gov (United States)

...Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China (including Hong Kong...however, SBA will consider education, employment and business...the business world. (A) Education. SBA considers such factors...access to institutions of higher education, exclusion from social...

2010-01-01

185

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

186

Afetar e sensibilizar na educação: uma proposta transdisciplinar = To affect and sensitize in education: a transdisciplinary proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A proposta complexa e transdisciplinar abre novas perspectivas para o campo educacional. Essas perspectivas procuraram religar o conhecimento à vida, reorientando os processos de formação para que se valorize a constituição de um sujeito sensível e afetivo. A vocação transdisciplinar institui novas práticas pedagógicas formadoras de uma razão-afetivo-sensível, capaz de promover uma visão mais integrada do ser humano. Nesta concepção de educação, o processo ensino-aprendizagem supera o processo lógico e intelectual, torna-se um processo dinâmico, coerente, dialógico e criativo. Promover a proposta transdisciplinar na formação docente passa pela vivência de formar pessoas que tornarão nossa experiência no mundo mais cooperativa, amorosa e solidariamente compreendida.A complex and transdisciplinary proposal opens new perspectives in the educational field. Such perspectives seek to reconnect knowledge to life, by redirecting educational processes towards encouraging the creation of sensitive and emotional individuals. A transdisciplinary vocation establishes new pedagogical practices, forming an affectivesensitive-reason, capable of promoting a more integrated vision the human being. In this conception of education, the teaching-learning process surpasses the logical and intellectual process and becomes a dynamic, coherent, dialogic and creative process.To promote a transdisciplinary proposition in teacher training means experiencing the fact of educating people, who will make our experience in the world more cooperative, loving and solidly understood.

Solange Martins Oliveira Magalhães

2011-10-01

187

Targeted versus Mixed Preschools and Kindergartens: Effects of Class Composition and Teacher-Managed Activities on Disadvantaged Children's Emergent Academic Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, longitudinal cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to determine the effects of (a) socioeconomically mixed preschool and kindergarten classrooms, (b) the implementation of an education program aiming to accelerate socioeconomically disadvantaged children's emergent academic skills, and (c) the amount of teacher-managed…

de Haan, Annika; Elbers, Ed; Hoofs, Huub; Leseman, Paul

2013-01-01

188

Disadvantages of applied lacquer coatings on polymer substrate  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The use of polymer parts in automotive industry gives economic and practical savings. This is evoked by weight reduction of the used construction elements. However, polymer parts usually require application of coatings to ensure high quality surface. The painting of polymer materials is one of the most popular and well known methods. Assumptions of the study presented in this article were an attempt to create an atlas of lacquer coating disadvantages.Design/methodology/approach: Assu...

Wierzbicki, ?.; Kulesza, J.

2012-01-01

189

Health improvement for disadvantaged people in Nepal – an evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background An evaluation of progress with participatory approaches for improvement of health knowledge and health experiences of disadvantaged people in eight Districts of Eastern Nepal has been undertaken. Methods A random selection of Village Development Committees and households, within the eight Districts where participation and a Rights-based Approach had been promoted specifically by local NGOs were compared with similar villages and households in...

Rana Ram B; Ghimire Rabindra; Shah Mahendra B; Kumal Tirtha; Whitley Elise; Baker Ian A

2012-01-01

190

BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOME CONSERVATION TREATMENTS FOR EGYPTIAN MUMMIES  

OpenAIRE

Mummified remains and associated artifacts are fragile and vulnerable to several types of deterioration, including those factors which result from environmental conditions, physical damage and damage caused by previous inadequate conservation attempts. This paper considers the benefits and disadvantages of the conservation treatments in relation to the preservation of DNA in mummified remainsLos restos momificados y sus artefactos asociados son frágiles y vulnerables a varios tipos de de...

Rosalie David, A.

2001-01-01

191

Evolving networks with disadvantaged long-range connections  

OpenAIRE

We consider a growing network, whose growth algorithm is based on the preferential attachment typical for scale-free constructions, but where the long-range bonds are disadvantaged. Thus, the probability to get connected to a site at distance $d$ is proportional to $d^{-\\alpha}$, where $\\alpha $ is a tunable parameter of the model. We show that the properties of the networks grown with $\\alpha ...

Xulvi-brunet, R.; Sokolov, I. M.

2002-01-01

192

Are Treasury Inflation Protected Securities Really Tax Disadvantaged?  

OpenAIRE

In 1997 the U.S. Treasury introduced Inflation Indexed (or Protected) Securities with substantial promotional fanfare. Yet, due in part to what some in the finance profession have described as a "tax disadvantage" placed upon TIPS, many are questioning whether they should appeal to a wide audience. Some, in fact, advise holding TIPS only in tax-deferred accounts. In this paper, the authors develop a framework that allows us to demonstrate that the tax treatment of TIPS is trivially different ...

Hein, Scott E.; Mercer, Jeffrey M.

2003-01-01

193

Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children’s telomere length  

OpenAIRE

This paper makes two contributions to research on the link between the social environment and health. Using data from a birth cohort study, we show that, among African American boys, those who grow up in highly disadvantaged environments have shorter telomeres (at age 9) than boys who grow up in highly advantaged environments. We also find that the association between the social environment and telomere length (TL) is moderated by genetic variation within the serotonin and dopamine pathways. ...

Mitchell, Colter; Hobcraft, John; Mclanahan, Sara S.; Siegel, Susan Rutherford; Berg, Arthur; Brooks-gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel

2014-01-01

194

ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

Alexandra MUSC?NESCU

2013-01-01

195

ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING  

OpenAIRE

Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

Musca?nescu, Alexandra

2013-01-01

196

VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program : VIDA status report 1. Design and methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs. This VIDA Report 1 presents the design and methods used in the inclusive ECEC intervention program. TWO MODEL PROGRAMS Two model programs are introduced: the VIDA Basis program and the VIDA+ parental program. Both programs consist of education and training of VIDA staff by means of three elements: presentation of theoretical and empirical knowledge of children’s learning and wellbeing; education, including giving staff the opportunity to refl ect on their own experiences when working with socially disadvantaged children at their center; and, fi nally, training on how to renew practices at local level on the basis of VIDA program guidelines. The aim of the fi rst program (VIDA Basis) is to support children’s learning and well-being and particularly support socially disadvantaged children, i.e. these children’s socioemotional development and learning through inclusive efforts. The aim of the second program is the same kind of improvement of children’s development butin this program parents are involved in the activities too (VIDA+ program). Thus, the two model programsare similar in that they both direct attention to children in general and disadvantaged children’s well-being and learning particular; however they differ in that VIDA+ particularly directs attention to fi nding new methods for involving parents. INTERVENTION: EDUCATION AND IMPLEMENTATION The aim of the VIDA programs is to enhance the innovative competences of managers and daycare teachers with regard to improving the learning and wellbeing of children. The objective of the VIDA educational programs is to improve the way in which staff works with renewing everyday practices in terms of early efforts for socially disadvantaged children. The two model programs are based on recent evidence-based knowledge and, specifi cally for the VIDA+program, the Danish Clearinghouse of Education has made a research review of effective intervention programs that include parental involvement (see Appendix I). A range of materials and tools have thus been developed for the VIDA educational program, including guidelines for working with children’s learning and well-being through social inclusion. The program builds on three perspectives: 1) a resourceoriented and asset perspective on socially disadvantaged children as children with potential (not defi cit), 2) a learning perspective that views participants in the program (children, teachers and parents) as active, refl ective learners, and 3) an organizational learning perspective (staff qualifi cation in the entire daycare center). The VIDA education and training sessions thus build on methods that improve professionals’ ability to convert scientifi c knowledge into practice through knowledge sharing and innovative experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit) knowledge in order to improve the efforts for children. The role of managers is important as they ar

Holm, Anders

2012-01-01

197

School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration. PMID:20107622

Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

2009-01-01

198

Does making upper secondary school more comprehensive affect dropout rates, educational attainment and earnings? Evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme  

OpenAIRE

Since the mid-20th century many OECD countries have discarded their previous selective schools systems, in which students early on were separated between academic and vocational tracks, in favor of more comprehensive schools. The effects of these reforms have generally been difficult to evaluate and their consequences for students' educational and labor market outcomes remain disputed. This paper evaluates the effects of the introduction of a more comprehensive upper secondary school system i...

Hall, Caroline

2009-01-01

199

Match of Inputs and Outputs of Higher Education to Local Market in Mafraq Governorate: Perceived Students’ Performance Affect by Geographical Location  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between human capital and economic growth is highly acclimatized by the quality anddistribution of education in the labor force. However, to realize this issue it is important to focus on the base ofeducation at the school level. There is evidence that environmental positions affect students’ performance. Thestudy was conducted using field research. Interviews and surveys were conducted with 229 administers locatedat three directorates of the North Badia region. Subjects were selected using stratified random sampling. Resultsindicated that education at Mafraq Governorate lacks quality and quantity of supply as it is located away fromurban centers. Over all perceived performance was affected differently in the three directorates of North Badia;the highest perceived performance was in Central Mafraq and the least in Northeast Badia. Geographicallocation is associated with: number of students at Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Ninth Elementarygrades; number of students at Eleventh Grade Literature, Computer, Nursing stream, and number of sections atEleventh grade Scientific, Literature, Computer, and Vocational streams; and with number of Physics andAthletics teachers. It is negatively associated with number of students at Twelfth grade scientific stream. Thereshould be emphasis of joining schools together.

Waleed Al-Awawdeh

2012-04-01

200

Exploring Educational Use of Blogs in U.S. Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: As one of the Web 2.0 tools, blogs are widely used in US education. This paper gives a brief overview of blogs such as advantages, disadvantages, and major software for creating blogs, and then it reviews some EduBlogs, its usage, and examples in US education. The purpose is to motivate more educators to use blogs in teaching and…

Hong, Wang

2008-01-01

201

Social origins and post-high school institutional pathways: a cumulative dis/advantage approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The social stratification that takes place during the transition out of high school is traditionally explained with theoretical frameworks such as status attainment and social reproduction. In our paper, we suggest the cumulative dis/advantage hypothesis as an alternative theoretical and empirical approach that explains this divergence in institutional pathways as the result of the dynamic interplay between social institutions (in our case, schools) and individuals' resources. We use data from the NLSY79 in order to compute institutional pathways (defined by educational and occupational status) of 9,200 high school graduates. Optimal Matching Analysis and Cluster Analysis generated a typology of life course pathways. Our results show that both ascribed characteristics and students' high school characteristics and resources are predictors of post-high school pathways. PMID:24468437

Giudici, Francesco; Pallas, Aaron M

2014-03-01

202

Implication of Internet growth on enhancing health of disadvantaged groups in China: a global perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet is promising to play a prominent role in health care in the future, but there is an imbalance in its use between the East and the West, between genders, the rich and poor, the educated and uneducated and the urban and rural. This paper looks at the use of the Internet from the perspective of these subgroups across the world, and outlines some of the problems facing disadvantaged groups in particular older people and their caregivers in China. Older people and their predominantly family caregivers have limited access to computers which is compounded by lack of access to good health care. However, it is suggested that this will become a growth area as older people and their caregivers may well bypass traditional care for telehealth care and Internet information-based systems. PMID:15724821

Lai, Claudia K Y; Arthur, David G; Chau, Wing W H

2004-09-01

203

75 FR 5535 - Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of Transportation Financial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Participation by Disadvantaged Business Enterprises in Department of...their overall disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) goal for...about moving to a three-year cycle: (1) The difficulty in estimating...transportation, Minority business, Reporting and...

2010-02-03

204

41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53...Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. (a) Creation...and authority. Public Law 95-507, October 14...amendment to the Small Business Act and the Small...

2010-07-01

205

Possibilities of Differentiated Approach Implementation into Disadvantaged Children’s Legal Instruction  

OpenAIRE

The article is focused on differentiated approach to disadvantaged children’s legal culture development. Special attention is attached to disadvantaged families and different approaches to schoolchildren’s legal culture development and differentiated approach.

Alice Yu. Kolomiets

2012-01-01

206

Possibilities of Differentiated Approach Implementation into Disadvantaged Children’s Legal Instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is focused on differentiated approach to disadvantaged children’s legal culture development. Special attention is attached to disadvantaged families and different approaches to schoolchildren’s legal culture development and differentiated approach.

Alice Yu. Kolomiets

2012-06-01

207

15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.  

Science.gov (United States)

...should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of the evidence. Social or economic disadvantage must be...demonstrate that such social or economic conditions have produced impediments...outlining the national income level and standard of living...

2010-01-01

208

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL  

OpenAIRE

The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

Seda Yucel, A.

2007-01-01

209

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvan­tages of accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach. Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by the keywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health care and Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria. From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages and disadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were compared on these. Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO from USA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia, New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: quality improve­ment, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confi­dence, effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards, information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders, agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government. Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have defined from a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA of Can­ada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programs such as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accredita­tion programs were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision for any country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specific objec­tives and needs. PMID:24688896

Tabrizi, Jafar S.; Gharibi, Farid; Wilson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

210

Disadvantaged Rural Health ? Issues and Challenges: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disadvantaged rural health reflected by significantly higher mortality rates in rural areas which indicate less attention paid by the government. The issue of health disadvantage to the rural area in the country is far from settled. The public expenditure on health in India is far too inadequate, less than 10% of the total health budget is allocated to rural area where 75% people live. In spite of rising budgetary provision, many of the rural populace dies without any medical attention. Access to high quality health care services plays an important part in the health of rural communities and individuals. Resolving the health problems of rural communities will require more than simply increasing the quality and accessibility of health services. Until governments begin to take an ?upside-down? perspective, focusing on building healthy communities rather than simply on building hospitals to make communities healthy, the disadvantages faced by rural people will continue to be exacerbated. Underutilization of existing rural hospitals and health care facilities can be addressed by a market-centered approach, and more effective government intervention for horizontal and vertical hospital integration. Tele-healthcare, Mobile Health Units and Community-based health insurance are proven helpful in rural areas. Autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media also has a significant impact on maternal health care utilization. Accessibility to health facilities is a critical factor in effective health treatment for people in rural areas. Location?allocation models prescribe optimal configurations of health facilities in order to maximize accessibility. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 80-82

Anil K Chillimuntha

2013-02-01

211

Nutrition habits of Physical Education and Sport High School students of Afyon Kocatepe University and factors affected the the nutrition habits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is carried out to determine the nutritional habits of students in Physical Education and Sport High School and the factors affecting the nutrition habits.Universe of the study was consisted of 224 undergraduate student from Afyon Kocatepe University Physical Education and Sport High School. In this study no sampling method was used and tried to reach all of the universe. 208 student joined this study. To collect data a survey was used which consist 24 question about nutrition habits and socio-demographic chracteristics. In analyzing the data SPSS 18.0 packet programme is used. After finding the frequency and percentage (% distributions, Chi-Square Test was used to evaluate the affects of socio-demographic chracteristic on the nutrition habits. Significance level is determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 for Chi-Square Test.It was found that the mean age in men 21,9±2,07 and women 21,12±2,25. In this study it was determined that % 83,2 of the students were passed meal because of time (% 46,6 and anorexia (% 26,4 . It was determined that 61.5% of the students' did not do the regular breakfast and a very low proportion of students have regularly breakfast (38.5%.It was seen that 47.1% of the students have 2 meals in a day and evening meals were more regular than breakfast and lunch. While chosing their favorite meal students cleanless of dishes (48.6%, favorite meal (59%, 6 and satisfactory (39.4% is effective in preference. Only 14.4% of the students have believed that they have balanced and regularly nutrition and 45.7% of them thought they have partly balanced and regularly nutrition.It was determined that sociodemographic characteristics of the students were effective in nutrition, students living in the dormitory, with good economic status and who believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast.As a result, it was found that students from Physical Education and Sport High School have inadequate knowledge on nutrition and nutrition education, they often skip meal and most of them have two meals ?n a day. A very low proportion of them have regular breakfast.In addition, it was seen that students who have good economic status and lived in the dormitory and believe that they have got adequate level of nutrition knowledge have passed less meal and have regular breakfast and regular nutrition.

Yunus Tortop

2011-03-01

212

The Origins of Distance Education and Its Use in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the origins and growth of distance education, the media used, type of students it attracts, and identifies advantages and disadvantages of utilizing distance education. Gives a brief profile of distance education in the United States. (AEF)

Matthews, Diane

1999-01-01

213

International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

214

Revisiting the Gramscian Legacy on Counter-Hegemony, the Subaltern and Affectivity: Toward an Emotional Pedagogy of Activism in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper seeks to revisit Gramsci’s legacy on counter-hegemony, the subaltern and affectivity, by focusing on the implications of his cutting-edge position on the role of subaltern feelings in the formation of an emotional pedagogy of activism in the context of higher education. Three insights follow from this analysis. First, Gramsci’s work facilitates an understanding of how affect and ideology are entangled. Second, Gramsci’s concepts of counter-hegemony, the subaltern, and the organic intellectual in relation to his views about the unity of reason and emotion offer points of departure for activism, especially small acts of everyday life that often go unnoticed. Finally, Gramsci’s concern with the emotional potential of subaltern subjects shows how important it is to consider subaltern passions as political resources that challenge hegemonic conditions and formulate strategic counter-hegemonic responses.

Michalinos Zembylas

2013-11-01

215

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Yaping Chen

2013-07-01

216

Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars aimed at increasing the levels of expenditure. Though, one may agree or disagree with the methods and findings of the author, hopefully the paper highlight the complexity of the issue at hand, and the need to understand the institutional deficiencies and allocative inefficiencies in government expenditure on education.

Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.

2009-05-01

217

Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

Song, Steve

2011-01-01

218

O imperativo do afeto na educação infantil: a ordem do discurso de pedagogas em formação / The imperative of affect in early childhood education: the order of discourse of undergraduate education students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que teve como foco de análise a problematização dos discursos sobre afeto docente presentes em relatórios de um estágio realizado em turmas de Educação Infantil por 30 acadêmicas de Pedagogia em fase de conclusão do curso. O objetivo do artigo é probl [...] ematizar como os discursos sobre afeto se constituem enquanto imperativos que inventam e regulam os modos de exercício docente. O campo de estudos no qual se fundamentou a pesquisa foi o dos estudos culturais e dos estudos desenvolvidos por Michel Foucault. A metodologia consistiu na análise do discurso foucaultiana, por meio da qual foram destacadas as regularidades e inflexões presentes nos relatórios. Estes foram escritos a partir de elementos recordatórios, como fotos, planejamentos e demais registros das acadêmicas. A análise evidenciou a assunção da afetividade como um imperativo profissional associado a um processo de generificação da docência. A partir da pesquisa, concluiu-se que os significados do afeto no exercício da docência só existem como resultados inacabados de processos que tratam de nomeá-lo e conformá-lo. Por essa razão, se for assumida a perspectiva de que os discursos que tomam o afeto como imperativo docente presentes nos relatórios analisados são produzidos pelas práticas sociais, pelas relações de poder e pelo tipo de lógica disciplinar que os operacionaliza, é possível desnaturalizá-los e reinventá-los, experimentando outros modos de agir e de pensar o exercício da docência na Educação Infantil. Abstract in english This article presents the results of a study that focused on the problematization of the discourses on teacher affect present in reports of an internship in early childhood education classes of 30 Education students nearing graduation. The aim of this paper is to discuss how discourses on affect bec [...] ome imperatives that invent and regulate the ways of teaching. The research was based on cultural studies and the studies developed by Michel Foucault. Its methodology consisted of Foucauldian discourse analysis, through which regularities and inflections found in the reports were highlighted. These reports were written using memory aids such as photos, plans, and other records of the students. The analysis evidenced the assumption of affection as a professional imperative associated with a process of gendering of teaching. From the research, it was concluded that the meanings of affect in the teaching profession only exist as unfinished results of processes that deal with naming it and shaping it. For this reason, if one assumes the perspective that the discourses that take affect as a teacher imperative, as the ones present in the reports analyzed, are produced by social practices, by the relations of power and type of disciplinary logic that operationalizes such discourses, it is possible to denaturalize them and reinvent them, experimenting with other ways of acting and thinking of teaching in early childhood education.

Rodrigo Saballa de, Carvalho.

2014-03-01

219

An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of the Staff Development Model and the Research-Based Assessment Plan in Improving the Identification of Gifted Economically Disadvantaged Students  

OpenAIRE

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This monograph discusses a project involving 246 teachers that investigated a Staff Development Model (SDM) and a Research-Based Assessment Plan (RAP) for their potential to improve the identification and education of gifted students from economically disadvantaged families, some of whom have limited proficiency in the English language. The concept of giftedness as a psychological construct defined by a basic set of ...

Frasier, Mary M.; Hunsaker, Scott L.; Lee, Jongyeun; Finley, Vernon S.; Garcia, Jaime H.; Martin, Darlene; Frank, Elaine

1995-01-01

220

An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss  

OpenAIRE

Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an ...

Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

2015-01-01

221

Advantages and disadvantages of fixed exchange rate: Lithuania‘s case  

OpenAIRE

In the Master‘s thesis main advantages and disadvantages of Fixed Exchange Rate were distinguished, analyzed their impact on Lithuania‘s economy and evaluated whether a common currency with the euro-zone countries would be useful. In the first part of the paper the main Exchange Rate Regime advantages and disadvantages were identified, main developments of Lithuania’s monetary policy and optimum currency area were overviewed. The impact of fixed exchange rate advantages and disadvantage...

Abraityte?, Aiste?

2013-01-01

222

Higher education  

OpenAIRE

During the last five years higher education research in Germany seems to be in a significant upturn. This is a side effect partly of the obvious boom of empirical educational research in general and partly of the reform movement that has affected the German higher education system since middle of the 1990s. The demand for data in the field of higher education will increase considerably in future. The available data infrastructure for higher education research in Germany consists of two comple...

Wolter, Andra?

2009-01-01

223

Operation of roof pond systems, considering its advantages and disadvantages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. The roof pond system is a passive solar system which gathers heat from the sun and can distribute it to the living space to cool it or heat it by changing the operating cycle. Although not recent, this method has not been widely implemented due to certain limitations and the aim of this paper is to assess the different advantages and disadvantages of this system over other passive solar heating systems. This study showed that a roof pond has a low impact on the building, provides controllable energy delivery and variations in indoor temperature are low; however it requires an active solar system as a backup and vegetation can limit sunlight penetration. This study highlighted that the efficiency of the roof system pond depends on climate conditions and that it is best suited to lower latitude and low humidity areas.

Noohi, Samira; Rezaei, Davood [Faculty of engineering, Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: noohi.sam@gmail.com, email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir

2011-07-01

224

Advantages and Disadvantages of Health Care Accreditation Mod­els  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This systematic review seeks to define the general advantages and disadvantagesof accreditation programs to assist in choosing the most appropriate approach.Method: Systematic search of SID, Ovid Medline & PubMed databases was conducted by thekeywords of accreditation, hospital, medical practice, clinic, accreditation models, health careand Persian meanings. From 2379 initial articles, 83 articles met the full inclusion criteria.From initial analysis, 23 attributes were identified which appeared to define advantages anddisadvantages of different accreditation approaches and the available systems were comparedon these.Results: Six systems were identified in the international literature including the JCAHO fromUSA, the Canadian program of CCHSA, and the accreditation programs of UK, Australia,New Zealand and France. The main distinguishing attributes among them were: qualityimprovement, patient and staff safety, improving health services integration, public’s confidence,effectiveness and efficiency of health services, innovation, influence global standards,information management, breadth of activity, history, effective relationship with stakeholders,agreement with AGIL attributes and independence from government.Conclusion: Based on 23 attributes of comprehensive accreditation systems we have definedfrom a systematic review, the JCAHO accreditation program of USA and then CCHSA ofCanada offered the most comprehensive systems with the least disadvantages. Other programssuch as the ACHS of Australia, ANAES of France, QHNZ of New Zealand and UK accreditationprograms were fairly comparable according to these criteria. However the decision forany country or health system should be based on an assessment weighing up their specificobjectives and needs.

Andrew J. Wilson

2011-07-01

225

Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was shaped in relation to different socio-economic and socio-cultural policies that determined the creation of a polarisation between north and south or between centre and periphery which were subject to numerous socio-urban inversions during the communist and post-communist eras. Hence, life in a large metropolis is vulnerable to inequalities appearing within the urban pattern that intensifies, in some cases, towards residential segregation. The historical-geographical analysis of vectors behind clusters of sensitive areas in the 20th and 21st centuries strengthens the importance of social cohesion measures in the future urban policies and territorial planning.

ALINA T. CHICO?

2013-01-01

226

The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in [...] discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education). Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

T P, Maforah; S, Schulze.

227

Oral language supports early literacy: a pilot cluster randomized trial in disadvantaged schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ? .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy. PMID:24160184

Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K

2014-10-01

228

Sustainable energy and development in disadvantaged communities: New approaches from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovakia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)

Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01

229

The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools: new light on an old issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North- West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed-methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with which these principals struggled. Thirty principals of secondary schools located in the rural villages and townships in the province were purposefully selected. A structured questionnaire was used during the quantitative phase. The items in the questionnaire determined the principals' views on intrinsic and contextual factors related to their working environment. These items were followed by open-ended questions. Additional qualitative data were obtained through interviews with eight principals selected from the same group. Although the principals enjoyed intrinsic aspects of their work and positive interpersonal relations at their schools, the results were significant in determining how the principals struggled with other issues (e.g. policies and practices of the Department of Basic Education. Underpinning factors were unrealistic expectations and negative perceptions that influenced their professionalism. A key factor that emerged was power versus powerlessness.

T P Maforah

2012-01-01

230

Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

2013-01-01

231

Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

2013-01-01

232

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

233

Israeli Teachers' Outlook on the Necessity and Feasability of Teaching Values to Advantaged and Disadvantaged Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines 70 Israeli elementary school teachers' attitudes about teaching scholastic, social, and personal values to advantaged and disadvantaged children. As hypothesized, teachers rated such instruction more necessary for disadvantaged than for advantaged children. Teachers' dogmatism scores correlated with attitudes about the need to teach…

Schwarzwald, Joseph; And Others

1979-01-01

234

Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

2013-01-01

235

48 CFR 53.302-312 - Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. 53.302-312 Section 53.302-312...Illustrations of Forms 53.302-312 Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Participation Report. ER26JY00.003 ER26JY00.004...

2010-10-01

236

48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the contract. Credit under...factor or subfactor is not available to an SDB concern that qualifies for a price evaluation...Disadvantaged Business Concerns, unless the SDB concern specifically waives the price...

2010-10-01

237

13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?  

Science.gov (United States)

...What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? 124.1002 Section 124.1002 ...What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)? (a) Reliance on 8(a) criteria...determining whether a firm qualifies as an SDB, the criteria of social and...

2010-01-01

238

Everyday Speech Acts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Mothers to Their Toddlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, everyday mother-to-toddler speech patterns among disadvantaged and advantaged groups were examined in the home environment. The Schachter FIS-C (Functions of Interpersonal Speech of Caretakers) language measuring instrument was applied to mother speech in three sociolinguistic urban groups: black disadvantaged, black advantaged, and…

Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others

239

FAIR VALUE IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, there are many demands coming from all over the world to establish or to secure the possibility of comparability of the information provided in financial statements, and to make this information as reliable and accurate as possible, and therefore making it useful and beneficial for anyone who uses them. These requests demand adjustment of the content of accounted data in every single country, which might have its own accounting standards, to international norms of accounting. Substantial form of the synchronization or unification that attempts to harmonize accounting is the International Accounting Standards / International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS, which are mainly focusing on financial statements, and seeking the solutions for problems connected with it. Financial statements, being one of the main concerns of the IAS/IFRS that should lead to a better comparability, higher predication and also to achieve higher utility for users, is getting more and more important. One of the tools that should help achieve these demands in financial statements is called “Fair value”. Despite the intents and plans, however it is still quite difficult to establish, whether its contribution to the improvement of accounting standards is really beneficial. Main aim of this paper is to examine and depict the advantages and disadvantages connected to the fair value, providing the reader with objective information and thorough insight into the problems and benefits of fair value.Partial objectives of this paper are to define the concept of fair value, to provide information about theoretical background and evolution of fair value and to examine and describe the possible future development of fair value.

Miroslav Škoda

2012-01-01

240

Online Teaching: Navigating Its Advantages, Disadvantages and Best Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Many tribal colleges are already offering distance learning. With increased Internet use, it's likely that even more will offer online courses to their tribal members in order to reach a larger student pool. Online education can reach students who care for their immediate and extended families and who have to work. It is also appealing to students…

Al-Asfour, Ahmed

2012-01-01

241

Does CAS Use Disadvantage Girls in VCE Mathematics?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, four mathematics subjects were offered at the year 12 level in the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE). The two subjects at the intermediate level--Mathematical Methods and Mathematical Methods CAS--run in parallel, that is, a student can be enrolled in only one or the other, the choice being made at the school level. The curricular…

Forgasz, Helen; Tan, Hazel

2010-01-01

242

Female Principals Leading at Disadvantaged Schools in Johannesburg, South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

South African democracy precipitated many changes and excavated many dormant issues, one of which was equity in the workplace. This extended into the sphere of education - a sector in which women were rarely seen in leadership positions. Following the implementation of several redress policies, women have managed to penetrate the gender equity…

Naidoo, Bhaigiavathie; Perumal, Juliet

2014-01-01

243

Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of historically disadvantaged primary schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically disadvantaged schools are mostly in a position where they cannot easily practise entrepreneurial customs like innovation, proactiveness and risktaking. However, some of these schools perform well under similar circumstances and show strong entrepreneurial inclinations. In fact, in research conducted in 2006, Lebusa and Xaba found that there were very strong prospects of fostering entrepreneurial customs at historically disadvantaged schools. It was found that schools were already practising innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking, albeit unintentionally. We report on the practice of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking at historically disadvantaged schools. Case examples of three successful entrepreneurial historically disadvantaged primary schools are presented. Results indicate novel and innovative ventures undertaken at these schools and clearly indicate that some historically disadvantaged schools are indeed entrepreneurially oriented.

Mgadla Xaba

2010-01-01

244

Issues Relating to Distance Education in the Arab World.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distance education is not highly popular in Arab countries although it can expand educational opportunities for disadvantaged groups. Traditional philosophies of education and political issues of licensure, accreditation, and language may hinder its development. The Arab League Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization is undertaking…

Alsunbul, Abdulaziz

2002-01-01

245

The Adequacy of Traveller Education in Northern Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues facing Travellers, including those associated with education are often linked to social exclusion, widespread disadvantage and discrimination (Reynolds, McCartan, and Knipe 2003). The Office for Standards in Education (Office for Standards in Education 1999) referred to Gypsy Traveller pupils as "the most at risk in the education

Hamilton, Jennifer; Bloomer, Fiona; Potter, Michael

2012-01-01

246

Beyond employability : citizenship and responsibility in higher education ; VI. International Workshop November 2012  

OpenAIRE

Employability seems be the predominantly concept of higher education. But confining university education to the need of the job market can cause disadvantages for the whole society. Contributions to a workshop.

Schmidt, Monika; Bargel, Tino

2013-01-01

247

Tobacco health warning messages on plain cigarette packs and in television campaigns: a qualitative study with Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health risk and cessation benefit messages. Six focus groups were conducted over September 2012-April 2013 with adult clients of welfare organizations in regional New South Wales, Australia who were current smokers (n = 51). Participants discussed HWLs, plain packaging and anti-smoking television advertisements. Discussions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Highly emotive warnings delivering messages of negative health effects were most likely to capture the attention of the study participants; however, these warning messages did not prompt quit attempts and participants were sceptical about the effectiveness of cessation programmes such as telephone quitlines. Active avoidance of health warning messages was common, and many expressed false and self-exempting beliefs towards the harms of tobacco. Careful consideration of message content and medium is required to communicate the anti-smoking message to disadvantaged smokers who consider themselves desensitized to warnings. Health communication strategies should continue to address false beliefs about smoking and educate on cessation services that are currently underutilized. PMID:24966335

Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

2015-02-01

248

Mathematics Textbook Transformation and Instructional Intervention for Disadvantaged Elementary School Students: Changes in Mathematics Achievements and Goal Orientation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine changes in the mathematics achievements and goal orientations among disadvantaged students after instructional intervention in textbook transformation and instructional intervention for disadvantaged students. There were eight disadvantaged students in this instructional intervention. Factor analysis, MANOVA, and covariance analysis were used in data analysis. Several important findings were discovered. First, prior to instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientations of disadvantaged students were no different from those of other students, but their mathematics achievements were lower than those of others. Second, after instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientation of disadvantaged students became higher. Finally, after instructional intervention, the mathematics achievements of disadvantaged students became higher, too

Ju-Chieh Huang

2012-12-01

249

The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance  

OpenAIRE

The current study explores the impact of parent?s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child?s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the ...

Vellymalay, Suresh Kumar N.

2012-01-01

250

A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, instruction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge. The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and communication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies. The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relationship. The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi (UAIC and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regarding the students' perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education. The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.

2007-01-01

251

Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous  

Science.gov (United States)

To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada

2008-01-01

252

Affective Dissent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article identifies a form of affective bio-politics more intimate, engrained and corporeally enacted than that identified in recent work emphasising the affective qualities of activism and labour. While these latter reinforce and bolster existing analyses through the identification of further affective concerns, affective bio-politics suggests that neoliberalism supports and sustains itself quite fundamentally through, what have generally been, unrecognised affective means. While such affective regulation can only ever be partial and imprecise its unrecognised, and thus implicitly concealed, character lends it a particular cogency. Illuminating the mechanisms through which such affective regulatory modulation is achieved thus has a powerful potential to clarify further opportunities to disrupt and counter neoliberalism. This account juxtaposes an analysis of affective bio-politics with existing analyses of the affective, and performative, dimensions to activist politics, in order to facilitate the identification of specific opportunities for further affective contestationary strategies.

Stephen Healy

2013-08-01

253

Integrating Design Disciplines: Understanding the Potential for and Factors Affecting the Success of Interdisciplinary Design Education for Architecture and Landscape Architecture  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…

Koo, Tae Seo

2012-01-01

254

13 CFR 124.1013 - How does SBA make disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest?  

Science.gov (United States)

...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? 124.1013 Section 124.1013...disadvantaged status determinations in considering an SDB protest? (a) General. The...contract until: (i) The SBA has made an SDB determination, or (ii) 15...

2010-01-01

255

GLOBALISATION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MANUFACTURER  

OpenAIRE

Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but...

Adriana Manolic?; Teodora Roman

2012-01-01

256

Employment-Oriented Educational Programmes for Disadvantaged Youth: A Memo to Municipal Decision-Makers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains case studies from six countries on local efforts to ease the transition of youth from school to work and to stop or prevent them from regressing to semiliteracy or illiteracy. The countries studied are Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Yugoslavia, and Zimbabwe. A short summary of each of…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

257

78 FR 79221 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the fall, spring, summer, and intersession terms, an SEA must collect and submit...the State are closed for summer or intersession periods. Reasons: Proposed Sec...school term (including summer and intersession terms) was a reasonable...

2013-12-27

258

PROJECT SUMMER '67, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH--AN EVALUATION.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE LOS ANGELES CITY JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT CONDUCTED A 6-WEEK EXPERIMENT FOR THREE GROUPS OF UNDEREDUCATED YOUTH--(1) 50 WITH LOW HIGH SCHOOL GRADES, (2) 51 FROM BILINGUAL HOMES AND ALSO WITH LOW GRADES, AND (3) 51 ADMITTED TO COLLEGE BUT UNABLE TO MAINTAIN A C AVERAGE. AMONG THE PROGRAM'S 10 OBJECTIVES WERE (1) REFINING CERTAIN TEACHING…

GOLD, BENJAMIN K.

259

38 CFR 21.3344 - Special assistance for the educationally disadvantaged.  

Science.gov (United States)

...language skills and mathematics skills may be made...language courses or mathematics courses will be authorized...by accepted testing methods that the eligible...writing, speaking, or essential mathematics....

2010-07-01

260

13 CFR 124.1002 - What is a Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB)?  

Science.gov (United States)

...an eligibility requirement for an SDB. (f) Joint ventures. Joint ventures are permitted for SDB procurement mechanisms...1) The disadvantaged participant(s) to the joint venture must have: (i) Received an SDB...

2010-01-01

261

48 CFR 1519.201-72 - Small and disadvantaged business utilization specialists.  

Science.gov (United States)

...necessary, to obtain small business participation in an acquisition. When small business concerns cannot be given...initiate action, in writing, with appropriate...acquisition from small business and small disadvantaged...maintained, and accurate reports prepared,...

2010-10-01

262

48 CFR 1552.219-72 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the contract. The nature of the evaluation of an SDB offeror under this evaluation factor or subfactor is dependent upon whether the SDB concern qualifies for the price...

2010-10-01

263

Business planning innovative projects: the essence of technology, advantages and disadvantages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies.

S.V. Knyaz

2012-06-01

264

Moving beyond the residential neighborhood to explore social inequalities in exposure to area-level disadvantage: Results from the Interdisciplinary Study on Inequalities in Smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more disadvantaged areas than their more educated counterparts. They also highlight the relevance of investigating both residential and non-residential contexts when studying inequalities in health-relevant exposures. PMID:24632055

Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L

2014-05-01

265

Mathematics Textbook Transformation and Instructional Intervention for Disadvantaged Elementary School Students: Changes in Mathematics Achievements and Goal Orientation  

OpenAIRE

This study was designed to determine changes in the mathematics achievements and goal orientations among disadvantaged students after instructional intervention in textbook transformation and instructional intervention for disadvantaged students. There were eight disadvantaged students in this instructional intervention. Factor analysis, MANOVA, and covariance analysis were used in data analysis. Several important findings were discovered. First, prior to instructional intervention, the achie...

Ju-Chieh Huang

2012-01-01

266

Attraction and retention of previously disadvantaged science research professionals : a case study of the CSIR  

OpenAIRE

This research study is concerned to investigate the problem of the attraction and retention of previously disadvantaged science research professionals in South Africa by conducting a case study of the CSIR. In the South African science sector there is the problem of attraction, development and retention of the required number of previously disadvantaged research professionals needed to transform and develop the intellectual human capital base of the country. The concern around the skills shor...

Maistry, Thashni

2011-01-01

267

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds  

OpenAIRE

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of...

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

268

Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students Placed in Gifted Programs through the Research-Based Assessment Plan  

OpenAIRE

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This study compared the gifted program performance of 121 economically disadvantaged students identified by using the Research-Based Assessment Plan (RAP) and 166 students who were not economically disadvantaged identified through traditional identification methods. The study also compared the RAP-identified students' attitudes toward school to the attitudes of the traditionally identified students and compared the a...

Hunsaker, Scott L.; Frasier, M. M.; Frank, E.; Finley, V.; Klekotka, P.

1995-01-01

269

PSYCHO-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER CHOICES OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED ADOLESCENTS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT  

OpenAIRE

Present study was conducted in Kanyakumari district in Tamilnadu with 500 socially disadvantaged adolescents(MBC, SC and ST) selected from 24 schools to assess their Psycho-social development and career preferences. The study also tried to find out whether there is any significant relationship between the selected psychological and sociological correlates and career choices of socially disadvantaged adolescents.The data was collected using Psycho-Social Development Scale a...

Sreelatha, S.

2014-01-01

270

Independent predictors of breastfeeding intention in a disadvantaged population of pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Breastfeeding rates in Scotland are very low, particularly in the more disadvantaged areas. Despite a number of interventions to promote breastfeeding very few women actually intend to breastfeed their baby. The aim of this study was to identify personal and social factors independently associated with intention to breastfeed. Methods Nine hundred and ninety seven women from two socio-economically disadvantaged housing estates located on the ...

Stone David H; Love Janet G; Mclnnes Rhona J

2001-01-01

271

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment Among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

OpenAIRE

This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents’ mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children’s experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results g...

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

272

Educational technology usage in manufacturing education  

OpenAIRE

The use of educational technology by manufacturing engineering and technology educators in undergraduate programs has not been documented. Comprehensive published results on the use of education technology in manufacturing engineering and technology education are not available. In response, this study surveyed manufacturing educators to determine what educational technologies are being used, the factors that affect the adoption and implementation of the technologies and the perceived impact o...

Kraebber, Henry William

2008-01-01

273

Intrinsic Radiation in Lutetium Based PET Detector: Advantages and Disadvantages  

CERN Document Server

Lutetium (Lu) based scintillators such as LSO and LYSO, are widely used in modern PET detectors due to their high stopping power for 511 keV gamma rays, high light yield and short decay time. However, 2.6% of naturally occurring Lu is 176Lu, a long-lived radioactive element including a beta decay and three major simultaneous gamma decays. This phenomenon introduces random events to PET systems that affects the system performance. On the other hand, the advantages of intrinsic radiation of 176Lu (IRL) continues to be exploited. In this paper, research literatures about IRL in PET detectors are reviewed. Details about the adverse effects of IRL to PET and their solutions, as well as the useful applications are presented and discussed.

Wei, Qingyang

2015-01-01

274

GLOBALISATION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MANUFACTURER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Years ago, at the beginning of the nuclear age, Einstein asserted that the atomic bomb would completely change the world. Currently, the same can be said about globalization. Globalization, thephenomenon which especially affects economy and life, is now one of the most debated topics in history: lectures, articles, books. Worldwide specialists in economics, politics, and sociology have analyzed in thousands of pages the phenomenon of globalization, its forms, evolution, impact and trends, but the views are so diverse and contradictory that it still is not reached even a universally accepted definition. Perhaps it is the so controversial topic that makes him so attractive. If some persons believe that the phenomenon of globalization ends before reaching its peak, others consider that the current situation is just the beginning of an era in which there are no boundaries.

Adriana Manolic?

2012-12-01

275

Are international nursing students disadvantaged by UK patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

International students bring billions of pounds annually to the UK through higher education. Although nursing students may not contribute as significantly in monetary terms as traditional graduate and postgraduate learners, they do, however, bring with them other benefits in terms of wealth of experience, diversity and cultural capital, often looking after client groups sometimes marginalized by mainstream society. The reality is that many nursing homes and care homes simply would not function without internationally recruited nurses contributing to our health service and the wellbeing of society. The author of this article is a module manager for a Nursing and Midwifery Council regulated Overseas Nurses Programme, which runs up to four times per year at a large Faculty of Health, Sports and Science in South Wales. Anecdotal evidence from class disclosures by international nursing students provided the rationale for this independent enquiry. Listening to verbal accounts suggested that internationally-recruited nurses were experiencing episodes of 'unfair treatment' by patients under their care when undertaking the clinical practice component of the programme. PMID:21072017

De, Diana

276

New Technologies and Education: Challenging Disappointment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines information and communication technologies and their use in education, including advantages and disadvantages. Highlights include gains made by students who were given computers to use, Internet use in Spain, new attitudes toward education; the teacher's role, necessary student characteristics, and factors influencing the success of an…

Tenorio, Encarnacion Hidalgo

2003-01-01

277

Rural Education Should Principally Serve Local Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stresses national concern with rural education which is viewed as the key factor in future economic development. Points out that 80 percent of the population lives in the countryside, and findings show that they are disadvantaged in both basic education and technical training. Author provides specific policies to institute change. (NL)

He, Dongchang

1990-01-01

278

Can Education Compensate for Society?  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

Pring, Richard

2011-01-01

279

Regional Disparities and Public Policy in Tunisian Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shows how Tunisia's national educational program is implemented unevenly in different regions with resulting disadvantages for rural populations, especially rural girls and women. Specifies ways the politics and public policy appear to influence regional differences in educational outcomes. Examines educational, economic, and political…

Jones, Marie T.

1986-01-01

280

A disadvantaged advantage in walkability: findings from socioeconomic and geographical analysis of national built environment data in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition, region, and urbanicity across the United States. Using linear regression models and 2000-2001 US Census data, we investigated the relationship between 5 neighborhood census characteristics (income, education, racial/ethnic composition, age distribution, and sex) and 5 walkability indicators in almost 65,000 census tracts in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the built environment were obtained from the RAND Corporation's (Santa Monica, California) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (median block length, street segment, and node density) and the US Geological Survey's National Land Cover Database (proportion open space and proportion highly developed). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and those with more educated residents were more walkable (i.e., shorter block length, greater street node density, more developed land use, and higher density of street segments). However, tracts with a higher proportion of children and older adults were less walkable (fewer street nodes and lower density of street segments), after adjustment for region and level of urbanicity. Research and policy on the walkability-health link should give nuanced attention to the gap between persons living in walkable areas and those for whom walkability has the most to offer. PMID:25414159

King, Katherine E; Clarke, Philippa J

2015-01-01

281

An educational campaign about epilepsy among Italian primary school teachers. 2. The results of a focused training program.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cohort of 582 Italian primary school teachers underwent a questionnaire survey to test their knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy and verify whether an intensive and focused educational program could result in improvement of knowledge and attitudes. The program consisted of a presentation of the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and the distribution of informative brochures and an educational kit on the disease and its management to be used with their students. After several months, 317 teachers were retested using the same questions. Upon retest, the number of "don't know" answers decreased significantly for almost all questions. This was not the case for negative attitudes. The same holds true for teachers believing that epilepsy is a source of learning disability and social disadvantage. These findings support the beliefs that education on epilepsy is more likely to affect ignorance than prejudice and that stronger interventions are needed to counteract stigmatizing behaviors. PMID:25500360

Mecarelli, Oriano; Messina, Paolo; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Michelucci, Roberto; Romeo, Antonino; Beghi, Ettore

2015-01-01

282

Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units : does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.

Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-GrØn, Morten

2012-01-01

283

Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units: does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequity in perinatal and maternal health is a well-documented health problem even in countries with a high level of social equality. We aimed to study whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity, birth interventions and use of pain relief among low risk women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage. Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 low-risk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher likelihood of uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. The likelihood of intact perineum, use of upright position for birth and water birth was also higher. No difference was found in perinatal morbidity or third/fourth degree tears, while birth interventions including caesarean section and epidural analgesia were significantly less frequent among women intending to give birth in an FMU. In our sample of healthy low-risk women with spontaneous onset of labour at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy, the positive results of intending to give birth in an FMU as compared to an OU were found to hold for both women with post-secondary education and the potentially vulnerable group of FMU women without post-secondary education. In all cases, women without post-secondary education intending to give birth in an FMU had comparable and, in some respects, more favourable outcomes when compared to women with the same level of education intending to give birth in an OU. In this sample of low-risk women, we found that the effect of intended place on birth outcomes did not differ with women’s level of education. Conclusion FMU care appears to offer important benefits for birthing women with no additional risk to the infant. Both for women with and without post-secondary education, intending to give birth in an FMU significantly increased the likelihood of a spontaneous, uncomplicated birth with good outcomes for mother and infant compared to women intending to give birth in an OU. All women should be provided with adequate information about different care models and supported in making an informed decision about the place of birth.

Overgaard Charlotte

2012-06-01

284

Educational Policy and Educational Malpractice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses how charges of malpractice affect educational policy. It details the case of Peter W. v. San Francisco Unified School District, a precedent-setting case that began a chain of litigation concerning alleged educational malpractice. The paper also discusses cause of action in malpractice, legal and statutory standards of conduct,…

Lynch, Patrick D.

285

BNFL - Action in education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of the National Curriculum in England and Wales gave the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) company the opportunity to develop a more structured involvement. Extensive research among teachers revealed how a high-tech company such as BNFL could make the best contribution, by funding the development of classroom materials which would encourage pupils to assess the advantages and disadvantages of technology. Five years later, BNFL's educational resources have gained substantial credibility

286

PSYCHO-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER CHOICES OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED ADOLESCENTS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was conducted in Kanyakumari district in Tamilnadu with 500 socially disadvantaged adolescents(MBC, SC and ST selected from 24 schools to assess their Psycho-social development and career preferences. The study also tried to find out whether there is any significant relationship between the selected psychological and sociological correlates and career choices of socially disadvantaged adolescents.The data was collected using Psycho-Social Development Scale and Career Preference Record constructed and validated by the investigator

S. Sreelatha

2014-07-01

287

[Therapeutic education didactic techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective. PMID:23157069

Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

2012-10-01

288

A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children / Uno studio della Carta del Benessere, in bambini socialmente svantaggiati  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attenda [...] nce and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

Massimo, Musicco; Rosalia Azzaro, Pulvirenti; Sabina, Gainotti; Carlo, Petrini; Chiara, Riccio; Bruno, Silvestrini.

2011-12-01

289

48 CFR 619.803-70 - Responsibilities of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (A/SDBU).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Responsibilities of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (A/SDBU...System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration...

2010-10-01

290

An Evaluation of Schoolwide Early Language and Literacy (SWELL) in Six Disadvantaged Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of Schoolwide Early Language and Literacy (SWELL) was undertaken in New South Wales, Australia, using a sample of 366 disadvantaged kindergarten students. Participants outperformed controls on pseudo-word decoding and reading connected text at the end of kindergarten, and on invented spelling and reading measures midway through first…

Center, Yola; Freeman, Louella; Robertson, Gregory

1998-01-01

291

Advantages and Disadvantages of Native- and Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers: Student Perceptions in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

The Native English Teachers (NETs) Scheme has been in place for over 20 years in secondary schools in Hong Kong and yet how students perceive these teachers is under-researched. This article reports a study which analyses student perceptions of the advantage and disadvantages of learning English from NETs and their non-native counterparts, local…

Ma, Lai Ping Florence

2012-01-01

292

49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

...bias within American society because of their...mainstream of American society, or other similar causes...disadvantage in American society, not in other countries...or advancement in the business world because of the...in opportunities for government contracts or other...

2010-10-01

293

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

294

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

295

Gender Differences in Fundamental Motor Skill Development in Disadvantaged Preschoolers from Two Geographical Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region…

Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather

2010-01-01

296

Journal Writing for Improved Learning and Classroom Relationships in Public Schools: Applications for Disadvantaged Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is an exploration into whether classroom methods similar to those applied by K-12 teachers are valid for adults and can be successfully applied to classrooms for disadvantaged adults: specifically, journal writing as a tool for improving learning and classroom relationships. The literature dispels the myth that teaching adults differs…

Flores-Isom, Patricia

2007-01-01

297

Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. This study substantially broadens the existing evidence on access to effective teaching by examining access in 29 geographically dispersed school districts over the 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 school…

Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

2013-01-01

298

Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

2004-01-01

299

A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Adolescents With Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

300

Mass Media Sources for Breast Cancer Information: Their Advantages and Disadvantages for Women with the Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This 1997 study explored in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning disease-related mass media information. Results of focus group discussions indicate advantages and disadvantages of mass media information, and its impact upon individuals may depend on their disease status. Suggests implications for mass media…

Rees, Charlotte E.; Bath, Peter A.

2000-01-01

301

48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

...participation of small disadvantaged business (SDB) concerns in the performance of the...evaluated based on: (1) The extent to which SDB concerns are specifically identified to...2) The extent of the commitment to use SDB concerns in the performance of the...

2010-10-01

302

76 FR 68026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Disadvantaged Business Self-Certification  

Science.gov (United States)

...to its small disadvantaged business (SDB) program. DATES: Effective Date: November...businesses (SDBs) to self-represent their SDB status to prime contractors in good faith...businesses were certified by the SBA as SDB firms. DoD, GSA, and NASA received...

2011-11-02

303

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

304

Learning of Culturally Disadvantaged Children as a Function of Social and Tangible Reward.  

Science.gov (United States)

The experiment studied the "relative effectiveness of tangible and social rewards upon the performance of a simple discrimination learning task by culturally disadvantaged children." Also assessed were the effects of the sex of the subjects (Ss) and the examiner. Ss were 144 five- and six-year old youngsters in a Georgia Head Start program. No…

Unikel, Irving P.; And Others

305

TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths  

Science.gov (United States)

Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

2006-01-01

306

Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

2008-01-01

307

Utilization of Primary and Secondary Medical Care among Disadvantaged Populations: A Log-Linear Model Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: We examined how, where an overall population is covered by universal health insurance, characteristics of disadvantaged populations interact to influence inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization. Subject and Methods: Disadvantaged populations, the focus of the study, were defined as populations who have lower socio-economic status (SES, who are elderly and/or reside in a peripheral area. Data from the 2009 Israeli National Health Survey were analysed using log-linear models to estimate utilization of medical care. Results: The main findings were: a pro-poor utilization of primary medical care among elderly populations, with higher odds ratios for low SES populations in the periphery; (b lack of interaction between SES and primary medical care utilization among younger populations, between SES and secondary medical care utilization among the elderly and pro-rich utilization of secondary medical care among younger populations who did not regularly visit general practitioners (GP; (c the odds ratios of secondary medical care utilization increased as SES decreased for both elderly and younger populations who also regularly visited a GP. Conclusion: Potential policy implications for disadvantaged populations, regarding possible inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization, can be drawn using log-linear model analysis of interactions among characteristics (SES, age, location of disadvantaged populations.

Gregory Yom Din

2014-04-01

308

Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

309

A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

Pestle, Ruth

310

A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude  

Science.gov (United States)

Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

2012-01-01

311

Recruiting Disadvantaged Adults. Public Library Training Institutes Library Service Guide No. 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disadvantaged adults who need the information a library can provide include those who are poor, in the minority, aging, institutionalized, or handicapped. Methods used to recruit these potential patrons may include the media, mailings, exhibits, posters and billboards, personal contact, classes, bookmobiles, speakers, and advisory committees. Some…

Eyster, George W.

312

Business planning innovative projects: the essence of technology, advantages and disadvantages  

OpenAIRE

The article substantiates the necessity to develop technology business planning innovative projects. Arguments made by the ground analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing business planning technologies. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/27567

Knyaz, S. V.; Georgiadi, N. G.; Bogiv, Y. S.

2012-01-01

313

13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?  

Science.gov (United States)

...meet the requirements set forth in paragraph...state law, through weighted voting (e.g., in...disadvantaged vote must be weighted—worth more than one...that the transferee has independent management experience...Participant cannot exercise independent business judgment...

2010-01-01

314

Effect of Dropout Prevention Programs on the Attitudes toward School of Economically Disadvantaged Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Every year, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds drop out of school and attempt to enter the work force without any specialized training. The purpose of this study was to understand if dropout prevention programs change a potential dropout's attitude toward school in a public school district. A quantitative, quasi-experimental…

Metzler, Earl F., II.

2012-01-01

315

Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

2014-01-01

316

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

2010-01-01

317

Proven commercial reactor types: an introduction to their principal advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study deals with the principal advantages and disadvantages of the five types of proven commercial reactors. A description of each class of commercial reactor (light water, gas-cooled, and heavy water) and their proven reactors is followed by a comparison of reactor types on the basis of technical merit, economics of operation, availability of technology, and associated political issues. (author)

318

Gendered motivational processes affecting high school mathematics participation, educational aspirations, and career plans: a comparison of samples from Australia, Canada, and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United States (Ns = 358, 471, 418, respectively) in Grades 9/10 at Time 1 and Grades 11/12 at Time 2. The 3 samples came from suburban middle to upper-middle socioeconomic backgrounds, primarily of Anglo-European descent. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed stereotypic gender differences in educational and occupational outcomes only among the Australian sample. Multigroup structural equation models identified latent mean differences where male adolescents held higher intrinsic value for math in the Australian sample and higher ability/success expectancy in both North American samples. Ability/success expectancy was a key predictor in the North American samples, in contrast to intrinsic value in the Australian sample. Attainment/utility ("importance") values were more important for female adolescents' career choices, except in the Australian sample. Findings are interpreted in relation to gender socialization practices, degree and type of early choice, and specialization across settings. Implications are discussed for long-term math engagement and career selection for female and male adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22468566

Watt, Helen M G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Morris, Zoe A; Durik, Amanda M; Keating, Daniel P; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

2012-11-01

319

Students Attitudes Toward Technology in Selected Technology Education Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

The paradigms for teaching technology education are changing. Technology education teachers and curriculum experts recommend a variety of differing instructional approaches such as self-paced modules, interdisciplinary methodology, and problem solving to inform students about technology and its affects on society. These instructional approaches all have their advantages and disadvantages. Gloeckner (1990), Thode (1989), and others have argued that self-paced modular instruction is an appropriate method that best accommodates diversity in both learning styles and learning levels. Others (Illinois State Board of Education, 1992; Wicklein, Hammer, Balistreri, DeVore, Scherr, Boudreau & Wright, 1991) suggest that technology is interrelated to other disciplines and that students need to see the connection between math, science, technology, social studies, and English; therefore, teachers should use interdisciplinary instruction. Other educators, DeLuca (1992) and James (1991), plead the case for problem-centered instruction as an authentic way to focus on the development of students' higher-level cognitive skills. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Boser, Richard A.; Daugherty, Michael; Palmer, James D.

2009-09-24

320

New Mexico Art Educators and Educational Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the author's graduate studies in the art education program at the University of New Mexico, he conducted a small research study on issues related to New Mexico's educational policies. His interest was motivated by the lack of attention paid to the policy and legislation that affects the art education field in his state. The author…

Arnold, Kendra L.

2006-01-01

321

Using interactive television in the in-service education and training of guidance teachers  

OpenAIRE

This study is focused on how technology is employed as educational support media in distance education. The aim is to establish the availability and accessibility of interac¬tive television for both guidance teachers and students in rural, remote and previously disadvantaged communities. Interactive television could be used to support the primary modes of education, namely, contact education on campus or at remote sites, paper-¬based distance education and Web-based distance education for i...

Maake, Matsobane Joshua

2007-01-01

322

In the Margins: Minority Education in Central Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews separate education for ethnic minorities in two Central Asian countries - Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Students and teachers from minority and majority groups in each country were asked 1 whether separate schools for minorities persevered minority cultural identity and 2 whether such schools undercut equal educational opportunities for minority students. Analysis indicates that in some political, social and educational contexts separation puts minority youth at a disadvantage, which in turn keeps them from fully integrating into society. Redressing this situation requires a commitment to guaranteeing rights and full citizenship for minorities. This paper explores how separate school systems deepen ethnic and political divisions in society rather than promote equality and equity. It begins with a number of questions. How much emphasis do current education reform initiatives put on equity and equality in minority schools? What is the balance between economic and civic imperatives in the education policy process in the two countries? What are the main features of post-transition phase in education and how it affects separate education? As mentioned in the foreword of this issue, data analyzed for this study was collected under the auspices of the “Divided Education, Divided Citizens” project, which was conducted in seven post-socialist countries. This article concentrates on separate schooling for different ethnic and linguistic groups and issues related to the civil enculturation of minorities in two Central Asian countries, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. Study participants from minority and majority language-track schools in each country were asked to observe whether separate schools for minority ethnicities served to preserve culture or instead undercut equal educational opportunity. Pervious investigations have found that education plays a fundamental role in shaping individuals’ perceptions of their own ethnicity. Korostelina (2008 in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005 found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.

Kazimzade E.

2011-03-01

323

Work-family conflict in context: The impact of structural and perceived neighborhood disadvantage on work-family conflict.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite increasing levels of work-family conflict (WFC) among North Americans, few scholars examine the broader contexts in which these conflicts occur. I address this gap by examining how the neighborhood of residence impacts WFC, with a focus on social inequality and disadvantage across neighborhoods. I hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage may impact WFC directly-by introducing ambient stressors that inhibit individuals from successfully balancing competing domain demands, and indirectly-by undermining the psychological resources that would combat the harmful effects of disadvantaged contexts. Using individual and census-level data from Canada, I consider both objective and subjective measures of neighborhood disadvantage and find that, overall, individuals in more disadvantaged neighborhoods are worse off because these contexts increase WFC, while reducing the psychological resources that would otherwise buffer these deleterious effects. However, some of these associations vary by gender. I discuss the broader implications of these findings for neighborhood effects and WFC research. PMID:25592939

Young, Marisa

2015-03-01

324

To Deepen the Reform of Teaching Methods in Professional Education  

OpenAIRE

Teaching is a complex system; the reform of teaching methods is very important in education. The teaching methods in traditional schooling education had many disadvantages; it can not satisfy the requirements for professional education. Along with the progress in the professional education, it is necessary to analyze and grasp the characteristics of the teaching methods, abide by the principle of the teaching method reform carefully and build up the scientific teaching methods to satisfy the ...

Tian Zhang; Man Liu; Yuxia Chen

2014-01-01

325

Juvenile Arrest and Collateral Educational Damage in the Transition to Adulthood  

OpenAIRE

Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and neighborhood disadvantage. Moreover, virtually no research on the effect of a criminal record has examined the ‘‘black box’’ of mediating mech...

Kirk, David S.; Sampson, Robert J.

2012-01-01

326

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIZATION OF DIPLOMACY IN THE CONDITIONS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper it is presented how new technologies influence democratization of diplomacy. Primarily, the advantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are explained. It is shown how increasing influence of non state players decreases the monopoly of state players. It is suggested that media and social network are catalysts of democracy. On the other hand, negative effects of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies are analyzed. The new technology as potential source of propaganda and vulgarization is described. Finally, although there are disadvantages of democratization of diplomacy in the conditions of new technologies, it is concluded the advantages surpass the disadvantages. The new technologies raise the democratization of diplomacy for a general well-fair and have a tendency to reduce hard power and to strengthen soft power.

Aleksandar Plavšin

2014-07-01

327

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MODERN LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY FOR SOIL MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory devices. This is particularly important for soft materials, since their permeability could vary within several orders of magnitude depending on the variation of void ratio. The article presents advantages and disadvantages of the flow-pump method performed in a modified triaxial cell and hydraulic oedometer, in comparison with conventional constant head and falling head methods. The specimens were prepared from the waste stone dust, which is the product of final dimension stone processing.

Predrag Kvasni?ka

2003-12-01

328

Installation of a new type of nuclear reactor in Mexico: advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work the main advantages and disadvantages of the installation of a new type of nuclear reactor different to the BWR type reactor in Mexico are presented. A revision of the advanced reactors is made that are at the moment in operation and of the advanced reactors that are in construction or one has already planned its construction in the short term. Specifically the A BWR and EPR reactors are analyzed. (Author)

329

Cumulative structural disadvantage and racial health disparities: the pathways of childhood socioeconomic influence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumulative structural disadvantage theory posits two major sources of endogenous selection in shaping racial health disparities: a race-based version of the theory anticipates a racially distinct selection process, whereas a social class-based version anticipates a racially similar process. To operationalize cumulative structural disadvantage, this study uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in a Latent Class Analysis that demographically profiles health impairment trajectories. This analysis is used to examine the nature of selection as it relates to racial differences in the development of health impairments that are significant enough to hinder one's ability to work. The results provide no direct support for the race-based version of cumulative structural disadvantage theory. Instead, two key findings support the social class-based version of cumulative disadvantage theory. First, the functional form of the different health trajectories are invariant for whites and blacks, suggesting more racial similarly in the developmental process than anticipated by the race-based version of the theory. The extent of the racial disparity in the prevalences across the health impairment trajectories is, however, significant and noteworthy: nearly one-third of blacks (28 %) in the United States experience some form of impairment during their prime working years compared with 18.8 % of whites. Second, racial differences in childhood background mediate this racial health disparity through the indirect pathway of occupational attainment and through the direct pathway of early-life exposure to health-adverse environments. Thus, the selection of individuals into different health trajectories, based largely on childhood socioeconomic background, helps explain racial disparities in the development of health impairments. PMID:25212107

Pais, Jeremy

2014-10-01

330

The Nomadisation of worklife:advantages and disadvantages of mobile telework  

OpenAIRE

In this dissertation I have focused on mobile telework. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of teleworking compared to îtraditionalî home-based telework? I have seen this both from an employer and an employee perspective. The methods I used are a) a review of relevant telework literature, and b) qualitative interviews with sixteen mobile teleworkers employed by five different sales-oriented organisations. Very little academic research is done on mobile telework in particu...

Johannessen, Steinar

2000-01-01

331

Medical school applicants from ethnic minority groups: identifying if and when they are disadvantaged.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To assess whether people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to be accepted at British medical schools, and to explore the mechanisms of disadvantage. DESIGN--Prospective study of a national cohort of medical school applicants. SETTING--All 28 medical schools in the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--6901 subjects who had applied through the Universities' Central Council on Admissions in 1990 to study medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Offers and acceptance at medical school by ethnic...

Mcmanus, I. C.; Richards, P.; Winder, B. C.; Sproston, K. A.; Styles, V.

1995-01-01

332

ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN THE EXTERNAL COMMERCIAL RELATIONS  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of the Romanian agricultural and food products performance on the foreign markets, applying the classification method by the main categories of products that had positive or negative trade balance, reveals the competitive advantages and disadvantages respectively of the agri-food trade, at the level of traded groups of products. The yearly variations of exports, imports and trade balance indicate a fluctuating evolution of the agri-food foreign trade, both in correlation with the...

MIRELA RUSALI; CAMELIA GAVRILESCU

2008-01-01

333

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were c...

Yaping Chen; Xiaohua Qi; Enfu Chen; Qian Li; Yu Hu

2013-01-01

334

Processes of Change for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Economically Disadvantaged African American Adolescents  

OpenAIRE

This study sought to identify Transtheoretical Model processes of change associated with consumption of ? 5 daily servings of FVs in a sample of economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (N = 549; mean (SD) age = 12.44 (.99) years; 61% female; 15% African American Hispanic). Participants completed measures of stages and processes of change, and were ranked according to intake level based on their reported stage. Spearman correlations and independent samples t tests were used i...

Di Noia, Jennifer; Thompson, Debbe

2012-01-01

335

Improving Depression Care for Disadvantaged Adults by Partnering With Non—Mental Health Agencies  

OpenAIRE

Reaching disadvantaged adults who need mental health care is challenging, partly because of mistrust of institutions, cultural insensitivity, and stigma. Researchers from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic and leaders of 11 non–mental health community organizations formed a partnership to improve depression care, especially for elders and individuals from difficult-to-reach racial and ethnic minority groups. The overarching goal is to reduce disparities by providing and improving care...

Dobransky-fasiska, Deborah; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Pincus, Harold Alan; Castillo, Enrico; Lee, Brenda E.; Walnoha, Adrienne L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte

2010-01-01

336

Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR), applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers) was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statis...

Slapa Rafal; Jakubowski Wieslaw; Slowinska-Srzednicka Jadwiga; Szopinski Kazimierz

2011-01-01

337

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MODERN LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY FOR SOIL MATERIALS  

OpenAIRE

Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory de...

Predrag Kvasni?ka; Biljana Kova?evi?-Zeli?; Želimir Veinovi?

2003-01-01

338

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review  

OpenAIRE

Background:Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pressures especially cost cutting and search for cost-effective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods: The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsi...

Yalda Mousazadeh; Ali Jannati; Hossein Jabbari Beiramy; Mohammad AsghariJafarabadi; Ali Ebadi

2013-01-01

339

THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT AND REHABILITATION OF WOMEN AFFECTED BY THE 2004 TSUNAMI IN THE OF THE STATE OF TAMILNADU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a destructive tsunami which devastated coastal communities bordering the Indian Ocean, killing thousands of people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Somalia, Myanmar, the Maldives, Malaysia, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen and Kenya. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history. In India, the death toll and damages were severe, particularly along the southern and eastern coastal regions. Subsequently, central and state government authorities in the state of Tamilnadu - one of the most severely stricken regions - took immediate measures for tsunami preparedness and rehabilitation. The media played a major role in this effort by communicating to the public information related to the science and technology facts of tsunami hazards and to ways of mitigating their impact with better understanding and preparedness. Through its superior ability to communicate effectively information, the media became the role model in helping people make decisions for their own welfare. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the media’s role in the post-rehabilitation efforts and particularly in improving the status of affected women of the north Chennai region, who were forced to migrate from Ernavour and Ennore, in Chennai district, in the India state of Tamilnadu, by providing them science and technology communication.

P. Sri Jothi

2011-01-01

340

Nicotine dependence more strongly correlates with psychological distress in disadvantaged areas of Kazakhstan than Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to describe the association of current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Germany and Kazakhstan. Random samples of people living in disadvantaged areas of Berlin, Germany, and Almaty, Kazakhstan, were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire with 28 items and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. The association of both current smoking and nicotine dependence with psychological distress was assessed for each sample using linear regression analyses and compared between the two samples calculating t-values for the comparison of B-coefficients. Current smoking was equally associated with psychological distress in both countries, whereas the association of nicotine dependence and psychological distress was only seen for the Kazakh sample and significantly stronger than for the German sample. The results could not be explained by social characteristics. Possibly due to the lack of outpatient community mental health services for the treatment of common mental disorders, nicotine dependence was associated with psychological distress in the disadvantaged area of Kazakhstan. PMID:23807567

Ignatyev, Yuriy; Mundt, Adrian P

2014-10-01

341

Independent predictors of breastfeeding intention in a disadvantaged population of pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding rates in Scotland are very low, particularly in the more disadvantaged areas. Despite a number of interventions to promote breastfeeding very few women actually intend to breastfeed their baby. The aim of this study was to identify personal and social factors independently associated with intention to breastfeed. Methods Nine hundred and ninety seven women from two socio-economically disadvantaged housing estates located on the outskirts of Glasgow participated in a study that aimed to increase the prevalence of breastfeeding. Self-administered questionnaires completed by each participant collected information in early pregnancy, prior to exposure to the study intervention, on feeding intention, previous feeding experience and socio-demographic data. Results Five factors were independently predictive of breastfeeding intention. These were previous breastfeeding experience, living with a partner, smoking, parity and maternal age. After adjusting for these five factors, neither deprivation nor receipt of milk tokens provided useful additional predictive information. Conclusion In this population of socially disadvantaged pregnant women we identified five variables that were independently predictive of breastfeeding intention. These variables could be useful in identifying women at greatest risk of choosing not to breastfeed. Appropriate promotional efforts could then be designed to give due consideration to individual circumstances.

Stone David H

2001-10-01

342

Educational Reform in Viet Nam: A Process of Change or Continuity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines Vietnamese educational reforms of the 1990s, aimed at modernizing education to support Vietnam's wide-ranging market reforms. Discusses the structure of preschool through higher education; the cluttered lower secondary school curriculum, rigidly tied to textbook content and teacher training; rural disadvantage and lesser access to…

Duggan, Stephen

2001-01-01

343

Gendered Barriers to Educational Opportunities: Resettlement of Sudanese Refugees in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that whilst equitable educational pathways are integrated into educational policy discourses in Australia, there are significant gendered barriers to educational participation among members of the Sudanese refugee groups. The specific conditions of forced migration reinforce disadvantage and further limit opportunities. Cultural…

Hatoss, Aniko; Huijser, Henk

2010-01-01

344

The Reciprocal and Correlative Relationship Between Learning Culture and Online Education: A Case from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to build on the insights of educators regarding the relationship between culture and online learning. More specifically, this paper aims to explore the ways in which students’ culture of learning is changing as a result of the introduction of various modes of online learning. It also aims to explore the ways in which culture and cultural values affect the application and success of online-learning strategies. Particular attention is directed to learners’ perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of online communication. The paper is based on primary data drawn from undergraduate female students’ responses regarding how online education is changing their learning culture and how their culture is influencing online education. Sixty-seven undergraduate Saudi female students participated in the survey. The literature in the field of online and distance education is explored to help answer these questions. The participants indicated that online education helped them to challenge some cultural norms, enhance their learning culture, and improve their communication skills.

Amani K Hamdan

2014-02-01

345

Negotiating "Public" Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes changes in public education over the last 150 years, discussing how changing politics have affected education; the influence of the electronic revolution (television and the Internet); the relationship between global economics, electronic communication, and education; and the movement from schools as a place to acquire basic language and…

Leck, Glorianne M.

1998-01-01

346

Change in walking for transport: a longitudinal study of the influence of neighbourhood disadvantage and individual-level socioeconomic position in mid-aged adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundUnlike leisure time physical activity, knowledge of the socioeconomic determinants of active transport is limited, research on this topic has produced mixed and inconsistent findings, and it remains unknown if peoples¿ engagement in active transport declines as they age. This longitudinal study examined relationships between neighbourhood disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and walking for transport (WfT) during mid- and early old-age (40 ¿ 70 years). Three questions were addressed: (i) which socioeconomic groups walk for transport, (ii) does the amount of walking change over time as people age, and (iii) is the change socioeconomically patterned?MethodsThe data come from the HABITAT study of physical activity, a bi-annual multilevel longitudinal survey of 11,036 residents of 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia. At each wave (2007, 2009 and 2011) respondents estimated the duration (minutes) of WfT in the previous 7 days. Neighbourhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived index comprising 17 different socioeconomic components, and individual-level socioeconomic position was measured using education, occupation, and household income. The data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression.ResultsThe odds of being defined as a `never walker¿ were significantly lower for residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but significantly higher for the less educated, blue collar employees, and members of lower income households. WfT declined significantly over time as people aged and the declines were more precipitous for older persons. Average minutes of WfT declined for all neighbourhoods and most socioeconomic groups; however, the declines were significantly steeper for the retired and members of low income households.ConclusionsDesigning age-friendly neighbourhoods might slow or delay age-related declines in WfT and should be a priority. Steeper declines in WfT among residents of low income households may reflect their poorer health status and the impact of adverse socioeconomic exposures over the life course. Each of these declines represents a significant challenge to public health advocates, urban designers, and planners in their attempts to keep people active and healthy in their later years of life. PMID:25492854

Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Haynes, Michele; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie

2014-12-10

347

Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Crawford DA, Ball K, Cleland VJ, Campbell KJ, Timperio AF, Abbott G, Brug J, Baur LA, Salmon JA. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

348

Adherence barriers and facilitators for cervical screening amongst currently disadvantaged women in the greater Cape Town region of South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In South Africa cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer amongst women, and black African women have the highest risk of developing this disease. Unfortunately, the majority of South African women do not adhere to recommended regular cervical screening.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions, experiences and knowledge regarding cervical screening of disadvantaged women in two informal settlements in South African urban areas.Method: The Health Belief Model (HBM provided a theoretical framework for this study. Four focus groups (n = 21 were conducted, using questions derived from the HBM, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The ages of the women who participated ranged from 21 to 53 years.Results: The analysis revealed lack of knowledge about screening as a key structural barrier to treatment. Other structural barriers were: time, age at which free screening is available, and health education. The psychosocial barriers that were identified included: fear of the screening procedure and of the stigmatisation in attending screening. The presence of physical symptoms, the perception that screening provides symptom relief, HIV status, and the desire to know one’s physical health status were identified as facilitators of cervical screening adherence.Conclusion: This knowledge has the potential to inform healthcare policy and services in South Africa. As globalisation persists and individuals continue to immigrate or seek refugee status in foreign countries, increased understanding and knowledge is required for successful acculturation and integration. Developed countries may therefore also benefit from research findings in developing countries.

Chantelle De Abreu

2013-07-01

349

Computed tomography urography in non malignant kidney diseases – how to overcome one of the disadvantages?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Introduction: Computed tomography urography is among the fastest growing imaging directions, indications of which continue to change. Radiation dose is one of its main disadvantages. There are a number of literary publications regarding how to reduce radiation dose: by voltage, by mA or by reducing the number of phases. What you will learn: We present the initial experience in the diagnosis of non-malignant kidney disease with three low-dose study protocol: a standard low dose, low dose and low dose introduced by us. Our research is based on three groups of patients. The first of 36 men and 22 women viewed with repetitive low-dose protocol: 120 kV / 219 effective milliampere. The second and third group of 16 men and 9 women, respectively: 100/ 163 and 80/115 . Discussion: There have been a number of studies to reduce the radiation dose that is considered one of the main disadvantages of computed tomography urography. Reducing mA (? 30 mAs), leads to the radiation dose similar to that of an overview abdominal radiography. Reducing of 140 kV to 120, reducing the dosage of the skin by about 33 % and decreasing it to 80 kilovolts, the result is about 70 %. Another technology to reduce radiation exposure is by reducing the number of phases of the study, but studies have shown that the removal of the native phase is not desirable. Conclusion: We believe that computed tomography urography is a detailed study that should be applied in certain clinical indications. Its major disadvantage is the radiation dose. Images obtained with low-dose protocols are newly comparable image quality to the standard, but with much lower radiation exposure

350

73 FR 64436 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged  

Science.gov (United States)

...teachers and the larger education community. Discussion...to State standards, assessments, and accountability...career and technical education; and individuals representing...including social studies, music, and other arts, be...to State standards, assessments, and...

2008-10-29

351

Calculation of the thermal disadvantage factor for a reactor cell with anisotropic scattering by the Fn method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The F sub(N) method is used for the calculation of the thermal disadvantage factor in reactor cells with anisotropic scattering in the moderator. Numerical results were obtained for several reactor cells and compared with the results obtained by other methods. The results confirmed the physical conclusion, that the higher order terms in the expansion of the scattering law have an insignificant effect on the thermal disadvantage factor. (E.G.)

352

Disadvantages and Tendencies of Development of the Personal Income Tax in the Russian Federation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the personal income tax in Russia, its disadvantages and tendencies of development. Tax burden on wages in Russia is compared with the tax burden on wages in France. The comparison is made by such parameters as the type of scale, tax rates, amount of contributions to the social funds and amount of tax deductions. This research indicated that it is necessary to reform the personal income tax in Russia. In this case improvement of social and demographic situation can be achieved and legalization of incomes increased.

Yaburova Dinara Vladimirovna

2014-04-01

353

Integrated management systems. Advantages and disadvantages; difficulties and recommendations in the process of implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations are constantly looking for methods to improve their efficiency and to guarantee them a competitive advantage, sustainable profitable growth and ability to survive in a turbulent environment. An increasing popularity of implementation of certified management systems has been noticed. The most often integrated management system are eg. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 18001. The paper presents the conditions for the implementation of an integrated management system (IMS, the characteristics of the most integrated management systems, the advantages and disadvantages of integration and the difficulties in the implementation of IMS and recommendations regarding the effectiveness of the integration of IMS.

Aneta Wysoki?ska-Senkus

2011-01-01

354

Impact of Globalization on Higher Education: An Empirical Study of Education Policy & Planning of Design Education in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on the impact of globalization in the domain of higher education, particularly, design education. It reviews how globalization may affect educational policy and planning in Hong Kong by drawing on an empirical study involving senior manag...

Yan Yan Lam

2010-01-01

355

USGS Education Collection  

Science.gov (United States)

The USGS Education Collection provides scientific data and activities about natural resources, natural hazards, geospatial data and issues that affect quality of life. As an outreach project, it provides access to online material and educational resources that may be useful to K-12 educators and college instructors. Many resources can be used directly in the classroom: lessons, labs, demonstrations or as resources for teacher education, curriculum development and for student research.

356

Tax effects on education  

OpenAIRE

Taxes affect the individual’s educational choice through many channels, and they have both direct and indirect effects on human capital accumulation. The structure of the tax system creates different incentive effects that distorts the individual’s educational choice. Some of these tax effects discourage higher education, while others encourage it. I give an overview over the existing literature on taxes and education and also provide the intuition for many of these partial effects in a s...

Alstadsæter, Annette

2005-01-01

357

DISADVANTAGES AND HEALTH THREATS GENERATED BY GENETICALLY MODIFIED EDIBLE ORGANISMS – A FARMERS VIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a descriptive article from observations and logical deductions of experience. How genetical modifications is performed is also being explained. The main purpose is to increase the yield and also to attract the consumers. Listing of edible plants and herbal plants are also described along with medicinal and nutritional plants. Genetical modification is a turmoil created among the well adopted primary and secondary producers. Many more disadvantages are also discussed in the view of farmers. Researchers are requested to probe the effect of these genetically modified organisms over human health. Health threats and disorder such as metabolic disorders and carcinogenic effects as stated by oncologists are also discussed. Health is to be considered as a prime point in genetical modifications. In any body system even a small genetical modification will alter the whole system of the body. Listing of disadvantage is not to criticize but to make the process really healthy by doing real researchers over the after math of the introduction of a new genetically modified organism.

N. Madhavan

2014-09-01

358

Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age. PMID:24811288

Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

2015-01-01

359

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pressures especially cost cutting and search for cost-effective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods: The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsizing, Hospital Restructuring, Staff Downsizing, Hospital Merging, Hospital Reorganization and the Persian equivalents. Resulted 815 articles were studied and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles were selected for analysis. Results: Five hospital downsizing methods were identified during searching. These methods were reducing the number of employees and beds, outsourcing, integration of hospital units, and the combination of these methods. The most important benefits were cost reduction, increasing patient satisfaction, increasing home care and outpatient services. The most important disadvantage included reducing access, reducing the rate of hospital admissions and increasing employees’ workload and dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Each downsizing method has strengths and weaknesses. Using different methods of downsizing, according to circumstances and applying appropriate interventions after implementation, is necessary for promotion.

Yalda Mousazadeh

2013-12-01

360

Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the possible moderator effect of SDC. Data on 544 children were collected and analysed (130 SDC, 414 non-SDC, mean age = 8.0 ± 0.7). Physical fitness was measured with tests for cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Academic performance was evaluated using scores on mathematics, spelling and reading. SDC did not differ on physical fitness, compared with non-SDC, but scored significantly lower on academic performance. In the total group, multilevel analysis showed positive associations between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics (? = 0.23), and between cardiovascular fitness and spelling (? = 0.16), but not with reading. No associations were found between muscular fitness and academic performance. A significant interaction effect between SDC and cardiovascular fitness was found for spelling. To conclude, results showed a specific link between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics, regardless of socioeconomic status. SDC did moderate the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and spelling. PMID:25092881

de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C

2014-10-01

361

Neighbourhood effects on educational attainment of adolescents, buffered by personality and educational commitment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that individual traits of adolescents can buffer neighbourhood effects. First, adolescents with a more resilient personality may be better able to cope with neighbourhood adversity. And second, educational commitments might buffer adolescents from negative neighbourhood influences. These hypotheses are tested employing survival analysis, using six wave panel data, containing information on ten years of adolescents' lives. The results show that resilients experience no negative influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, while both undercontrollers and overcontrollers do. And, the stronger adolescents' educational commitments, the less they experience the negative effect of neighbourhood adversity. In sum, neighbourhood effects are found, but not for everybody. PMID:25592923

Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim

2015-03-01

362

Afetos positivos e negativos em professores de diferentes níveis de ensino / Positive and negative affects of teachers from different educational levels / Afectos positivos y negativos en profesores de diferentes niveles de enseñanza  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou comparar afetos positivos e negativos de professores dos diversos níveis de ensino. Participaram 101 professores, com idade média de 39,3 anos (DP = 9,8), sendo 83,2% (n=84) do sexo feminino. Utilizou-se a Escala de Afetos Zanon- EAZ. Os professores foram cooptados no pró [...] prio local de trabalho, e as aplicações ocorreram tanto individual quanto coletivamente. Para efetivação das análises recorreu-se à ANOVA, por analisar perfis de medidas repetidas. Como um dos resultados mais relevantes, observou-se que os afetos positivos estiveram mais presentes na amostra em questão. Também foi verificado que os educadores de creche apresentaram menos afetos positivos que os demais, fato que pode ter sido influenciado por singularidades percebidas pelos participantes como, por exemplo, as relacionadas à remuneração, à carga horária e ao plano de carreira. Não foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao sexo, e à faixa etária. Observou-se a necessidade de desenvolver mais estudos sobre esta temática. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo tuvo el objetivo de comparar afectos positivos y negativos de profesores de diversos niveles de enseñanza. Participaron de la investigación 101 profesores - de los cuales 83,2% (n=84) eran del sexo feminino, con edad promedio de 39,3 años (SD=9,8). El instrumento utilizado fue la Escala [...] de Afectos Zanon-EAZ. Entre los resultados más relevantes se observó que los afectos positivos estuvieron más presentes en la muestra. También se verificó que los educadores de guardería presentaron menos afectos positivos que los demás profesores. Este factor puede haber sido influenciado por singularidades percibidas por los participantes, relacionadas, por ejemplo, a la remuneración, carga horaria y plan de carrera. No fueron encontradas diferencias en cuanto al sexo, a la edad y a la franja etaria. Se observou la necesidade de realizar más estudios sobre esta temática. Abstract in english In this study we aim at comparing positive and negative affects of teachers from different educational levels. 101 teachers participated in this study, being 83.2% (n=84) female with an average age of 39.3 years (SD=9.8). The instrument used was the Escala de Afetos Zanon - EAZ. Teachers were co-opt [...] ed in the workplace, and the applications occurred both individually and collectively. In order to carry out the analysis, we used ANOVA method, by analyzing profiles of repeated measurements. Among the most relevant results, it was observed that positive affects were more present in the sample in question. We also found that educators from Kindergarten had less positive affect than others, a factor that may have been influenced by singularities perceived by the participants, for example relating to remuneration, working hours and career plan. No differences were found regarding gender and age group. We argue that further studies on this issue are necessary.

Ana Paula Porto, Noronha; Mariana Palladino, Delforno; Lariana Paula, Pinto.

2014-08-01

363

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-LEARNING IN COMPARISON TO TRADITIONAL FORMS OF LEARNING  

OpenAIRE

Internet education is soon to become the dominant form of education inthe world. A lot of effort is being devoted into furthering the work methods and communicationamong students and professors, aimed at bettering the quality of this kind of studying.Moreover, further development of virtual education in the future will depend on the advance ofcontemporary technologies and the Internet. Having this in mind, the author of this paper hastried to explore to what extent the previous results have b...

MIRJANA RADOVI?-MARKOVI?

2010-01-01

364

Multiple Disadvantages? The Earnings of Asian Women Computer Scientists in the United States  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the earnings of an under-researched group: Asian women in computer science, in the United States (U.S.). I distinguish three subsets of college-educated Asian female computer scientists working full time in the U.S.: 1) U.S.-born, U.S.-educated Asian Americans, 2) Asian-born, U.S.-educated Asian immigrants, and 3) Asian-born, Asian-educated Asian immigrants. Results from multivariate regression and quantile regressions (at the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles) show ...

Yu Tao

2010-01-01

365

O lugar do afetivo no desenvolvimento da criança: implicações educacionais / The place of affective on child development: educational implications / El lugar del afectivo en el desarrollo del niño: implicaciones educativas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo, de natureza teórica, tem por objetivo analisar algumas proposições da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural acerca do psiquismo humano, notadamente no que tange à constituição dos processos afetivos na relação com o desenvolvimento infantil. Para tanto, reúne alguns princípios da filosofia spin [...] osiana que fundamentaram o pensamento de Vigotski sobre os afetos e postula que, para essa escola da psicologia, na base da formação humana se encontram a experiência social e a relação sujeito-objeto, elementos constitutivos dos processos cognitivo e afetivo. As análises desenvolvidas ao longo do texto indicam que os mediadores sociais - signos e instrumentos - subsidiam a formação da atividade e da consciência num processo que legitima a origem histórica e social das funções afetivas. O artigo pretende evidenciar o papel da escola como um espaço privilegiado de acesso aos conhecimentos capazes de transformar os modos de pensar, sentir e agir das crianças por meio dos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem. Abstract in spanish Este estudio, de naturaleza teórica, tiene como objetivo analizar algunas proposiciones de la psicología Histórico-Cultural acerca del psiquismo humano, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la constitución de los procesos afectivos en la relación con el desarrollo infantil. Para ello, reúne algunos [...] principios de la filosofía spinozista que fundamentaron el pensamiento vigotskiano sobre los afectos y postula que, para esta escuela de la psicología, en la base de la formación humana se encuentran la experiencia social y la relación sujeto-objeto, constitutivas de los procesos cognitivos y afectivos. Los análisis desarrollados a lo largo del texto indican que los mediadores sociales - signos e instrumentos - subvencionan la formación de la actividad y de la conciencia en un proceso que legitima el origen histórico y social de las funciones afectivas. El artículo pretende evidenciar el papel de la educación escolar como un espacio privilegiado de acceso a los conocimientos capaces de transformar las formas de pensar, sentir y actuar de los niños por medio de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study, of theoretical nature, aims to analyse some propositions of Historic and Cultural psychology about human psyche, especially regarding the constitution of affective processes in relation to child development. Therefore, brings together some principles of Spinozist philosophy that underlie [...] the Vigotskian thought about affections and postulates that, for this school of psychology, on the basis of human development are the social experience and subject-object relation, constitutive of cognitive and affective processes. The analyses developed over the text indicate that social mediators - signs and instruments - subsidize the formation of activity and consciousness in a process that legitimizes the historic and social origin of affective functions. The paper aims to highlight the role of education as a privileged place of access to knowledge capable of transforming ways of thinking, feeling and acting of children through the processes of teaching and learning.

Cláudia Aparecida Valderramas, Gomes.

2013-09-01

366

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV in Visceral Embolization: Report of 50 Placements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: We describe our initial clinical experience in artificial embolization with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV (VP IV), a further development of the Vascular Plug family already in routine use. Methods: Results from 50 embolization procedures conducted with the VP IV in 44 patients are summarized. Results: All 50 embolizations were successful, although two required the technique to be modified because of problems with jamming of the screw thread and thus with disconnection of the plug. This was associated with large branching angles. Conclusions: With experience, the VP IV can be used safely and effectively, and it expands the spectrum of possible embolizations in interventional radiology. Its greatest disadvantage is its relatively poor positional controllability.

367

Advantages and disadvantages of sulfur passivation of InAs/GaSb superlattice waveguide photodiodes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the influence of ammonium sulfide (NH4)2S passivation on waveguide based mid-infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors (2–5 µm wavelength) has been studied. The current–voltage characteristics for reverse as well as for forward bias of passivated samples have been examined. The advantages of this have been the reduction of the reverse leakage current and the increase of zero bias resistance. As a disadvantage the decrease of the photoresponsivity after sulfur passivation has been found. Furthermore, it has been observed that the passivation solution does not only passivate the surface of GaSb, but it also reacts with entire GaSb layers and can destroy the devices

368

Advantages and disadvantages of the animal models v. in vitro studies in iron metabolism: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Special molecules have evolved for iron acquisition, transport and storage in soluble, nontoxic forms. Studies about the effects of iron on health are focused on iron metabolism or nutrition to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. These studies are focused in two main aspects: (1) basic studies to elucidate iron metabolism and (2) nutritional studies to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementation to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental models commonly used as well as the methods that are more used in studies related to iron. In vitro studies have used different parts of the gut. In vivo studies are done in humans and animals such as mice, rats, pigs and monkeys. Iron metabolism is a complex process that includes interactions at the systemic level. In vitro studies, despite physiological differences to humans, are useful to increase knowledge related to this essential micronutrient. Isotopic techniques are the most recommended in studies related to iron, but their high cost and required logistic, making them difficult to use. The depletion-repletion of hemoglobin is a method commonly used in animal studies. Three depletion-repletion techniques are mostly used: hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological values (RBV) and metabolic balance, which are official methods of the association of official analytical chemists. These techniques are well-validated to be used as studies related to iron and their results can be extrapolated to humans. Knowledge about the main advantages and disadvantages of the in vitro and animal models, and methods used in these studies, could increase confidence of researchers in the experimental results with less costs. PMID:23790319

García, Y; Díaz-Castro, J

2013-10-01

369

Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in ?-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 ?mol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23742751

Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

2013-12-01

370

Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors responsible for these differences and the implications for population health research and policy. PMID:25353164

Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

2014-01-01

371

The imaging technique as learning support for educationally disadvantaged learners in the secondary school, to improve reading comprehension  

OpenAIRE

Reading comprehension is one of the basic learning skills that need to be learned in an early school years. The English language is generally introduced as early as Grade 2 level in township primary schools. Township learners are at most exposed to English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLt) for three years (Grade 5-7) before entering secondary school. Most township primary school learners enter secondary school with poor English language development and poor language proficiency....

Ngwenya, Mandiza Dinah

2003-01-01

372

A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

2012-01-01

373

Characterization of Multicultural Values: Affective Impact of Writing Extensive Journals in a University-Level Course  

OpenAIRE

The highest educational objective of affective domain is characterization, which refers to the level of character development where individuals’ behaviors and values remain consistent. Because the educational objectives of affect are categorically different from cognitive educational objectives, an alternative pedagogical conceptualization that integrates teaching, learning, and evaluating aspects of character development is essential in multicultural education. The curr...

Taekhil Jeong

2013-01-01

374

Transformative Learning: Teaching Vocabulary to Disadvantaged Non-Native Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Many people in non-native English speaking countries learn English as a second language at school. Moreover, most countries build it into the curriculum of national education ranging from elementary to university levels of education. As a compulsory subject in many countries, it is necessary that the students learn the language. They must be able…

Andriansyah, Andriansyah

2012-01-01

375

Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277  

Science.gov (United States)

Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

Austin, Algernon

2010-01-01

376

What Works in College Outreach: Assessing Targeted and Schoolwide Interventions for Disadvantaged Students  

Science.gov (United States)

By offering information, counseling, and tutoring, college outreach programs attempt to smooth the path between high school and higher education for at-risk students. But do these program work? This paper uses longitudinal data from the Education Longitudinal Study to construct two quasi-experiments to assess the effectiveness of college outreach.…

Domina, Thurston

2009-01-01

377

A New BP Neural Network Algorithm and Its Application in University Innovation Education Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

BP neural network algorithm has one of the most important algorithms in intelligence field for its powerful nonlinear mapping ability and many other advantages. But BP neural network algorithm has the disadvantages such as low convergence which limits the application of the algorithm. The paper improves the original BP neural network algorithm through Fourier basis function and uses it to evaluate university innovation education. First the disadvantages and...

Ye Hankun

2013-01-01

378

Educational Policies and Income Inequality  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we study the associations between educational policies, distributions of educational attainments and income distributions. By matching inequality measures on test scores, years of education and labour earnings by country, birth cohorts and gender, we show that inequality in education (measured both at quality and quantity levels) affect earnings inequality. We then consider potential endogeneity of educational distributions and we resort to instrumental estimation using informat...

Checchi, Daniele; Werfhorst, Herman G.

2014-01-01

379

Leisure educators and  educational quality : A study of leisure educators view on educational quality with big children’s groups  

OpenAIRE

This work is about leisure educators' views on educational quality in large groups of children. School centers will contribute to children's development and learning through meaningful leisure and leisure educators' contribution with a high educational quality. There are a lot of discussions and writings about growing groups of children. How are the leisure education and its quality affected by increasing children's groups? It sparked my interest and therefore I wanted to examine this more cl...

Walfridsson, Carola

2014-01-01

380

Affective Development in Schools: Resource Programs and Persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to facilitate communication among professionals in the field of affective education, this quide provides brief descriptions of representative affective education programs across the nation in the areas of behavioral and social science. Fifty-four programs and organizations are described including the title of the program, director,…

Morse, William C.; Munger, Richard L.

381

Corruption, Collusion, and Nepotism in Higher Education and the Labor Market in Georgia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a new approach to conceptualizing the limited affordability and access to higher education for socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Georgia. Unlike most traditional views, it associates the issue with corruption, collusion, and nepotism existent in the country's higher education, job market, and banking system. It argues…

Orkodashvili, Mariam

2011-01-01

382

To Segregate or to Separate? Special Education Expansion and Divergence in the United States and Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two hundred years in the United States and Germany, special educational systems have been institutionalized to facilitate access to learning opportunities for children with disabilities, difficulties, and disadvantages. Originally heralded as innovative, the positive views of these mainly segregating and separating educational

Powell, Justin J. W.

2009-01-01

383

The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following 14 essays consider relationships among schooling, education, and the state; alternatives to existing systems; and educating minorities and the disadvantaged: (1) "Growing Up Blighted: Reflections on the 'Secret Power' in the American Experience" (C. Burgess); (2) "The Evolving Political Structure of American Schooling" (J. Spring);…

Everhart, Robert B., Ed.

384

Elementary Education in Rural India: A Grassroots View. Strategies for Human Development in India, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are wide variations in educational attainment and literacy rates across the regions and social classes of India. A national project examined participation in and the quality of elementary education in nine states of India, focusing on rural areas and the situation of disadvantaged persons, especially girls and the scheduled castes and…

Vaidyanathan, A., Ed.; Nair, P. R. Gopinathan, Ed.

385

Mothers' Beliefs about Literacy Development: Indigenous and Anglo-Australian Mothers from Different Educational Backgrounds  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown a relationship between mothers' beliefs about literacy, their educational and socioeconomic backgrounds, and their children's emergent literacy awareness. Many Australian Indigenous children experience educational disadvantage, as do children whose parents are manual workers. One recommendation that is frequently made is for…

Torr, Jane

2008-01-01

386

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

Cunningham Heather

2010-07-01

387

Advantages and disadvantages of e-learning at the technical university  

OpenAIRE

The term Electronic Learning or e-Learning is being used in Russia rather rarely. It integrates a number of terminological notions in the sphere of application of modern information and communication technologies in education such as multimedia, education on the base of web-technologies, etc. Teachers and learners must realize that new opportunities are offered by modern on-line communication. A person with basic Internet and Web skills is open to a new world of knowledge, from free Web surfi...

Sheypak, Olga; Artyushina, Galina; Artyushina, Anna

2007-01-01

388

Perceptions Concerning Intergenerational Education from the Perspective of Participants  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an evaluation of an intergenerational education experience at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). For this evaluation, following a review of the literature regarding the state of the issue, we undertake an analysis of benefits and disadvantages from the perspective of the participants. Among the benefits we find…

Castro, Juan Lirio; González, David Alonso; Aguayo, Immaculada Herranz; Fernández, Enrique Arias

2014-01-01

389

A Proposal for the Reengineering of the Educational System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A re-engineering of the educational system is proposed that focuses on mastery and more substantial learning activities and eliminates the constraints to learning that arise from the current insistence on grouping children by age. It is argued that eliminating age-based grouping has advantages that outweigh social disadvantage. (SLD)

Osin, Luis; Lesgold, Alan

1996-01-01

390

THE YOUNG MOTHERS EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. TWO PIECES. (TITLE SUPPLIED).  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE MEDICAL, EDUCATIONAL, SOCIAL, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES OF A PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED UNWED PREGNANT TEENAGERS IN SYRACUSE. THE PROGRAM, WHICH HAS BEEN IN OPERATION FOR A YEAR, ATTEMPTS (1) TO PROVIDE A NEARLY TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, (2) TO ESTABLISH INDIVIDUAL DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONSHIPS, (3) TO TEACH THE…

OSOFSKY, HOWARD J.; AND OTHERS

391

Demand-Side Financing in Education: a Critical Examination of a Girls' Scholarship Program in Malawi--(Case Study)  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the push for universal education, many disadvantaged and poor children in developing countries still do not have access to basic education. This among other reasons is due to poverty where poor families cannot afford the cost of basic education even when it is "free" of tuition (McDonald, 2007). Demand-side financing…

Sineta, Abraham

2012-01-01

392

A Summary of the Evaluation of the Educational Developmental Laboratories/American Institute of Banking High School Equivalency Program for Bank Trainees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The New York Chapter of the American Institute of Banking (AIB) is a sponsor of the Joint Bank Hiring and Education Program for the Disadvantaged (HEP), the purpose of which is to hire and train undereducated adults and provide education that will enable the trainees to compete successfully in the banking industry. Educational Development…

Scheier, Elaine; And Others

393

The Role of Parenting in Linking Family Socioeconomic Disadvantage to Physical Activity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents play an important role in influencing adolescent health behaviors and parenting practices may be an important pathway through which social disadvantage influences adolescent health behaviors that can persist into adulthood. This analysis uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine how parenting practices mediate…

Lee, Hedwig

2014-01-01

394

The Influence of the Secondary School Setting on the Food Practices of Young Teenagers from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in Scotland  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we explore the secondary school environment as an important context for understanding young teenagers eating habits and food practices. We draw on data collected during semi-structured interviews with 36 young teenagers (aged 13/14 years) living in disadvantaged circumstances in Scotland. We found that the systems inherent in school…

Wills, W.; Backett-Milburn, K.; Gregory, S.; Lawton, J.

2005-01-01

395

The Influence of Maternal Acculturation, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Parenting on Chinese American Adolescents' Conduct Problems: Testing the Segmented Assimilation Hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…

Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong

2009-01-01

396

What Works to Overcome Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Learnings and Gaps in the Evidence. Closing the Gap Clearinghouse. 2009-10  

Science.gov (United States)

The Closing the Gap Clearinghouse was established by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) to bring together evidence-based research on overcoming disadvantage for Indigenous Australians. The Clearinghouse provides access to a collection of information on what works to improve Indigenous people's lives across the building blocks identified…

Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Higgins, Daryl

2011-01-01

397

The Past and the Pending: The Antecedents and Consequences of Group-Based Anger in Historically and Currently Disadvantaged Groups  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Two studies investigated the role of domain relevance in the experience of group-based anger among disadvantaged groups using structural equation models. In the first study, Surinamese people to whom the slavery past was more relevant made stronger attributions of outgroup-blame and experienced more anger. This effect was above and beyond the influence of group identification. In the second study ...

Pennekamp, Sjoerd F.; Doosje, Bertjan; Zebel, Sven; Fischer, Agneta H.

2007-01-01

398

Economic Disadvantage, Perceived Family Life Quality, and Emotional Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Over three consecutive years, Chinese secondary school students experiencing and not experiencing economic disadvantage (n = 280 and 2,187, respectively) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting attributes and parent-child relational quality) and emotional well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2008-01-01

399

Trends in educational technologies  

OpenAIRE

Trends in Educational Technologies analyses the benefits and considerations of deploying four major technological trends set to affect higher education institutions. These include; MOOCs, BYOD, Gamification and Games-based learning and Learning analytics. The report argues that, while technology can bring benefits and should be embraced by institutions, pedagogy and learning should be at the heart of any technological adoption.

Karnad, Arun

2014-01-01

400

Teacher Education in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Teacher education programmes within Canada are markedly different in structure and duration across the provinces, which affects programme delivery for teacher candidates and their opportunities for clinical practice. This paper provides a brief overview of Canadian pre-service teacher education, a summary of new teacher induction and mentoring…

Van Nuland, Shirley

2011-01-01

401

'n Voorlopige impakstudie van 'n vennootskapsprojek tussen universiteit, skole en die privaat sektor: hoop vir benadeelde studente danksy mentorskappe / A preliminary impact study of a university, school and private sector partnership project: hope for disadvantaged students through mentorships  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english Successful access to higher education for black students in particular remains a challenge to all tertiary institutions in South Africa. This is the opinion of Prof. Russel Botman, Rector of Stellenbosch University (SU). It is therefore of concern that the SU strategic framework document (SU 2010a) [...] states that the increase in our country's student population projected by the National Commission for Higher Education in 1997 (DBO 1997) has not been attained. This is in contrast with the University's vision for the future, which commits itself to an academic institution of excellence and a respected knowledge partner that contributes towards the development of South Africa and welcomes a diversity of people and ideas. But according to a report by the Centre for Higher Education Transformation (CHET)¹ little demographic transformation had occurred in respect of who participates in higher education. This is an indication that black students' chances of gaining access to university have in fact decreased. Despite this authorities continue to insist that the percentage of black students in public higher-education institutions be increased. The Ministry's vision is of a transformed, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist system of higher education that will promote equity of access and fair chances of success to all who are seeking to realise their potential through higher education (DBO 1997). The Vice-Rector of SU (Fourie 2009b:16) expands on this: "Besides the moral-ethical considerations, pressure is also being placed on universities by higher education policy to diversify their student and staff compositions and to remove measures that could exclude certain groupings". Stellenbosch University is thus under pressure to align its diversity profile with the transformation goals set by the government, as proclaimed in the White Paper on Higher Education of1997. At the same time the University also experiences pressure from the broader community to answer to the call of alleviating poverty in disadvantaged communities (SU 2010a). However, the standard of teaching in previously disadvantaged schools in the surrounding areas is such that very few students qualify to further their studies at university level. The question therefore is what the University can do to draw students that will rise to these challenges. In his response the University announced a strategy referred to by the current vice-chancellor (Botman 2007) as a "pedagogy of hope". This seems to have been inspired by the neo-Marxist Brazilian educationalist Paulo Friere'spublication Pedagogy of the oppressed (1970). According to this strategy the University will search for and exploit opportunities that will lead to "the farm owner's daughter and the farm worker's son sitting in the same class" (Botman 2007). This gave rise to initiatives such as the Rachel's Angels Schools Partnership Project, which is based on the principles of community interaction.² The project aims to build the capacity of promising students from disadvantaged communities with the aid of a mentorship programme. This will enable them to bridge the gap between school and university successfully. This article presents an overview of the project as well as a report on its impact. The educational theories which underpin the Rachel's Angels project can be considered to be constructivist in nature, founded upon a philosophy that is student centred and based on a view in which knowledge is not absolute, but is actively constructed by the student. The study aims to establish whether the project has achieved the desired outcomes. If employed successfully, SU will give effect to its transformation agenda, which includes increased participation by a diverse corps of students, willingness to react to social and economic needs and growing cooperation between higher education institutions and all sectors of society. The results of the impact study indicate that, despite growing pains, the project has already made a meaningfu

Michael, le Cordeur.

402

Advantages, disadvantages and PQT results of FBE (Fusion Bonded Epoxy) 2L and FBE 3L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pipeline operating companies' requirements has divided the anti corrosive coating industry in two big groups. Europe, Asia and South America had decided to use tree layers polyethylene (3LPE). In the other hand North America and England are users of Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE). The coating characteristics guided this division. The 3LPE presents a better mechanical resistance, a small demand of cathodic protection current but the application costs involved are greater. The FBE has a small mechanic resistance, greater demand of cathodic protection current but its application cost is lower. In the effort for finding better mechanic performance of the FBE product the industry developed the 2L-FBE. This new product show better requirements as better mechanical resistance, smaller cathodic protection current required and medium application costs when compared to the traditional FBE. This paper intends to describe this new technology's PQT results that were carried out by PETROBRAS and Bredero Shaw - Brazil to be used on produced water injection pipelines. It'll show also a table with vantages and disadvantages about each coating. (author)

Koebsch, Andre; Cunha, Bruno Rocha Marques da; Nunes, Erik Barbosa; Haverroth, Guilherme Eller [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, Paulo Herinque [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

403

Review. Advantages and disadvantages of control theories applied in greenhouse climate control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today agriculture is changing in response to the requirements of modern society, where ensuring food supply through practices such as water conservation, reduction of agrochemicals and the required planted surface, which guarantees high quality crops are in demand. Greenhouses have proven to be a reliable solution to achieve these goals; however, a greenhouse as a means for protected agriculture has the potential to lead to serious problems. The most of these are related to the inside greenhouse climate conditions where controlling the temperature and relative humidity (RH) are the main objectives of engineering. Achieving appropriate climate conditions to ensure high yield and quality crops reducing energy consumption have been the objective of investigations for some time. Different schemes in control theories have been applied in this field to solve the aforementioned problems. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a review of different control techniques applied in protected agriculture to manage greenhouse climate conditions, presenting advantages and disadvantages of developed control platforms in order to suggest a design methodology according to results obtained from different investigations. (Author) 64 refs.

Duarte-Galvan, C.; Torres-Pacheco, I.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R. G.; Romero-Troncoso, R. J.; Contreras-Medina, L. M.; Rios-Alcaraz, M. A.; Millan-Almaraz, J. R.

2012-07-01

404

STUDY OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE VENOUS ACCESS DEVICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD or implantable catheter ports are devices which can be implanted subcutaneously. They enable prolonged and repeated access to the vascular system, into the peritoneal cavity or intravertebral space. This device is particularly useful for repeated medical injection, for blood sampling or transfusion of blood and blood derivatives and for total parenteral nutrition (TPN. Although many patients benefit from the insertion of TIVAD without any secondary effects, any surgical implantation can nevertheless lead to complications. ?In this study, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of TIVAD catheter in pediatric age group. A total of 94 cases, 2 to 14 years old, were included in our study. We implanted TIVAD in these patients for chemotherapy in 83 cases (88.29%, for prolonged TPN in 6 cases (6.38%, for corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy after ?Kasai operation in 2 cases (2.12%, for intermittent IV therapy in 2 cases (2.12% and for need to partial parenteral nutrition in 1 case (1.06%. Out of 94 cases, 14 cases (15% had some kind of complications and 80 cases (85% had no complication. There was no mortality. Most patients and their parents (82 cases, 87.23% were satisfied from TIVAD. ?It seems that TIVAD can be a useful device for many chronic patients who need an IV access for multiple injections.

J. Ahmadi

2006-07-01

405

Advantages and Disadvantages of Physiological Assessment For Next Generation Control Room Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstract - We propose using non-obtrusive physiological assessment (e.g., eye tracking,) to assess human information processing errors (e.g., loss of vigilance) and limitations (e.g., workload) for advanced energy systems early in the design process. This physiological approach for assessing risk will circumvent many limitations of current risk methodologies such as subjective rating (e.g., rater’s biases) and performance modeling (e.g., risk assessment is scripted and is based upon the individual modeler’s judgment). Key uses will be to evaluate (early in the design process) novel control room equipment and configurations as well as newly developed automated systems that will inevitably place a high information load on operators. The physiological risk assessment tool will allow better precision in pinpointing problematic design issues and will provide a “real-time” assessment of risk. Furthermore, this physiological approach would extend the state-of-the-art of human reliability methods from a “static” measure to more “dynamic.” This paper will discuss a broad range of the current popular online performance gauges as well as its advantages and disadvantages for use in next generation control room.

Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P Hallbert; M. David Keller; Tessa M. Anderson

2007-08-01

406

Milder is better? Advantages and disadvantages of "mild" ovarian stimulation for human in vitro fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades, several steps have been made aiming at rendering human IVF more successful on one side, more tolerable on the other side. The "mild" ovarian stimulation approach, in which a lower-than-average dose of exogenous gonadotropins is given and gonadotropin treatment is started from day 2 to 7 of the cycle, represents a significant step toward a more patient's friendly IVF. However, a clear view of its virtues and defects is still lacking, because only a few prospective randomized trials comparing "mild" vs. conventional stimulation exist, and they do not consider some important aspects, such as, e.g., thawing cycles. This review gives a complete panorama of the "mild" stimulation philosophy, showing its advantages vs. conventional ovarian stimulation, but also discussing its disadvantages. Both patients with a normal ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins and women with a poor ovarian reserve are considered. Overall, we conclude that the level of evidence supporting the use of "mild" stimulation protocols is still rather poor, and further, properly powered prospective studies about "mild" treatment regimens are required. PMID:21324155

Revelli, Alberto; Casano, Simona; Salvagno, Francesca; Delle Piane, Luisa

2011-01-01

407

Milder is better? advantages and disadvantages of "mild" ovarian stimulation for human in vitro fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, several steps have been made aiming at rendering human IVF more successful on one side, more tolerable on the other side. The "mild" ovarian stimulation approach, in which a lower-than-average dose of exogenous gonadotropins is given and gonadotropin treatment is started from day 2 to 7 of the cycle, represents a significant step toward a more patient's friendly IVF. However, a clear view of its virtues and defects is still lacking, because only a few prospective randomized trials comparing "mild" vs. conventional stimulation exist, and they do not consider some important aspects, such as, e.g., thawing cycles. This review gives a complete panorama of the "mild" stimulation philosophy, showing its advantages vs. conventional ovarian stimulation, but also discussing its disadvantages. Both patients with a normal ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins and women with a poor ovarian reserve are considered. Overall, we conclude that the level of evidence supporting the use of "mild" stimulation protocols is still rather poor, and further, properly powered prospective studies about "mild" treatment regimens are required.

Delle Piane Luisa

2011-02-01

408

Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

Takano Takehito

2005-06-01

409

Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity production. Renewable energy sources are typically subsidized as early as the construction phase. Up to half of the investment costs can be covered by taxpayers' money. Other incentives include tax exemption or guaranteed higher purchase prices. In this area, last year's change in legislation, guaranteeing energy prices for renewable for the next fifteen years, has been crucial. The disadvantage is that higher prices for renewable energy have to be paid by the consumers. In addition, solar and wind energies are highly volatile - depending on weather conditions. This jeopardizes the stability of the national electricity grid and, if left unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Sft unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Slovakia registers applications for up to 3,500 MW worth of new renewable energy sources. (authors)

410

Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called 'water absorption barrier' requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

411

Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy of single living cells in microfluidic devices: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility to fully exploit the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS for studying single living cells under physiological conditions is limited by several constrains. First of all, the technology for manufacturing materials transparent to both IR and visible light is quite immature, limiting the design of fluidic devices to simple demountable liquid cells. In addition, the water spectral features become prominent in the Mid IR, hiding several cellular bands and therefore limiting the diagnostic capabilities of SR-IRMS. The overcoming of the so called "water absorption barrier" requires the improvement of the protocols for the compensation of buffer spectral contributions, a goal that can be achieved also advancing the quality of IR-suitable fluidic devices. In this paper, the technical solutions employed for microfabricating completely sealed IR-visible transparent fluidic devices for living cell analysis will be presented. Several examples of the results obtained in the study of living U937 monocytes subjected to different stimuli will be selected for highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages offered by our approach for cellular biology.

Vaccari, L.; Birarda, G.; Grenci, G.; Pacor, S.; Businaro, L.

2012-05-01

412

The advantages and disadvantages of Art History to Life: Alois Riegl and historicism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alois Riegl was one of the seminal art historians of the early twentieth century, but very little is known about his career as adjunct-curator of textiles at the Austrian Museum for Art and Industry. He worked at the Museum from 1884 and combined this position with University teaching until he left this post to become a full Professor of Art History at the University of Vienna in 1897. While interest in Riegl has shown no signs of abating in recent years, most scholars continue to debate Riegl’s theories and methods. The aim of this paper, however, is to demonstrate just how much of Riegl’s theorizing was brought into focus by practical issues at the Museum for Art and Industry. As recent studies have indicated, Riegl was much more than an ivory tower theoretician; his work reverberated with the type of cross-disciplinary cultural criticism we associate with the intellectual life of fin-de-siècle Vienna. Another goal of this paper is to contribute to our expanding understanding of Riegl in his social and institutional contexts. Finally, it traces ways in which Riegl used his early exposure to Nietzsche, particularly Nietzsche’s second Untimely Meditation (The advantages and disadvantages of History to life to craft his responses to contemporary artistic and social crises in the final decade of the nineteenth century.

Diana Reynolds Cordileone

2010-12-01

413

Information dissemination in disadvantaged wireless communications using a data dissemination service and content data network  

Science.gov (United States)

Disadvantaged wireless communications, such as those in fractionated spacecraft systems, need real-time, reliable, and fault tolerant information dissemination from information producers (such as sensors) to information consumers (such as information exploitation, analysis, or command and control systems). Such systems are well-suited to the publishsubscribe paradigm, but cannot afford the large footprint of many publish-subscribe systems and do not provide the underlying high-bandwidth, stable connectivity many publish-subscribe systems assume. Similarly, publish-subscribe systems cannot, by themselves, provide the real-time performance and quality of service needed by many missioncritical and spacecraft applications; they need enforcement and control provided by an underlying network. This paper presents a concept for a dissemination system suited to space-borne platforms that combines a lightweight implementation of the OMG's Data Dissemination Service with a simplified Content Delivery Network. The result is a topic-based publish-subscribe information dissemination service that supports decoupled publishers and subscribers of varying numbers, automated failover, and quality of service (QoS), coupled with a topic-based network that can enforce QoS parameters and efficiently deliver published messages based on the subscriptions registered by consumers.

Gillen, Matthew; Loyall, Joseph; Zita Haigh, Karen; Walsh, Robert; Partridge, Craig; Lauer, Gregory; Strayer, Timothy

2012-05-01

414

Olive oil waste treatment: a comparative and critical presentation of methods, advantages & disadvantages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since olive oil industries were considered responsible for a great amount of pollution there has been a strong need for optimization of olive oil waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; bioremediation (ex-situ, in-situ), thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification), evaporation, membrance processes, electrolysis, ozonation, digestion, coagulation/flocculation/precipitation, and distillation. Both advantages and disadvantages in conjunction with respective methodology and explicit flow diagrams were presented per waste treatment method. Furthermore, most recent studies were reported and more than twenty-five figures showing mainly the effectiveness of the current waste treatment methods versus time or temperature were displayed. The comparative presentation of the various olive oil waste treatment methodologies showed that though bioremediation stands for the most enviromentally friendly technique, its required longer treatment time in conjuction with its weakness to deal with elemental contaminants makes imperative the employment of a second alternative technique which could either be a membrance process (low energy cost, reliability, reduced capital cost) or a coagulation/flocculation method because of its low cost and high effectiveness. Biogas production appears to be another promising and energy effective waste treatment method. On the other hand, methods like distillation and ozonation (high cost) and electrolysis (experimental level) are unlikely to dominate this field unless their high cost is substantially reduced in the near future. PMID:17453921

Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kassaveti, Aikaterini; Stefanatos, Stelios

2007-01-01

415

Late maturers at a performance disadvantage to their more mature peers in junior Australian football.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children and adolescents mature at different rates such that individuals competing in the same competition may differ in physical and biological maturity despite being of similar chronological age. Whether or not differences translate into on-field performance in competition is relatively unknown. This study investigated the influence of biological maturity on fitness and match running performance in junior Australian football. Eighty-seven under-15 years players were categorised into early (n = 20), average (n = 45) and late (n = 22) maturity groups based on self-reported and anthropometric assessment of biological maturity. Running movements during competition were collected using GPS (5 Hz) technology. Early maturers were heavier and taller than all other boys (P 14.4 km · h(-1)) running distance and number of high-intensity efforts were significantly greater (20.8%, 53.6%, 31.7%, respectively; P competition were not different. Pubertal development and maturity status partially explained the differences between players in physical size, functional running fitness and match running performance. Late maturing players in this Australian football under-15 age group were at a physical and performance disadvantage to their earlier maturing peers. PMID:24073850

Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary

2014-01-01

416

Advantages and disadvantages of college drinking in students' own words: content analysis of the decisional balance worksheet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The decisional balance worksheet (DBW), an open-ended measure of motivation to change, may be used to record the perceived advantages and disadvantages of substance use as well as alternative behaviors. Recent findings have indicated that the open-ended DBW can be quantified to validly reflect college students' level of motivation to reduce their drinking (Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009). The goal of the current study was to enhance our understanding of college students' perceived advantages and disadvantages of drinking by qualitatively examining the content of their decisional balance. Participants were undergraduate college students at a 4-year university (N = 760) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of online brief motivational interventions. Using the DBW, participants recorded the advantages and disadvantages of their current drinking. Conventional content analysis methods were used to extract common themes. Social, enjoyment, and psychological reasons were the most commonly mentioned advantages of drinking, whereas physical side effects, expense and interference with goals were the most commonly mentioned disadvantages of drinking. These findings show that college students primarily use alcohol for enjoyment, particularly in social situations, as well as for coping with stress and social anxiety. On the other hand, many college students report having physical side effects from drinking as well as other kinds of concerns (e.g., expense, calories). Findings suggest that using the open-ended DBW may result in a more client-centered and accurate representation of what college students perceive as advantages and disadvantages to drinking than established, Likert-scale measures of decisional balance. PMID:25134033

Collins, Susan E; Kirouac, Megan; Taylor, Emily; Spelman, Philip J; Grazioli, Véronique; Hoffman, Gail; Haelsig, Laura; Holttum, Jessica; Kanagawa, Ami; Nehru, Mayanka; Hicks, Jennifer

2014-09-01

417

Education in the Mother Tongue and Educational Achievement in Paraguay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies show that the use of the mother-tongue (Guarani) as a medium of instruction with students in Paraguay is the most significant determining factor in the acquisition of knowledge. The discrepancy between educational ideology and educational policies in Paraguay regarding the implementation of bilingual education programs negatively affects

Corvalan, Grazziella

1984-01-01

418

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-LEARNING IN COMPARISON TO TRADITIONAL FORMS OF LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Internet education is soon to become the dominant form of education inthe world. A lot of effort is being devoted into furthering the work methods and communicationamong students and professors, aimed at bettering the quality of this kind of studying.Moreover, further development of virtual education in the future will depend on the advance ofcontemporary technologies and the Internet. Having this in mind, the author of this paper hastried to explore to what extent the previous results have been accomplished, as well as toclassify the different modalities of this kind of learning and to ascertain their advantages anddisadvantages. A special emphasis has been put on the great utility value for all developedeconomies, which have made great progress in the development rate and in the spreading ofvirtual faculties’ network. At the end of this research paper, recommendations are given, andfurther trends of Internet education are established, juxtaposed to the classic forms of studying,based on the latest research results in this field. The author especially emphasizes the fact thatfaculties with “classrooms without walls” will not fully replace traditional faculties. The valueof this paper lies particularly in the fact that it builds not only on the contemporary researchfindings, but also on the author’s personal experience as a professor engaged in this form ofstudent education.

MIRJANA RADOVI?-MARKOVI?

2010-01-01

419

Designing an Educational Game : Design Principles from a Holistic Perspective  

OpenAIRE

When designing games with learning purposes used in a classroom, there often occur problems about the lack of learning content or the lack of game contents. Other disadvantages of existing educational games are the difficulty to provide a continual balance between the challenge and the pupils’ skill to control and solve the given task. In this paper we suggest three different perspectives that need to be communicated across in order to design a useful educational game: teachers, pupils and ...

Bjørner, Thomas; Hansen, Charina Benedikte Søgaard

2011-01-01

420

The Politics of Physical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

Claxton, David

2012-01-01

421

Globalization and Education: Demonstrating a "Common World Educational Culture" or Locating a "Globally Structured Educational Agenda"?  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses how globalization might affect national educational policies and practices in the context of: appreciating the force of extranational effects, specifying what may be affected, and exploring how that effect might occur. The paper describes a theory of the relationship between globalization and education, examining two contrasting…

Dale, Roger

2000-01-01

422

Disadvantaged Family Background and Depression among Young Adults in the United States: The Roles of Chronic Stress and Self-Esteem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that having a disadvantaged family background is a risk factor for subsequent symptoms of depression, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms that explain this long-term relationship. Thus, this study uses US national longitudinal data and integrates social stress theory with the life course perspective by focusing on two mediating mechanisms-the chronic stress of poverty and self-esteem during the transition to adulthood. Results reveal that self-esteem largely mediates the inverse relationship between parental education and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. However, the inverse relationship between parental occupational prestige and depressive symptoms among young adults is not mediated by self-esteem, but rather long durations of poverty across 16?years. Overall, these findings suggest that different components of family socioeconomic status can leave a lasting imprint on mental health via the self-concept and the chronic stress of poverty throughout the journey to adulthood. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24123986

Mossakowski, Krysia N

2015-02-01

423

Physical Education, Politics, and SPEAK Out! Day  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the importance of politics in the lives of physical educators. Politics affects many decisions that are made about physical education programs (PEPs). In public schools, politics can affect the number of certified physical education teachers, available facilities, class sizes, and number of days per week that students go to…

Claxton, David; Kopp, Rachael; Skidmore, Lauren; Williams, Kimberly

2013-01-01

424

A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs) are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financi...

Paul Christine; Bonevski Billie; Bryant Jamie

2011-01-01

425

41 CFR 102-117.50 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR?  

Science.gov (United States)

...the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR? 102-117.50 Section 102-117.50 ...the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR? (a) The FAR is an advantage to use...

2010-07-01

426

Civic education and religious education in the function of democratization of education in the Republic of Serbia  

OpenAIRE

Starting from the socio-political context of changes that have affected the education systems of Eastern European countries, the authors summarize the specific nature of the process of democratization of education in Europe at the turn of the century. The paper analyzes the purpose of democratization of education and of introduction of Civic Education and Religious Education classes in the education system of the Republic of Serbia, observing the idea that ...

Klemenovi? Jasmina; Zukovi? Sla?ana

2013-01-01

427

Review of MammoSite brachytherapy: Advantages, disadvantages and clinical outcomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. The MammoSite radiotherapy system is an alternative treatment option for patients with early-stage breast cancer to overcome the longer schedules associated with external beam radiation therapy. The device is placed inside the breast surgical cavity and inflated with a combination of saline and radiographic contrast to completely fill the cavity. The treatment schedule for the MammoSite monotherapy is 34 Gy delivered in 10 fractions at 1.0 cm from the balloon surface with a minimum of 6 hours between fractions on the same day. Material and methods. This review article presents the advantages, disadvantages, uncertainties and clinical outcomes associated with the MammoSite brachytherapy (MSB). Results. Potential advantages of MSB are: high localised dose with rapid falloff for normal tissue sparing, minimum delay between surgery and RT, catheter moves with breast, improved local control, no exposure to staff, likely side-effects reduction and potential cost/time saving (e.g. for country patients). The optimal cosmetic results depend on the balloon-to-skin distance. Good-to-excellent cosmetic results are achieved for patients with balloon-skin spacing of =7 mm. There have been very few published data regarding the long term tumour control and cosmesis associated with the MSB. The available data on the local control achieved with the MSB were comparable with other accelerated partial breast irradiation techniques. The contrast medium inside the balloon causes dose reduction at the prescription point. Current brachytherapy treatment planning systems (BTPS) do not take into account the increased photon attenuation due to high Z of contrast. Some BTPS predicted up to 10% higher dose near the balloon surface compared with Monte Carlo calculations using various contrast concentrations (5-25%). Conclusion. Initial clinical results have shown that the MammoSite device could be used as a sole radiation treatment for selected patients with early stage breast cancer providing good local control, minimal complication rate and excellent cosmesis.

Bensaleh, Saleh; Bezak, Eva; Borg, Martin (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia))

2009-05-15

428

Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

2015-03-01

429

Smoking and stress: the double-edged sword of living in a disadvantaged area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Primary care-based smoking cessation interventions are often less effective amonglow-SES groups. Higher stress levels may explain the lower quit rate and higher prevalence ofsmoking in low-SES groups, and why the relative smoking prevalence rate is not declining at anequitable rate (same prevalence rate as higher SES groups. To understand these issues, thispaper sought answers to two questions: is stress perceived by ex-smokers and current smokers asa barrier to quitting; and does stress act as a barrier to quitting in relation to other barriers indisadvantaged areas?Methods: This paper seeks to understand the lived experiences from participants in 2 focusgroups and 11 in-depth interviews, who reside in the most disadvantaged area in metropolitanAdelaide, regarding stress as a barrier to smoking cessation.Results: The data pointed to stress as an ever-present aspect of life for people in low-SES areasfor many reasons, most stemming from the social environment. Perceived stress was also foundto be a major barrier to smoking cessation, more so for current smokers.Conclusions: The data analysis revealed that people in low-SES areas maybe living inenvironments with increased levels of perceived stress, making them more likely to start, andless likely to quit, smoking. It is argued that the “middle-ground” be taken in a structure-agencyapproach regarding smoking cessation, recognising the potential of social systems to create stresswhilst also recognising that individuals have the capacity to change aspects of their lives (e.g. toquit smoking. Without the awareness of such an approach, primary care efforts at smokingcessation may only serve to increase current inequities in smoking prevalence rates.

Dr George Tsourtos

2008-01-01

430

Advantages and disadvantages of assist-systems in direct surgery for cerebrovascular diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the effectiveness of assist-systems such as endoscopy, navigation, and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in terms of improving the safety and accuracy of surgery for cerebrovascular diseases. Since January 2000, the following devices have been used at our institution to assist in surgical procedures: an endoscope (diameter, 2.7 or 4.0 mm; tip angle, 30deg or 70deg) in 69 surgical procedures to treat cerebral aneurysms, a navigation system (Stealth Station) in 22 operations for cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous or cavernous malformations, and MEP monitoring (bipolar or monopolar electrical stimulation of the motor cortex and EMG recording of the face, trunk and upper extremity contralateral to the stimulated side) in 11 operations for cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Endoscopy allowed visualization of the anatomical relationship between the aneurysm neck and the parent or perforated artery before clipping, and the location of the clip tip, occlusion of the perforated artery, or stenosis of the parent artery could be evaluated after clipping. Postoperative MR and/or CT images revealed an asymptomatic infarction of perforated artery in 4 patients. Navigation allowed prediction of the sites of aneurysms, cavernous malformations, or of the feeding arteries of arteriovenous malformations. This resulted in accurate approaches to these structures, although a brain shift in some patients was recognized by ultrasound imaging linked to thegnized by ultrasound imaging linked to the navigation system. Although MEP monitoring should have predicted postoperative motor function, MEP findings after clipping the neck of aneurysms or obliterating the arteriovenous malformation of a feeding artery were normal in all of the analyzed patients. Postoperative convulsive seizures developed in patients as a result of 20 mA of bipolar electrical stimulation. Endoscopy, navigation, and MEP monitoring are considered helpful for safe and accurate surgical treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, although the disadvantages of these systems should also be considered. (author)

431

Is deck B a disadvantageous deck in the Iowa Gambling Task?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was demonstrated especially clearly by Wilder et al. and Toplak et al. The "prominent deck B" phenomenon is inconsistent with the basic assumption in the IGT; however, most IGT-related studies utilized the "summation" of bad decks A and B when presenting their data, thereby avoiding the problems associated with deck B. Methods To verify the "prominent deck B" phenomenon, this study launched a two-stage simple version IGT, namely, an AACC and BBDD version, which possesses a balanced gain-loss structure between advantageous and disadvantageous decks and facilitates monitoring of participant preferences after the first 100 trials. Results The experimental results suggested that the "prominent deck B" phenomenon exists in the IGT. Moreover, participants cannot suppress their preference for deck B under the uncertain condition, even during the second stage of the game. Although this result is incongruent with the basic assumption in IGT, an increasing number of studies are finding similar results. The results of the AACC and BBDD versions can be congruent with the decision literatures in terms of gain-loss frequency. Conclusion Based on the experimental findings, participants can apply the "gain-stay, loss-shift" strategy to overcome situations involving uncertainty. This investigation found that the largest loss in the IGT did not inspire decision makers to avoid choosing bad deck B.

Chiu Yao-Chu

2007-03-01

432

Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. Methods The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers was performed using a new TSVR technique. Dedicated 4D ultrasound scanner with an automatic 6-12 MHz 4D probe was used. Statistical analysis was performed with Stata v. 8.2. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of thyroid cancers identified by 3D ultrasound include: (a ill-defined borders of the nodule on MPR presentation, (b a lobulated shape of the nodule in the c-plane and (c a density of central vessels in the nodule within the minimal or maximal ranges. Combination of features provided sensitivity 100% and specificity 60-69% for thyroid cancer. Calcification/microcalcification-like echogenic foci on 3D ultrasound proved not to be a risk factor of thyroid cancer. Storage of the 3D data of the whole nodules enabled subsequent evaluation of new parameters and with new rendering algorithms. Conclusions Our results indicate that 3D ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. 3D ultrasound stores volumes comprising the whole lesion or organ. Future detailed evaluations of the data are possible, looking for features that were not fully appreciated at the time of collection or applying new algorithms for volume rendering in order to gain important information. Three-dimensional ultrasound data could be included in thyroid cancer databases. Further multicenter large scale studies are warranted.

Slapa Rafal

2011-01-01

433

Ética, trabajo y examen: La formación de la disposición escolar en medios sociales desfavorecidos / Ethics, work and test: The formation of school provision regarding disadvantaged backgrounds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo aborda la experiencia escolar de jóvenes de origen social desfavorecido en dos regiones de Paraguay. La estrategia metodológica implicó un trabajo de campo que conjuga la observación sociológica con el testimonio de los agentes locales, esto es, una interpelación a los diferente [...] s estamentos de la institución escolar, de modo de aprehender las prácticas de sus diferentes miembros y los significados atribuidos. Los hallazgos giran en torno al papel clave del compromiso social en el proceso educativo: los alumnos cuyos padres están más involucrados en la escolaridad de sus hijos, así como en la participación en las actividades de la escuela, son los más tomados en cuenta por los docentes, lo que será decisivo en las evaluaciones. Las diferencias entre una familia y otra, con mayor o menor compromiso, se expresan también en la relación de sus hijos con la selección escolar, criterio institucional para la construcción de jerarquías escolares. Abstract in english This article deals with the school experience of youths from disadvantaged social backgrounds in two regions of Paraguay. The methodological strategy involved field work combining sociological observation with testimony from local agents; that is, an interpellation of the different social levels of [...] each school and aimed at understanding the practices of the members of each particular institution, thus making it possible to attribute the significance pertinent to each particular circumstance. The findings revolve around the key role of social compromise throughout the educational process: students whose parents are more involved in their children's education, along with parental participation in school activities, are the principal factors taken into account by the teachers, a crucial aspect with regard to the evaluation process. The differences between one family and another (the higher or lower levels of commitment) are also expressed in relationship to their children and the school's selection process: the institutional approach to the creation of the school's hierarchical system.

Luis, Ortiz.

434

Schooling in the Dominican Republic. ERIC-CUE Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 47.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the schooling experiences of a rapidly expanding migrant population from the Dominican Republic are described in this paper. In doing this, the paper examines the societal and organizational context of the educational system in the Dominican Republic, and briefly outlines the organization of and practices in Dominican classrooms, the…

Foxworthy, Nancy M.

435

Disadvantages of Control Chart in Printing Quality Control over Solder Paste and Strategies for Improvement  

OpenAIRE

Control chart is one kind of the most common and effective tools for SPC quality control, however, it is not infallible for ever. The results of actual data processing have proved that the conventional control chart may educe the opposite conclusions to other evaluating methods i...

Chen Peng; Kenny Liu; Xiaohui Gu

2010-01-01

436

On the Advantage and Disadvantage of History for Teaching Political Theory to Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that the standard approach to teaching the history of political thought does not serve the ultimate goals of political theory education, and that alternative approaches are needed to make the history of thought appropriate for undergraduates. A history of political thought for life ought to enhance a person's capacity to act as a…

Johnson, Jeffrey Alan

2008-01-01

437

Going on to Uni? Access and Participation in University for Students from Backgrounds of Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a research project that investigated the aspirations of primary and secondary school students about access to, and participation in higher education. The research was undertaken at schools in low socio-economic status regional and rural areas of north-eastern New South Wales. The paper discusses the background to the…

Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

2012-01-01

438

English and Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Learner Voices from Rural Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

L2 education research has shown immense interest in learners and their views of L2 learning. Nevertheless, the different directions of learner-focused research have been inadequate in highlighting learners' learning experiences in relation to their social backgrounds, particularly in the developing world. Drawing on the first author's PhD…

Hamid, M. Obaidul; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

2011-01-01

439

Equality, Race and Gifted Education: An Egalitarian Critique of Admission to New York City's Specialized High Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational programs for gifted students face both philosophical and practical challenges from egalitarians. Some object that gifted schools inherently undermine a commitment to equality in education, while others observe that schools for talented students cater to privileged youth and effectively discriminate against disadvantaged minorities.…

Mazie, Steven

2009-01-01

440

Education and Health in Late-Life among High School Graduates: Cognitive versus Psychological Aspects of Human Capital  

Science.gov (United States)

Just as postsecondary schooling serves as a dividing line between the advantaged and disadvantaged on outcomes like income and marital status, it also serves as a dividing line between the healthy and unhealthy. Why are the better educated healthier? Human capital theory posits that education makes one healthier via cognitive (skill improvements)…

Herd, Pamela

2010-01-01

441

Effectiveness of Vocational Educators: Perceptions of Training Needs and Barriers for Working with Students with Special Needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Usable responses were received from 172 matched sample sets (vocational teachers, principals, counselors, and special education teachers in high schools; teachers, directors, and vocational resource educators in area vocational schools). Teachers felt more confident with disadvantaged than disabled students and with economically more than…

Custer, Rodney L.; Panagos, Rebecca J.

1996-01-01

442

Learning Evaluation of Distance Education Based on AHP and Fuzzy Theory  

OpenAIRE

Based on features of distance education and its disadvantages in terms of learning evaluation, this study uses Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematics theory to study distance education. First, an electric file is generated for each learner. Then a practical multi-hierarchy evaluation model is built based on AHP. Finally, evaluation of on-line education is done based on information collected by the model with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method of fuzzy mathematics. It helps ...

Fan Tongke

2013-01-01

443

Experiences of Students, service delivery organisations and community members of service delivery to disadvantaged community by Social Work students  

OpenAIRE

As part of their training in social work, fourth-year students delivered services to a disadvantaged community as part of their placement. However, there was no feedback system to evaluate the quality of these services. This study explored the placement as experienced by the students, the organisations linked to this service delivery, and the community members to whom they delivered services, and then to make recommendations. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used, ut...

Strydom, Corinne; Wessels, Cornelia; Walt, Engela; Greeff, Minrie; Schutte, P. J.

2009-01-01

444

Artificial Insemination (AI) by Raw Semen: its Advantages and Disadvantages in Deshi Chicken (Gallus domesticus)  

OpenAIRE

To judge the advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Insemination (AI) by raw semen in deshi chicken a test experiment was conducted in Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) poultry farm, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Male birds (RIR) were collected from the BAU poultry farm, whereas the female birds (deshi hens) were purchased from nearby local village market. Both types of birds were kept in individual cage with adlibitum food and water and were given abdominal massage at least for three da...

Das, S. K.; Adhikary, G. N.; Islam, M. N.; Paul, B. K.; Das, G. G.

2004-01-01

445

Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

Crawford David

2010-03-01

446

Determination of Dancoff correction thermal utilization and thermal disadvantage factors of HEU and LEU cores of an MNSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1), an MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) is to be converted from HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) to LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel, along with all current MNSRs in various other countries. The purpose of the conversion is to minimize the use of HEU for non-proliferation of high-grade nuclear fuel. In this research work, a comparative study has been performed for the determination of the Dancoff, thermal utilization and thermal disadvantage factors of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and potential low enriched uranium (LEU) cores of GHARR-1. A one group transport theory and collision probability based methodologies was used to develop mathematical formulations for thermal utilization factor and thermal disadvantage factor assuming isotropic scattering. This methodology was implemented in a FORTRAN 95 based computer program THERMCALC, which uses Bessell and BesselK as subroutines developed to calculate the modified Bessel functions In and Kn respectively using the polynomial approximation method. Furthermore, a Dancoff correction factor of 0.1519 thermal utilization factor of 0.9767 and a thermal disadvantage factor of 1.894 were obtained for the 90.2% highly enriched Uranium core of GHARR-1. The results compare favorably with literature. Thus THERMCALC can be used as a reliable tool for the calculation of Dancoff, thermal utilization and disadvantage factors of MNSR cores. Other potential LEU cores; UO2 (with different fuel meat densities and enrichments) and U3Si2 have also been analysed. UO2 with 12.6% of Uranium-235 was chosen as the most potential LEU core for the GHARR-1. (au)

447

Why have lending programs targeting disadvantaged small-business borrowers achieved so little succes in the United States?  

OpenAIRE

Small business lending programs designed to move disadvantaged low-income people into business ownership have been difficult to implement successfully in the US context. Based in part on the premise that financing requirements are an entry barrier limiting the ability of aspiring entrepreneurs to create small businesses, these programs are designed to alleviate such barriers for low net-worth individuals with limited borrowing opportunities. Our analysis tracks through time nationally represe...

Bates, Timothy; Lofstrom, Magnus; Servon, Lisa

2010-01-01

448

The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

Acer, Dilek

2015-01-01

449

Blue Skies: Education in Second Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the educational possibilities of the online environment of Second Life, by Linden Labs. Second Life’s economic growth has attracted the attention of corporations, non-profit organizations and government entities. Unlike traditional web-based instruction, Second Life provides a three-dimensional interface through which teachers and students can enjoy a limited form of eye-contact and body language. It also permits collaboration and learning in groups. The article goes on to discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the interface for online learning. It goes on to examine current educational applications and possible future enhancements.

Matthew Poole

2008-05-01

450

Declining health disadvantage of non-marital children: Explanation of the trend in the Czech Republic 1990-2010  

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Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data from birth register are analysed. Marital status (married vs. unmarried disparities in low birth weight are modelled using logistic regression. Further analyses are then performed with a detailed measurement of partnership status. This detailed variable is partially missing and is thus supplemented with multiple imputation. Results: The main explanation for the narrowing gap between the outcomes of children born to married and unmarried mothers is the increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Unmarried motherhood has become less detrimental to a child's birth weight net of maternal demographic characteristics. The decline in selection from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups has also contributed to the convergence. However, the convergence of birth weight trends towards marital children seems to refer mostly to children of partnered mothers, with children of single mothers lagging behind. Conclusions: The positive trends in the health of non-marital children are interpreted as being the result of the increasing institutionalisation of parenthood in non-marital unions. However, this does not apply to unpartnered motherhood, which continues to represent a health disadvantage.

Martina Stipkova

2013-10-01

451

Appraisal of the advantages and disadvantages of gamma, electron and X-ray radiation sterilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since radiation sterilization was first introduced as a viable technique for the sterilization of medical products, there has been considerable discussion of the relative merits of gamma rays versus accelerator produced electrons. Although the early sterilization work at Ethicon started with an electron device, the problems associated with these early generation electron devices convinced the researchers to switch to 60Co gamma sources as their radiation choice. Over the intervening period of approximately two decades, considerable changes have taken place with respect to both 60Co facilities and sources, and electron accelerators. The paper reviews and up-dates the status of both. The changes in source cost, construction techniques and production flow for 60Co sterilization plants are examined. The advantages of 60Co as it relates to simplicity and ease of maintenance are discussed as well as the disadvantages of long dwell time and facility complication. Typical plant efficiencies for both continuous flow and batch gamma plants are described, and the fact that radiation utilization (efficiency) factors with gamma facilities are still relatively low and have not changed radically over the period is reviewed. Finally, the economics of gamma-ray sterilization are examined for typical medical products. With regard to electron adelerators, both linacs and d.c. generators have undergone considerable changes in both power levels considerable changes in both power levels and degree of process reliability. These improvements are described and the apparent acceptance afforded electron accelerators as production tools by industries other than medical disposables. In addition, the relationship of medical product packaging, product flow and point of sterilization in the production flow and the type of electron device most suitable are discussed. Further, the advantages of higher-powered electron accelerators (up to 150 kW) and their ability to generate X-ray fluxes comparable with those for 60Co plaques makes it necessary to consider this possibility as well, in attempting to arrive at an optimum radiation sterilization facility design. The economics of medical product sterilization with electrons used directly or with secondary-produced X-rays are examined and compared with gamma-ray economics. (author)

452

Mitigating Negative Externalities Affecting Access and Equity of Education in Low-Resource Countries: A Study Exploring Social Marketing as a Potential Strategy for Planning School Food Programs in Malawi  

Science.gov (United States)

School feeding programs enhance the efficiency of the education system by improving enrollment, reducing dropouts and increasing perseverance. They also have the potential to reach the poor, directly making them an effective social safety net. In many low-resource countries, school feeding programs are designed to protect children from the effects…

Magreta-Nyongani, Martha

2012-01-01

453

Impact of Employment Restructuring on Disadvantaged Groups in Hungary and Bulgaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys of 900 manufacturers in Hungary and Bulgaria show that transition to a market economy is (1) marginalizing women, affected by segregation, layoff risk, and discrimination; (2) diminishing labor market role of older workers; and (3) increasing difficulties faced by youth seeking employment, whose skills do not match new employment needs.…

Sziraczki, Gyorgy; Windell, James

1992-01-01

454

78 FR 35239 - Inviting Applications for Small Socially-Disadvantaged Producer Grants  

Science.gov (United States)

...fish; fruits and vegetables; grains, such...population, value of production, increased diversification...differentiated production or marketing...expenses for the production of any commodity...projects within or affecting these areas, as...higher on this factor. 4. Work...

2013-06-12

455

Globalization and Educational Reform: What Planners Need To Know. Fundamentals of Educational Planning Series, Number 63.  

Science.gov (United States)

What exactly is globalization, and how often does it manifest itself? What spheres of human activity does it affect, and how does it affect them? What implications does this phenomenon have for education systems and for educational planning? This booklet examines what globalization implies for the context in which education-sector work is carried…

Carnoy, Martin

456

Appreciative Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Appreciative education is presented as a framework for leading higher education institutions, delivering truly student-centered services, and guiding higher education professionals' interactions with students.

Bloom, Jennifer L.; Hutson, Bryant L.; He, Ye; Konkle, Erin

2013-01-01

457

Do employment protection policies reduce the relative disadvantage in the labour market experienced by unhealthy people? A natural experiment created by the Great Recession in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (<7% fall in GDP), each additional unit of employment protection reduced job loss risk (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90). Before the recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are likely needed to protect vulnerable groups during severe recessions. PMID:25442371

Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

2014-11-01

458

Factors Affecting Successful Reintegration  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the perspectives of education practitioners towards the process of reintegrating pupils (many of whom display social, emotional and behavioural difficulties), from a pupil referral unit (PRU) to mainstream educational provision in a rural bilingual Welsh authority, and examines the barriers and facilitators they identified as…

Thomas, David Vittle

2015-01-01

459

Socio–affective development in primary teachers’ initial training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article begins by analysing the importance of socio-affective education at school, considering that it should be framed within ethics. It then analyses why it is important to train primary teachers in emotional education, advocating that it should be articulated around two basic standpoints: theoretical training and personal, experienced training, highlighting that the second one is crucial in order for primary teachers to emotionally educate their pupils. The article further focuses on the main socio-affective competences the primary teacher should have to face the challenges of education in such an unsettled and complex world as ours, positioning ourselves in favour of a socio-affective, experienced and active methodology. Finally, we provide an overview of emotional education in the Spanish school system and in primary teacher initial training curricula.

María Pilar Teruel Melero

2009-04-01

460

Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

461

Some of the Significant Factors That Affect Participation of the Older Person in Lifelong Learning Programs. A Report Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education, San Diego State University.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature was studied to investigate some of the significant factors that affect participation of the non-institutionalized older person in lifelong learning programs. Sources were fairly recent (1975-80) abstracts, journals, textbooks, ERIC documents, and SCAN (The Social Gerontology Resource Center). The age-span under consideration was age…

Borthwick, Thomas H.

462

Teachers working together to foster self-regulated learning through reading by students in an elementary school located in a disadvantaged area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A key question for the educational research community concerns how teachers can adapt theories and practices supported by the scientific literature in ways that meet the particular needs of students in classrooms. The research reported here takes up that question by investigating how a team of teachers in an elementary school in a disadvantaged area built from research and theory to enact, try out, and refine classroom practices supportive of self-regulated LTR in their subject-area classrooms in light of their students’ needs. Our goals were to (1 describe what classroom activities participating teachers planned and implemented to integrate attention to the curriculum with support for self-regulated LTR; (2 evaluate the match between teachers’ practices and recommendations from the literature, as represented in the framework on which they were drawing; and (3 trace how practices enacted by teachers could be related to the perceptions and learning processes of their 123 Grade 5 and 6 students. A key finding was that teachers were successful in embedding activities into classrooms that engaged students in self-regulation, particularly use of cognitive strategies. However, we also found that the practices enacted did not sufficiently push students towards self-conscious, deliberate self-direction of learning. Implications are drawn about how classrooms practices can be constructed to take into account qualities of LTR contexts and supports necessary to foster success in school by young, at-risk learners. Discussion also focuses on benefits and challenges when teachers work together to adapt practices for use in subject area classrooms in ways that are responsive to student needs.

Sylvie C. Cartier

2010-12-01

463

Education policy and crime  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

Lochner, Lance

2010-01-01

464

"Mixed oligopoly in education"  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies oligopolistic competition in education markets when schools can be private and public and when the quality of education depends on "peer group"effects. In the first stage of our game schools set their quality and in the second stage they fix their tuition fees. We examine how the (subgame perfect Nash) equilibrium allocation (qualities, tuition fees and welfare) is affected by the presence of public schools and by their relative position in the quality range....

Cremer, Helmuth; Maldonado, Dario

2013-01-01

465

No man is an island: living in a disadvantaged neighborhood influences chronic pain development after motor vehicle collision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living in a lower socioeconomic status neighborhood has been shown to alter stress system function and is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but its influence on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) outcomes after traumatic stress exposures such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) has not been assessed. We performed a multicenter, prospective study that enrolled 948 European-American individuals within 24 hours of MVC who were discharged home after emergency department evaluation. Follow-up evaluations were completed via telephone or Internet survey 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC on 91%, 89%, and 91% of participants, respectively. A robust aggregate measure of census tract neighborhood disadvantage was derived, and individual-level characteristics assessed included socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, pain prior to MVC, litigation status, and opioid use. MSP was assessed in the emergency department; MSP and pain interference with daily activity were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. After adjustment for individual-level factors, living in more disadvantaged neighborhoods was associated with increased MSP (P=0.0009) and increased pain interference with daily function (P<0.0001). The relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and MSP was moderated by a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2817038, 5' of the gene encoding FKBP5, a functional regulator of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity (interaction P-value=0.0015). These data support the hypothesis that low neighborhood socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of worse MSP outcomes after traumatic stress exposures such as MVC, and that this influence is mediated in part via its influence on stress system function. PMID:25107859

Ulirsch, Jacob C; Weaver, Mark A; Bortsov, Andrey V; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert A; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Rathlev, Niels K; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert M; Hendry, Phyllis L; McLean, Samuel A

2014-10-01

466

Feedback after Good versus Poor Trials Affects Intrinsic Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

Participation in sports can play many educational roles in students' personal development. However, studies have reported that interest and participation in physical education gradually declines with age (Papaioannou, 1997). Therefore, it is important to examine factors that affect students' motivation for participation in sports and physical…

Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

2011-01-01

467

Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO) are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible in...

Brien Jon, O.; Paul Christine; Bonevski Billie; Bryant Jamie; Oakes Wendy

2011-01-01

468

Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. Methods All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (usin...

Currow David C; Allingham Samuel; Bird Sonia; Yates Patsy; Lewis Joanne; Dawber James; Eagar Kathy

2012-01-01

469

Creative Education, Globalization and Social Imaginary  

OpenAIRE

The concept of creativity in education is linked with a range of social factors. By examining the relationship among social, educational factors and creativity among students in Thailand, this study proposes that educators and policy makers must understand various global factors that affect contemporary education. They include changes in contemporary politics, culture and communication in the global education contexts. The study confirms that modern cultural factors and concept of gender are ...

Ponsan Rojanapanich; Nattavud Pimpa

2011-01-01

470

Education Funding Methods in European States  

OpenAIRE

At European level, the allocation of a small amount of financial resources to education as a percentage of GDP associated with major economic difficulties affected the whole structure of the education expenditure: by type of expenditure, level of education and residence type. State intervention in educational activity requires to be aware of the amount of public expenditure conducted by public bodies, both central and local authorities, to finance this activity. Funding education must provide...

Rodica Gherghina; Georgiana Camelia Cre?an

2012-01-01

471

The affect structure revisited  

OpenAIRE

In affective psychology, there is a persistent controversy about the number, the nature and the definition of the affect structure dimensions. Responding to the methodological criticisms addressed to the preceding studies, we conciliated the principal theories regarding the affect structure with the same experimental setting. In particular, using the semantic items all around the circumplex we found three bipolar independent dimensions and using only the PANAS semantic items, we found two uni...

Elefant-yanni, Ve?ronique Rica; Victoria-feser, Maria-pia

2005-01-01

472

Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers.

Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

2011-01-01

473

Education for librarianship in Iran before the 1979 Islamic Revolution: A historical review of American roles and influences  

OpenAIRE

Purpose – To record and evaluate the impact of the American contribution to Iranian librarianship education. Design/methodology/approach – Describes how American support created modern librarianship in Iran, thanks to a range of initiatives such as the American development foundations and programs, and the Fulbright Program, which helped the country to renovate its higher education. Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the American model of education for librarianship, which was...

Hayati, Zouhayr; Fattahi, Rahmatollah

2005-01-01

474

Education and Educational Technology  

CERN Document Server

This volume includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2011 2nd International Conference on Education and Educational Technology (EET 2011) held in Chengdu, China, October 1-2, 2011. The mission of EET 2011 Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of education and educational technology to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 130 related topic papers were selected into this volume. All the papers were reviewed by 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof. Yuanzhi Wang, from Intelligent Information Technology Application Research Association, Hong Kong. The conference will bring together leading researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest. We hope every participant can have a good opportunity to exchange their research ideas and results and to discuss the state of the art in th...

2012-01-01

475

Opportunity Cost of Distance Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

Turkoglu, Recep

2004-01-01

476

Depressive symptoms among help-seeking Latinas in a disadvantaged, urban, northeastern community mental health center.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined racial/ethnic differences in self-reported depressive symptoms in a clinical population at a northeastern community mental health center. Two hundred eighty-two individuals presenting for mental health intake completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II in either English or Spanish. Latinas reported higher severity of depressive symptoms compared to both African Americans and non-Latina whites. Latinas showed higher levels on both the somatic and the affective/cognitive scales of the BDI-II. These findings differ somewhat from previous reports, some of which suggest that Latinas exhibit elevation specifically in somatic symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for assessment and treatment. PMID:24193296

Liefland, Linda; Roberts, David L; Ford, Ralph; Stevens, B Jamie

2014-04-01

477

Assessing Student Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

Student affect--the attitudes, interests, and values that students exhibit and acquire in school--can play a profoundly important role in students' postschool lives, possibly an even more significant role than that played by students' cognitive achievements. If student affect is so crucial, then why don't teachers assess it? One deterrent is that…

Popham, W. James

2009-01-01

478

Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

Ivie, Rachel

2012-03-01

479

Bridging the Cognitive-Affective Gaps: Teaching Chemistry while Advancing Affective Objectives. The Singapore Curricular Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry teachers face constraints when trying to integrate cognitive and affective objectives, and hence thoughtful lesson planning is required to achieve the goal. Chemistry teachers can educate students to be knowledgeable about chemical concepts, processes and the benefits of responsible practice by the chemical industry, while being aware,…

Tan, Kok Siang; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

2006-01-01

480

3D and Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D ima