WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic development problems

  1. Long-term economic development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term economic development of New Mexico parallels the major energy issue of the nation - the impact of non-proliferation policy. The short lifespan and waste of energy resources in this country reflects a lack of foresight which can no longer be tolerated. The principal unknowns affecting uranium development in New Mexico are the extent and demand for uranium, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the lifespan of nuclear power plants, with or without reprocessing. Further areas of concern include the costs of reprocessing facilities, the evaluation of fuel cycles to minimize proliferation, and the impacts of waste disposal

  2. Economic problems of nuclear power development in the capitalist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic problems of the nuclear power development in the USA, Japan, and in the western European countries are discussed. An analysis is presented of the development and estimates are given of capital expendenditures in nuclear power plants and in enrichment and reprocessing plants and of the development of the uranium price within the fuel cycle. The problems of financing nuclear power are considered. (B.S.)

  3. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Gotz

    2010-01-01

    Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundesländer been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundesländer performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two d...

  4. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  5. Problems of Latvia’s tax system and its improvement for economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Vitola, Irija

    2010-01-01

    In the result of scientific research, we made an inference that an increase in tax revenues, which promotes economic development, can be achieved by extending the tax base as well as by applying a selective scientific approach to solving tax problems, especially in agriculture. In the hypothesis – improving the Latvia’s tax system is necessary to ensure economic development and social justice – a need for making taxes simple, just, comprehensible, and neutral is emphasised. The scientific fin...

  6. On the Problem of Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Solution to this Prisoner's Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development, and a universal theory of value. We introduce axioms which serve as the first of two derivations of our solution, our methods, the origin and evolution of our theory, field notes from Mustique, Iceland, and Prince Edward Island, and set the stage for a more thorough discourse. Next we demonstrate that value (V) is a derivative function of relative insularity (IR): V=f´(IR), then model economic development by divi...

  7. Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafoor Awan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

  8. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS FROM THE JIU VALLEY AND THE NEED FOR DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT NETWORK FOR ELDERLY PEOPLE FROM PETROSANI

    OpenAIRE

    FELICIA ANDRIONI; MIHAELA CAMELIA SCHMIDT

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores a few aspects of social and economic problems in the Jiu Valley, issues that have led to a priority need for the development of the share of social support network in this area. The needs of the population generated by economic and social problems existing in the Jiu Valley has led the development of social services in response to these needs. Also the paper contents a case study about necessity development of social support network for elderly from Petrosani area.

  9. THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

  10. Nuclear power option for solving problems in connection with economic development, energy supply and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs

  11. Nuclear energy centres and the economic and ecological problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the factors and problems associated with the continued practice of conventional scattered location of nuclear power plants and external fuel cycle facilities. These problems are connected with the substantial increase in the flow of spent fuel shipments, alienation of valuable land and water resources, delays in site development and in the commissioning of nuclear power plants, increased expenditure of labour and other economic and ecological constraints of nuclear power plant siting in the European part of the USSR. The authors also consider one way of overcoming or reducing the difficulties by establishing large nuclear energy centres (including a group of nuclear power plants with condensers and external fuel cycle facilities) in areas with low population density where land and water resources are less valuable and not in short supply and by transmitting the electric power to the areas of consumption. A comparative evaluation has been made of two methods of future siting of nuclear power systems. (author)

  12. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.

  13. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VERSUS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited number of variables such as household income, employment labour, consumption of goods and services, etc.. Perpetuation of this model has led, over time, to the company's inability to solve the problems facing mankind today and serious discrepancies regarding current levels of human development. This type of model does not take into account variables such as unemployment, poverty, education, health, environmental pollution, population migration, urban overcrowding, social inclusion etc. At the opposite side of this type of development, which proves to be beyond the crowd problems currently facing humanity, is a new alternative model, that of sustainable development, which provides an integrated view of all these variables and hence the chance of the human society to a new level of evolution. The sustainable development model of mankind put, among others, the zero growth issue or even sustained decrease for some countries. This model requires also reducing resource consumption and increase sustainability of assets created. It also offers practical solutions to many current problems of mankind, among which we can mention providing food for a growing world population and producing clean alternative energy.

  14. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION - A Road map for the economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivasharanappa Annappa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing countries like India. Despite large expenditures on transport system, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption. Therefore, developing countries like India have a major crisis on their hands. Transport problems in India are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated India cities.

  15. Nuclear power complexes and economic-ecological problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of constructing NPP's at separate sites in densely populated areas on economic efficiency of nuclear power and its ecological implications has been investigated. Locating NPP's and nuclear fuel cycle plants at different sites results in large scale shipments of fresh and spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. The fact increases the risk of a detrimental environmental impact, duration of the external fuel cycle, and worsens, in the end, nuclear power economics. The prudence of creating nuclear parks is discussed. The parks may be especially efficient if the program of developing NPP's with fast breeder reactors is a success. Comparative evaluations show that from economic standpoint deployment of nuclear parks in the European part of the USSR has no disadvantage before construction of separate NPP's and supporting fuel cycle facilities of equivalent capacity, even if the construction of nuclear parks runs dearer by 30% than assumed. The possibility for nuclear parks to meet a part of demand for ''off-peak'' energy production, district heating and process heat production is also shortly discussed

  16. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate r...

  17. Development of predictions of future pollution problems. Socio-economic environmental studies series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the results of a program to identify, rank and project short- and intermediate-term future pollution problems. Identification was accomplished using three independent search approaches based on industrial production, environmental, and societal trends and activity. Primary emphasis was placed on the environmental trends as gleaned from EPA, Battelle, Literature, and other sources. An initial list of problems was compiled with specific stressors identified with each. Nine ranking factors were devised to select ten most serious problems from the initial list. The factors included: persistence; mobility/pervasiveness; environmental, technological, social, and political complexity; physiological risk; research needs; and bulk or volume of the pollutant. The ten problems selected by this method were further ranked in order of relative importance. The ten selected problems in rank order are as follows: (1) Impacts of new energy initiatives; (2) Geophysical modifications of the earth; (3) Trace element (metal) contaminants; (4) Proliferating hazardous and toxic chemicals; (5) Emissions from new automobile fuels, additives, and control devices; (6) Disposal of waste sludges, liquids, and solid residues; (7) Critical radiation problems; (8) Fine particulates; (9) Expanding drinking water contamination; (10) Irrigation (impoundment) practices. Five to ten year projections were made of the ten problems which resulted

  18. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  19. The nuclear electric option in developing countries: Technical, economic, and political problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned

  20. Malaria and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Thuilliez, Josselin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on the endogenous relationship between the health status of a population and the economic development of a nation. We focus on a wide phenomenon touching many low-income countries: malaria. Firstly, we propose to rethink the economic analysis of malaria by combining economic epidemiology tools with the poverty trap literature. The endogeneity of malaria with respect to households and individuals socioeconomic characteristics and choices remains a part...

  1. Experience in development and introduction of a problem set for calculation and analysis of operational and economical indices of the WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural flowsheet of a system reflecting the composition and information interrelation of calculation problems of the South Ukrainian NPP technical-economical indices is given. The software developed permits to perform tunings for different changes of a technological algorithm which appear during the introduction process and NPP operation

  2. Economic mechanisms achieving sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Kruchinina, N.

    2013-01-01

    No doubt human welfare dependence of the transition to sustainable development. The dramatic worsening in the world of global environmental problems such as climate change, desertification, loss of biodiversity, leading to the realization of the need to create a new economic policy, which is reflected in the report of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. One of the main purposes of such - "Ensure environmental sustainability". When you are citing the document, use the followin...

  3. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  4. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  5. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction. Final Report. NCEE 2010-4002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas; Huang, Chun-Wei; Hirschman, Becca; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Since 1995, the Buck Institute has partnered with university economists and expert teachers to create the Problem Based Economics curriculum. The curriculum was developed to respond to NCEE (National Council on Economic Education) standards, and it is supported by professional development for teachers. This study examines whether the Problem Based…

  6. States and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  7. States and Economic Development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Atul, Kohli.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is s [...] trong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  8. Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Economic Development)

    OpenAIRE

    mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    The theory we have designed the idea of economic development which remain associated with main elements that consists of two main development area, firstly is Health and secondly, Education development. The main factor of this idea to provide Human development that enormously influence on economic development which resulted from different perspectives. Many researches explained by analysis of focus variables of economic growth which have relationship to lead the economic development. In addit...

  9. Analyses and problems of spatial development for planning networks of social and economic infrastructure on the national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Guli?

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport networks are the most important programmes of the European Union, more precisely, the network of fast railroads and the reorganisation of air traffic. In the North European area we are thus witness to intensive planning, design and positioning corner stones, that connect relations of mobility between expansive territorial basins and international destinations, as well as directing transport between global economies. These starting points are the basis for analysing defined needs in directing strategic spatial development in Slovenia and understanding spatial development problems in establishing priorities.

  10. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system

  11. Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Vannella

    2007-01-01

    The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to at...

  12. Keynes and economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. P., Thirlwall.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância p [...] ara os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários. Abstract in english It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates [...] that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.

  13. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction. Final Report. NCEE 2010-4022rev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas; Huang, Chun-Wei; Hirschman, Becca; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the Problem Based Economics curriculum developed by the Buck Institute for Education improves grade 12 students' content knowledge as measured by the Test of Economic Literacy, a test refined by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) over decades. Students' problem-solving skills in economics were also…

  14. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  15. Editorial: Economic Development (November 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Bashir; Chris McPhee

    2010-01-01

    Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local gov...

  16. Ghana--medical care amid economic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L

    1980-07-01

    Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages were the main problem with drugs being the greatest worry. Food for the wards was another problem, both in otaining and in affording it. All other necessities were equally difficult to find. Most members of the health team found their personal and family problems overwhelming, and there was a high rate of absenteeism. Planning the future of Legon Hospital became an impossible task. Medical care in a arapidly deteriorating economic situation poses its own problems, problems in many ways different from those found in countries that are equally poor but more stable. PMID:7441643

  17. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  18. Stock Market Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for France for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. Stock market development is estimated by the general stock market index. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships betwe...

  19. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  20. Problems of fuel cycle economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of specific fuel cycle costs since 1970 has been characterized by rises above the general rate of price increases. Developments in this respect differend greatly in the different components of the fuel cycle. The contribution by natural uranium costs has changed very little since 1976 and is likely to remain stable also in the years to come. This applies also to the conversion of natural uranium and to uranium enrichment, both sectors showing considerable excess capacities. A relatively steady development of prices has been observed also in the fabrication of fuel assemblies for light water reactors. Improved fabrication techniques and higher throughputs contributed to major price drops from the midseventies on. In the meantime, prices have started to go up again, roughly in line with the general rate of price increases, mainly as a consequence of numerous improvements in fuel assembly design. Considerable increases have been experienced in the cost of waste management, which used to be greatly underrated in former times on the grounds of presumed excess capacities and depreciated military installations. Present waste management costs on the basis of commercial reprocessing conditions can be estimated with relatively good accuracy in the light of practical experience, e.g., in the French reprocessing plants. (orig.)

  1. Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vannella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to attribute environmental problems to the economic activities that generate them. In particular, a complex procedure of explanatory analysis carried out on a regional scale is suggested. Based on environmental measurements already performed all over the national territory, the procedure identifies territorial and environmental characteristics and latent variables, as well as the variety of the intricate phenomena in a way that is compatible with the requirements of the national schemes for economic an environmental accounting. References are given to environmental variables on a regional scale that have not been previously considered in ISTAT’s current NAMEA projects and that can be obtained faster.

  2. Economic issues in the legacy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

  3. Dependent Data in Economic and Financial Problems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Vol. 1. Praha : Professional Publishing, Mikulova 1572/13, 149 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic, 2011 - (Dlouhý, M.; Sko?dopolová, V.), s. 327-332 ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [29th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Janská Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/1610; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic programming * Wasserstein metric * L_1norm * Empirical estimates * One-stage problems * Multistage problems * Independent samples * m-dependent samples * Markov dependence * Phi-mixing random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/kankova-dependent data in economic and financial problems.pdf

  4. Population, poverty and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on ...

  5. Regional and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yu. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  7. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  8. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

  9. Institutions, Economic Development, and Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Michael; Klasen, Stephan; Schwarze, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a unified framework linking two important debates: First, the debate about the respective roles of geography and institutions on economic development; Second, the literature on the role of technological change and economic development on agricultural intensification and land use changes. We use this framework to study empirically deforestation patterns at the rainforest margin. To this end we specify an empirical model that can explore the causal chain ranging from geographi...

  10. Economic Globalization, Marketization Reform and Economic Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yanhui; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01

    Economic globalization is one of the hottest topics among academics, government agencies and other concerned organizations. This paper investigates whether the overall benefits of economic globalization are greater than their costs, and discusses the interaction among economic globalization, economic development, and marketization reform in China, so as to present an answer to the question of how China should participate in economic globalization.

  11. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  12. Essays in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    MOTT, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, this thesis is neither wholly empirical or theoretical, macro or micro and instead may be viewed as an eclectic mix of approaches and ideas that go some way toinvestigating the challenges faced by the world's least developed economies. The first chapter...

  13. Income Redistribution and Socio-economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericková Beáta Mikušová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trade off efficiency and equity issue, which is represented by income redistribution, becomes increasingly debated not only in economic and social, but also in political dimension. Solution of this trade-off problem is projected into the implementation of social policy and results achieved in macroeconomics policy, with the goal to define the optimal scope and character of the income redistribution processes. The submitted empirical study responds to this problem through the investigation of research question focused on the existence of a relationship between the social protection expenditure (expenditure on policy of family, old age and unemployment and the achieved level of socio-economic development (quantified by Human Development Index HDI. The existence of this relationship is statistically tested in a sample of 15 countries. The research sample is heterogeneous in relation to the analyzed indicators, and it contains countries with a different level of economics development and income redistribution policy. Based on the results of quantitative analysis in most surveyed countries, impact of social protection expenditure on the reached level of economic development was confirmed. The correlation between the social protection expenditure and socio-economic development is positive in the case of the family and old-age pension policy, and negative in the case of employment policy

  14. The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapa, Lakshman S.

    1985-01-01

    Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)

  15. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  16. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  17. Efficiency of economic development models

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Camelia Iacob; Ana-Maria VOlintiru; Andrei Mihai Cristea

    2013-01-01

    The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the wor...

  18. Social ties and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Fernando; Anchorena, Jose

    2008-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious general equilibrium model where agents allocate time across three activities: production, trade, and leisure. Leisure includes time spent socializing, which economizes transaction costs. Our framework yields multiple equilibria in terms of the number of social ties and predicts that the number of social ties is positively associated with development, a relationship we observe in cross-country data. The model captures additional dimensions of data, namely: (i) increas...

  19. Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anawat Bunnag

    2013-01-01

    Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Eco...

  20. Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria). Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies r...

  1. ENTERPRISE STEADY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ivanchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of a modern enterprise should be its ability to dynamic changes. Development and implementation of an efficient business model of an enterprise is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Such a business model should include the availability of flexible strategies, moving plans, resources mobilizing alternatives and so on. However, despite the enterprises' desire for dynamic development, ensuring sustainability in the market environment is of great importance for an enterprise. Fragmented categorial and conceptual apparatus of the given problem prompted the subject of the research, which is to determine the economic content and usefulness of the category of steady economic development in the practice of company management. The paper presents a critical analysis of economists' views on the nature of such categories as "sustainability" and "steady economic development"; differentiation of the concepts of sustainability and stability of a company; substantiation of the expediency of using the term "steady economic de­velopment" in the practice of company management. Scientific novelties of the research are proposed interpretations of economic categories "sustainability" and "steady economic development". In particular, the author considers enterprise sustainability as the ability of a company to return to the balanced condition after deviations caused by destabilizing influence of external or internal factors. The main feature of stability and sustainability of a company is that stability implies immutability and sustainability means the ability to maintain equilibrium operation. A specific feature of the proposed approach to the definition of steady economic development is represented by the following content specifications: the purpose of development is increased enterprise flexibility and adaptability to internal and external destabilizing factors; the direction of development within the steady space borders can follow the ascending, descending or stagnation vector and different trajectories; in the case of lost sustainability resulting from development processes the company quickly returns to sustainable operation and restores its equilibrium. The practical significance is that specification of the content features of the concept "steady economic development" provides unconditional basis for a modern approach to enterprise development management from the standpoint of sustainability.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA

    2013-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

  3. Corporate governance, innovative enterprise, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Lazonick, William

    2006-01-01

    The notion that good corporate governance means maximizing shareholder value derives from the neoclassical theory of the market economy. I explain why this perspective is highly problematic for understanding the operation and performance of the business corporation and hence the institutions that, for the sake of economic development, should govern it. The main problem is that the market-economy perspective cannot comprehend the process of innovation, including the role of the business corpor...

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  5. Introduction: Long term economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attempt was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics.

  6. A Study of Education Investment and Xinjiang Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    As a main form for human capital investment, education has irreplaceable effect on national or regional economic development. This paper, based on the relationship between Xinjiang regional economic development and education, analyzes the present conditions of Xinjiang educational investment, the scale and problems of Xinjiang education, the contribution of education to Xinjiang economy, and how to drive Xinjiang regional economic development. Finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy ...

  7. The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Pyotr A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.

  8. Homopolar welding development and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, J.A.; Harville, M.W.; Weldon, J.M. [Parker Kinetic Designs, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Carnes, R.W.; Hudson, R.S.; Nichols, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Electromechanics

    1996-09-01

    Homopolar welding (HPW) is a single-shot solid-state resistance forge welding process that is under development as a single-station pipe welding method. Weld quality issues have been addressed by a Joint Industry Program and the process economics favor commercial use. Fielding of a HPW system is dependent on process tooling design, the speed of the process, and the economics of the process. The HPW weld speed of three seconds makes weld advance times of 12 to 20 minutes possible and will result in a large reduction in overall pipeline construction costs. In addition, HPW is an inherently controllable process, so the weld power pulse will be tailorable to meet a variety of weld and material requirements.

  9. Nuclear power and economic development: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables

  10. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. ...of the following community development...meet the specified economic development objective. (a) Community Development...

  11. Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Bunnag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in 2007, his work has become worldwide recognized as an efficient means towards sustainable development with a focus on human development. The philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is basically a means to achieve happiness at the individual, community and country levels because the Sufficiency Economy Approach is applicable to the micro and macro levels. All the principles are much related to human development process toward right living, therefore right interaction and relation with other beings on this planet including natural resources. From this basis, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy provides a practical tool to cultivate necessary conditions and to alter human well-being through happiness development process.

  12. Universities and National Development: Issues and Problems in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relevance and contribution of universities to national development in economic, sociocultural, and political dimensions. Discusses rates of return, employment, vocational curricula, equality, and ideology. Concludes that a major problem in developing nations is ambivalence of universities stemming from their international and national…

  13. Problems of Ukraine trade potential development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

  14. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    The social and economical development must be approached in such a way that it minimizes the effects of the economic activity over the deterioration of resources and to discourage waste. The pollution control depends on humans’ ability to understand the seriousness of the ecological lack of balance.The sustainable lasting development, being a long term economical development, is possible by efficiently using the economical instruments (cost, profit); the political, juridical and social ones, ...

  15. Understanding Islam: Development, Economics and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; Krichene, Noureddine; Mirakhor, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the foundational rules governing human, economic and financial development in Islam, as understood from the Quran and from the life and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), are summarized. These rules pave the path to development as the basis of institutional structure, which in turn, underpin the path of economic and social progress. The essential elements in the life of a Muslim—the unity of creation, freedom and freedom of choice, economic and human development, econom...

  16. / Science, religion and economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Klaus, Jaffe.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploraram-se as correlações entre os índices cientométricos, as variáveis macroeconômicas e os resultados de pesquisas sobre a atitude moral-religiosa em diversos países. Os resultados mostram que se requer de um umbral mínimo de desenvolvimento econômico (por volta de 1000US$ de PIB per cápita) pa [...] ra que a ciência e a economia de um país interatuem. Por encima de esse umbral se evidencia una interação positiva entre o desenvolvimento econômico, o desenvolvimento científico e atitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconhecemos ainda os mecanismos de estas interações. Abstract in spanish Se exploraron las correlaciones entre los índices cientométricos, las variables macroeconómicas y los resultados de encuestas sobre la actitud moral-religiosa en diversos países. Los resultados muestran que se requiere de un umbral mínimo de desarrollo económico (alrededor de 1000US$ de PIB per capi [...] ta) para que la ciencia y la economía de un país interactúen. Por encima de ese umbral se evidencia una interacción positiva entre el desarrollo económico, el desarrollo científico y actitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconocemos todavía los mecanismos de estas interacciones. Abstract in english The correlations between scientometric indices, macroeconomic variables and results from attitude polls in different countries were explored. The results show that a minimum threshold of economic development (around GDP per capita of 1000US$) is required for science and the economy of a country to i [...] nteract. Above that threshold, a positive interaction can be observed between economic development, scientific development and tolerant moral-religious attitudes. The way these interactions occur remains to be uncovered.

  17. The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Erber, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

  18. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  19. Evolution of approaches to economic security problems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Toganova, Natalia; Gutnik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The report, written by the experts of the Center for European Studies of IMEMO RAN – Dr. Alexey Kuznetsov, Natalia Toganova and Anna Gutnik – analyzes the evolution of the approaches to the problems of economic security in Europe. The report is prepared for the Commission of the Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative (EASI). The authors analyze the reasons why some economic problems in Europe cause the attention as the security problems. The report presents a study on transformation of the appr...

  20. Resonances from economic development for current economic policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    RUANE, FRANCES

    2008-01-01

    On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.

  1. Innovation, economic diversification and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Dominik; Pyka, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we bridge a gap between innovation economics and the human development approach by analyzing positive and negative effects of different types of economic diversification on social welfare. Economic variety is a driver and outcome of economic development. However, diversification leads to ambiguous effects on the well-being of human agents: on the one hand, increasing variety augments the freedom of human agents to choose. On the other hand, it can overburden their capabilities t...

  2. Dificultades de la gobernanza del desarrollo económico en el entorno regional de Medellín / Les difficultés de la gouvernance du développement économique dans la région nord de la ville de Medellín / Governance Problems Related to Economic Development in Medellín's Periphery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Polanco.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La perennidad del páramo del entorno regional de Medellín es un problema de gobernanza del desarrollo económico. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar las dificultades de esta gobernanza. Las primeras conciernen a la relación entre desarrollo económico y protección ambiental. Las segundas, tie [...] nen que ver con la institucionalización de reglas de juego entre actores gubernamentales. Se consideran elementos teóricos de la nueva geografía económica y del neoinstitucionalismo, partiendo de los resultados de un análisis espacial multiobjetivo. Se observa que la gobernanza es sensible al efecto de aglomeración económica, pues presenta mayores dificultades técnicas conforme se está más cerca de la ciudad. Finalmente, las dificultades políticas radican en reglas de juego excluyentes, como consecuencia de una lógica de proyecto burocrática. Abstract in english Conservation efforts aimed at preserving forest resources in the Páramo (moor) System of the northern periphery of Medellín is a territorial governance problem related to economic development. The scope of this article is to identify technical and political difficulties of governance. Technical diff [...] iculties concern the relationship between economic development and environmental preservation. Political difficulties have to do with the institutionalization of rules between government actors. This study uses a New Economic Geography and Neoinstitutionalism approach and applies a Multi-objective Spatial Analysis. Results suggest that technical difficulties of governance are affected by economic agglomeration effects, increasing as territories get closer to the city. Finally, the tenets of the bureaucratic project promote non-inclusive political rules.

  3. Electricity use and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)

  4. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kornukh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative changes of an economic component of a corporation’s activities conditioned by the level of innovativeness of all kinds of activities for providing economic growth within the chosen mission, motivation and activity intellectualization. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The study made enables stating the fact that the category «corporation’s economic development» transforms into the category «corporation’s economic and innovative development» and from this perspective all components of the latter will be treated as «corporation’s operational and innovative development», «corporation’s financial and innovative development», «corporation’s investment and innovative development» and «corporation’s logistic and innovative development». Also working out a system of dynamic indicators for determining the level of innovativeness of a corporation’s economic development and a system of motivating and intellectualizing a corporation’s economic and innovative activities is a direction for further research.

  5. UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mu...

  6. Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Aimee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

  7. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  8. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  9. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  10. Social Security and Minority Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zheng

    2009-01-01

    For the thirty years of the implementation of reform and opening up policy, China has made significant achievements in the economic development. And the western region resided by the minorities has also made great progress in the economic growth. However, there is still a great gap compared with the well-developed eastern coastal region. Relatively speaking, the economic development of western region is still backward. People have lower ability of self-protection and the family security and t...

  11. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Samir SAYAH; Khaled ZEHAR

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  12. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir SAYAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  13. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  14. ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.

  15. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  16. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  17. Law, economic growth and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A., Asongu

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law channels. As a policy implication results support benefits of the rule o...

  18. Is inclusive development a sustainable development? : A political economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pushparaj, Soundararajan

    2013-01-01

    A major development policy challenge in the contemporary economic policy discourse is to sustain the development momentum. Prevailing political economic realities influence the economic thinking to accommodate the political compulsions. The inclusive development is one such development strategy. Inclusive development is not a mere political pragmatism but a sensible development strategy. This paper discusses the relevance of distributive justice in relation to civil disturbance across and wit...

  19. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

  20. Design of the regions’ economic development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Patsuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At present Russian economy is undergoing the same trends of the modern economic development, which take place in developed countries. These processes comprise globalization, advanced development of the service industries, post-industrial society formation, intellectual component expansion in the results of any industry, informatization of the society, running out of traditional sources of social and economic growth. In such conditions search for new ways and factors of the regional self-development is critical.

  1. The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Terwase Shabu

    2010-01-01

    The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side,...

  2. Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

  3. Economical development versus sustainable development; Desenvolvimento economico versus desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Katty Maria da Costa; Ferretti Filho, Neuclair Joao [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento]. E-mails: ktmattos@terra.com.br; neuclair@terra.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The natural resources have if turned more and more scarce, should be taken in your consideration possible exhausted. With that threat, alternatives are looked for so that the socioeconomic development is maintainable. As the impact of the section agroindustrial in the environmental deterioration is significant, the environmental externalisation of the productive process and the need of economical internalization of those effects should be considered. The introduction of the natural capital in the economical analysis is made necessary since the costs of the environmental degradation and of the consumption of natural resources they have not been added in those processes, being evaluated the flows of natural stocks and contributing to the definition of a maintainable scale of the economy. When these industrial organizations embrace a great productive area of the Country, as it is the case of the compound of the alcohol industry, the problems caused for the it burns of the sugar cane plantation they become fundamental. Now, there is an emergent change of paradigms in the society, in that is necessary to notice the group of values that they address our economical development and our relationship with the natural atmosphere. The use of the sustainable is the great challenge civilization of next decades. (author)

  4. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Vinh (Vincent); Do, Trang; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  5. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  6. The collective action problem in primate territory economics

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, E. P.; Hellriegel, B.; van Schaik, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species, we find a positive association between range overlap and group size, controlling for economic defendability and phylogenetic non-independ...

  7. Economic development and nuclear proliferation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors argue that the impact of nuclear-weapons programs on the development prospects of countries economically able to undertake such programs would likely be fairly small. The amounts involved and the backward linkages are usually sufficiently small that nuclear-weapons programs in most less-developed countries (LDCs) can be considered an enclave activity. On the other hand, economic development clearly facilitates bomb development. The chapter sets forth the main characteristics of economic growth that are likely to facilitate bomb development, then considers the ''bomb levy'' necessary for various types of countries to produce bombs on a scale considered appropriate for LDCs. It concludes that it will be policy-imposed costs rather than economic costs in themselves that will prevent determined LDC governments of moderate income and population from developing nuclear weapons. 16 references, 2 tables

  8. Solution of Economic Dispatch Problem using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED with transmission loss by satisfying the linear equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA.

  9. Economics of aquaculture development in greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, Denis

    1987-01-01

    (OCR non controlé) General terms of reference for the project and conclusions reached by other consultants point out that Greece offers good opportunities to develop aquaculture to the level of a socially and economically significant industry. Aquaculture development is stated to contribute to Government aims such as food security, preservation of foreign exchange, social and economic development of remote rural areas and contribution to the gross national product by rational use of water res...

  10. ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND THE LABOR POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Moroz; Mykhaylo Moroz

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the results of reasoning of the presence of connection between the level of economic freedom in the country and the level of development of labor potential of an individual. As an informational and analytical base for conducting the scientific research, there were used the results of study The Heritage Foundation & the Wall Street Journal (Index of Economic Freedom) and United Nations Development Programme (Human Development index) from 2005 to 2011. In addition, the ar...

  11. GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ???’??????

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

  12. Economic and Financial Problems via Multiobjective Stochastic Optimization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Jihlava : College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojackova, H.) ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-14445S; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic multiobjective optimization problems * efficient solution * Wasserstein metric * L_1 norm * empirical estimates * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-economic and financial problems via multiobjective stochastic optimization.pdf

  13. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

  14. Modeling Economic Output and Economic Growth with respect to Economic Freedom : A comparative study of developing and developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erik; Tretow, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is an empirical comparative study examining the relationship between economic performance and economic freedom in two sample groups consisting of 25 developed and 25 developing countries respectively. The relationship is analyzed with results from ordinary and robust linear regressions using an extended Solow-Swan exogenous growth model. The obtained results show a significant positive correlation between economic freedom and economic output (GDP/capita), while the correl...

  15. Educational Reform for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Nicolas; Waters, Alan R.

    1974-01-01

    Article describes a hypothetical formal educational system developed from a particular knowledge of the existing forms of formal education in the less developed nations of Africa and Latin America. (Author)

  16. Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)

  17. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Menshikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  18. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TIMES OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vidovi?

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development generally speaking should enable sustained economic growth. When we talk about the steady growth it is necessary to mention that he cannot be based on excessive use or abuse the use of natural resources. In this paper the author wants to emphasize the importance of economic development, long-term stable and sustainable growth is a priority of every company that goes through a transition period. The Great Depression was in the thirties of the 20th century and during that time the world faced a major financial problem, today the world is going through a similar period. The basis of sustainable development is in the basic economic principles, that is. Principle of simple and expanded reproduction and all that is spent must be reimbursed and that is to provide new value.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS AND POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kontsas Stamatis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use the tools of environmental economics to analyse the problems and policies related to climate change. This will involve examining the scientific evidence on greenhouse gas concentrations and climate change, related forecasts, the potential costs of climate change, the costs of mitigating greehouse gases, the optimal emissions path and the policies introduced to deal with the problem.

  20. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-01-01

    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is a...

  1. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    OpenAIRE

    R.Prathiba; M. Balasingh Moses; S Sakthivel

    2014-01-01

    Economic load dispatch (ELD) is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA). This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other n...

  2. Personal Development Planning and the Economics Tribe

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The experience of outsourcing personal development planning (PDP) for first-year economics students to a central team is examined in the context of a research-led university. A pilot programme running PDP as a conference for 120 students was evaluated.The process suggests that there are differences between tutor and student perceptions which can be usefully addressed, especially the issue of developing conceptual understanding.The prevailing pedagogy of economics is reviewed to try to illumin...

  3. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Muntean, Mihaela-Carmen; Nistor, Costel; Nistor, Rozalia; Manea, Ludmila Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic lo...

  4. Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The state of Sarawak is situated on Borneo Island in East Malaysia. It is the largest state in Malaysia covering an area of approximately 124 thousand square kilometres. Sarawak’s population is approximately 2.07 million people, which makes it the fourth most populous state in the country. There are several distinguished characteristics of the economic development process in Sarawak which highlight the contrast in economic development in Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. On the whole, the Mal...

  5. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Berger Masson

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Lookin...

  6. Development of economical decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

  7. BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROANCA DUMITRU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and Sustainable development concepts have emerged at different moments in history.However, at this time, they are related to each other more than ever, because at one point, one of them evolutiondetermined the other’s birth, preventing humanity to destroy itself.This paper intends to present some conceptual delimitation, evolution of the concept of economic growth, butalso several theories and models of economic growth that was the subject of specialists’ researches. Like any economicphenomenon, growth brings some benefits and some costs. When these costs threaten the future of humanity, somesolutions need to be found, no matter how hard ware them to implement, to remove unwanted effects.In this light, the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development, with this emergence and evolution, butespecially with the link between sustainable development and economic growth.

  8. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe,Olusegun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.

  9. DEVELOPING INDIA: INCLUSIVE POLICY AND ECONOMIC INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on to study the overall socio-economic condition and the development process through the government as well banking services and achieving sustainable development through the fulfillment of all basic needs of weaker section of society and eradicate social exclusion in this agree-based, developing, mix-economy accepted democratic country to make positive changes

  10. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development

  11. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

    2014-09-01

    Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  12. Does economic growth influence financial development. Case study on Russian economic growth and financial development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tishchenko, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The objective of the thesis is to evaluate connection between economic growth and financial development. Especially, identify if there is causal relationship between economic growth and financial development. Previous studies are still in disagreement of causal relationship. Therefore, the thesis tries to clarify this connection. The study concentrates its efforts on developing markets, particularly on Russian economic growth and its effect on financial developme...

  13. Regulatory problems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical regulatory problems of developing countries are discussed relative to the lack of governmental understanding of a new technology, budget restrictions, manpower shortage, and organizational deficiencies. Consequences of these problems include the shortcomings of national nuclear laws, the limited role of national regulatory bodies in contract negotiations, their co-operation with utilities, and the control of plant activities. Recommendations outline the early establishment of a national regulatory body, conditions for reactor sale approval, and periodic review of the proper functioning of the national regulatory body. (author)

  14. Nuclear power for economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

  15. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  16. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...for special economic development activities in addition...part of an economic development project. Guidelines...appropriate level of public benefit will be derived...contamination. Special economic development activities include...outreach efforts to market available forms...

  17. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Phil; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader l...

  18. The European origins of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Easterly, William; Levine, Ross

    2012-01-01

    A large literature suggests that European settlement outside of Europe shaped institutional, educational, technological, cultural, and economic outcomes. This literature has had a serious gap: no direct measure of colonial European settlement. In this paper, we (1) construct a new database on the European share of the population during the early stages of colonization and (2) examine its impact on the level of economic development today. We find a remarkably strong impact of colonial European...

  19. Culture and Economic Development in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beugelsdijk, S.

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation consists of a collection of papers on the relationship between culture and economic development in mainly western European regions. Data sources like the EVS make it possible to measure culture. This allows the author to operationalise concepts like social capital and empirically explore the relation between (types of) social capital and economic growth. In addition, he investigates the antecedents of cultural differences in European regions.

  20. A New Engine of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Poole

    2010-01-01

    As our global economy shifts from one dominated by production to one based on knowledge, governments are looking for new ways to add value to the people they serve. Open Government initiatives have emerged as one response to these new economic realities. In this article, we discuss how the theory of a multi-sided stakeholder platform can be applied to create an innovative engine of regional economic development. We describe that engine, its parts, and the value that the participants realize f...

  1. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader lite...

  2. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    OLOWE, OLUSEGUN; Matthew,Oluwatoyin; Fasina,Fagbeminiyi

    2011-01-01

    This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countl...

  3. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  4. Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Adalbert

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

  5. Essays on Labor and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    GOÑI-PACCHIONI, Edwin Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This work comprises four essays in two related areas: labor and development economics. On the labor side, two essays study (i) the effects of sizeable policy reforms over labor informality and (ii) the relation between productivity and wages in a context of substantial informality and high turnover rates. On the development side, two essays provide a comparison between developed and developing countries in the following aspects: (iii) the degree of complementarity of production factors and th...

  6. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Problems via Heavy Tails.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Busines Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 396-401 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/0956; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization problems * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tailed distributions * stable distribution * Pareto distribution * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Kankova-empirical estimates in economic and financial problems via heavy tails.pdf

  7. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In mor...

  8. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  9. Energy needs for the economic development of developing countries: Present status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Does financial development promote economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Venâncio, Sara Filipa Meixedo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between financial development and economic growth, using two panel of 17 and 19 developed countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2011 and 2000 to 2011, respectively. This study includes variables that measure the development of the financial sector in order to explain the GDP per capita growth, using modified ordinary least squares, fixed and random effects estimations. The results indicate that domestic credit provided by banking sector and domes...

  11. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  12. Research on Water Resource Problems of Capital Economic Circle Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Jinghua; Xiang, Nan; Guo, Lin; Gu, Runbo

    2010-01-01

    Capital Economic Circle that is located in north of China belongs to water resources shortage regions. The per capita water of it is only 1/7 of the per capita water of the whole country, and 1/30 of the per capita water of the whole world. Thus water resources problems become one of the key factors that restrict regional development. According to the analysis of water resources situation in Capital Economic Circle, in this paper we find out some main problems existing in regional water resou...

  13. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

  14. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  15. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  16. Poverty and economic development of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    The economy of Kenya has been continued to be the largest in the East African region and third largest in Sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa and Nigeria respectively. At present Kenya is one of the most highly literate countries in sub-Saharan Africa. But more than 60% people of Kenya live below the poverty line. Rapid increases in inflation could reduce economic growth and worsen the poverty levels of the citizens of Kenya. In Kenya economic development is dependent on agricultural improv...

  17. Tested program for Third World economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, R.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the responsibility for the inability of Western-oriented Third World Countries (1) to make democratic economic institutions work rests upon advisers to American and international financial institutions who recommend principles of economic growth distilled out of Keynesian recipes for an over-saving Western society of the 1930s, and out of aspects of American experience with no applicability elsewhere. Applicable aspects of U.S. experience suggest a program relying on capitalistic drives and using fiscal and monetary policy of the type that proved useful in the development of democratic capitalism in the U.S. in the 19th century.

  18. Economic development according to Friedrich List

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Armando J. Garcia; Pontes, José Pedro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Listian model of economic development. The economy consists of a primary sector and a potential industrial sector that can arise via industrialization. Industrialization however depends on if the primary sector specializes on the primary product, which can lead to a division of labor between the primary and the industrial sector. In this case, the industrial sector will use a modern technology to produce industrial goods. If such does not occur, the primary secto...

  19. Oligarchic land ownership, entrepreneurship, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinger, Josef; Grossmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theory in which oligarchic ownership of land or other natural resources may impede entrepreneurship in the manufacturing sector and may thereby retard structural change and economic development. We show that, due to oligopsony power of owners in the agricultural labor market, higher ownership concentration depresses entrepreneurial investments by landless, creditconstrained households, whose investment possibilities depend on the income earned in the pr...

  20. Individualism-Collectivism, Governance and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriacou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    While an individualist society prizes personal control, autonomy and individual accomplishments, a collectivist society puts a premium on loyalty and cohesion and imposes mutual obligations in the context of in-groups. It has been argued that individualism will promote economic development directly by sharpening individual incentives to invest, innovate and accumulate wealth. In this article, I argue that the individualist-collectivist dimension can also affect development through its impact ...

  1. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?; Marilena PAPUC

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Mark...

  2. [Co-piloting economic development and the biosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passet, R

    1992-01-01

    Development has reached a stage of evolution in which its effects on the biosphere have become critical, but the discipline of economics has not yet fully absorbed this change. Economic development is in conflict with the ability of ecosystems to regulate themselves largely because of its focus on the immediate exploitation of resources and neglect of bio- geo-chemical cycles and of effects on the larger environment. Development driven solely by economic considerations is destined to end in destruction. A co-management of economic development and the biosphere is required. Economics suffers from a reductionism in which the natural and the social are both denied their rightful places, and a single type of variable, usually monetary, is overemphasized. A new, multidimensional view of the relationship of the economy to the world is needed. The economy finds its raw materials and disposes of its wastes in the natural sphere, but its purpose and ends reside in the sociocultural sphere. The natural and social spheres are related to the economy, but they obey their own laws, which must be respected in economic calculations. The reproductive and renewing mechanisms of the biosphere should be considered constraints to be respected by development and included in economic calculations. Growth in per capita income should not be considered development when, as often happens, it is accompanied by destruction of sociocultural values and degradation of the relationship between individuals and their environment. The reality of economic development is that it is a process of creative destruction in which minerals, raw materials, and energy are transformed to create objects, while material and energy wastes are discarded in the environment. The models used by economists should take account of these processes. The concept of a multidimensional development in perpetual transformation and sensitive to human activity suggests the responsibility of each generation to its successors. Human beings have the responsibility of managing development in harmony with the regulatory mechanisms of nature. The management problem for the economists is to assure development of the productive sphere in interdependence with the rest of the environment without reducing them to market principles that are not their own and without so diluting the economic principles that they become meaningless. PMID:12343880

  3. Global health funding and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  4. A comprehensive view of regional economic development in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Regional economic development has become a widely popular research subject within economics and economic geography. The rise of the 'new economic geography' in economics and the recent development in economic geography with (among others) institutional, evolutionary and relational 'turns' have introduced a considerable number of new conceptual and theoretical instruments that can be utilised in the analysis of regional development. The variety of different approaches has certainly produced ma...

  5. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsing, A.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the localized nature of economic development: externalities, learning and governance. Externalities play a central role in the new geographical economics of Krugman and in new economic geography of clusters and indust...

  6. Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Udin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.

  7. [Outlier cases in surgical disciplines. Micro-economic and macro-economic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecklenburg, A; Liebeneiner, J; Schaefer, O

    2009-09-01

    Postoperative complications will always occur and the negative impact puts strain on patients, relatives and the attending physicians. The conversion to a remuneration system based on flat rates (diagnosis-related groups) presents additional economic problems for hospitals in some resource-intensive treatments. This particularly pertains to extremely cost-intensive cases in which costs succeed revenue by the factor of 2 and are often surgical procedures. Here the economic risk increases with the number of interventions performed. Despite improvements in the remuneration system this problem persists. An improved payment for these treatments is desirable. To achieve this it is necessary to systematically analyze the extremely cost-intensive cases by experts of different medical disciplines to create a data basis for a proposal of a cost-covering payment. PMID:19636515

  8. Economic development and direct foreign investment in the transition economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mrdakovi?-Cvetkovi? Ružica

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP) and production in Serbia and other countries are currentl...

  9. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  10. Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguang Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

  11. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Optimization Problems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houda, Michal; Ka?ková, Vlasta

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 19, ?. 29 (2012), s. 50-69. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/1610; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/houda-empirical estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf

  12. Finance, growth and human development: An Islamic economic development perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md. Akhter; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    In a growing body of literature, importance of financial sector development and growth on human development has been emphasized but so far little empirical evidence to support this. Islam is a progrowth religion but the concept of development in Islam is multidimensional, understanding the relationship between finance, growth and human development would help us better explain and develop a sustainable pro-Islamic economic growth model, which would help eradicate mass poverty, income inequalit...

  13. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  14. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  15. An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Subramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Dispatch(ED problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA, for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the FA to ED for different Test Case system. ED is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Simulated Annealing (SA, Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, and Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  16. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU; Iulian DR?GHICI

    2013-01-01

    Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribut...

  17. Migration, human capital accumulation and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Di Maria, Corrado; Striszowski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    We study how the possibility of migration changes the composition of human capital in sending countries, and how this affects development. In our model, growth is driven by productivity growth, which occurs via imitation or innovation. Both activities use the same types of skilled labour as input, albeit with different intensities. Heterogenous agents accumulate skills in response to economic incentives. Migration distorts these incentives, and the accumulation of human capital. This slows do...

  18. Financial liberalisation, bureaucratic corruption and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Forgues-Puccio, Gonzalo F.

    2008-01-01

    We study the eþect of international financial integration on economic development when the quality of governance may be compromised by corruption. Our analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model of a small economy in which growth is driven by capital accumulation and public policy is administered by government appointed bureaucrats. Corruption may arise due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds, an opportunity that is made more attractive by financial libera...

  19. Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success

    OpenAIRE

    Corry Bregendahl; Cornelia Flora; Milan Wall; Mary Emery

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Centr...

  20. Essays on Empirical Development and Political Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bei

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...

  1. "Universities, Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development'

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzazian, Navid; Åstebro, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increased trend in the number of spin-offs generated by universities in the past thirty years. Past research reveals that the majority of these start-ups are located in the same region as the university from which they originated. In this paper, we investigate critically what universities do to encourage entrepreneurship to increase regional economic development. We will also discuss whether maximizing local entrepreneurship necessarily maximizes total welfare. Unfortunately...

  2. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; MA, ZHONG; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2006-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

  3. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  4. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  5. YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS - PROMOTERS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Georgiana, COJOCARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship in Romania is no longer an unfamiliar concept, but we can assert that it is a journey full of obstacles. Bureaucracy, the lack of fiscal predictability as well as the absence of an entrepreneurial culture often lead entrepreneurs to bankruptcy. A country develops itself with the help of strong economic policies dictated by the economic environment and not by the political one. The entrepreneur's policy is to make profit which has significant effects in all areas: social, educational, economic. Sustaining entrepreneurship is a solution to be taken into consideration for weighting youth unemployment, given the level reached in the second quarter of 2014 of 23.90%. This article aims to capture aspects of the current situation of entrepreneurship in Romania among young people. Based on data collected, we will analyze the unemployment rate among young people at education level and county-level compared to the number of companies founded by students, with the rate of workforce occupancy. The contribution of young entrepreneurs to economic growth can be achieved in two phases, as more companies are founded, number of employees increases, as a consequence, more young people will become entrepreneurs, so the unemployment rate among them will thus decrease.

  6. Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R?za Erdem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".

  7. State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligonenko Larysa O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a wide range of scientific and practical issues that characterise the state and identify problems of economic development and ways of their solution. The study uses the Enterprise Performance Management (EPM methodology, which allows assessment of indicators of enterprise activity and opens opportunities for inter-country comparison of results and identification of correspondence of Ukrainian realities in the sphere of economic enterprise management with the world tendencies. The goal of the article is publication of results of the “State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises”. The detected, during the comparative analysis, lag from the generally accepted modern requirements and approaches to management confirms the objective necessity of formation of theoretical grounds and development of the relevant practical mechanism of economic enterprise management as a factor of ensuring high efficiency of operational, investment and financial activity of Ukrainian enterprises, establishment of conditions for increasing the economic potential of development and ensuring vitality in the long run.

  8. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  9. Problems in the design and development of 750 MW turbogenerators

    CERN Document Server

    Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    1963-01-01

    Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un

  10. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES...Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic...

  11. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly CAREY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia?s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  12. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  13. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  14. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Berger Masson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Looking back on our experiences and outcomes since 2010, this article shows how the development and introduction of this new approach to local open innovation has changed the rules of the game in the region.

  15. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollin...

  16. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  17. Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corry Bregendahl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.

  18. Exploring the Development of China’s National Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-chun LIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently the economic studies in China rely mainly on western theories, which, however, prove to be far from enough for research and study of Chinese issues. If the same mode is used for the modernization of different nations and different regions, then why should the different nations and national economies exist at all? And what consequences would be caused? How to build the socialism with Chinese characteristics? All of these issues cannot be explained by simply using general economic theories, requirements and goals. The approach of development through a pure pursuit of economic growth and using it as a criterion to judge social development is highly limited. The limitation of “economic imperialism” is becoming increasingly highlighted.
    What is the core theory of the “Chinese economics”? What is the development trend of the “Chinese economics”? Total Westernization is not a solution and digitalization will not solve the problem, either. Undoubtedly, any Chinese economics without considering exiting conditions in China and its national economy can hardly be reasonable. A study of China’s national economics is a development of its nationality research and also an extension of China’s economics and cultural studies. Therefore the national economics can be viewed as an integration of all the three key factors, ie. nationality, economy and culture.
    The national economics is a brand-new field of learning. It occupies a special place in the national studies and has also developed as the main contents of national studies. Besides, it is becoming increasingly important in economic studies and has become a special field for present economic studies. The study and research of national economics is very important and significant.
    Keywords: National Economics, Disciplinary Construction, Theoretical Innovation
    Résumé En ce qui concerne la recherche actuelle de l’économie, la théorie fondamentale de la science économique de notre pays reste encore la théorie économique occidentale. Néanmoins, il ne suffit pas de recourir seulement à la théorie occidentale pour étudier les problèmes chinois. Si on procède à la modernisation des nations et des régions différentes par le même modèle, la nation et l’économie nationale ont encore des raisons d’être ? Quelles sont les conséquences ? Comment développer un socialisme à la chinoise ? Ces questions ne peuvent par s’expliquer par la théorie, la demande et l’objectif de la science économique générale. La conception de developpement qui vise uniquement à la croissance économique et la considère comme l’indice du développement social présente des inconvénients, les limites de « l’impérialisme économique » s’accentuent davantage.
    En quoi réside le noyau théorique de « l’économie chinoise » ? Quel est l’avenir de « l’économie chinoise » ? L’occidentalisation intégrale n’a pas d’issue, la numérisation ne résout pas non plus les problèmes. Sans aucun doute, la science économique chinoise détachée de la réalité de la Chine et de l’économie nationale est inimaginable. Alors l’étude de la science économique nationale ne constitue pas seulement le développement de la recherche de la nation, mais aussi l’enrichissement de la recherche de l’économie chinoise, et également l’approfondissement de la recherche culturelle de notre pays. On peur dire que la science économique nationale est une synthèse de la nation, l’économie et la culture

  19. Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adelakun, O. J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM). The result showed that there is a substantial positiv...

  20. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2004-01-01

    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of resource development experienced in Greenland in connection with mining acitivities.

  1. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prathiba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

  2. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  3. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  4. Health care economics in Serbia: current problems and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosi?, Sanja; Karanovi?, Nevena

    2014-11-01

    One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability. PMID:25536810

  5. Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

  6. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  7. THE PROBLEMS AND ECONOMIC REFLECTIONS OF ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (B?DULESCU ANASTASE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the problems and reflections of Romania,in the period after the aderation to EU, this being a period when all the economic activities will be tested according to their level of efficiency and productivity of work. Maintining the traditional form of organization of work, of investments of structure of the finite products may transform the country into a colony, into an exporter of raw materials and workforce in the EU. We can notice the same thing, based on our research, in the case of the Moldavian Republic: the exports and investments influence very little the economic growth. This is due to the reduced performances of Moldavian exporters, and, even more, to the uncompetitive structure on groups of products. Half of the Moldavian exports is assured by the agro-alimentary market, without noticing some obvious trends of specialization in other new branches. The cause of this trend is the weak productive potential of national agriculture and industry (Anastase.I 2010.

  8. Quantum economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukoti? Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  9. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  10. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

  11. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  12. Managing Sustainable Development of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Viktorovna Lenkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development permeates the entire economy, affecting the development of certain commercial structures, local areas and even countries. As mentioned above, the stability of the whole system is derived from the stability of its constituent elements. Although, in practice, a direct relationship between these phenomena do not exist. Identification of these mechanisms will form a model of sustainable development management of socio-economic system based on the balanced development of its individual elements. This project is aimed at solving the problem of finding a balance between the need to develop socio-economic systems in modern conditions and sustainability of their operation. Crises of recent years have actualized questions the sustainability of commercial organizations, as showed no willingness of individual companies to major changes in the external environment, as well as proven strategies unsustainability developed earlier in their development. Meanwhile, in terms of increased competition in some markets and in some regions, as well as in terms of accelerating changes in the environment of non-standard search ("breakthrough" strategic decisions, radical transformation of existing ideas about the technologies and the possible trajectories of development is often the deciding factor and the pledge successful companies in the future. Objects of research-oil and gas companies and local territory of the Russian Federation. Subject of research-theoretical and methodological, organizational and practical aspects of sustainable development of the energy profile of Russian and local areas.

  13. Economic thinking of post-industrial society: formation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.

  14. Increasing the economic development benefits of higher education in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development benefits of higher education can be increased by: 1) competent management of conventional economic development programs that focus on business attract...

  15. Socio-economic development and its axiological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Chojnicki, Zbyszko

    2010-01-01

    The article presents notions and issues concerning socio-economic development in an axiological perspective. Their presentation is limited to those the present author considers valid, and ignores their wider context as expounded in the various theories of socio-economic development. Underlying the axiological approach to socio-economic development is the opinion that the character of and research on socio-economic development are not neutral axiologically because values are an inh...

  16. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

  17. On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life II: Evolutionary Stable Economic Development Strategy in Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a solution to 'The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development' on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models 'The Problem of Sustainabl...

  18. Electrification and social and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinskaya O.Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

  20. Education for Employment. Planning for Economic Development: A Strategic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James A.; Sanders, Carol S.

    This booklet has been prepared to provide business, industry, labor, government, and educational groups with an overview of the economic development process as well as ideas for planning and implementing coordinated economic development activities. An overview defines economic development and provides premises upon which the definition was…

  1. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  2. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future

  3. Economic Determinants of Regional Integration in Developing Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Regional integration is often viewed as a way to support development and economic growth in developing countries through the related with it benefits to trade and welfare. Economic integration theory goes through two development stages each of which addresses the political and economic context relevant for its time. The first stage is regarded as classic theory or static analysis and includes the traditional theories of economic integration that explain the possible benefits of integration. T...

  4. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  5. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Capacity Building, Economic Empowerment, and Barriers to Economic Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Bede Obinna Amadi

    2012-01-01

    To measure capacity building, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment among youths involved in vocational skills development some scales were designed by the researcher while other scales were used either in their original or modified versions. The paper presents the scales developed by the researcher to measure these variables. Scales measuring the participants’ skills acquisition, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment were designed by the researcher. ...

  6. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  7. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly esse...

  8. Fuzzified artificial bee colony algorithm for nonsmooth and nonconvex multiobjective economic dispatch problem

    OpenAIRE

    KOODALSAMY, Chandrasekaran; SIMON, Sishaj Pulikottil

    2012-01-01

    The economic dispatch (ED) problem is one of the important optimization problems in power system operation. Recently the power system has stressed the need for reliable, nonpolluting, and economic operation. Hence, 3 conflicting functions of reliability, emission, and fuel cost are considered in the objective function of the proposed ED problem. The problem is formulated as a nonsmooth and nonconvex problem when the valve-point effects of thermal units are considered in the proposed rel...

  9. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribution of tourism and agro-tourism sector in accomplishment of GDP, by average made on the analyzed period and by annual growth rate, analyze that place Romania on the position 150 of 176 countries surveyed with an annual growth rate of 1.52% from GDP.

  10. World financial and economic crisis and problems of social responsibility of economic subjects ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Petr A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share of shadow economy. The article provides examples of social irresponsibility of marketing in chase of profit, revealed in industrially developed countries and Ukraine. They cause huge irreplaceable damage to society. The article justifies a conclusion that in countries, economic systems of which cannot ensure a proper level of state regulation of economy and social responsibility of economic subjects, the population is destined to be exploited by socially irresponsible subjects of business, moral and physical degradation and even extinction. The concept of socially responsible marketing, based only on the growth of consciousness of company owners and social initiative, cannot be realised widely.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????, ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????. ? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????. ????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????.

  11. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  12. THE EXIGENCIES OF LASTING SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BOI??

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of the economy, respectively the people's concern to choose, prioritize and use available resources so as to satisfy their needs in an increasing manner is a constant of society development, being present in all times and all places. Solving this problem requires the appropriate answers to lots of questions, the most important of them regarding the volume and structure of production to be created, the technologies used for this purpose, resource consumption per effect unit, but also the consequences for the natural environment, the distribution of economic activity outcomes, etc. Sustainable development is an urgent problem of mankind, a vital process, which realization aims to create the general conditions for the progress of mankind. The evolution of national economy corresponding to the principle coordinates of sustainable development involves, of course, knowing the internal conditions and the location of the economy in the general international context. The new vision of sustainable development implies also the development of new strategies for balanced distribution of income and wealth at a worldwide level, a superior social order - which is interested in the life of future generations as much as that of present generations and that focuses more on the planet and human health.

  13. Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    DMIRTY CHISTILIN

    2010-01-01

    This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

  14. Financial development and economic growth: An empirical analysis for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economic growth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study w...

  15. Economics and the refinery's CO2 emissions allocation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a market for CO2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (author)

  16. Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

  17. What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
    slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
    Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

  18. Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Komail Tayebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

  19. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad,; Phouphet KYOPHILAVONG

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  20. Is Economic Growth Criminogenic for Firms In Developing Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between economy level crime rates or individual level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms which is an important issue especially for developing economies. Using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries we find that economic growth has a negative effect on crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the rela...

  1. Recent trends in economic theory – implications for development geography

    OpenAIRE

    Reinert, Erik S.; Riiser, Vemund

    1994-01-01

    Development geography and mainstream economic theory have for many years lived separate lives. Especially so since the downfall of development economics, an academic subject which has repeatedly been pronounced dead by one of today’s leading US economists. The geographical dimension - the location of production in space - has completely disappeared from neo-classical economic theory. This is, in one sense, curious, because the ‘founding father’ of neo-classical economic theory ...

  2. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added

    OpenAIRE

    Nipinth Suwanrong; Khaentaphon Samdaengdech; Thaksina Krairach

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1) the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2) the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3) the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-Sa-ket Province...

  4. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  5. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.

  6. An ef?cient technique to solve combined economic and emission dispatch problem using modi?ed Ant colony optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Gopalakrishnan; A Krishnan

    2013-08-01

    Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and dif?cult to ?nd out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be ful?lled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an ef?cient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modi?ed Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the signi?cant performance of the proposed MACO approach.

  7. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO2. To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  8. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Mantonya; Milan Wall

    2008-01-01

    Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC) and suppor...

  9. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly ...

  10. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  11. 77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...Docket No. 120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the analysis shows that the propagation of error method introduces essentially negligible error, especially when compared to the uncertainty associated with some of the estimates themselves. The results of these uncertainty analyses generally quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty in the overall cost estimation. The obvious generalization—that capital cost uncertainty is the main driver—can be shown to be an accurate generalization for the current state of reactor cost analysis. However, the detailed analysis on a component-by-component basis helps to demonstrate which components would benefit most from research and development to decrease the uncertainty, as well as which components would benefit from research and development to decrease the absolute cost.

  13. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  14. Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, S; Bote, M; Meadows, R

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  16. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukoti? Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  17. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  18. Historical development of radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)

  19. Environmental and health problems of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental variables largely determine the disease pattern in developing countries. Infections and malnutrition predominate, due to the effects of both poverty (a summary of many aspects of material deprivation) and a high ambient temperature. Environmental changes may be intended to improve health--examples include improved domestic water supplies and sanitation--or they may be due to socio-economic developments, which often have favourable or unfavourable health consequences. These are explored for water resource developments, where the health effects are complex, and for deforestation and urbanization. Although environmental impact assessment has been of value in reducing the adverse health impacts of socio-economic development projects, the use of health opportunity assessment is proposed as a more positive approach to optimizing the consequences of development to human health. PMID:8222995

  20. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  1. The University and Local Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MULLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  2. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  3. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  4. Stock markets, banks, and economic development: Theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the different functions that capital markets and banks have in economic development, and it reviews the debate about marketbased vs. bank-based financial systems. Using data for a sample of 40 countries over the period 1975-98, the paper then shows that variation in both banking sector and stock market development can explain variation in economic growth, but the degree to which a financial system is market- or bank-based cannot explain economic development across countri...

  5. CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    FLAVIA BARNA; PETRU-OVIDIU MURA

    2010-01-01

    Capital markets play an important role in the economic development of emerging capital markets. Well functioning markets insure that both corporations and investors get or receive fair prices for their securities. In the literature on endogenous growth, the link between capital markets development and economic growth has received much attention. Thispaper examines the correlation between capital market development and economic growth in Romania using a regression function. The results show t...

  6. The Role of Cooperative Societies in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The aim is to investigate the ways in which cooperatives can act as agents towards sustainable community development. The paper is a descriptive survey, which involves the collection of data for the purpose of describing the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The paper posits that for over 160 years now cooperatives have been an effective way for people to exert control over their economic livel...

  7. The world economic development with the ISER-PIUS for developing and developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power as a base for the world economic development has, unfortunately, been posing some potential risks including excessive radiation and radioactivity releases from the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl-4 as well as the future risks of nuclear waste management. On the other hand, it is a fact that nuclear power is already being used substantially as an economical energy option throughout the world. Therefore, the ISER-PIUS is now envissaged to be used eventually as safe and economical power source to be employed widely in the world. The present economic conditions and future economic development in Indonesia, taken as an example of less developed country, are described briefly. It is insisted that the policy of nuclear power introduction into a less developed country is neither economical nor realistic. More feasible seems a system of domestically designed and developed inherently safe reactor like ISER-PIUS. An analysis is also made of the future potential of such reactors in advanced countries in terms of the future of ISER-PIUS. It is concluded that cheap electricity and heat are needed for the economic development in less developed nations and for the maintenance of the economy level now attained by developed countries as well. International collaboration for the ISER-PIUS development will be a vehecle for the world-wide economic development in the next century. (Nogami, K.)

  8. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, RUSU (CIGU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development became a goal for knowledge society, but one of the main question in literature remains as how close is the relationship between economic dvelopment, knowledge society and local governments' level. Given the great diversity of situations and frameworks both across countries and within them in the European Union, I consider that each country must have own policies designed to implement process of decentralization with the commitment of "healthy" economy in a society dominated by the technology and innovation. In this context, the problem occurs in decentralization should be managed on two levels: on the one hand in terms of central-local budgets relations, and on the other hand, in the local public finance structural plan. The paper will try to emphasize the connection between decentralization, local economic sustainable development and knowledge society, taking into account an overview of this three aspects and empirical evidences. In this regard, I will use the background offered by literature and the official statiscal data for analysis to identify the variables which explain decentralization and local economic development in the knowledge society. I estimate the analysis to confirm the hypothesis that there are good aspects, but also deficiencies that require solutions and budgetary policy options as part undisputed positioning local government finance as an engine of development of the whole nation. I consider that the paper can be a useful viewpoint in understanding local public finances in decentralization, which allows researchers to include other sources of information for researching an in a much more complex approach.

  9. Rural Economic Development: Policy Implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C. Alinno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rural emancipation. The paper adopted the exploratory research approach involving the use of secondary source with minimal primary source to generate data through questionnaire and interview guide. The paper observes that the problem is not the lack of effective policy/programme initiation and formulation but the dearth of the political will to implement; high incidence of corruption; complete absence of purposive leadership; misguided and misdirected priority; placing the wrong person at the strategic position; inconsistency and absent of continuity in policy/programmes implementation in government affairs. For a way out amongst others, involvement of the benefiting rural/urban communities in monitoring the implementation of programmes or project execution in their domain is important while avoiding the pitfall of role conflict in policies and programmes formulation cum implementation.

  10. / METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

  11. Educational imbalance, socio-economic inequality, political freedom and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes tests of several hypotheses put forward in the literature on the significance of education as a determinant of economic development. It is shown that the generally positive impact of education on economic development is severely impaired by 'educational imbalance' in the case of tertiary education, whereas economic inequality and repression of political rights primarily seem to reduce the social returns of the lower educational levels.

  12. The Scenary Forecasting of Regions Social and Economic Development Dynamics ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guryanova Lidiya S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The scenarios of regions social and economic development by various tax and budgetary policy versions realization are considered in the article.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????-????????? ????????.

  13. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (xii) Planning for or the marketing of the development and reuse of the installation. (f) Every... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development... Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances made pursuant...

  14. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Beudean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  15. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-cont...

  16. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

  17. Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

  18. Economic and social development, energy and environment in Latin America and the West Indies - an ovierview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving a short overview of the economic and social development of Latin America since 1980 the present article deals with the various problems relating to the energy supply of that region, namely economic growth, diversification, inefficiency, and environmental effects. If discusses the relationships that exist in Latin America between energy, environment, and the social situation and endeavours to outline possible approaches towards a socially and environmentally sustainable development. (UA)

  19. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Parshyn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.

  20. An Explanation of Economic Change and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fusari, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The contribution to the explanation of economic change that this paper sets out is centered on a core of interconnected endogenous variables, mainly innovation, radical uncertainty and entrepreneurship, which current economic analyses consider only in part and separately, sometimes as endogenous but for the most as exogenous. The article (and the formalized model) suppose that the functioning of the economy is not disturbed by the operation of pathological factors mainly concer...

  1. On Dictatorship, Economic Development and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Artige, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to account for varying economic performances and political stability under dictatorship. We argue that economic welfare and social order are the contemporary relevant factors of political regimes' stability. Societies with low natural level of social order tend to tolerate predatory behavior from dictators in exchange of a provision of civil peace. The fear of anarchy may explain why populations are locked in the worst dictatorships. In contrast, in societies enjoying a relati...

  2. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  3. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  4. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahibul Ahyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  5. Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  6. [30 years' development of economic theories in confrontation with facts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1969, R. Frish and J. Tinbergen received the first Nobel Price in Economics. 200 years after Quesnay's "economic tables", economics were at last considered as a science. During the last thirty years, economics haven't lost their scientific reputation, but, confronted with different situations in the world and in France, economics have been unable to bring appropriate solutions to every problem. Nowadays, economics are quite far from the promises born after the Second World War: indeed, until the 1974 world crisis, Keynes' theory (from a macro-economic point of view) and Walras' formalisation of the markets (from a micro-economic point of view) were sufficient to give satisfying representations of any economic reality and mechanism. Nevertheless, these theories were unable to deal with both growing unemployment and raising inflation in the late 70's and early 80's. Today, economics present a wide variety of efficient analysis of society. Game theory, behaviour theory or econometrics are new means used to found new kinds of reality representation. Therefore, if economics can no longer be considered as an exact science, it remains nevertheless scientific. PMID:7736311

  7. Social change through integrated social and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, A. (Antoinette)

    2006-01-01

    Twelve years into democracy, South Africa is still facing deep-seated social and economic inequalities. The expanding divide between the rich and the poor emphasises the sharp division between the modern economy and the marginalised second economy, which characterises the two worlds in South Africa. South Africa’s macroeconomic policy fosters economic growth, which is essential for socio-economic development, but at the same time it also highlights the challenges required for development, whi...

  8. Financial development and economic growth:a panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Nuno Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter). Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27), and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel dat...

  9. Financial development and economic growth: Evidence of non-linearity

    OpenAIRE

    Doumbia, Djeneba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the non-linear relationship between financial development and economic growth. It mainly relies on the Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR) model of Gonzalés et al. (2005) and three metrics of financial development to endogenously assess the impact of financial development on growth. Using a sample of 43 advanced and developing economies over the period 1975–2009, the paper highlights that financial development supports economic growth in low-income and lower middle i...

  10. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  11. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  12. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  13. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  14. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  15. Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

  16. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafas Furqani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM to see whether the Islamic financial system contributes to the economic development and economic development that contribute to the transformation of the operation of the Islamic financial system in the longrun. We use time series data of total Islamic bank financing (IB financing and real GDP per capita (RGDP, fixed investment (GFCF, and trade activities (TRADE to represent real economic sectors. We found that in the short-run only fixed investment that granger cause Islamic bank to develop for 1997:1-2005:4. Where as in the long-run, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between Islamic bank and fixed investment and there is evidence to support ‘demand following’ hypothesis of GDP and Islamic bank, where increase in GDP causes Islamic banking to develop and not vice versa. Islamic banking is also found to have less contribution to the international trade in the form of export and import of goods and services.Keywords: Islamic banking, economic growth, Malaysia, VECM

  17. Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

  18. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Maria GHERMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

  19. Regional Integration in Southern African Development Community.Politics Versus Economics : Politics versus Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Annick

    2009-01-01

    Regional integration has gained keen drive since the 1980s throughout the world. Political and economic considerations complement each other in any kind of process; yet classical economic integration theory would advocate that regional integration is an economic process occurring largely as a result of greater interaction between neighboring states, functioning almost like a kind of invisible hand. This theory is based on the historical example of the development of the European Union, yet it...

  20. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mantonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC and support from the Economic Development Administration (EDA, Denver Region, conducted a series of case studies focusing on promising programs in Indian Country that were meeting with success. These case studies reflect the positive economic conditions in order to build on them and provide a framework for other communities to follow.

  1. Cumulative Estimate of the Ukrainian Regional Economical Development Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Atamaniuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels. The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH;• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH;• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH.The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.

  2. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-01-01

    Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  3. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  4. Problems of tourism development in transboundary areas

    OpenAIRE

    I. Shpylovyy

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of tourism development in cross-border areas, justified the need for a cross-border inter-regional eco-tourism cluster in the Azov-Black Sea region, defined its main objectives and development potential.

  5. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  6. Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…

  7. ARTICLE REVIEW THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  8. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications of factors of economic development an improved classification of the driving forces of advancing national economic development was offered, the basis of which systemically factors amount. It was proved that the optimistic scenario of socio-economic development of Ukraine can be based only on the economic model of advancing development, which should take into account the non renewable resources, based on the rapid establishment of mechanisms for high-tech export-oriented economy, which is the driving force of intellectual resources, cultural values, and creative energy. Guenon-factor of advancing economic development is defined. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Guenon-factor concentrates the cause of changes in the system state and can be represented by two levels depending on the degree of objectivity and distance from the system itself. The studies presented an opportunity to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. Each factor of the formed registry was described by a brief characteristic or feature showing its impact on economic development. Likely Guenon-factor is characterized by variability, however, still forms the initial system-factors in the study of which are seen as the prospect for further research.

  9. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Capacity Building, Economic Empowerment, and Barriers to Economic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bede Obinna Amadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To measure capacity building, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment among youths involved in vocational skills development some scales were designed by the researcher while other scales were used either in their original or modified versions. The paper presents the scales developed by the researcher to measure these variables. Scales measuring the participants’ skills acquisition, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment were designed by the researcher. Training satisfaction scale was modified to measure the participants’ perception of training received. Self-esteem, perceived control, and personal growth initiative scales were used in their original versions. Using a factorial analysis, the cronbach’s alpha of the developed instruments achieved a reliability level at or above .70. The developed scales have contributed to knowledge as they can be used to measure future research questions. It is hoped that several research directions could be pursued using the developed scales.

  10. Modelling Influence of Fiscal Policy upon Economic Development ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Mar?ya M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises a macro-economic model, which describes dynamics of influence of fiscal load upon economic development of Ukraine. Parameters of the model are calculated on the basis of statistical data for 2000 – 2012. The article analyses fiscal load of Ukraine: its optimal level for economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. It assesses and compares calculations of the taxation load, traces its dynamics and compares results with analogous indicators of the developed countries of the world. It analyses prospects of application of the proposed approach for forecasting development of the national economy.? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 2000 – 2012 ??. ?????????? ????????? ??????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????: ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 19,29% ???. ????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????.

  11. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is conc1uded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role for growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequences of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even ...

  12. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint analysis of how natural resources and aid potentially affect total output in society through rent-seeking activities. We survey the existing evidence on both direct and indirect effects of windfalls a...

  13. Symbolic values, occupational choice, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo; Jeanne, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Channeling human resources into the right occupations has historically been a key to economic prosperity. Occupational choices are not only driven by the material rewards associated with the various occupations, but also by the esteem that they confer. We propose a model of endogenous growth in which occupations carry a symbolic value that makes them more or less attractive; the evolution of symbolic values is endogenous and determined by purposive transmission of value systems within familie...

  14. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Valli; Donatella Saccone

    2009-01-01

    The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetra...

  15. A Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C.L.; Khamkaew, T.; McAleer, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The significant impact of international tourism in stimulating economic growth is especially important from a policy perspective. For this reason, the relationship between international tourism and economic growth would seem to be an interesting empirical issue. In particular, if there is a causal link between international tourism demand and economic growth, then appropriate policy implications may be developed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether tourism specialization is im...

  16. Influence of Transformation Demographic Model on Economic Development of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeykina, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The page represents model of influence of the occurred demographic changes on economic development of Russia. Transformation of model birth rate in modern Russia and its rapprochement to type of the western countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain). Reflection of a social and economic conjuncture in a channel of "the second demographic transition" to which all advanced countries follow. Russia has followed the road long-term changes of economic and demographic model, and return to former mod...

  17. Equilibrium in Economic Development A Perspective of Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Akhter Hussain; Shah, Tariq; Ahmad, Eatzaz

    2011-01-01

    Each system owns different resources which need to be prioritized for bringing economic equilibrium in the society. This study identifies equilibrium in economic development and its relationship with social capital. Inter temporal accumulation of social capital of certain quantum takes place when cycle of economic activities is started at different levels of the systems; individuals, group, organization and State. In each system different combinations of resource allocation in spe...

  18. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, John Edward

    2004-01-01

    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  19. The role of tourism in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Creaco, Salvo; Querini, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    Tourism is now one of the world's largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of ...

  20. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  1. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Maria GHERMAN; George ?TEFAN

    2013-01-01

    In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal) and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in ...

  2. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial ...

  3. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  4. Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems During Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James Patrick; Monica, Santa; Smith, Gillian C

    2010-01-01

    Childhood psychological conditions including depression and substance abuse are a growing concern among American children, but their long-term economic costs are unknown. This paper uses unique data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) following groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years prospectively collecting information on education, income, work, and marriage. Following siblings offers an opportunity to control for unobserved family and neighborhood effects. A r...

  5. Economic effects in radioisotope-utilizing instruments and their problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic effects at present have been investigated limiting to radioisotope-utilizing instruments for industrial application. These instruments have increased year by year since they were introduced into Japanese industry about a quarter century ago, and reached 6058 sets as of March, 1976, in all industrial fields. Most widely used instruments are thickness gauges, level gauges, densimeters, moisture gauges and sulphur analyzers in this order. Methods for analyzing the economic effects includes several systems, and here, the cost-benefit ratio (C/B) method, which is called IAEA system, was adopted. Investigation has been conducted only on thickness gauges for paper making, coating film thickness gauges, sulphur analyzers and moisture gauges. For the thickness gauges, which are used a lot in paper machines and now fully automated, C/B is 1/3.16. The coating film thickness gauges are being changed from ?-gauges to fluorescent X-ray system, and its C/B is equal to 1/30 to 1/50, very economical. Though the sulphur analyzers for oil industry are used off-line, here the on-line analyzers were investigated. The result of C/B of 1/10 was obtained for the plant whose production is 2,000 kl/day. The neutron moisture gauges are employed a lot specifically in iron and steel industry. Its C/B is from 1/20 to 1/40 for an example used in a pig iron plant. As seen above, the radioisotope- utilizing instruments have very high economic effects, and can contribute to energy saving, labor saving and resource saving in process and quality controls. (Wakatsuki, Y

  6. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKMEKÇ?O?LU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

  7. The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anowar H. Bhuiyan; C. Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Islam, R.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the...

  8. A new model based analysis method for regional economic development effects

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Günter; Binder, Jan

    2002-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to provide a new method for the estimation and evaluation of long time ago implemented transport infrastructure and policy measures. This requires before and after data on a small spatial aggregation level. The main problem consists in the separation of the overall economic development, from the spatial impact of the implemented measures. Therefore, timeseries data of economic growth seem to be necessary, at least for some selected variables. However, longterm data...

  9. Economic evaluation of strategies for managing crying and sleeping problems

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, S; St, J; Sleep, J; Gillham, P

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To estimate the financial cost to the NHS of infant crying and sleeping problems in the first 12 weeks of age and to assess the cost effectiveness of behavioural and educational interventions aimed at reducing infant crying and sleeping problems relative to usual services.?METHODS—A cost burden analysis and cost effectiveness analysis were conducted using data from the Crying Or Sleeping Infants (COSI) Study, a three armed prospective randomised controlled trial that...

  10. Localizing vector optimization problems with application to welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Uderzo, Amos

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, the Polyak's principle, concerning convexity of the images of small balls through C1,1 mappings, is employed in the study of vector optimization problems. This leads to extend to such a context achievements of local programming, an approach to nonlinear optimization, due to B.T. Polyak, which consists in exploiting the benefits of the convex local behaviour of certain nonconvex problems. In doing so, solution existence and optimality conditions are esta...

  11. Siting problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain aspects affecting the limits of development of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia are analyzed, such as nuclear power plant safety, reliability, economic aspects, regional siting, ecological aspects, and linkage to the district heating system. With regard to health protection of the population the maximum possible installed output of a nuclear power plant will be around 10,000 MW. The siting is always a compromise. The maximum design variant of 4x1000 MW has been used at Temelin. The most rational project with regard to safety is the incorporation of newly built nuclear power plants into large power complexes. Important factors from the economic point of view are budget costs, power losses due to long-distance transmission, requisition of agricultural soil, and the technical life-span of the nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  12. Evaluation of Rural Economic and Social Development Level in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Guo-jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the background of urban and reral balanced development, in order to promote the understanding for rural development in Chongqing , and this article evaluated its economic and social development. Based on the development status of Chongqing's urban and rural areas, we set the indicators system of evaluation for Chongqing rural economic and social development, and prove its reason through the factor analysis and gray relational analysis. Finally we get the composite score and ranking of each district. Taking cluster analysis to composite scores and correlation analysis with per capita investment in fixed assets, road density and the economic pattern,and also taking hierarchical display, we get three levels area of rural development status, and prove that it is correct to increase investment and build infrastructure and make a rational economic distribution. It also shows that , for every regional rural economic and social development states, an hour economic areas is better than the northeast of Chongqing ,and the northeast of Chongqing is better than the southest of Chongqing overall. Finally, we try to explore some overall measures for superior areas such as an hour economic area, Wanzhou district and poor areas , the northeast and the southeast of Chongqing and Tongnan county in the west edge.

  13. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development. Connections are revealed to have no significant influence on the internal control of resources but a significant direct influence on economic development through value chain activities. Through the analyses in this paper the notion of ‘boundary utility’ is elaborated as the crossing and transformation of the dynamic composite underlying boundaries to enable innovation for positive impact on economic development.

  14. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Reid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.

  15. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  16. The analysis of economic development and forecasting of info-communications development in the Republic of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamno Armand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of the Republic of Cameroon at the present time is analyzed. The dependence between the level of economy development and the level of info-communication development is shown. The problems inter-fering an output of the Republic of Cameroon on the modern level in the field of info-communications are considered. It is stated that Cameroon is going through scientific and technical and information revolution which has already distinctly changed the conditions and the way of economic development of the country.

  17. Macro-Economic Indicators of Development of Ukrainian Regions ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Mikhail S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of macro-economic indicators of Ukrainian regions. It considers the resource and natural potential and socio-economic development of individual regions, which is a result of the imperfect territorial administration. It analyses main macro-economic indicators of development of regions of the country by geographic division, namely: areas of territories, population, gross regional product of a mega-region, employment and unemployment, and volume of investments. It specifies conditions of stable socio-economic development of each mega-region. It identifies a mechanism of synchronisation of decisions, which is based on self-governing. It offers ways of perfection of the system of administration of territorial socio-economic systems in Ukraine.?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ????????-????????? ????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????. ?????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ? ???????.

  18. The Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Anyanga Musamali; Esman M. Nyamongo; Eliud D. Moyi

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Itpresents evidence on a cross section of 50 African countries whose data is available for theperiod 1980-2008. Two proxies of financial development are employed: the ratio of credit tothe private sector to total GDP and the ratio of broad money (M2) to total GDP. We establisha positive relationship between financial development and economic growth. However, wefind that the relationship between private sec...

  19. STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Vazakidis Athanasios; Adamopoulos Antonios

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integ...

  20. Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Tichaona Zivengwa; Joseph Mashika; Fanwell K Bokosi; Tendai Makova

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the v...

  1. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can str...

  2. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wennekers, A.R.M.; Stel, A J; Thurik, A.R.; Reynolds, P.

    2005-01-01

    Based upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country's rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regressing GEM's 2002 data for nascent entrepreneurship in 36 countries on the level of economic development as measured either by per capita income or by an index for innovative capacity, we find support for a U-sh...

  3. Does Rural Financial Development Spur Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sani Ibrahim, Mr. Saifullahi

    2013-01-01

    Robust economic development is not possible without financial deepening more especially in rural community where vast majority of the populace of Less Developed Countries (LDCs) resides. This paper analyses the impact of rural financial development on economic growth of Nigeria. The study uses time series data covering 1980 to 2011 periods paving the way for the application of Johansen and Juselius model of cointegration to detect the long-run relation among the variables in question. Accordi...

  4. PPP IN RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BOON OR BANE!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S, R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PPP in today's globalised world is seen as an efficient mechanism to develop infrastructure in developing economy and transform the static economy into dynamic economy. Despite more than six decades of planning, rural India is having high illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, ignorance, blind beliefs, and other social economic evils, when compared to Urban India. Government proposed PPP in rural development to utilize the private sector efficiencies to finance and build the socio- economic infrastructure in India

  5. Meeting Summary, Economic Development Panel, Business Meeting No.31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2003-06-18

    OAK-B135 The objectives of the meeting were as follows: (1) Learn more about and discuss economic impacts of wind power development in the U.S, highlighting the NWCC report, ''Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Power Development''; (2) Learn more about and discuss wind integration costs and the impacts of recent studies on wind energy development; and (3) Review activities and products planned for FY 2004.

  6. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture. PMID:12284704

  7. Tax Reforms in the Context of Socio-Economic Development ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurnak Olexandr V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the existing approaches to the study and the justification of tax reforms in the context of their impact on socio-economic development. The needs of the tax reform study on the basis of evolutionary economics are shown.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.

  8. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

  9. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  10. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  11. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  12. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  13. Problem of identification parameters of energy-dependent economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaiduchok O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The system model of two sector economics, in which power and production sectors acts separately, is described. Production is divided into two sectors – the first sector produced the final product, and the second sector – the energy that is required to produce the final product. The models for the sectors power are recorded. The system model as the system of differential equation is obtained. An algorithm for defining identification parameters is described. Control parameters for system model for main macroeconomic indicators are shown.

  14. A simple approach to global optimal feedback solutions :with emphasize on certain management problems in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Berge, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic optimization problems covers a great class of problems in management science and technology. The classical problem formulations being the variational approach as in classical mechanics, like Hamilton's principle and the optimal control theory in economics as the Pontryagin's maximum principle. In this account we start with a general problem formulation as an alternative to an approach based on solving differential equations. We focus on creating an analytical environment aimed at deri...

  15. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  16. Metaphors of Nature and Economic Development: Critical Education for Sustainable Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal discourse often conceptualizes nature in relation to its market utility and economic development. This article will address the role of metaphors in shaping neoliberal discourse in business education. The aim of this article is to reveal reasoning patterns about environmental problems and economic development in students of sustainable business minor. The case study described in this article involves business students at The Hague University in The Netherlands. This case study aimed to explore a shift in student understanding of environmental problems and economic development before and after the intervention. The results suggest that critical curriculum can inform students about the alternative conceptions as well as instruct them about potential solutions to the sustainability challenges. The article culminates with the argument that without goal-oriented education for sustainability; neoliberal education may not permit transcendence from unsustainable practices.

  17. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

  18. Economic Development in Islamic Perspective: Concept, Objectives, and Some Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Zubair

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the concept and objectives of economic development from an Islamic perspective.A few related issues including motivation, role of the state, population, and growth-equity trade off have also been discussed.

  19. Social-Economic Development of Region: Institutional Aspect ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????: ????????????????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhavoronkov Vladimir A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The institutional aspects of social-economic development of region are considered where the special role is played by regional authorities and civil society institutions that serve as institutional basis for the formation of the social economy.??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.

  20. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  1. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.

  2. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko, Valentina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.

  3. Stock Exchange Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mustafa Al-Qudah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Amman stock exchange development measured by MarketCapitalization Ratio (MCR) and Value Traded Ratio (VTR) and Jordan economic growth measured by GrossDomestic Product Growth (GDPG) for the period 1978–2012. The study used Vector Error Correction Model(VECM) to examine the hypotheses. The study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationshipbetween Amman stock exchange development and Jordan economic growth. In addition, the ...

  4. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural pe...

  5. Federalism and economic development in India: An assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar; Srinivasan, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines India’s federal system in the context of prospects for India’s future economic growth and development. After a brief review of India’s recent policy reforms and economic development outcomes, and of the country’s federal institutions, the analysis focuses on the major issues with respect to India’s federal system in terms of their developmental consequences. We examine the impacts of tax assignments, expenditure authority and the intergovernmental transfer system on the f...

  6. Innovative clusters: a solution for the economic development of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela-Cornelia DAN

    2012-01-01

    The Europe 2020 Strategy emphasizes the importance of the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The flagships of the strategy (digital agenda for the EU, innovation union, resource efficient Europe, industrial policy for the globalization agenda) are setting the frame for economic development. Innovative clusters are seen as a solution to the crisis, a tool for competitiveness and regional development. Given the economic situation of Romania we bring in discussion the potential of clusters...

  7. Cluster Economic Performance Concept – Present Experiences and Future Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Simona BIRIESCU

    2010-01-01

    Cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for researchers and economic development professionals.Clusters are groups of companies and institutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and/or services. Given changes in the global environment, businesses and countries are changing the way they compete. These changes are characterised by the ability of multinational corporations to lo...

  8. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-01-01

    Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as...

  9. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural peopl...

  10. GAPS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INTER AND INTRA EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Diaconu; Andrei Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Economic development is a subject that generates much controversy, mainly because of the widening gaps between poor and rich nations. In the present paper, we intend to identify and explain the differences that exist both between and within the European Union states, from an economic development point of view. In order to reach this objective, we have collected, analysed and interpreted information included in various statistical data bases, reports and year books. The results show that the d...

  11. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan EKMEKÇ?O?LU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The m...

  12. Economic development and intellectual capital : an international study

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Víctor Raúl; Alfaro Navarro, José Luis; Nevado Peña, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study relationships between economic development and the national level of intellectual capital. To measure the intellectual capital of nations we have used a model adapted to microeconomic level that takes into account aspects not contemplated by GDP. It considers intangible assets such as human development, economic structure, international trade, foreign image and innovation. This model is applied to 82 countries grouped in three clusters according to the...

  13. Economic development benefits of preschool expansion in Kalamazoo County

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of preschool expansion in Kalamazoo County on the county's economic development. Effects on the county's economic development are defined as effects on the employment and earnings of county residents. The estimated effects are found to be large relative to the costs. In addition to their relevance to Kalamazoo County, these simulations illustrate how the analysis presented in two previous papers (Bartik 2006, 2008) can be done for an individual county or metrop...

  14. Immigrants' Genes: Genetic Diversity and Economic Development in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of genetic diversity on economic development in the United States. Our estimation strategy exploits that immigrants from different countries of origin differed in their genetic diversity and that these immigrants settled in different regions. Based on a sample of over 2250 counties, we find that increases in genetic diversity of US counties that arose due to immigration during the 19th century had a significant positive effect on US counties' economic development. We als...

  15. A systems approach to the economics of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plays a very important role in the long-term energy policy of Czechoslovakia. Its development is directly linked to the development of a nuclear power complex which includes, in addition to nuclear power itself, a series of new special nuclear production processes. The nuclear power complex is a large and highly complex technological and socio-economic scheme whose establishment requires substantial structural changes in the national economy. Accordingly, it is important to consider the economics of nuclear power development and management in relation to the development of the nuclear complex as a whole. Such an approach helps to reveal the interrelationship between the development of nuclear power and the development of the national economy as a whole, and makes it possible to determine the factors limiting development and also to establish the general economic necessity of introducing nuclear power production and ways of actively affecting it. (author)

  16. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    2001-01-01

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions spec...

  17. EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

  18. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic...

  19. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Kanishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all directions. Recently improvement of commercial and economic relations between states is in the heart of diplomatic dialogue. Main reasons of interest in economic diplomacy are based on the following: globalization of trade and business, implementation of economic reforms in processes of orientation to a market economy, which shrinks area of non-market economy in the world and leads to reduction of characteristic of its closeness and self-sufficiency. Tasks which are the basis of interests of economic diplomacy also include: amplifying struggle between individual links of the global economic system, growth of number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment, expansion of regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investment processes which determine at a considerable extent the leading role of the EU, MERCOSUR, NAFTA, FTAA and others. Modern trends in development of economic diplomacy in the context of globalization are based on management decisions on different levels of structure of the world market – on mega, macro, meso and micro levels. Deep analysis of current geo-economic trends is an important step in understanding the nature and features of effective use of tools of economic diplomacy in international economic relations. The current situation of economic diplomacy is characterized by next trends: activation of multilateral regular relations between countries, that consequences in integration processes in trade and business; providing economic reforms, aimed on creation market economy, which constricts the area of non-market economy; the increasing of the number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment in trade balance of countries; expand regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investments; increased state involvement in promotion and protection of national interests on the world market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The economic di

  20. On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life: Introducing a Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionarily Stable Island Economic Development Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This discourse offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models The Problem of Sustai...

  1. FDI and regional economic integration in SAARC region: problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Nasim; Khan, Tamanna

    2011-01-01

    Regional integration has the potential to promote economic development in member countries irrespective of size and the level of growth. This potential can be exploited only through deeper cooperation. However, there are a number of challenges which restrict this region to tap its potential. As most of SAARC countries are underdeveloped economic integration is much needed for the development of this region. The process of economic integration in South Asia gathered momentum with the implement...

  2. Long-Lasting Development – Basic Principle of Economic Development of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have long-lasting economic and social development in any field, the economic and the other socio-human, cultural, ecologic, technological aspects must be compatible. Any economic and social development must take into account the complex nature of the system as well as its interdependency and correlation with other systems.

  3. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes that economic valuation is vital for bringing, ecosystems to decision-making agendas in developing countries and that great effort must be made to bridge the gap between scientists and decision makers.

  4. An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Turkish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ozcan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.

  5. DISPUTES OVER THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF VOJVODINA (1964-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ???????

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the economic and political crises which started to spread in the socialist Yugoslavia,at the beginning of the sixties, disputes occurred between the communist leaderships of the Republicof Serbia and Autonomous province of Vojvodina. The reason for this was the state ofeconomy of Vojvodina. In 1965, great economic reform was introduced in Yugoslavija, whichcreated economic wholes by merging several municipalities. This caused several problems, suchas jealousy between economic centres, particulary in Vojvodina. As the result of the well-organizedaction taken by the highest party forums in the province, Novi Sad prospered as the capital ofVojvodina – as it could be seen from the minutes of the party meetings. According to the so farunpublished archive documentation, those events remained hidden from the public eye.

  6. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... development, construction, and retrofitting of commercial-scale biorefineries and grants to help pay for the development and construction costs of demonstration-scale biorefineries; (ii) Expedited funding to encourage... publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.BARACK OBAMATHE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, May 5, 2009....

  7. Are smartphones smart for economic development?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartje, Rebecca; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the worldwide spread of smartphones continues, developing countries have become important markets for these devices. Smartphones' independence of landline networks qualifies them for communication and Internet access in rural areas of developing countries. Drawing upon rural Southeast Asian survey data, this paper provides probably the first empirical evidence for smartphones' contribution to households' income.

  8. Monetary Policy And Economic Development In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N.Shendge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals.

  9. Degree of Economic Freedom and Relationship to Economic Growth and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz; Kowal, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Presented in this article is an analysis of the relationship between the Index of Economic Freedom and indices of economic growth, i.e. GDP per capita and the Human Development Index. The McPherson coefficient of correlation was calculated from several different perspectives. Described in the final part of the article is the testing of the hypotheses, while a short commentary on the results obtained is also presented.

  10. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. OTIMAN

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense) to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian) economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the ...

  11. The relationship between savings and economic growth in countries with different level of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Misztal, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the cause and effect relationship between economic growth and savings in advanced economies and in emerging and developing countries2. In this work we used the method based on studies in macroeconomics and international finance as well as econometric methods (co-integration models and Granger's causality test). All statistical data used in this paper came from the International Monetary Fund database (World Economic Outlook database). The results confirmed ...

  12. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...development of next-generation biofuels, increase flexible fuel vehicle...transport, and distribution of biofuels; and (c) Identifying new...to promote the environmental sustainability of biofuels feedstock production,...

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND INFLUENCE OF THE PERIODICAL »RIBARSTVO« ON THE ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC BRANCH OF FISH FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrila Habekovi?

    2000-01-01

    In its development, the periodical has changed its name, its form, its owner and publisher, but it has been constantly dealing with the problems of freshwater fish farming. The development of the economic and scientific branch of freshwater fish farming and the development of the periodical are a reversible process. In this paper, the author will present their mutual influences and their contents in more detail and suggest further options for their mutual influence. The periodical has been pu...

  14. Role of Islamic banks in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    saleem, shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to give the real meaning of DEVELOPMENT from Islamic perspective. Most of Muslim countries are LDCs and using the religious and social ideology of Islam is very useful to establish institutions and to bring moral and ethical change for development in these countries. Islam appears to be the only dynamic religion and tells us about prevention of interest, similar to Christian and Jewish theologies. But at the same time gives a comprehensive setoff trade and...

  15. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-01-01

    Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

  16. The strategic economic plan and the role of independent power in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent power production (IPP) in Newfoundland was examined within the context of the province's Strategic Economic Plan. Provisions of the Plan were summarized, with special reference to the promotion of alternative energy technologies and government efforts to amend regulations to facilitate development of alternative energy sources by independent producers. IPP was considered to be an ideal tool for regional economic development and diversification, assuming that environmental concerns were carefully considered and addressed. Some of the benefits ascribed to IPP included strengthening the private sector, creating new small business opportunities, improving competitiveness, promoting regional development, contributing to import substitution and enhance the province's technology and knowledge base

  17. Economic Guidance and Contestation: An Analysis of Thailand’s Evolving Trajectory of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper broadly examines the history of Thailand’s models of development from the fall of the absolute monarchy in 1932 to the present. It asks two questions: First, what have the models been? How do they interact? And how successful have they been? Second, to what extent has partisanship entered into Thailand’s development debate? The paper argues that Thailand’s current development strategy has enabled the country to achieve a relative degree of success in achieving economic growth. Nevertheless, Thailand continues to encounter economic problems – felt mostly amongst the lower classes. Moreover, there is today a clash in development models, which is based more on political ideology rather than economic efficiency. As such, development debates in Thailand have become part and parcel of the post-2006 political acrimony which continues to engulf the country.

  18. Legacy Information System Development: Problems and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muheet Ahmed Butt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Information Communication Technology has improved the quality of services being provided by organizations beyond proportions. Another most distinguishing characteristic of ICT is the storage, retrieval, processing as well as the communication of Data. However development of Information System is always associated with many problems and issues. In fact resistance to change is a universally acknowledged fact but since the influence of ICT is felt at all levels therefore automation mostly meets multifold problems. It is because of this fact that despite distinct superiority of ICT still it is implemented in phased manner. Similarly the available technology also limits the working of the Information System. Other issues related with the development of the information are the developmental, operational besides security.

  19. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary countries. This effect is more pronounced for high-aid receiving countries.

  20. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

  1. Smoking bans and the secondhand smoking problem: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Annette; Nell, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone. PMID:21842184

  2. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-01-01

    Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may b...

  3. Economic considerations for deep water Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program's sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends

  4. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Theory, Evidence and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

  5. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Impact of global economic crisis on Serbia’s economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Pero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis strongly affects economic slowdown in the world due to the effects of reduced demand in developed economies. The fall in demand in the European market had a negative impact on Serbia’s foreign trade and economic growth. The reduction in export demand, reduction of industrial production, the company in default, wage cuts and rising unemployment are the main features of the crisis that has engulfed Serbia. Serbia needs structural reforms at all levels in order to increase the competitiveness of the economy, which is now at a low level. In the last decade Serbia’s economic development based on the integration in European and global markets and foreign direct investment. An additional impact of crisis in Serbia was a significant shortage of foreign capital. The decline and fall of the investment trust in the banking system, manifested by withdrawal of foreign funds from the financial system and reduce foreign exchange liquidity. The recovery of Serbian economy can be expected by introduction of new reforms, economic measures. In addition to reducing the fiscal deficit and savings, it is expected a creation of favorable business environment for investment and business. Political and economic stability is the basis for attracting foreign direct investment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Srbija u savremenim me?unarodnim odnosima: Strategijski pravci razvoja i unapre?ivanje položaja Srbije u me?unarodnim integracionim procesima - spoljnopoliti?ki, me?unarodni ekonomski, pravni i bezbednosni aspekti

  7. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I also characterized the respondents with respect to their preferred type of advertisement. The results of the latter showed that the number of clickers on banner advertisement is higher than that of pop-up advertisement, and that its efficiency rates are higher as well. In addition, the characterization of advertisers gave that the probability to advertise a banner advertisement is higher if the manager is either a female, married, older than 40 and employed in the construction, Car Dealership or wedding industry.

  8. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  9. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

  10. Sustainable economic development and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bertinelli, Luisito; Strobl, Eric; Zou, Benteng

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between growth and pollution is studied through a vintage capital model, where new technology is more environmentally friendly. We find that once the optimal scrapping age of technologies is reached, an economy may achieve two possible cases of sustainable development, one in which pollution falls and another in which it stabilizes, or a catastrophic outcome, where environmental quality reaches its lower bound. The outcome will depend on countries' investment path and their p...

  11. Nature's role in sustaining economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's ...

  12. Emerging markets, industrialisation and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    1995-01-01

    Abstract An outstanding feature of the world financial economy during the last decade or so has been the establishment and the very fast expansion of stock markets in developing countries. Between 1982 and 1992 the total combined capitalisation of companies quoted on the emerging markets included in the IFC list rose from less than hundred billion dollars to nearly a trillion U.S. dollars.

  13. Globalization, literacy levels and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Alok

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimated models for GDP growth rates, poverty levels, and inequality measures for the period 1990–2000 using data on 54 developing countries at five-yearly intervals. Issues of globalization were investigated by analysing the differential effects of the countries’ exports and imports and by postulating trans-logarithmic models that allow for non-linear effects of literacy levels and measures of openness. The main findings were that literacy rates affected growth rates in a quadrat...

  14. Economic incentives for future fuel developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of nuclear fuel is put into perspective by a short review of the total nuclear power costs and comparisons are made with other types of thermal electricity generating plants. Fuel costs are divided into components of natural uranium, enrichment services, fabrication, inventory and back end, which are used as a structure for discussing the impact of different development trends on the final fuel costs and, consequently, the incentives for future fuel improvements. The factors related to fuel design and performance affect nuclear power plant operation and are the most important incentive for future fuel development, depending on the power system under which the nuclear power plants operate. The potential impact of fuel improvements, both in terms of design and verification of performance, is analysed and discussed with respect to the following: plant operation: load follow, capacity factors; fuel utilization: extended burnup, improved moderation, low parasitic absorption; back end costs: volume of fuel, MOX fuel; fabrication processes: improved processes; fuel related technology: fuel management, safety analysis. A short historical review is given for each item in order to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, the expected impact of changes that have occurred and the incentives to continue development along historical trends. Constraints which might limit the actual benefits of these potential improvements are pointed out. The areas in which the incentives for further improvements in design and performance of nuclear fuel are most pronounced are identified and discussed. (author)

  15. Analysis of Irregularity of Economic Development of the Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyman O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In article results of research of non-uniformity of economic development of regions of Ukraine on indicators of level of economic development and dynamics of economic development over the last ten years are presented.? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???.

  16. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community Planning and...and State community and/or economic development agencies...Secretary for Community Planning Development. Appendix...Housing and Economic...

  17. 75 FR 39892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program...plan for the economic and social development of a western Alaska community or group of...used to fund economic development projects in CDQ communities. In...

  18. 77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...Brownfields Economic Development Initiative...Secretary for Community Planning...Office of Economic Development Grants Management...Office of Community Planning...Housing and Community Development Act of 1974...brownfields economic...

  19. 77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...Brownfields Economic Development Initiative...Secretary for Community Planning...Office of Economic Development Grants Management...Office of Community Planning...Housing and Community Development Act of 1974...brownfields economic...

  20. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program...western Alaska communities the opportunity...to support economic development in western...used to fund economic development projects in CDQ communities. Based...

  1. Best Practices of the Economic Development Impact Study of Airports

    OpenAIRE

    Rittgasszer, Imola

    2011-01-01

    Today airports are increasingly becoming full transport junctions. The location of their networks provides strategic benefits, which makes them possible to attract a wide range of economic activities, therefore to operate as new development poles. Nowadays it is widely accepted that the airports of Europe have considerable economic and social impacts on the surrounding regions. These impacts reach much deeper than the direct impacts an airport has on the environment of its operation, since th...

  2. Infrastructure in developing countries: An overview of some economic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Moore, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys the main issues and controversies in the economic literature on infrastructure in developing countries. Section I reviews the evidence on the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth. It is argued that, although infrastructure may be more important for growth than other types of capital, the exact size and form of its effect is less clear than is often assumed. Section II looks at the issue of infrastructure needs, estimates of which are pervasive in both the aca...

  3. The Contributions of Capital Market to Economic Development in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adewuyi, I. D.; Olowookere, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually all aspects of human endeavor entail the use of money either self-generated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which could be raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulations carefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators. Economic development is a process by which a high degree of self reliant economic growth in a given society is sustained over a given time. It is associated with substantial re...

  4. Improving software development process through economic mechanism design

    OpenAIRE

    Murat YILMAZ; O'Connor, Rory V.; Collins, J J

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on g...

  5. Economic Development, Rural livelihoods, and Ecological Restoration: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chengchao; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Yaoqi

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been driven by a combination of “pull” forces from external economic development, and “push” forces from local areas, leading to a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy consumption, and most importantly, changes in land uses and eventually, ecological restoration. Such dramatic changes are ...

  6. Social groups and economic poverty: A problem in measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    This paper points to some elementary conflicts between the claims of interpersonal and intergroup justice as they manifest themselves in the process of seeking a real-valued index of poverty which is required to satisfy certain seemingly desirable properties. It indicates how ‘group-sensitive’ poverty measures, similar to the Anand-Sen (1995) ‘Gender Adjusted Human Development Index’ and the Subramanian-Majumdar (2002) ‘Group-Disparity Adjusted Deprivation Index’, may be constructed. Some pro...

  7. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ? Economic dispatch. ? We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ? Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  8. The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Selvarathinam

    Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

  9. The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

  10. Developments in world enrichment supply and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the supply and demand situation for enriched uranium in the 1990s, how advanced technology can impact the market and the restructuring of the United States uranium enrichment enterprise. In the 1990s, utilities are expected to spend about US $2.5 billion per year for enrichment services. (One billion = 109). Enrichment demand in the world outside centrally planned economies area should increase through the 1990s, from 25 million separate work units today to over 30 million by 2000. However, there should be a plentiful supply of enriched uranium at reasonable prices in the 1990s. It appears that the world enrichment market will become even more competitive, with additional suppliers entering the market. The United States of America and other countries are actively developing advanced technology, since it promises lower prices. There is a strong incentive to be the first to develop and deploy advanced technology. The USA is in the process of restructuring its enrichment enterprise to give it added stability and flexibility. (author). 8 figs

  11. Socio-economic implications of lignite development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working paper addresses the socio-economic implications of lignite development in the rural areas of Arkansas and Louisiana. It draws upon the experience with lignite development in Texas as well as the coal and lignite development in the West. The general implications of lignite development are identified and discussed and are illustrated with a case study of Mt. Pleasant, Texas. Requirements for future research relevant to Arkansas and Louisiana are identified

  12. National economic and environmental development study: the case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Vaqar; Malik, Amin Aslam Khan; Ramay, Shakeel; Munawwar, Zuhair; Pervaiz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country bracing for significant economic growth and development in the future. In this regards, the country is poised to shift towards an increased reliance upon its indigenous coal reserves to fuel its development in the 2010-2050 time frame. Although this will significantly raise its projected greenhouse gas emissions, the present study has identified numerous measures which can be taken to shift this future development pathway on to a lower carbon and m...

  13. Development of the Knowledge Economy in Russia and Ukraine: Problems and Factors of Development ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????: ???????? ? ??????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotykh Irina B.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses reasons and factors of development of the knowledge economy in Russia and Ukraine. It justifies urgency of development of the knowledge economy, for which the following is typical: high index of economic freedom, the developed civil society and democracy, and knowledge economy. It considers problems of development of education, information and communication technologies, national innovation system, in particular, technology parks and increase of their efficiency. It analyses practical experience in this problem in the developed countries. It underlines the necessity of increase of the role of business in financing fundamental and applied research, and also activation of their activity with participation of the state academies of sciences. The education system should be directed not only at satisfaction of primary needs, but at provision of the socio-economic development of society. In order to create favourable conditions of development of the human capital it is required to: ensure innovation character of development of the higher education; create an optimal structure of training and re-training personnel for the needs of innovation economy; expand accessibility of higher education.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????????: ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ???????? ??????. ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????-???????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ????????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????. ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ? ?? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????: ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????; ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????; ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????.

  14. Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

  15. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  16. Impact of economic crimes on the financing of development: Case of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik TALII

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, many studies have showed that weak institutions and the extent of economic crimes in developing countries are one of the deep causes of their poor economic performances. Debt crises which are among other consequences of a low of public levies are accentuated in developing countries, in particular with the development of what is generally known as shadow economy. This research aims to study the potential link existing between economic crimes and the financing of developmen...

  17. Japan's model of economic development: Relevant and nonrelevant elements for developing economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Fukunari

    2009-01-01

    Japan was the first non-western country to accomplish successful industrialization, and the dominant perception of its industrial policy had over-emphasized specific characteristics of Japan. However, from the perspective of today's development thinking, Japan's economic history shared a wide range of common factors in usual economic development: macroeconomic stability, human resource development, and economic infrastructure. Industrial policy in Japan sometimes worked well and sometimes did...

  18. THE ROLE OF ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN MARKET AN INDIAN PROSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikanth S. Kalashetty

    2014-01-01

    Managerial economics is the application of the economic concepts and economic analysis to the problems of formulating rational managerial decisions". It is sometimes referred to as business economics and is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to decision methods of businesses or other management units. As such, it bridges economic theory and economics in practice. It draws heavily from quantitative techniques such as regression analysis, correlation a...

  19. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  20. THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF THE ECONOMIC ELITE’S DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. Shevchuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient interpretation of problems of studying the elite, which is based on the factor analysis of the main determinants of the economic elite’s development in the scientific and professional economic sources stipulated the topicality of the article, the logic of presenting its provisions and objective.The study includes two basic theories – the theory of rational behavior, which implies maximizing the usefulness of any subject of the economic activity, and the theory of the elites, as a condition for the effective functioning of a company. This gives the opportunity to determine the five-factor model of the economic elite’s development.This model is based on two triangles – the triangle of knowledge, the foundation of which is knowledge, research and innovations, and the triangle of power, which is characterized by three main determinants of knowledge, power and wealth. The intersection of these triangles allows to define five basic factors influencing the formation and development of the economic establishment.On the basis of five factors’ system analysis the dynamic model of the modern economic elite’s development was determined.

  1. INNOVATION-LED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARKETING AND TAX INCENTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Surugiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists and decision-makers recognize the power of innovation in inducing economic growth and development of regions and countries. The question is how to sustain an innovative environment, in order to generate creative ideas for the market. The authors debate two solutions, namely marketing and fiscal policy, but we have to underline that there are other instruments available to induce innovativeness. This paper submits to the attention, the innovation as being one of the main forces which supports economic development and economic recovery. Governments which sustain enterprises’ innovation of products and process will have many chances to transform economies into developed and prosperous ones. But innovation by itself does not bring always success, and that is why marketers, economists and innovators must cooperate for favourable outcomes to occur.

  2. Agritourism and local economic development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Christian M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tourism for local economic development (LED is a topic of critical importance for geographers. In the case of South Africa tourism is a priority sector for national economic development. The significance of research issues around tourism and LED is underlined by the ‘developmental’ mandate of local governments. Although tourism has received attention in a growing body of LED writings on South Africa issues around agritourism so far have been overlooked. Agritourism represents an evolving form of rural tourism which is targeted at mainly urban consumers. Against the background of a review of international scholarship on agritourism this article explores its potential implications for LED planning in South Africa. A national audit of agritourism is presented which shows its uneven geographical distribution. Agritourism is of special significance for small town economic development in South Africa’s intermediate tourism spaces. Policy suggestions are offered for strengthening agritourism as a driver for LED in South Africa.

  3. Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev Volodymyr M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

  4. Energy in developing countries. Prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UN study ''The Future of the World Economy'', prepared under the direction of W. Leontief, is the general frame of reference of this paper. Its central scenario postulates a reduction from 12:1 to 7:1 in the disparity in per-capita income between developed and developing countries over the period 1970-2000 and presumes that the gross product of the developing countries would have to grow by 6.9% over that period. Such growth rate would require that total electricity-generating capacity in the developing countries would have to increase at least from 97,000MW installed in 1970 to 1,300,000MW by the year 2000. Very conservatively, this would at least require an investment of US$ 716x109 at 1974 prices. Considering the forecast size of interconnected grids and the necessary security of supply requirements, at best 20 developing countries would be candidates for nuclear power plants by 1985 and another 19 by the year 2000. Total fossil-fuel consumption in these countries would have to increase by 9.7% annually throughout the period, and their share in world consumption would increase from about 8.6% in 1970 to 27% in 2000. Overall energy production in the developing countries (including the centrally planned economies of Asia) would increase sevenfold and their consumption twelvefold. The paper concludes that every effort should be made to minimize the energy/gross domestic product coefficient, and the expansion of the indigenous resource base should be pursued forcefully. It points out that it might be economically more advantageous to provide the many millions of scattered rural communities with self-contained energy packages based on such local resources as are available. It foresees some scope for nuclear energy in some of the more advanced developing countries but states that, until the end of the century, oil will undoubtedly remain the dominant factor in energy supply in the developing world. Finally, the enormous capital requirements create considerable doubt as to whether traditional mechanisms for energy financing will be adequate for the task. (author)

  5. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Tove

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for econo...

  6. Problems in software development for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

  7. An Effective Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm to Slove Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thanushkodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

  8. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  9. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  10. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  11. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  12. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and...

  13. The economics and psychology of inequality and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined te...

  14. PPP IN RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BOON OR BANE!

    OpenAIRE

    S, R. Keshava

    2014-01-01

    PPP in today's globalised world is seen as an efficient mechanism to develop infrastructure in developing economy and transform the static economy into dynamic economy. Despite more than six decades of planning, rural India is having high illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, ignorance, blind beliefs, and other social economic evils, when compared to Urban India. Government proposed PPP in rural development to utilize the private sector efficiencies to finance and build the s...

  15. The relationship between financial development and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Opheim, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Developing countries in Asia and Africa have economically often been lagging behind the economies of the West. One reason can be found by looking at the executive capacities and the necessary financial structures. Global financial crisis has made the situation worse for many of the developing countries. What can be done to make developing countries in Asia and Africa stronger participants in the growing global economy? Will an improved financial sector reflected by an expansion of the insuran...

  16. Economic Development Patterns and Outcomes in Africa and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Maswana, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    The present paper draws heavily on the existing empirical literature and compares Asian (mainly the high-performing economies) and African economies to illuminate the patterns of economic development as they developed since the 1960s. The discussion points to strong physical and human capital accumulation as well as pro-export policies, international favorable attitude and social capital as main reasons behind the HPAEs‘ successful development. Quite the opposite, SSA have found itse...

  17. Socio-Economic Reforms in 1965 with the Industry as a Problem ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ?. ?? ?????????????? ??? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Rostislav G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the analytical approach E. G. Lieberman to develop key areas of reform in 1965 in industry related to socio-economic incentives production.???? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ???? ? ??????????????, ????????? ? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ????????????.

  18. Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Roy; Chakrabarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In the recent restructured power system scenario and complex market strategy, operation at absolute minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electric power. The economic load dispatch (ELD) problem which accounts for minimization of both generation cost and power loss is itself a multiple conflicting objective function problem. In this paper, a modified shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (MSFLA), which is an improved version of memetic algorithm, is proposed for solving the E...

  19. Problems and prospects of post-crisis development of entrepreneurship: a regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Fisunenko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.

  20. 76 FR 7788 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...Exclusive Economic Zone off...Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program...exclusive economic zone off...for recent developments. These changes...flexibility. No economic impacts are...protecting communities for...

  1. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  2. Cluster Economic Performance Concept – Present Experiences and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BIRIESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for researchers and economic development professionals.Clusters are groups of companies and institutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and/or services. Given changes in the global environment, businesses and countries are changing the way they compete. These changes are characterised by the ability of multinational corporations to locate their investment – production plants, R&D facilities, service centres, etc., – in any location in the world where they find an adequate business environment.The increasing interest in clusters is only one aspect of a broader re-orientation of research and economic policy towards the microeconomic foundations of prosperity and growth.

  3. Economic prerequisites for the development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear power, as no other field of human endeavor, has revealed the need for predicting the consequences of nuclear power not only in the production of energy itself, but also in the ecology, economics, and even politics. On the one hand, the future of nuclear power is determined by a society's attitude toward nuclear power and depends on economic possibilities. On the other hand, the future society and the economic situation that will develop in the world will largely depend on the amount of energy accessible to mankind and the method used to obtain it, and therefore also the relative contribution of atomic energy to the total balance of energy production. In declaring its attitude toward nuclear power, society is now determining to a definite extent not only the future of nuclear power but also nuclear power itself. This article is an abstract of the entire report

  4. The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

    2007-01-01

    Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom ...

  5. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. OTIMAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the crisis’ context can be thus formulated: rural development and agriculture are factors of accentuating the crisis or (potential solutions of mitigating the crisis and re-launch economic growth? Starting from today’s state of the Romanian rural setting (precarious infrastructure, insufficient technical endowment of the rural territory, villages and households; preponderantly agricultural rural economy; low absorption of agricultural workforce in non agricultural rural economy etc. and agriculture (all levels of agricultural activity are unbalanced; very slow economic growth with a high degree of weather dependency (from simple to double; technical and structural obsolescence of the capital; reduced investment and as an effect, insignificant growth and modernising of assets; low absorption of European funding; low productivity and output; still high presence of sustenance agricultural economy; major unbalance in food supply safety; low importance of commercial agriculture; markets contraction; increasing transformation of Romanian agricultural goods in a market for imported goods; price distortion; profoundly negative trade balance for agricultural goods; unbalanced participation of farms in the distribution of the profit from agricultural activities, considering the smallest portion of the Gross Added Value returns to the farmers and most of it to the traders, all these leading to a reduced degree of compatibility and competitiveness of Romanian agriculture on the European market and in a broader sense the world market, accepting from the economic practice and doctrine the fact that agriculture is a vital economic activity for society, and it represents a sector that contributes to maintaining the stability, continuity and growth of economy, and, in the current situation, in mitigating, to a great extent, the economic crisis. But, this contribution can manifest itself only in the presence of massive investments in productivity increasing infrastructure (watering systems, farms consolidation and in the technical and technological endowment of the rural setting and villages, in rural non agricultural economy, agriculture and rural development as a whole, as factors of economical growth.

  6. Development of Methods of Economic Monitoring of the Logistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abukhamedekh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of logistic customer service is the main advantage in competitive activity of the modern market enterprises. Taking into account that changes in enterprises working modes and in environment take place quickly enough, it is possible to talk about the necessity in further development of the systems of such phenomena monitoring. The analysis of literary sources allows to say that the issue of development of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic systems hasn’t be Literary sources today do not provide precise classifications of methods of economic monitoring. However, taking into account that economic monitoring overlaps with controlling, diagnostics etc we should use the experience of these subjects.Summarizing the review of the existing methods, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that there are no materials considering the methods and models of monitoring the objects of research. Most of the works basically deal with analysis.Relying on the determination of control methods, and also the concept of monitoring, it is possible to give the determination of the method of economic monitoring – it is the sum total of ways and methods which help to achieve the goals of monitoring.It is suggested to distinguish (to classify monitoring methods into such groups: supervision, evaluation, forecasting. When systematizing this information and also taking into account the elements of logistic service, the approach to forming the groups of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic system is offered.As the methods of supervision in the systems of economic monitoring it is suggested to take the methods of collection of information as a basis, that is used in marketing. en studied thoroughly enough. There is a small number of works, which purposefully consider the questions of economic monitoring. They mainly focus on financial matters.

  7. Linking socio-economic development and environmental pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development paradigm requires new approaches to the study of linkages between socio-economic development and its accompanying environmental pressures. To this end, a three-level regional geographic model of interactions has been developed. This new index attempts to evaluate the level of general balance of development in each country or region, upgrading well established human development index by an environmental aspect (i.e. ecological footprint and consequently strongly modifying deeply rooted images of wellbeing in the world.

  8. Economic indicators of sustainable development of small towns in Moravia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana

    Ljubljana : Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, 2007 - (Lampi?, B.; Špes, M.), s. 89-97 ISBN 978-961-237-212-5 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk - program KONTAKT(XE) 17/200506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : sustainable development * economic indicators * small town s * Moravia * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  9. Research Interregional Disproportions of Social and Economic Development in Ukraine ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizim Nikolay A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of interregional disproportions of socio and economic development is presented in a country, basic factors that assist the origin of disproportion and the system of indexes is offered for the estimation of interregional disproportions in Ukraine are outlined.? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ? ??????, ???????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????.

  10. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  11. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  12. The Economics of Open Source Software Development: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Bitzer, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter introduces the fundamentals of Open Source Software, its nature, the central economic aspects and the key mechanisms of its development. Furthermore, we present the themes of the book and provide a first overview for the reader by giving short summaries of its chapters.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  14. The Riches of the Ocean for Humankind: Rethinking Value in Economics and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Orio Giarini

    2014-01-01

    We acknowledge the inadequacy of the ancient model to develop the wealth of nations and the recognition that both economics and ecology are the best possible ways to manage world and human resources to achieve a better wealth of nations. The rebuilding of economics and of a credible strategy for increasing the wealth and well-being of nations is today at the center of the problem of providing a sound basis for the legitimacy and credibility of public institutions and governments. If the dicho...

  15. Emerging equity market and economic development: Bangladesh perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan; Rajib Datta; Arjun Kumar Das

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a...

  16. The history of transaction cost economics and its recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz, Hardt

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of transaction cost economics (TCE) in the early 1970s with Oliver Williamson’s successful reconciliation of the so called neoclassical approach with Herbert Simon’s organizational theory can be considered an important part of the first cognitive turn in economics. The development of TCE until the late 1980s was particularly marked by treating the firm as an avoider of negative frictions, i.e., of transaction costs. However, since the 1990s TCE has been enriched by various...

  17. Interrelation of Inequality of Income with the Concepts of Economic Development ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrishin Lesya I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies interaction of inequality of distribution of income and economic growth in correspondence with evolution of concepts of economic development. It is shown that economic growth, as a criterion of economic development, corresponds with conceptual foundations of stable development. The body of indicators of stable development at a regional level is formed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ????????, ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????.

  18. Impact of economic growth and financial development on exports: Cointegration and causality analysis in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad,; Rahman, Mizanur

    2011-01-01

    The analysis shows cointegration between exports, economic growth and financial development in case of Pakistan. The results that economic growth and financial development stimulate rate of exports growth in Pakistan. The causality analysis reveals bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and economic growth, financial development and exports and exports and economic growth in case of Pakistan.

  19. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480

  20. The Role of Energy Economics in Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre; Kandemir, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    For a growing country, the most needed stimulus is energy. Without any access to adequate energy resources it is hard for a growing country to sustain economic development. Especially after the 1973 Oil Crisis, the importance of energy resources has been well understood. Most of the developed countries took measures to avoid the undesirable effects of reliance on these energy resources since then. This page of the history has contributed the most to the evolution of the modern day energy econ...

  1. Introduction to Gender, Economic Development and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moheyuddin, Ghulam

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents define and explain the concepts gender and gender equality, explains the relationship between the gender inequality and poverty, discusses the importance of the gender issues in the economic development and also discuss the importance of linking gender to Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). The paper describes that the both poverty and gender inequality are correlated, as poverty exacerbates the gender inequality while the gender inequality exacerbates the poverty and des...

  2. Aquaculture development in Asia :current status, economics and future outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Madan Mohan; Sheriff, Natasja; Bjørndal, Trond

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse aquaculture development in selected Asian countries. The contribution of Asia to world aquaculture will be documented. In Asia, different culture systems are practised and numerous species are farmed, and these will be surveyed. Patterns of fish supply, demand and trade are described, followed by an analysis of economic conditions in aquaculture. Finally, a number of scenarios for future development are analysed.

  3. The role of education in economic development: a theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Ilhan

    2001-01-01

    Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development. No country can achieve sustainable economic development without substantial investment in human capital. Education enriches people’s understanding of themselves and world. It improves the quality of their lives and leads to broad social benefits to individuals and society. Education raises people’s productivity and creativity and promotes entrepreneurship and technological advances. In addition it plays a very crucial ...

  4. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU

    2009-01-01

    Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services), while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract ...

  5. Diversity of communities and economic development: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the impact of ethnic diversity on economic development. Ethnically polarized societies are less likely to agree on the provision of public goods and more likely to engage in rent seeking activities providing lower levels of social capital. Initial conditions are important determinants of adverse development outcomes. The role of decentralization, democracy and markets as potential remedies are discussed. The paper then presents a number of preliminary hypo...

  6. INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SMART CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.

  7. From Economic to Sustainable Development: Enlarging the concept of law

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, Hanne Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The title "From Economic to Sustainable Development: Enlarging the Concept of Law" signals a meta-theoretical approach. However, this thesis is also firmly centred in practice by questioning if, and in what form, law has a role to play in implementation of sustainable development, apart from being a tool for shaping concrete legal mechanisms, such as international conventions and national laws and regulation. Thus, at its core, the research is focused on the role of law in a process of politi...

  8. THE ROLE OF BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRU?A DUD?-D?IANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research goal is to highlight the current situation of infrastructure for economic development in Romania. The case study we aim to achieve a radiography of Western Region of Romania, an analysis of efficiency of business infrastructure in this region. The results of research have led to propose measures to increase efficiency of business infrastructure (industrial, scientific, incubators, etc.., which would ensure a sustainable development strategy of Romania.

  9. Financial development and Economic Growth: The Case of Cape Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunyiola, Ayorinde

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the long-run relationship and short-run dynamics between financial development and economic growth in Cape Verde for the period 1980 - 2011. The study employs the Johansen and Juselius approach to cointegration, pairwise granger causality test for causality and the VECM approach was also explored. The analysis was carried out using three indicators to measure financial development which are the money supply as a percentage of GDP(M2), ratio of credit provid...

  10. International economic problems in the mid-eighties: Energy - technology - environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn (FRG), in 1984 invited to an international meeting of experts for discussing ''International economic problems in the mid-eighties''. The meeting took place from November 19 to 20, and gathered about 700 experts from 40 countries. The topics on the agenda were those problems which in the industrialized societies throughout the world are of prime interest: Energy forms the basis of industrial production. Modern technologies have changed the countries' economic structures, and their social life, considerably. The natural environment is exposed to impacts induced by industry, or traffic and transport, which have reached a level causing anxiety and alarm, especially in areas of agglomeration. Remedial action taken so far still is patchwork, optimum solutions still are out of range. The problems resulting from this situation were discussed during the meeting by politicians, members of the business community, and scientists from various countries. (orig./HP)

  11. Desenvolvimento, progresso e crescimento econômico / Development, progress and economic growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos, Bresser-Pereira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor define neste ensaio o progresso ou o desenvolvimento humano como o gradual alcance dos cinco objetivos políticos que as sociedades modernas definiram para si próprias (segurança, liberdade individual, bem-estar, justiça social e proteção do ambiente), e o distingue do desenvolvimento econômi [...] co ou do crescimento econômico - o processo de acumulação de capital com incorporação de progresso técnico que aumenta os padrões de vida. E defende a tese de que o desenvolvimento econômico, ao produzir um excedente econômico em relação ao nível de subsistência da renda por habitante, é estratégico para o alcance dos cinco objetivos políticos acima referidos. Abstract in english In this essay the author defines progress or human development as the gradual achievement of the five policy objectives that modern societies have defined for themselves (security, individual liberty, economic wellbeing, social justice and protection of the environment), and distinguishes it from ec [...] onomic development or economic growth - the process of capital accumulation with the incorporation of technical progress that increases standards of living. And defends the thesis that, in so far economic development produces an increasing economic surplus over subsistence level, it is strategic to reach the other above referred five political objectives.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITAL MARKET AND ITS IMPLICATIONS UPON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen RADU

    2009-01-01

    This work is conceived as a comparative study regarding the occurrence, development and implication of the capital market in the economic development of states located in the area of emergent countries and of those under development. This study peruses in parallel the evolution of the emerging countries which absorb capital and those granting funds within the environment of the security markets. The study’s purpose is to prove the capacity of a well developed capital market to generate econom...

  13. Innovative development of Latvia: analysis of problems and directions of national innovative policy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Stradinya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify the reasons for the lack of innovational development in Latvia and to make recommendations on the formation of national innovation policy. The results of the analysis. EU countries are undergoing profound social and economic changes, including: the growing influence of developing countries, ageing populations in the industrialized countries, the unstable political situation. All this require a new approach to innovation, formation of national innovation policy that ensures the increase of the country's competitiveness. There should be created innovative policies that will promote economic restructuring. The article describes the problems and directions of innovative development in Latvia. Innovative development has become the main way to achieve economic growth and competitiveness in all EU countries. The estimation of the economic state of Latvia after joining the EU, is identified as positive aspects and disadvantages in economic development. Thanks to European money Latvian entrepreneurs were able to upgrade their equipment, to enter new markets and to expand production capacity. The identified problems of economic development in Latvia showed the exhaustion of the existing model of the economy. Studies have shown that foreign direct investments led to a qualitative leap in the growth of gross domestic product at the same time led to dependence on external financing as how freedom of movement has contributed to a significant leakage of the working population. Reflecting the dynamics of changes of innovation capacity problems hampers further innovative development. During the crisis of 2008-2011 it is manifested a lack of flexibility in management system, which combining with limited internal resources and the lack of demand had the most negative consequences. It is formulated the areas for further innovation development in Latvia, the implementation of which will contribute to the formation of national innovation policy, long-term economic growth and competitiveness of the country. The further development of Latvia is possible, provided with the governmental focus on the development of intellectual potential of fundamental research and development and information resources. State has to invest and promote investment in the researches and development of private firms; try to develop international competitiveness in science and increase the number of scientists and experts in the sphere of natural sciences and engineering. Matters considered in this article do not show the whole list of problems that hinder the innovative development of Latvia. But even they are constraining the development of this process. Conclusions and directions for further research. We believe that economic growth and competitiveness of Latvia is possible only through formation of national innovation policy. Therefore, further research is proposed to channel into the establishment of regional innovation centers and tracking processes that impede their innovative development.

  14. Energy and economic development [Brazil: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When energy specialists discuss the relationships between energy use and economic development, the focus is usually on how energy supports economic growth, alleviates poverty and increases people's well-being. On rare occasions, though, the effect that a country's choices for promoting economic development have on energy production and use is a matter of concern. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the way Brazil's choices for promoting economic development over time have impacted primary and final energy use in the country. Economic growth has different levels of quality, which lead to different economic development paths. Some paths are more effective than others in creating wealth and in protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations. Quality actually matters as much for economic development as for energy. This chapter is divided into four sections covering energy and economic development relationships, the evolution of final energy use in Brazil, strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in the country and a summary of main issues. In Section 5.1, energy and economic development relationships are discussed, setting the background for the analysis of the impacts on final energy use of some of Brazil's choices for promoting economic development. The section begins by focusing on the basics of energy and economic development relationships. It should be noted that most energy specialists usually discuss only the basics of energy and economic development (the 'energy in support of economic development' theme), but this approach alone is not enough to explain differences in countries' final energy use patterns, or to identify strategies to enhance sustainable energy development. In this sense, the main contribution of this section is to further illuminate the role of social and economic choices in determining the effectiveness of a given country's economic development and that country's primary and final energy use patterns. Section 5.2 assesses energy use in Brazil by analysing energy intensities. A decomposition analysis technique is applied to final energy use figures to help identify the factors affecting final energy use in the Brazilian economy. Such a technique allows the decomposition of energy use changes into three basic effects: activity, structure and intensity. The activity effect results from the impact of overall economic growth on final energy use. The structure effect derives from the impact that the sectoral composition of the economy has on the final energy use of a country. The intensity effect refers to the final energy requirements per unit of activity of each sector considered (sectoral breakdown). Findings are contrasted with historical events and circumstances to provide a better understanding of the impacts of Brazil's economic and social choices on its final energy use patterns. Section 5.3 recommends synergetic strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in Brazil based on what has been learned from the country's previous economic and social choices and from the experiences of other countries. The final section is a summary of the main issues related to Brazil's energy system and its economic development. The chapter presents indicators mainly related to energy intensity. Other important economic indicators that are part of the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) set are addressed in other parts of the report: fuel mix in Chapter 2, reserves to production ratios in Chapter 3, technology efficiencies in Chapter 4, per capita energy use in Chapter 7 and import dependence in Chapter 8

  15. Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  17. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The Danish mortgage finance system is attracting much international attention due to its simple, robust and efficient securitization principle, the balance principle. Housing finance experts consider how the model can be introduced in other countries to overcome shortcomings in previous mortgage systems (e.g., in the US) or to alleviate the gigantic unmet needs for housing finance around the world. In support of such efforts the research challenge was the development of a methodology for screening of readiness for transplanting this financing system to other countries. However, the development of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the requirements of infrastructure in respect to protecting ‘security of collateral’, and on international monitoring systems providing information on the status of what cadaster, real property registration and other functions of importance for securing collateral and for valuation of properties. In the absence of data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between formal property rights regimes and real credit with implications for development strategies. The PhD was co-sponsored by VP Securities A/S, www.vp.dk

  18. CREDIT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES AMONG THE ITALIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    colantonio emiliano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups, helping to clarify and explain the dynamics of the socioeconomic differences that still exist. We use a Multidimensional scaling analysis with the aim of exploring the relationship between credit and socioeconomic development in the different Italian areas, observing in particular the structural differences that could lead to a deeper distance of the wellbeing of the poorest regions in the South compared to that of North-central.

  19. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful drinking. Such a different net impact between men and women could potentially contribute to growing gender-related health inequalities during a crisis. PMID:25771482

  20. Problemy i vozmozhnosti razvitija vneshnejekonomicheskoj dejatel'nosti Sankt-Peterburga, Leningradskoj oblasti i Respubliki Karelija [Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.