James A. Schmitz
This study describes recent attempts to solve what Lucas has called the "problem of economic development"—the problem of accounting for the great disparity in per-capita output across countries. The study examines a number of economic development theories, including the neoclassical theory of growth, which relies on cross-country differences in physical capital per person to explain the disparity, and newer theories, which stress cross-country differences in human capital, or education. It is...
Joest, Frank; Quaas, Martin; Schiller, Johannes
Population growth is often viewed as a most oppressive global problem with respect to environmental deterioration, but the relationships between population development, economic dynamics and environmental pollution are complex due to various feedback mechanisms. We analyze society’s economic decisions on birth rates, investment into human and physical capital, and polluting emissions within an optimal control model of the coupled demographic-economic-environmental system. We show that a long-...
Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.
The region of Subsaharan Africa is the most underdeveloped area in the world. There is the highest number of the Least Developed Countries of the world. The backwardness of the African countries takes effect by the poverty and heavy political, economical and social problems. The local governments, foreign investors and international organizations can improve the situation in African The Least Developed Countries.
Rutskiy Vladislav, N.
Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between
Tisdell, Clement A.
Indicates some of the different concepts of sustainable economic development and raises queries about how much present generations are concerned with future generations. A variety of conditions (ranging from very weak to very strong) have been suggested for achieving sustainable development. These are outlined. The prospect that the accumulation of man-made capital may result in unsustainable economic development is discussed and the welfare consequences of the conversion of natural capital a...
This paper provides a price-theoretic explanation of the well-known phenomenon that automobiles in developing countries depreciate less rapidly and are scrapped at a greater age than they are in industrial countries. This paper then argues that the renewal of barriers to free trade in used cars would lead to substantial welfare gains for developing countries through both capital gains implicit in the arbitrage and positive externalities from car repair industries. Negative externalities from ...
Orlov A. I.
For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology
Orlov A. I.
Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology
Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs
The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author)
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Lithuania during 1993â€“96. Economic growth resumed in 1994 and gained further momentum in 1995; real GDP increased by an estimated 3 percent in 1995. Growth in 1995 was driven by the industrial sector, while agriculture performed poorly. The immediate effects of the banking problems on economic activity, and on other macroeconomic developments, have been limited. Data on industrial production and retail trade indicate continued growth in the first ...
Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev
Full Text Available The first decade of the twenty-first century from a historical point of view is interesting, first of all, because of the fact that social development receives priority over the economic in public opinion and public policy of many countries. Attempts to adhere to this rule were also made in Russia. The paper analyzes the problems of socio-economic development of the Komi Republic in the first decade of the XXI century. The pass through problems (demographic crisis, aging of the fixed assets, disproportions of reproduction and new problems related to the reorganization of the property management systems and the production, differentiation of people’s incomes and expenditures, violation of the principles of economic federalism and financial crisis are highlighted. Solving of these problems is linked to the innovative development of the productive forces of the republic and the strengthening of interregional economic integration. The scientifically arranged directions of innovational economy in the Komi Republic (fuel, mining and metallurgical complexes, forest and agricultural sector of the economy are reviewed.
Charles D. Taylor
Despite the important role governors have played in shaping statesâ€™ economic development strategies, existing quantitative studies of state economic development policymaking have paid only scant attention to the factors that influence governorsâ€™ decisions about economic development policy. This study investigates these factors using a unique data set of gubernatorial economic development proposals generated by content analyzing hundreds of major legislative addresses delivered by governor...
Koundouri, Phoebe; PASHARDES, Panos; Swanson, Timothy; Xepapadeas, Anastasios
The increasing scarcity of water resources (in terms of quantity and quality) is one of the most pervasive natural resource allocation issues facing development planners throughout the world.This problem is especially prevalent in less developed countries where the management of this valuable resource has become a critical policy concern.This authoritative new volume outlines the fundamental principles and difficulties that characterise this challenging task. The authors begin by detailing th...
Nidziy Elena Nikolaevna
Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the key fund-creating industries, the formation of the Russian economy greatly depends on it. The construction sector is cyclic, that’s why it has always been sensitive to the tendencies of the national economy. In the contemporary conditions of weak economical climate the construction industry is in a state of sluggish recession. The key indicators exercising restraining influence on the construction complex are analyzed. The author carried out calculations of the prices for residential real estate in the past years. The author’s view on the near-term prospects on the exit from recession state is formulated. From the view of the today’s state and the nearest development prospects, it can be stated that the construction industry is one of the most problematic among the basic economic sectors. Retrieval of the expansion rate of the construction industry is possible in case of the positive changes of general economic state.
Janno Reiljan; Ele Reiljan
The objective of this working paper is to point out major ways of regulating the global economy in order to increase impact of foreign trade, credits and (foreign) investments on economic growth and welfare. Some basic problems that occur in the process of balancing economic development are studied. The nature of economic globalization is determined at the beginning of the article. After this, the role of international trade, foreign direct investments and development assistance is studied. F...
JOSÉ LUIS RETOLAZA
Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.
Nidziy Elena Nikolaevna
The construction industry is one of the key fund-creating industries, the formation of the Russian economy greatly depends on it. The construction sector is cyclic, that’s why it has always been sensitive to the tendencies of the national economy. In the contemporary conditions of weak economical climate the construction industry is in a state of sluggish recession. The key indicators exercising restraining influence on the construction complex are analyzed. The author carried out calculation...
During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned
The political and economic aspects of nuclear power engineering status in the countries of the former USSR nowadays are considered. The factors, which lead to the nuclear power crisis, are analyzed. It is shown that the state monopoly for developing the problems of nuclear power engineering and NPP operation plays the main part. The ways for possible crisis overcoming are suggested
Ron Shaffer; Steve Deller; Dave Marcouiller
In this article, the authors present arguments for a more interdisciplinary approach to community economic development. Building an alternative paradigm that includes six elementsâ€”resources, markets, institutions, society, decision making, and spaceâ€”they rethink the framework that links economic theory to the practice of community economic development. Major attention is paid to the integration of economic and noneconomic factors in the practice of community economic development. In the e...
Левчишина, Оксана Михайлівна
In the article, consisting of scientific development of research of problem of reformation of higher school is analysed of in Ukraine in the conditions of socio-economic changes (1996-2007). Investigational a spring base of this problem on the basis of the documentary and scientific materials archived.
P. SYLOS LABINI
It is commonly held that economic development automatically brings civil development with it, as if between the two there were a cause-effect relationship. While economic development is obviously a necessary condition for civil development, it is not a sufficient one. On the other hand, without certain fundamental pre-requisites in the civil development field, such as a minimum level of education, economic development is impossible. Thus, the two phenomena are best conceived of in terms of in...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...
The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited numb...
Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas
The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…
This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development
The author makes four main points in this paper: (1) social development, in addition to improving human welfare directly, is an excellent investment. The hard-nosed economic fact is that it contributes to economic growth. Even a narrow interest in growth for growth's sake dictates putting your money into social development programs; (2) however, investing in social development does not guarantee growth all by itself, so those concerned with social progress cannot absent themselves from the la...
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides a review of recent economic developments in Palau, covering the first five years of the Compact of Free Association (Compact) with the United States. The paper analyzes the economic growth, prices, wages, and employment. The study assesses the public finances and overall developments, which include revenues and grants, expenditure, local governments, trust funds, and nonfinancial public enterprises. The paper provides a detailed study of the financial and external sectors,...
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Indonesia during 1994â€“96. Following the easing of domestic demand pressures, the focus of monetary policy shifted in early 1993/94 to supporting economic growth, as concerns developed over an incipient weakening of export performance and output. At the same time, the fiscal position was strengthened. Reflecting the strong growth in non-oil/gas revenue, the overall central government deficit, excluding oil/gas revenue, declined by 2 percentage poin...
What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...
Kwafo-Akoto, Kate (NIR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
In Africa, socio-economic grey literature (GL) constitutes a substantialproportion of literature produced especially in the universities through their research activities. The paper analyses some of the key problems encountered in pricing and selling GL produced by universities in Africa such as their specialised subject content which fail to appeal to the general public. Discusses the role being played by the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation in building the resear...
Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi; Ahmad Reza Kazemi Haghighi
As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC). The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007) for Economic Creativity Development (ECD). This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitabi” (in Persian...
Stiglitz, Joseph E
"Twelve years ago, when I was chief economist of the World Bank, I suggested that the major challenge to development economics was learning the lessons of the previous several decades: a small group of countries, mostly in Asia, but a few in other regions, had had phenomenal success, beyond anything that had been anticipated by economists; while many other countries had experienced slow growth, or even worse, stagnation and decline—inconsistent with the standard models in economics which pred...
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Ecuador during the 1990s. Inflation fell from an average of about 50 percent in 1988â€“92 to 22 percent in April 1995. Economic activity rebounded, and international reserves were rebuilt. Relations with foreign creditors were normalized through an â€œexitâ€ Paris Club rescheduling in mid-1994 and the completion of a debt- and debt-service-reduction operation with external commercial creditors in early 1995 that was expected to facilitate the retu...
Lee, Diana Kim
Poverty and health are two topics in the field of development economics that are of critical importance to both researchers and policy-makers. Despite advances in poverty alleviation and gains in health outcomes in many developing countries, many challenges remain. Two of these challenges include accurately measuring poverty and improving the quality of health care delivery systems. In this dissertation, I present three essays with theoretical, empirical, and policy-relevant insights into the...
Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."
With the continuous development of Chinese eco-nomy, the real estate gets more and more at ention. This article elaborates the significance of the real estate industry develo-pment, and combines with the current situation of real estate economic development in China, points out the existing prob-lems in the real estate development, and puts forward some str-ategies to strengthen the development of the real estate market.%随着中国经济的不断发展，房地产受到了越来越多的关注。本文阐述了房地产业发展的意义，并结合我国房地产经济发展现状，指出了房地产发展中存在的问题，提出了加强房地产市场发展的策略。
Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Finland during 1990â€“95. The paper discusses the domestic economy, public finances, money and credit, and the balance of payments. It reports on the robustness of various inflation indicators, providing background to the process of establishing a monetary policy framework under a floating exchange rate. The paper also reviews possible structural causes for high unemployment and discusses reform proposals. Macroeconomic shocks that triggered the rec...
Gaps in financial access remain stark in the largest part of developing countries and have relevant consequences on poor households’ economic decisions, such as credit, saving and risk management. Lack of availability of formal financial services provided by either the market or public authorities (e.g in case of health insurance) have been compensated by the activity of informal groups, associations and arrangements. Old and new forms of community-based groups have been largely documented in...
mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais
The theory we have designed the idea of economic development which remain associated with main elements that consists of two main development area, firstly is Health and secondly, Education development. The main factor of this idea to provide Human development that enormously influence on economic development which resulted from different perspectives. Many researches explained by analysis of focus variables of economic growth which have relationship to lead the economic development. In addit...
Vol. 1. Praha : Professional Publishing, Mikulova 1572/13, 149 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic, 2011 - (Dlouhý, M.; Skočdopolová, V.), s. 327-332 ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [29th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Janská Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic programming * Wasserstein metric * L_1norm * Empirical estimates * One-stage problems * Multistage problems * Independent samples * m-dependent samples * Markov dependence * Phi-mixing random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/kankova-dependent data in economic and financial problems.pdf
Discusses fiscal decentralization and economic development in developed and developing countries. Explores historical trends in fiscal centralization and puts them in context of the developing countries.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Kenya during 1990â€“95. Real GDP growth decelerated from 4.3 percent in 1990 to close to zero in 1992/93. Inflation accelerated from 12 percent in the 12-month period ended December 1989 to 34 percent in March 1993. The central governmentâ€™s budget deficit increased from 6.7 percent in 1989/90 to 11.4 percent of GDP in 1992/93. Broad money growth (M2) accelerated from 21 percent in the 12-month period ended December 1991 to 36 percent in March 1993...
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Peru during the 1990s. During 1990â€“92, real GDP growth was negative by 0.9 percent a year on average, reflecting in part deterioration in the terms of trade and adverse weather conditions. During that period, growth in the construction, manufacturing, and fishing sectors was more than offset by a contraction in the agricultural and mining sectors. Gross domestic investment rose from about 15Â½ percent of GDP in 1990 to 16Â½ percent in 1992 mainl...
Yamina Ahlem GHERBI
Full Text Available A BAT algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is presented in this paper. The modern power system has become very complex in nature with consumption of the electric power which is in rise progression and this tendency increases with the industrialization and the growth of the population. Moreover, one loss of alimentation can cause the interruption of the various production processes, and in front of consumers who become increasingly demanding by wanting more energy and better quality, the companies of production of electrical energy must thus ensure the regular provisioning of this request, and without interruption, but these requirements compromise the cost of generation. Application of BAT algorithm in this paper is based on mathematical modeling to solve economic dispatch problems by a single equivalent objective function. The algorithm is tested on 6-unit system. BAT algorithm is easy to implement and better than other algorithms in terms of accuracy and efficiency.
A parameter of an econometric model is identified if there is a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping from the population distribution of the available data to the parameter. Often, this mapping is obtained by inverting a mapping from the parameter to the population distribution. If the inverse mapping is discontinuous, then estimation of the parameter usually presents an ill-posed inverse problem. Such problems arise in many settings in economics and other fields in which the parameter of intere...
Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)
Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)
North, Douglass C.
In this essay I intend to briefly summarize the essential characteristics of the new institutional economics, to describe how it differs from neo- classical theory, and then to apply its analytical framework (as I see it) to problems of development.
@@ Dao: Early this year, there are many relevant reports on India's catching up from behind in economic development. It is reported that India and China will be the two engines to drive world economic development.
Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands
Generation and development of migrant workers’ problems are analyzed from the perspective of economics. There are economic factors causing migrant workers’ problems: imbalance in the industrial structure brings farmers living pressure; urban modern civilization is attractive to farmers; urban economic development needs a large number of agricultural laborers engaged in manual labor. Moreover, relevant countermeasures are proposed. The dual economic structure is to be broken to gradually eliminate the barrier between urban and rural areas; an unified and standard labor market is to be established to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas; overall considerations should be taken and the reform of matching system should be quickened; the construction of urbanization is to be duly promoted to improve the level of modernization in the countryside.
Bazhenov Yu. N.
Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.
Yapa, Lakshman S.
Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)
HASAN, Sabri Hussein
Poverty is the biggest challenge facing the international community because poverty is a threat to human life, rights, and dignity. So poverty is the most prolific resource feeding terrorism and Political and social disturbances. This research aims to provide a new concept for Economic development, including all Economic and social and political aspects, because Economic development is a comprehensive operation. we find that our definition of Economic Development is a comprehensive one, compr...
A. P. Thirlwall
Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância para os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários.
Kulikova S. Y.
Full Text Available At the Department of "Economics and organization of production" at the end of XX - beginning of XXI centuries created the scientific school in the field of organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. The same name section of the department oversees the teaching of the relevant disciplines. The Laboratory of economic and mathematical methods in controlling of the Research and Education Center "Controlling and innovation in management" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University conducts research in this domain. This article is devoted to the activities of the scientific school, conducting research, and some of the results. We start with a discussion of the definitions of terms, which we use. Organizationaleconomic modeling - scientific, practical and academic discipline which devoted to the development, research and application of mathematical and statistical methods and models in economics and management of the national economy, especially in economics and management of industrial enterprises and their associations. The term "economic-mathematical methods and models" has close content. Statistical methods in economics - the subject of econometrics, the base of which is applied statistics. Organizational-economic modeling and econometrics are discussed as a theoretical and practical trainings and discipline. We developed textbooks and manuals on the organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. We have conducted theoretical research and development of applications in the field of organizational and economic modeling. In particular, the prediction is regarded as one of the management functions in industry. We study the problem of stability in the models and methods of development of strategy of the enterprise. For prospective organizational and economic mechanisms of management of industrial and economic activities, we proposed design based on solidary information economy
Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)
The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.
Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states. Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.
World Bank, (WB)
The report reviews recent economic developments, showing economic growth continues to its path, and, aided by global economic recovery, export growth remains strong. The forex market has been stable since the national currency (taka) was floated in by the end-May 2003. The fiscal stance for FY04 remains expansionary, but within prudent limits, and without straining fiscal sustainability, w...
Kvasniy, L.; Paslavska, V.
The role of economic potential in the sustainable development of regional economy. The characteristic of the basic principles that contribute to solving these problems at different levels of economic development of Ukraine. A conceptual model of the region with the definition of major and minor connections between the various links in the economic system and individual economic subjects of management and senior management.
A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs
This paper examines the impact of mass media and information and communications technologies (ICT) as knowledge-based infrastructures on economic development. The results strongly suggest that both mass media and ICT penetration are negatively associated with corruption. This result holds across both the entire sample (of both developed and developing countries), and only for developing countries. The same result is also obtained for the effects of ICT and mass media on economic inequality. H...
Boisier, S.; Vázquez Barquero, A.; Arocena, J.; Cotorruelo Menta, R.; Canzanelli, G.
In this virtual roundtable, five experts – academics and development practitioners – discuss the importance of territorial economic development in times of globalization and financial crisis. The “local factor” can be considered a crucial differentiating element, that favours the emergence of alternative development strategies, and one of the most convincing approaches to addressing the current crisis. The five experts share their ideas on the role of territorial economic development in addre...
Kale, Steven R.
Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…
After a more global look at the CO2 problem, the situation in Germany and Great Britain is compared. The different trends in CO2 emission in industrialized and developing countries are explained and analyzed. Future trends are indicated, and long-term strategies are developed. A reduction of CO2 emissions is considered to be feasible only by methods based on the free market economy, not by applying the principles of order policy. Finally, the author raises the question of how the ''Toronto goal'' can be achieved. (UA)
Anna M. Carabelli; Mario A. Cedrini
In their latest book (2008), Bruno Frey and the members of the research group he chairs at the University of Zurich announce that happiness research is leading a revolution in economics. More precisely, the revolutionary character of happiness economics would draw on measurement, on how people value goods and social conditions, as well as on policies. This paper aims to discuss critically this claim and what we identified as five crucial issues of mainstream happiness economics, i.e.: 1. the ...
The paper deals with research methodology of non-economic determinants of economic development. The author considers various theoretical approaches to definition of economic growth factors. Considerable attention is given to studying possible influence of non-economic determinants on quality of economic development.
Kopecek, Robert J.
This document focuses on the role of community college presidents in the varied activities entailed by economic development. Specifically, the paper addresses those activities that involve the political, financial, and economic aspects of regional or county planning, marketing and financing. First, definitions are provided of two types of economic…
Howard, Michael C.
Identifies the developing nations of the Pacific Rim to be the Philippines, Indonesia, and 21 small states such as Fiji and Papua, New Guinea. Discusses the political and economic factors which both hinder and aid the governments of these nations. Contends that the region's tremendous potential is unrealized because of economic underdevelopment…
This report is about balanced economic development in the Northeast of Thailand. It is about growth and poverty reduction, cities and villages, enterprises and workers, skills and education, infrastructure and trade, and rice and silk. Northeast economic development is only part of Thailand's development challenge, but it is among the most important. We look back at how the Northeast has fared in terms of growth, poverty reduction and social capital over the last decades relative to other reg...
马辉民; 张子刚; 周少甫; 黄卫来
The paper develops an algorithm that solves economic lot size problem in O(n2) time in the Wagner-Whitin case. The algorithm is based on the standard dynamic programming approach which requires the computation of the maximal relative benefit for some possible subplans of the production plan. In this algorithm the authors have studied the forward property and decomposition properties which can make computation easy. The proposed algorithm appears to perform quite reasonably for practical application.
The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, this thesis is neither wholly empirical or theoretical, macro or micro and instead may be viewed as an eclectic mix of approaches and ideas that go some way toinvestigating the challenges faced by the world's least developed economies. The first chapter...
Velupillai Kumaraswamy Vela
The theories of economic development pioneered by Schumpeter and Rosenstein-Rodan can only be encapsulated within a framework of complex nonlinear dynamical systems. The attractors of the dynamics of orthodox growth theory, even at the frontiers, are simple to characterise. Thus, adherence to a theory of economic development along the lines suggested by Schumpeter and Rosenstein-Rodan implies a dynamical formalism independent of orthodox growth theory52. Formal growth theory - whatever its or...
Economic development is a complex phenomenon, at least when speaking about understanding its real sources, despite the simplifying tendencies of economic growth neoclassical theories. These orthodox theories limit themselves to identifying the necessary conditions - such as capital accumulation and technological progress - for production increasing. But, in order to explain "why" people are saving, investing, learning and looking for knowledge, we must take into consideration the institutions...
In Chapter 1, the first essay explores a school meals program in Ethiopia. In food-insecure parts of poor countries school meals can provide a strong incentive to poor households to send their children to school. School meals appear to be attractive as they may not only increase school participation but may also improve learning and cognitive development. Chapter 2 investigates the role of poor eyesight on educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia. Chapter 3 uses data on four financial literacy ...
Examining Board: Prof Rick van der Ploeg, supervisor, University of Oxford Prof. Russell Cooper, EUI Prof. David Levine, Washington University in St. Louis Prof. Massimo Morelli, Columbia University and EUI Defense date: 29/11/2010 The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, thi...
This dissertation studies agricultural technology adoption, child labor and development. Although adoption of fertilizers has been high in South Asia, farmers may fail to use it efficiently. Besides higher costs incurred by households engaged in agriculture, inefficient use of fertilizers may also have negative consequences for the environment. The first chapter of this dissertation uses a field experiment in Bangladesh to study whether providing farmers access to a simple rule-of-thumb tool ...
This dissertation consists of three chapters, which study issues of development within the context of China and India. The first two study the causes and consequences of one of the most important historical events in 20-th century Chinese history, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. The third chapter reports findings from a field experiment focused on studying the role of self control in chronic illness management. In Chapter 1, I investigate the determinants of political violence duri...
Yuan, Yanhui; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guoqiang
Economic globalization is one of the hottest topics among academics, government agencies and other concerned organizations. This paper investigates whether the overall benefits of economic globalization are greater than their costs, and discusses the interaction among economic globalization, economic development, and marketization reform in China, so as to present an answer to the question of how China should participate in economic globalization.
Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...
This paper reports on tests of alternative hypotheses as to the effects of a budget deficit, examines the influence of the size of the government on economic growth, and investigates the impact of public investment on private investment, total investment, and economic growth. The findings have important implications for the developing countries. They show that budget deficits have adverse effects on the balance of payments as well as on domestic investment. It further appears that increases i...
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Sri Lanka during 1995â€“97. After slowing to 4 percent in 1996, economic growth recovered to 6Â½ percent in 1997. The slowdown in 1996 had been mainly owing to a severe drought that affected the agricultural sector and disrupted the power supply. The recovery in 1997 was strongest in agriculture and manufacturing, supplemented by continued good performance in the services sector, including a rebound in tourism. In addition, significant accomplishmen...
Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...
Full Text Available Financial Structures and Economic Development This paper examines the relationship between the evolution of financial services and long-run economic growth. Liquidity risk, productivity risk, transactions costs. and information gathering and resource coordination costs create incentives for the emergence of financial contracts and institutions. The level of income per capital public policies, and legal codes determine the provision of financial services aid the types of financial structures that provide these services. The resultant financial structures can alter investment incentives, such that the steady state growth rate of per capita output increases.
William N. Wrigley; W. Cris Lewis
The authors conducted a two-stage survey of community economic development professionals in Utah. Their objectives were to elicit information about three components of local development effort and to assess the success of differential strategies for development. Emphasis was given to the differential ratings of tools and programs by officials in large urban areas and those in smaller cities. The authors found that labor force quality, proximity to highways, the availability of other transport...
Harutyunyan, Ani; Özak, Ömer
This research explores the effects of culture on technological diffusion and economic development. It shows that culture's direct effects on development and barrier effects to technological diffusion are, in general, observationally equivalent. In particular, using a large set of cultural measures, it establishes empirically that pairwise differences in contemporary development are associated with pairwise cultural differences relative to the technological frontier, only in cases where obse...
Donald M. Seekins
Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the countryâ€™s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the â€œmilitarizationâ€ of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962â€“1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmarâ€™s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmarâ€™s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmarâ€™s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmarâ€™s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.
In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th
This article examines some theoretical and applied issues of economic development with special emphasis on the relationship between economic development and economic growth, the factors and indicators of economic development, and its peculiarities in developed, developing and transition countries, including Georgia.
Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.
The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.
Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl
At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept of "sustainable development" which has guided the discussion and policies regarding the environment, has implied the possibility of a...
Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA
The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...
Camelia-Cristina DRAGOMIR; Eduard IONESCU; PÂNZARU, Stelian
The paper highlights the main connections between eco-development and the sustainable development in an economic environment that is rapidly changing. It discusses the concepts, features and principles of the ecodevelopment and the sustainable development. Also, i analyzed aspects regarding the involvement of business environment in a sustainable economy in harmony with the environment. The study is based on the theoretical and applied research of the authors. The results of this study may be...
Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth
The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....
This dissertation consists of three self-contained chapters on development economics. The dissertation is focused primarily on the effects of road provision on rural households' decisions to invest in physical and human capital, specifically agricultural technology, health, and education. As a separate project, I also look at the impact of microcredit and microsavings on business-financing in sub-Saharan Africa.In the first chapter, entitled "Do Rural Roads create Pathways out of Poverty? Evi...
Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...
Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros
Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students with negative repercussions on their performance. The literature suggests that the students' problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the style and method of teaching together with the course content. Particularly attacked are the chalk and talk…
Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level.  In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.
The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline
mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais
The research study is to determine the barriers within overall economic development which diversify the issues and problems in growth. Pakistan is a well-sustainable economy in current world. This research investigated the factor affecting issues which are unrealistic. The most common issues are financial issues, negative human resource policies, micro inflation and corruption in public and private projects.
@@ The fruitful 2004 almost passed and the promising 2005 is coming.Through arduous practice of macro control for more than one year,people now are full of confidence about the development of China's economy and have a clear understanding of those problems existing.
I. I. Rekun
Full Text Available Purpose. Security is an important component of economic security and the guaranteeing of appropriate national interests in the state. All these things are closely related to the economic efficiency of operations of economic entities, with economic independence, stability and security of a society. In addition, economic security is a part of national security, its foundation and material basis. The problem of economic security in modern conditions at the micro and macro levels requires determining the main directions of its formation. Methodology. To achieve this goal, basic directions of a security mechanism of the economic system, in particular on the macro level were grounded. Findings. Economic security is such state of the state economy operation in which the order of equilibrium occurred in certain organizational and legal norms on the basis of social life. These regulations are created be the state, principles of coexistence, which are transmitted from generation to generation. The current state of economic security guaranteeing at the macro and micro levels was analyzed. The system of indicators that can be used in the assessment of the security system was determined. Originality. Propositions concerning necessary changes in the policy of economic security in a state were formulated. The system of indicators which can be used in the assessment of the security system was offered. Practical value. Using of the proposed system of economic security indicators will expand the list of important factors affecting on its status and allow us determining the main directions of its formation.
As a main form for human capital investment, education has irreplaceable effect on national or regional economic development. This paper, based on the relationship between Xinjiang regional economic development and education, analyzes the present conditions of Xinjiang educational investment, the scale and problems of Xinjiang education, the contribution of education to Xinjiang economy, and how to drive Xinjiang regional economic development. Finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy ...
Elena-Raluca, MOISESCU (DUICAN)
This paper presents the economic connection between nominal convergence, real convergence and economic development in Romania. It is shown that fulfilling the nominal criteria is not enough to enter the Economic Monetary Union. It needs to be accompanied by a sustainable economic development and an increasing labour productivity.
It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables
Cull, Robert; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Lin, Justin Yifu
In this article the authors use quantile regressions to assess the relationship between economic and financial development at each percentile of the distribution of economic development. Thus; the quantile regressions provide information on how the associations between economic development and both bank and securities market development change as countries grow richer.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…
This paper presents a systematic discussion, mainly for non-economists, on economic approaches to the concept of sustainable development. As a first step, the concept of sustainability is extensively discussed. As a second step, the argument that it is not possible to consider sustainability only from an economic or ecological point of view is defended; issues such as economic-ecological integration, inter-generational and intra-generational equity are considered of fundamental importance. Tw...
Jihlava: College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojáčková, H.) ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic multiobjective optimization problems * efficient solution * Wasserstein metric * L_1 norm * empirical estimates * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-economic and financial problems via multiobjective stochastic optimization.pdf
Although many economists do a serious and respectable work, main stream economic theory contains an almost complete disregard for the importance of social, cultural and political structures which are the very foundation of the society. Worse than that, such disregard is developed into arrogance when representatives and textbook maintain the illusions of economic main stream science as value free, and sometimes it is even asserted that only if the economic system could be free from disturbing ...
Jones, Charles I
Per capita income in the richest countries of the world exceeds that in the poorest countries by more than a factor of 50. What explains these enormous differences? This paper returns to an old idea in development economics and proposes that complementarity and linkages are at the heart of the explanation. Just as a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, problems at any point in a production chain can reduce output substantially if inputs enter production in a complementary fashion. Thi...
Being afflicted with urinary incontinence in old age represents manifold medical, social, and economic problems and restrictions. The objective loss of control and decreased self-confidence result in reduced social interactions and lead to isolation and ostracism accompanied by withdrawal and depression. Giving up leisure time activities, losing social contacts, and the increasing need for long-term care often lead inevitably to a higher degree of dependency and institutionalization. In addition, the taboo still placed on this problem by those affected as well as by the attending physicians has resulted in too few patients receiving adequate diagnosis and being offered sensible treatment options. These problems can only be solved by an interdisciplinary approach. Further information, continuing education, and sensitivity toward these aspects are needed. Only then can incontinence in old age as a social and economic problem exacerbated by the demographic changes be improved. PMID:17310392
Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux
For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009) addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in ...
On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.
This article describes the role of economics at the Greater Houston Partnership, a member-funded development organization serving the 9-county Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. The partnership’s history, the organization’s mission, the role that research economic data plays in the relocation process, and reasons why corporations relocate are discussed in the article.
Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.
Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849
Mardanov Rustam Sh.; Khasanova Asiya Yu.; Kalganova Gulnara F.
The paper analyzes some of the psychological problems of the economic faculties’ students arising in the course of study of mathematical disciplines. These problems are primarily related with the lack of students’ awareness, misconception about the calculation methods in their future profession, low motivation and performance, math anxiety, etc. They makeadditional difficulties which impede successful mastering of sophisticated material. Based on the experience of mathematical disciplines tea...
Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; KRICHENE, NOUREDDINE; Mirakhor, Abbas
In this paper, the foundational rules governing human, economic and financial development in Islam, as understood from the Quran and from the life and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), are summarized. These rules pave the path to development as the basis of institutional structure, which in turn, underpin the path of economic and social progress. The essential elements in the life of a Muslim—the unity of creation, freedom and freedom of choice, economic and human development, econom...
In order to better understand the potential impact of the current global economic crisis on human development, we explore how human development indicators have been affected in past economic shocks. The literature on the human development impacts of short-term economic fluctuations suggest some stylized facts. First, there exists an asymmetry between rich and poor countries in terms of the magnitude of impacts of economic crises: Health and education outcomes in rich countries often improve d...
Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux
Full Text Available For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009 addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in choosing the economic valuation method best suited to the aspect of biodiversity addressed, to put difficulties into perspective and possibly find solutions for them.
Full Text Available For the development stage, the actuality of China economy is very similar to the initial stage of 1970s in Japan, so we can use some feasible experiences to solve economic problems by Japan at the beginning of 1970s. The research to the foam economy in the middle and late stage of 1980s in Japan induces the consideration whether China would follow the same old disastrous road of Japan in 1980s. After that, from the long term depression of Japan in 1990s, we should exactly treat the China depression theory which has been occurred. Reviewing the course from the boom at the beginning of 1970s to the formation and break of foam in the middle and late of 1980s and to the long term depression in 1990s of economic development experienced by Japan, we can get some revelations about many aspects such as macro-economic control and financial security.
Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.
Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…
Oliychenko, Ihor; Ditkovska, Maryna
The article focuses on the analysis of the problems of improvement of management systems socio-economic developmentof the region. The issues of quality assessment information using tools of quality control are studied. The basic approachesand ways of creating quality information for decision making are considered. The ways of improving the management ofsocio-economic development of the region are suggested.
Petr S. Andreev
Full Text Available This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.
Petr S. Andreev; Galina I. Novolodskaya
This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.
Ahmed, Ovais; mashkoor, Aasim
The theory of economic development have designed to explore the assets of nations which explain and analyzed the emphasize on Water crisis, deforestation, land of agriculture for yield and minerals. these are the main resources of improving and generating economic health. we analyzed further significant factors which help to designed the qualitative theory of economic development.
A. Berezhna; Yu. Popova
The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural), generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of fu...
Kristina A. Menshikova
Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.
The domain of public economics is increasing as governments‘ policy goal is shifting from economic development to sustainable development. Government has to act as a trustee representing future generations, and public policies must balance and integrate the three pillars (economic, social and environmental) of sustainable development, recognizing the ecological limits to growth. As per the UN development Agenda, sustainable development goals (SDGs) are meant for the period 2015-2030.This pape...
The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...
Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc). The study of theoretical appro...
This dissertation is comprised of three essays in empirical economics. These essays are united by three clear intellectual and methodological themes. First, each essay attempts to bring theories and insights from psychology to bear on open questions in economics, with a focus on topics of importance to developing countries. Second, they use experiments - both randomized field experiments and natural experiments - to test economic theory. Finally, each paper attempts to measure economically im...
Stéphane J. Baele
Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.
Karviná: Silesian University in Opava, School of Busines Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 396-401 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization problems * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tailed distributions * stable distribution * Pareto distribution * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Kankova-empirical estimates in economic and financial problems via heavy tails.pdf
Nyasha Mahonye and Kalu Ojah
This paper explores the relationship between economic development and financial structure: that is, whether the degree of financial system structure matter for pace and character of economic development in 15 African countries for the period of 1995 to 2011. The paper utilizes the fixed effect instrument variable technique for econometric estimation. None of the financial structure indicators enters any of the economic development regressions significantly at the conventional 10% level, which...
HARM-JAN STEENHUIS; ERIK J. DE BRUIJN
Technology is considered as a key factor for economic development. Many authors in the field of technology management mention this impact on economic development as a motivator for their technology oriented study. What is this relationship between technology and economic development? In most studies, the relationship between technology and economy remains implicit. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between technology and the economy. Four literature streams are discusse...
Lamberte, Mario B.
Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...
Lorenzen, Matthias; Bürger, Mathias; Giuseppe NOTARSTEFANO; Allgöwer, Frank
The problem of maintaining balance between consumption and production of electric energy in the presence of a high share of intermittent power sources in a transmission grid is addressed. A distributed, asynchronous optimization algorithm, based on the ideas of cutting-plane approximations and adjustable robust counterparts, is presented to compute economically optimal adjustable dispatch strategies. These strategies guarantee satisfaction of the power balancing constraint as well as of the o...
This overview of 'methodology problems' in international economic law (IEL) and adjudication defines 'legal methodology' as the 'best way' for identifying the 'sources' of law, legitimate authority, the methods of legal interpretation, law-making and adjudication, the 'primary rules of conduct' and 'secondary rules of recognition, change and adjudication', the relationships between 'legal positivism', 'natural law' and 'social theories of law', and the 'dual nature' of modern legal systems. I...
Pershin S. P.
Full Text Available Modern trends of development of economic relations are not devoid of problems. The globalization of economic relations, development of communication network has opened a lot of abuse, incorrectly built relationships with contractors and agencies administration, well-known difficulties and shortcomings of law enforcement. The study showed that the weight of these circumstances caused the absence of an organized system of registration, formation, compilation, analysis and presentation of information. Collectively it is nothing like the attributes of the accounting system. The development of accounting in the region and the country as a whole in the direction of generalization of accounting information on all economic entities and other economic actors, becomes the requirement of time. The authors proposed the principles of the organization's user systems through a single automated account management system. Defined the functional role of each participant in such system. Much of the information comes from the so-called user agents – the authority of the state machinery and economic entities authorized in the formation and presentation of the required accounting information. The rules of the proposed system will provide the consistency required functionality of each participant and access to some form of economic information through economic roadmap. The implementation of the proposed accounting system will allow to define rules of functioning of the uniform economic space of the country, which will make possible the implementation of economic policies more effective, will allow to disseminate the experience of effective ministries in all areas of economic space
The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.
Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.
Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede
the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...
Full Text Available The debt crisis was triggered in 1982 by a combination of adverse external factors and poor economic and financial policies on the part of debtor countries. Furthermore, after the second oil "shock", stagnation in the industrial area caused a sharp slowdown in world trade, thus further deteriorating exports for developing countries. The present work analyses the debt problem for developing countries, its causes, the policies enacted thus far and possible solutions. The strategy to combat the problem between 1982 and 1985 is detailed and the Baker Plan is considered. The author then looks at more recent developments and innovative schemes to facilitate the solution of the debt problem. Finally, estimates are provided of the impact of some debt relief efforts on the banking system and on debtor countries.
Hansl, Birgit; Cosic, Damir; Emelyanova, Olga; Kida, Mizuho; Matytsin, Mikhail; Vashakmadze, Ekaterine
Second quarter gross domestic product (GDP) estimates and high-frequency indicators suggest continued weakness in the economy even before the latest round of economic sanctions introduced by the European Union (EU), the United States (U.S.), and other countries in late July. The World Bank maintains its current 0.5 percent growth projection for 2014. Inflation slowed in July, but the wide-...
Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.
This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations
Pshunetlev A. A.
Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines
This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....
In November 2004,on international symposium was held in Kunming capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province,on economic development vs.protection of China's ethnic cultures.Participants agreed that the gathering came in good time in view of the fact that economic development is posing a growing threat to the very existence of ethnic cultures.
Nearly all development theories, economic and non-economic, are based on a scientific-technological view of the world, which ignores the question of whether similar underlying social values and customs can be presupposed in other cultures. This is probably one of the key causes of the crisis in development theory and policy, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated.
This study investigates the impact of economic development on women and biodiversity in two rural communities in Ecuador. The level of womens integration into the development process as influenced by age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, are analyzed. The effects of the economic change on biodiversity using homegardens as its indicators are also evaluated.
Long-term existence of a number of social, economic, and environmental problems of rural territories in Ukraine stipulates the necessity of researches on features of their functioning and development as well as on searching of innovative businesses patterns in rural areas, on enhancement of social capital and improvement of the environment. Researches on how certain economic industries work in rural sites are of high importance, and first of all those concerning tourism and recreation being g...
Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.
Natural disasters are one of the major problems facing humankind. Between 1980 and 2004, two million people were reported killed and five billion people cumulatively affected by around 7,000 natural disasters, according to the dataset maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at University of Louvain (Belgium). The economic costs are considerable and rising. The direct economic damage from natural disasters between 1980-2004 is estimated at around $1 trilli...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the human factor in Alaska's economic development. The regions earlier development is discussed and introduction to an evaluation of the...
The paper paid attention to the basics of ecological regional development. The main approaches to environmental policy at the national and regional levels of government. Creation of organizational and economic instruments that provide environmentalizing regional development.
Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.
A major development policy challenge in the contemporary economic policy discourse is to sustain the development momentum. Prevailing political economic realities influence the economic thinking to accommodate the political compulsions. The inclusive development is one such development strategy. Inclusive development is not a mere political pragmatism but a sensible development strategy. This paper discusses the relevance of distributive justice in relation to civil disturbance across and wit...
Methodological problems of development of the synergy as a science were researched. The synergistic approach to social-economic system research and its peculiarities were analyzed. The principles of synergistic development of an economy were substantiated. The role of chaos in appearance of dissipative structures on the way to self-organization was researched.
Houda, Michal; Kaňková, Vlasta
Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 50-69. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/houda-empirical estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf
Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.
The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....
Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual
Full Text Available Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be for the production of essential assets that are neglected by private investors. The problem is how to choose between public possibilities of spending the money after the application of the first criteria.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.
Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)
Benjamin Marx; Thomas Stoker; Tavneet Suri
The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is characteristic of that described in the literature on poverty traps. We document how human capital threshold effects, investment inertia, and a "policy trap" may prevent slum dwellers from seizing economic opportunities offered by geographic proximity to the city. We test the assum...
Dang, Vinh; Do, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung
From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...
Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long
From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.
ЛУК’ЯНЕНКО, О.Д.; ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана»
Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.
Fiscella, Joan B.; Ringel, Joan D.
Academic libraries should follow the practice adopted by some academic institutions during recent periods of economic scarcity and develop economic and political ties with the business community, a partnership that could provide genuine benefits for members of the business community, elected officials, and academia. An example of such cooperation…
California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014
California's community colleges continue to play a crucial role in the state's economy by providing students with the skills and knowledge to succeed and by advancing the economic growth and global competitiveness of California and its regional economies through the Economic and Workforce Development Program (EWD). The EWD program invests in the…
The paper examines Japan’s equity capital market to find out whether stock market development proceeds from, or precedes, economic growth. It first starts with a general description of the capital market, its principal players and the various methods of financing investment. It then explores the relationship of economic growth and capital market development, focusing on the Japanese experience. The empirical evidence illustrates the case of growth first before stock market development, a find...
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor
Shandong is a culturally powerful province with excellent natural geographical condition and the warm temperate monsoon climate creates abundant benefits to the agricultural development there.In 2009,Shandong administration bureau of Yellow River economic development held the forum on related issues of national new countryside industry office planning to build economic forest base around the Yellow River in Shandong.The primary intention was settled and the construction of Shandong Economic Forest was formally started.Although impressive progress has been achieved in recent years,there also exists potential problems in the construction of economic forest,among which heavy metal pollution and soil acidification are the worst,causing huge damage to the physiological health of the consumers of economic forest.The writer proposes the countermeasures against standardization construction of economic forest.Scientific management is to be adopted to improve the professional skills of the employees in economic forest and brand innovation should be emphasized to quicken the quality certification of the products of economic forest.Besides,standard production demonstration is to be created and promoted in order to boost scale development.Furthermore,mechanism innovation is also to be stressed and forestry specialized cooperation organizations should be largely supported.
Hodgson, G M
This article discusses some of the ways in which Darwinism has influenced a small minority of economists. It is argued that Darwinism involves a philosophical as well as a theoretical doctrine. Despite claims to the contrary, the uses of analogies to Darwinian natural selection theory are highly limited in economics. Exceptions include Thorstein Veblen, Richard Nelson, and Sidney Winter. At the philosophical level, one of the key features of Darwinism is its notion of detailed understanding in terms of chains of cause and effect. This issue is discussed in the context of the problem of causality in social theory. At least in Darwinian terms, the prevailing causal dualism--of intentional and mechanical causality--in the social sciences is found wanting. Once again, Veblen was the first economist to understand the implications for economics of Darwinism at this philosophical level. For Veblen, it was related to his notion of 'cumulative causation'. The article concludes with a discussion of the problems and potential of this Veblenian position. PMID:12472063
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative
to provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...... as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new...
The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)
Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.
Full Text Available This article treats theoretical-methodological positions of interdependence economic and environmental dimension of development. Approaches to the environmental problems in process of defining development strategies in Serbia are presented. It was pointed that introduction of integrated approach in coordination development policy with environmental policy is necessary.
Zhao Xiaohong; He Jia; Jiang Li
The purpose of this paper is to study the issues on keeping the continuous development of Tibetan economy and the relative stability of its ecosystem. Hence, in order to achieve the object, the study analyzes the status quo of economic development in Tibet and the problems of resource exploitation. It especially discusses frailty of Tibetan eco-environment, and evaluates the contradictions between the traditional economic developing mode and the safety of plateau's ecosystem. It concludes that there is an inevitable clash between the development of Tibetan economy and the safety of plateau's eco-system; this problem cannot be avoided by any decision maker. Therefore, the character of Tibetan eco-environment and the requirement of its economic development strategy determine that ecological economy developing mode is the only choice for Tibet. This paper suggests that it should be compensated by the national government to assure that Tibetan economy can keep a higher developing speed. In accordance with the feature of plateau eco-economy system and demand of Tibetan economic development, this paper also suggests several methods to apply the eco-economy developing strategy of Tibet.
Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)
Pablo Emilio Guidotti; Jose De Gregorio
This paper examines the empirical relationship between long–run growth and the degree of financial development, proxied by the ratio of bank credit to the private sector as a fraction of GDP. We find that this proxy enters significantly and with a positive sign in growth regressions on a large cross–country sample, but with a negative sign using panel data for Latin America. Our findings suggest that the main channel of transmission from financial development to growth is the efficiency of in...
Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the recent literature in economic history and long-run development, and summarizes the main findings of the three essays presented in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, I examine the subject of villagization in Tanzania, a major episode of development planning in post-independence Tanzania. I revisit this period of Tanzania’s economic history, focusing on the legacy of developmental villages (vijiji uya maendeleo) introduced in mainland Tanzania over the p...
The state of Sarawak is situated on Borneo Island in East Malaysia. It is the largest state in Malaysia covering an area of approximately 124 thousand square kilometres. Sarawak’s population is approximately 2.07 million people, which makes it the fourth most populous state in the country. There are several distinguished characteristics of the economic development process in Sarawak which highlight the contrast in economic development in Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. On the whole, the Mal...
This paper provides an analytical and forward-looking overview of Malaysian economic development. Looking back over its 53 years of Independence, we identify the key stylized facts to include the country's generally rapid economic growth and structural change; its consistent openness, especially for merchandize trade and foreign direct investment; its creditable record of macroeconomic management; its consistently high inequality, in spite of the developing world's most consistently implement...
The economic and financial development are examined in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, representing the Middle East and North Africa region. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, unclear regulations, corruption, and heavy reliance on oil exports pose major obstacles to economic development and integration into global markets. These controlled economies directly affect foreign and domestic i...
T. J. Lomakina
Full Text Available The necessity of continuous economic education of future professionals is caused by importance of forming correct understanding of the economic reality, of comprehension of economic basic laws, of understanding of global and national tendencies in economic development; the growing role of continuous economic education as a major factor of formation and development of a postindustrial society is shown; the reasons and circumstances of the active reference of the domestic pedagogical science and practice to problems of economic education are emphasized; the factors influencing development of continuous economic education are established in the article. Continuous economic education is considered as a part of continuous education promoting the formation of a competitive expert in conditions of market economy, demanded on labour market and directed on formation of economic competencies depending on the type of preparation (economic and not economic at different educational levels according to models of the graduate and the teacher and realized by means of economic training and economic education.
Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.
Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.
The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region develop very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this means that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful region's economic development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering China's economic development practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention to existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional industrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.
Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede
the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economicdevelopment......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...
Sim Monica Ariana
Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid
Ali Rıza Erdem
Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".
The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and
Ileana (BĂDULESCU ANASTASE
Full Text Available This study shows the problems and reflections of Romania,in the period after the aderation to EU, this being a period when all the economic activities will be tested according to their level of efficiency and productivity of work. Maintining the traditional form of organization of work, of investments of structure of the finite products may transform the country into a colony, into an exporter of raw materials and workforce in the EU. We can notice the same thing, based on our research, in the case of the Moldavian Republic: the exports and investments influence very little the economic growth. This is due to the reduced performances of Moldavian exporters, and, even more, to the uncompetitive structure on groups of products. Half of the Moldavian exports is assured by the agro-alimentary market, without noticing some obvious trends of specialization in other new branches. The cause of this trend is the weak productive potential of national agriculture and industry (Anastase.I 2010.
Asefa, Sisay, Ed.
This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Latvia during 1994â€“96. The paper highlights that developments during this period have been dominated by the after-effects of the fiscal slippage in 1994 and the banking crisis in 1995, although there are signs of a recovery from these adverse episodes. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of selected economic issues facing Latvia. It analyzes the environment for the private-sector development, and reviews interest rate developments, focusing in...
Kumkol deposit's petroleum balance supply situated in Southern-Turgaj depression makes up 153.2 million tones, extracted supply by C1 category includes 89.4 million tones. Petroleum of cretaceous and sediments by its physico-chemical content are light (density 0.835 g/sm3), high-paraffin (12-15 %), low-sulphur content one (0,5 %). Content of light fractions under temperature 300 deg C is up to 45 %, gasoline one is up to 25 %. Gas content of stratum petroleum and saturation pressure substantially is changing by productive horizons. Rational system of Kumkol deposit development with sustaining of reservoir pressure for increase of petroleum extraction rate from bed and increase its output is presented. Technological and economical parameters of the Yuzhneftgas Joint Stock Company operation in condition of market economy and urgent problems on increase of petroleum production are considered
Aleman, J L
This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of
Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.
Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence comprises its social capital.Individuals are trustworthy when they perform actions they have promised, even if these do not maximize their payoffs.The usual focus on incentive structures in motivatin...
Clive L. Spash
There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ...
Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...
This brief survey examines the returns to education in India , and then examines the role of education on both economic growth and economic development with particular reference to India. Throughout, the objective is to draw out the implications of the empirical results for education policy. The results suggest that female education is of particular importance in India. They also suggest that perhaps because of the externalities it generates, primary education is more important than might be ...
In the post communism regime, the responsibility of economic development has largely been shifted to private sector. The increasing role of private sector enterprises introduced the new concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), democratization in business and finance, corporate culture, fair trade, good governance and economic freedom and participation. The ‘wealth maximization concept’ under the ‘extreme capitalism’, limited liability, separate entity, agency cost, professionalism, ...
This paper investigates how social composition affects social conflict and economic development when property rights are unenforceable. Groups follow Markovian strategies for consumption and investment and may also spend effort in an resource appropriation contest. It is shown that conflict prevents investment and growth in a society of symmetric groups. In a society at peace economic growth may occur. Growth, however, is decreasing in the degree of social fractionalization and smaller than i...
Economic growth since 1965 has varied inversely with the share of natural capital in national wealth across countries. Four main channels of transmission from abundant natural resources to stunted economic development are discussed: (a) the Dutch disease, (b) rent seeking, (c) overconfidence, and (d) neglect of education. Public expenditure on education relative to national income, expected years of schooling for girls, and gross secondary-school enrolment are all shown to be inversely relate...
Chauvet, Lisa; Collier, Paul
This paper investigates whether elections in developing countries have improved economic policies and economic governance. Both casual empiricism and casual theorizing suggest that they have done so. As contested elections have become more common since the 1990s, the policy ratings from the World Bank and the International Country Risk Guide have both improved markedly. These improvements accord with the fundamental notion that elections discipline governments into good performance. Yet this ...
This paper suggests that area studies and economics have a better chance to be married successfully if we shift our attention from the exclusive emphasis on economic growth towards improvements in human development, especially the much broadened version of that concept. Different areas are shown to differ substantially in terms of the choices they make among the various independent dimensions of well-being and the various indicators within each dimension. The particular characteristics of eac...
Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.
Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.
Botswana is at a crossroads, as economic growth has slowed significantly in recent years while social problems remain largely unresolved. Exacerbating this situation is a monetary policy in crisis as over a decade of generally high interest rates have failed to address inflationary pressures. Thus, the Botswana experience challenges generally accepted wisdom on the relationship between interest rates and inflation. The main lessons learned highlight the need for (i) enhancing the knowledge an...
Orlov A. I.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of analysis of statistical and expert data in problems of economics and management that are discussed in the framework of scientific specialization "Mathematical methods of economy", including organizational-economic and economic-mathematical modeling, econometrics and statistics, as well as economic aspects of decision theory, systems analysis, cybernetics, operations research. The main provisions of the new paradigm of this scientific and practical field are developed by the author of this article in the 1980s during the creation of the All-Union Statistical Association. The new paradigm is compared with the old (corresponding to the middle of XX century. Is summarized monographs, textbooks and manuals prepared under the leadership of the author of this paper in the XXI century according to the new paradigm
Zhang, Xiaobo; Fan, Shenggen
Few studies have systematically documented the interdependency among different types of public goods and their impact on economic development. This papers aims to develop a methodological framework to evaluate the degree of interdependency and identify the weakest link of public goods provisions and empirically applies it to Uganda.
DAO, Nguyen Thang
This thesis contributes four essays to the theoretical literature of Economic Growth and Development covering issues of environment, optimal taxation, demography, gender inequality, endogenous technological progress, and comparative development in variations of overlapping generations modelling. The first essay addresses tax and transfer policies to conduct a Diamond (1965) overlapping generations economy with environmental externalities to the social optimum through Pareto-improving path. Th...
Duncan, Greg J.; And Others
This study used longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) to examine three issues regarding effects of economic deprivation on child development: (1) the effects on children's developmental outcomes of poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education; (2) the developmental…
Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa
In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…
Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.
This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…
Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga
This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…
Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or
Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W
Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un
The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 1990â€“95. It describes the monetary arrangements that have evolved in the Federation and Republika Srpska, and summarizes the financial developments. The paper provides an overview of balance-of-payments developments and the external financing requirements associated with the authoritiesâ€™ priority reconstruction program. It describes the exchange rate and trade systems of the two Entities. An assessment of macroecono...
Erickson, Jon D.; Chapman, Duane
Photovoltaic (PV) electricity has been widely supported as a remote energy source for developing countries. In response, the production and shipment of PV modules has steadily increased throughout the past decade, often marketed through the auspices of technology transfer and financed by international development aid. This paper investigates the motives, economics, and development implications of PVs in rural electrification. The implications of subsidizing a PV market rather than investing i...
The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region devel op very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this mean s that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful regions econom i c development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering Chinas economic develo p ment practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention t o existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional i ndustrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.
Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…
Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev
Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new
Full Text Available In Southeast Asian countries (SEA, road transport accounts for the main energy consumption and CO2 emission. Air pollution is a major concern in densely populated cities such as Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of this paper is to give insights on trends of transport development, car ownership, and CO2 emissions in Southeast Asia. This study also attempts to review the successful transportation policies around the globe and to introduce the possible instruments that can help reduce air pollution in Southeast Asian countries. Economic instruments to estimate the benefits of a cleaner environment due to new policies are introduced as well. The results of this research could help policy makers consider approaches that could internalize external costs of transportation and maximize the societal welfare.
The dissertation consists of a collection of papers on the relationship between culture and economic development in mainly western European regions. Data sources like the EVS make it possible to measure culture. This allows the author to operationalise concepts like social capital and empirically ex
This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...
This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.
This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…
Noftsinger, John B., Jr.
Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…
Intellectual products, having the most diverse destinations in different time periods have some premises that have contributed to the intellectual product of necessity, need, application of ideas, level of socio-economic development, levels of exposure and transmission of information time and space
Vyacheclav Stepanov; Svitlana Rassadnykova
The problem of investment attractiveness as a factor in the development of complex socio-economic and ecological systems in terms of modern science of the post neoclassical paradigm in the context of the theory of attractor is investigated and the essence of investment attractiveness using synergetic methodology and evolution of open nonlinear systems is revealed. It is offered a generalized model of system investment attractiveness as a category in the system theory of investment management....
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic and policy developments in Sri Lanka during 1996â€“98. Despite the slowdown in world trade and economic growth, Sri Lankaâ€™s economy grew in 1998 at close to its historic average rate. The recorded 4Â¾ percent growth in real GDP was lower than 1997 when the economy was recovering after a bad harvest. In the first twelve months following the outbreak of the Southeast Asian crisis, Sri Lanka was helped by reduced export competition and lower commodity prices. But by...
Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.
Natalija Kazlauskiene; William H. Meyers
Land reform and asset privatization are essential to the transformation of agriculture from a state controlled to privately operated sector and to its future development in a market oriented economy. Although these are necessary conditions for economic development under a market oriented regime, they are not sufficient conditions. In this paper we review the progress achieved in farm restructuring through land reform and asset privatization and the impacts of this restructuring on the structu...
The article examines the various concepts of sustainable development, which are determined on the basis of guidelines for further formation of intelligent behavior for government and society. We offer to place the system of education into the center of attention. Due to its development we can bring up and prepare the quasi-skilled and talented people who are able to become the intellectual elite of society, whom we can consider as a major driving force in terms of economic uncertainty and unp...
Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207
This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598... DESIGNATIONS Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic development... the planned use of HUD EZ Grant Funds must meet one of the following economic development...