WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic development problems

  1. Long-term economic development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term economic development of New Mexico parallels the major energy issue of the nation - the impact of non-proliferation policy. The short lifespan and waste of energy resources in this country reflects a lack of foresight which can no longer be tolerated. The principal unknowns affecting uranium development in New Mexico are the extent and demand for uranium, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the lifespan of nuclear power plants, with or without reprocessing. Further areas of concern include the costs of reprocessing facilities, the evaluation of fuel cycles to minimize proliferation, and the impacts of waste disposal

  2. Economic problems of nuclear power development in the capitalist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic problems of the nuclear power development in the USA, Japan, and in the western European countries are discussed. An analysis is presented of the development and estimates are given of capital expendenditures in nuclear power plants and in enrichment and reprocessing plants and of the development of the uranium price within the fuel cycle. The problems of financing nuclear power are considered. (B.S.)

  3. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Gotz

    2010-01-01

    Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundesländer been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundesländer performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two d...

  4. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  5. On the Problem of Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Solution to this Prisoner's Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development, and a universal theory of value. We introduce axioms which serve as the first of two derivations of our solution, our methods, the origin and evolution of our theory, field notes from Mustique, Iceland, and Prince Edward Island, and set the stage for a more thorough discourse. Next we demonstrate that value (V) is a derivative function of relative insularity (IR): V=f´(IR), then model economic development by divi...

  6. Problems of Development of Economic Entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerimov Elsevar Nariman ogly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article were systematized and analyzed the problems of economic entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Particular attention is paid to economic and legal foundations, as well as trends in education and development, assessing their status in the region. Substantiates the main directions of development of small and medium-sized businesses, as well as commercial production companies in the country.? ?????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????????. ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????.

  7. The selected problems of energy sector development in new economic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General problems of energy market development in Poland are addressed. The structure of Polish energy sector and conditions of its functioning are presented. The general concept of national and local energy market organisation is also discussed. This is particularly crucial in programming the processes of investments in the energy sector under new economic conditions in Poland. (author)

  8. Role of nuclear energy within the framework of a national energetic plan. Nuclear energy and developing countries. Economical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of competitivity of nuclear power plants in developing countries are examined. Investments, choice of reactor size, fossil fuel savings are studied. In addition to these economical and financial problems there are also technical and political problems

  9. Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafoor Awan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

  10. Development economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  11. Foreign aid, economic development and the indebtedness problem, with special reference to the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abuel Nour, Abuel Gasim Mohamed

    1981-01-01

    In the task of promoting both economic growth and development of the developing countries, both theory and development experience suggest that international co-operation in a broad sense has a vital role to play. For most developing countries, foreign trade is, and is likely to remain, the most important ingredient of such co-operation, although in the absence of a so-called new international economic order, its benefits may be smaller than most developing countries think...

  12. THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

  13. Nuclear power option for solving problems in connection with economic development, energy supply and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs

  14. Nuclear energy centres and the economic and ecological problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the factors and problems associated with the continued practice of conventional scattered location of nuclear power plants and external fuel cycle facilities. These problems are connected with the substantial increase in the flow of spent fuel shipments, alienation of valuable land and water resources, delays in site development and in the commissioning of nuclear power plants, increased expenditure of labour and other economic and ecological constraints of nuclear power plant siting in the European part of the USSR. The authors also consider one way of overcoming or reducing the difficulties by establishing large nuclear energy centres (including a group of nuclear power plants with condensers and external fuel cycle facilities) in areas with low population density where land and water resources are less valuable and not in short supply and by transmitting the electric power to the areas of consumption. A comparative evaluation has been made of two methods of future siting of nuclear power systems. (author)

  15. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.

  16. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION - A Road map for the economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivasharanappa Annappa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing countries like India. Despite large expenditures on transport system, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption. Therefore, developing countries like India have a major crisis on their hands. Transport problems in India are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated India cities.

  17. Special Economic Zones as a Nanoindustry Development Institute: Failures, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakov Oleg Vasilyevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the contradictions arising from the formation and operation of special economic zones (SEZ of Russia as the institutes of national nanoindustry (NNI in 2006-2013. The specific deficiencies in the management of SEZ JSC are identified. The author reveals uneven and delayed development, structural imbalances, decreased liability or destructive activities of stakeholders, insufficient activity of resident companies and related groups, the high degree of uncertainty in achieving profitability and efficiency of the SEZ. The drawbacks of state support for the development of SEZs in the NNI, braking and acceleration mechanisms of this process are shown. The necessity of introducing a more effective mechanism for the stimulation of the Russias NNI SEZ development with the use of not only preferences, guarantees and benefits, but also the sanctions to residents, their partners and contractors in the construction process and in the performance of tasks is argued. The idea of the feasibility of establishing SEZ on the initiative of regional authorities and entrepreneurs at the expense of private investment and development budgets of the Russian Federation for significant recovery of the accumulation process in the NNI and reducing the cost of public investment is put forward. The creation of the General Scheme of the NNI SEZ network in Russia in view of the allocation of resources, production and infrastructure dislocation, scope and vectors of firms, is justified. The conclusions are confirmed by the materials of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development monitoring and the audit of the Accounts Chamber.

  18. Nuclear power complexes and economic-ecological problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of constructing NPP's at separate sites in densely populated areas on economic efficiency of nuclear power and its ecological implications has been investigated. Locating NPP's and nuclear fuel cycle plants at different sites results in large scale shipments of fresh and spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. The fact increases the risk of a detrimental environmental impact, duration of the external fuel cycle, and worsens, in the end, nuclear power economics. The prudence of creating nuclear parks is discussed. The parks may be especially efficient if the program of developing NPP's with fast breeder reactors is a success. Comparative evaluations show that from economic standpoint deployment of nuclear parks in the European part of the USSR has no disadvantage before construction of separate NPP's and supporting fuel cycle facilities of equivalent capacity, even if the construction of nuclear parks runs dearer by 30% than assumed. The possibility for nuclear parks to meet a part of demand for ''off-peak'' energy production, district heating and process heat production is also shortly discussed

  19. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate r...

  20. Problems of economic introduction of large heat sources into developing heat-supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By contrast with conventional heating stations, nuclear heat sources will be characterized by a considerably greater economic unit power. However, the large capacity which at once becomes available through the introduction of a nuclear heat source will be confronted with a slowly growing heat demand, and with limited economic possibilities of replacing conventional stations in the connected heat-supply system. The paper considers the gradually increasing utilization of this capacity and gives, by simplified methods, an economic evaluation of the introduction of nuclear heating plants, and of nuclear power plants with heat extraction. Conclusions on the principles of introducing nuclear heat sources are given. (author)

  1. Development of predictions of future pollution problems. Socio-economic environmental studies series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the results of a program to identify, rank and project short- and intermediate-term future pollution problems. Identification was accomplished using three independent search approaches based on industrial production, environmental, and societal trends and activity. Primary emphasis was placed on the environmental trends as gleaned from EPA, Battelle, Literature, and other sources. An initial list of problems was compiled with specific stressors identified with each. Nine ranking factors were devised to select ten most serious problems from the initial list. The factors included: persistence; mobility/pervasiveness; environmental, technological, social, and political complexity; physiological risk; research needs; and bulk or volume of the pollutant. The ten problems selected by this method were further ranked in order of relative importance. The ten selected problems in rank order are as follows: (1) Impacts of new energy initiatives; (2) Geophysical modifications of the earth; (3) Trace element (metal) contaminants; (4) Proliferating hazardous and toxic chemicals; (5) Emissions from new automobile fuels, additives, and control devices; (6) Disposal of waste sludges, liquids, and solid residues; (7) Critical radiation problems; (8) Fine particulates; (9) Expanding drinking water contamination; (10) Irrigation (impoundment) practices. Five to ten year projections were made of the ten problems which resulted

  2. The nuclear electric option in developing countries: Technical, economic, and political problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned

  3. Nuclear power engineering problems as the political and economical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and economic aspects of nuclear power engineering status in the countries of the former USSR nowadays are considered. The factors, which lead to the nuclear power crisis, are analyzed. It is shown that the state monopoly for developing the problems of nuclear power engineering and NPP operation plays the main part. The ways for possible crisis overcoming are suggested

  4. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  5. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  6. Experience in development and introduction of a problem set for calculation and analysis of operational and economical indices of the WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural flowsheet of a system reflecting the composition and information interrelation of calculation problems of the South Ukrainian NPP technical-economical indices is given. The software developed permits to perform tunings for different changes of a technological algorithm which appear during the introduction process and NPP operation

  7. Energy and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development

  8. Malaria and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Thuilliez, Josselin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on the endogenous relationship between the health status of a population and the economic development of a nation. We focus on a wide phenomenon touching many low-income countries: malaria. Firstly, we propose to rethink the economic analysis of malaria by combining economic epidemiology tools with the poverty trap literature. The endogeneity of malaria with respect to households and individuals socioeconomic characteristics and choices remains a part...

  9. Entrepreneurship in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

  10. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system

  11. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction. Final Report. NCEE 2010-4002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas; Huang, Chun-Wei; Hirschman, Becca; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Since 1995, the Buck Institute has partnered with university economists and expert teachers to create the Problem Based Economics curriculum. The curriculum was developed to respond to NCEE (National Council on Economic Education) standards, and it is supported by professional development for teachers. This study examines whether the Problem Based…

  12. Economical problems of nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign papers dealing with technical and economical investigations of the problems of designing the nuclear power plants for district heating are reviewed. Results of investigations devoted to optimizing the profile, equipment set, technological arrangement and main parameters of the nuclear power plants for district heating (NPPDH) are considered as well as the results of studying the NPPDH and the thermal power plants (TPP) economic contestability. Results of determination of the rational scale of NDHP development are presented. The investigations carried out in the GDR show that the optimal power of the WWER type reactor unit for the single-purpose nuclear district heating plant is 100 MW(t). The FRG specialists maintain that expenses on heat generation at NPPDH and TPP.will be equal, if the cost of the organic fuel is 2 dollars/GJ (which corresponds to the world level of prices for oil and coal from Ruhr) with the reactor unit power of 1000-1200 MW(t) and heat supply of 500-600 MW(t). It is stressed that in the FRG the NPPDH with a reactor of 2000 MW thermal power and the distance of heat transportation more than 20 km and the NPPDH with the reactor of 3000 MW thermal power and transportation distance more than 30 km can contest with a thermal power plant. The economically reasonable level of the centralized heat supply system use for district heating is, as a rule, 40-60 % of the theoretically possible level

  13. Ghana--medical care amid economic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L

    1980-07-01

    Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages were the main problem with drugs being the greatest worry. Food for the wards was another problem, both in otaining and in affording it. All other necessities were equally difficult to find. Most members of the health team found their personal and family problems overwhelming, and there was a high rate of absenteeism. Planning the future of Legon Hospital became an impossible task. Medical care in a arapidly deteriorating economic situation poses its own problems, problems in many ways different from those found in countries that are equally poor but more stable. PMID:7441643

  14. Problems of fuel cycle economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of specific fuel cycle costs since 1970 has been characterized by rises above the general rate of price increases. Developments in this respect differend greatly in the different components of the fuel cycle. The contribution by natural uranium costs has changed very little since 1976 and is likely to remain stable also in the years to come. This applies also to the conversion of natural uranium and to uranium enrichment, both sectors showing considerable excess capacities. A relatively steady development of prices has been observed also in the fabrication of fuel assemblies for light water reactors. Improved fabrication techniques and higher throughputs contributed to major price drops from the midseventies on. In the meantime, prices have started to go up again, roughly in line with the general rate of price increases, mainly as a consequence of numerous improvements in fuel assembly design. Considerable increases have been experienced in the cost of waste management, which used to be greatly underrated in former times on the grounds of presumed excess capacities and depreciated military installations. Present waste management costs on the basis of commercial reprocessing conditions can be estimated with relatively good accuracy in the light of practical experience, e.g., in the French reprocessing plants. (orig.)

  15. Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Vannella

    2007-01-01

    The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to at...

  16. States and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  17. States and Economic Development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Atul, Kohli.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is s [...] trong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  18. Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power

    OpenAIRE

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    2000-01-01

    In presented article Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical p...

  19. Economic issues in the legacy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

  20. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction. Final Report. NCEE 2010-4022rev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas; Huang, Chun-Wei; Hirschman, Becca; Huang, Min

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the Problem Based Economics curriculum developed by the Buck Institute for Education improves grade 12 students' content knowledge as measured by the Test of Economic Literacy, a test refined by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) over decades. Students' problem-solving skills in economics were also…

  1. Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Economic Development)

    OpenAIRE

    mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    The theory we have designed the idea of economic development which remain associated with main elements that consists of two main development area, firstly is Health and secondly, Education development. The main factor of this idea to provide Human development that enormously influence on economic development which resulted from different perspectives. Many researches explained by analysis of focus variables of economic growth which have relationship to lead the economic development. In addit...

  2. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  3. Dependent Data in Economic and Financial Problems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Vol. 1. Praha : Professional Publishing, Mikulova 1572/13, 149 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic, 2011 - (Dlouhý, M.; Sko?dopolová, V.), s. 327-332 ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [29th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Janská Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/1610; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic programming * Wasserstein metric * L_1norm * Empirical estimates * One-stage problems * Multistage problems * Independent samples * m-dependent samples * Markov dependence * Phi-mixing random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/kankova-dependent data in economic and financial problems.pdf

  4. Perspectives on Urban Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the alternative meaning of economic development in an urban context and attempts to link the literature on community development in North America to concepts about economic development in developing countries. Looks at five strategies of community-based economic development, emphasizing internationalization of development policy. (Author)

  5. Keynes and economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. P., Thirlwall.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância p [...] ara os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários. Abstract in english It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates [...] that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.

  6. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  7. Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vannella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to attribute environmental problems to the economic activities that generate them. In particular, a complex procedure of explanatory analysis carried out on a regional scale is suggested. Based on environmental measurements already performed all over the national territory, the procedure identifies territorial and environmental characteristics and latent variables, as well as the variety of the intricate phenomena in a way that is compatible with the requirements of the national schemes for economic an environmental accounting. References are given to environmental variables on a regional scale that have not been previously considered in ISTAT’s current NAMEA projects and that can be obtained faster.

  8. On some problems of physical economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  10. Economic Development and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Dutraive

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une exploration et une analyse du nouveau programme de recherche institutionnaliste (appelé NNIE appliqué à la question du développement. Les sources de ce programme sont attribuées aux travaux de D. North et aux enseignements issus des expériences de transition. Inversement, l’article évalue l’influence de ce programme sur les politiques de développement préconisées par les organisations internationales.This paper offers an overview and an inquiry into what I will call the New New Institutional Economics (NNIE. D. North’s analysis and transition experiments are considered as major sources of this research program. The implications of this NNIE for the development policies recommended or requested by international organizations are also discussed.

  11. The population problem as economic disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapa, L S

    1985-01-01

    The author rejects neo-Malthusian concepts of population problems in developing countries and develops the hypothesis that overpopulation exists where people lack the basic means of subsistence or suffer massive unemployment, both symptoms of dependent capitalism according to the author. Population problems are analyzed in the context of divisions among social classes and resource utilization based on these divisions. The need for developing societies to gain independence from imported technology is stressed. PMID:12178552

  12. Editorial: Economic Development (November 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Bashir; Chris McPhee

    2010-01-01

    Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local gov...

  13. Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yu. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  14. The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapa, Lakshman S.

    1985-01-01

    Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)

  15. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  16. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  17. Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In presented article ?Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power? I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical policy. After that I tried to define resulting facts from such process.When I wanted to achieve stated goal, I describe information process and integration problems of Slovac Republic, especially what is neccessary when we want to be ready to create assumptions for future development. I evaluate development in Slovac Republic as a period of the wasted occasions, that remove from society essential part of competitive advantages, that would enable society to integrate to the european structure from the economical, as well as from the social view as relatively equal society.Consequently I described globalisation process and trespassing of economical power, where first of all I mentioned signs of concrete social environment in present time. After such description I mentioned basic fact, that are forming global policy, goals and ways of tools applying of such policy.In last part I mentioned bearers of economical power in global economy. In conclusion I can state, that as concern to the transitive states of middle and eastern Europe, bearers of economical power have elaborated shocking scenario of its transmission to the market economy. In presented article I wanted to present process that would be basis, very important for realizastion of economies restructuralisation.Since till now mentioned fact was successfully achieved only in few cases, monopolisation of decision on the level of institutions, that manage forming of global economy as well as pressing of strongest economical subjects interests in world economical system are results of mentioned development.

  18. Bangladesh : Development Forum Economic Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report reviews recent economic developments, showing economic growth continues to its path, and, aided by global economic recovery, export growth remains strong. The forex market has been stable since the national currency (taka) was floated in by the end-May 2003. The fiscal stance for FY04 remains expansionary, but within prudent limits, and without straining fiscal sustainability, w...

  19. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseev, Sergei M; Besov, Konstantin O; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V

    2012-04-30

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  20. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  1. Evolutionary programming techniques for different kinds of economic dispatch problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabarathi, T.; Jayaprakash, K.; Raghunathan, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 (India); Jeyakumar, D.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2005-02-01

    This paper is aimed at exploring the performance of the different evolutionary programming (EP) techniques for all kinds of economic dispatch (ED) problems. The three EP techniques considered here differ in the kind of mutation they use: Gaussian, Cauchy and combined Gaussian-Cauchy mutation. The kinds of problems tested are: ED of generators with prohibited operating zones (POZ), ED of generators with piecewise quadratic cost functions (PQCF), combined economic-environmental dispatch (CEED) and multi-area economic dispatch (MAED). The three EP techniques have been developed in Matlab 6.5 and numerical examples typical to each kind of ED have been tested. The simulation results are compared and discussed to show the relative performances of the different EP techniques.

  2. Regional and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Entrepreneurship and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Bonnet

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development and entrepreneurship. Given the neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on that relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanced in this ...

  4. Population, poverty and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on ...

  5. Differential evolution algorithm for emission constrained economic power dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; Spea, S.R. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University (Egypt); Abido, M.A. [Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed to solve emission constrained economic power dispatch (ECEPD) problem. Traditionally electric power systems are operated in such a way that the total fuel cost is minimized regardless of emissions produced. With increased requirements for environmental protection, alternative strategies are required. The proposed algorithm attempts to reduce the production of atmospheric emissions such as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, caused by the operation of fossil-fueled thermal generation. Such reduction is achieved by including emissions as a constraint in the objective of the overall dispatching problem. A simple constraint approach to handle the system constraints is proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30-bus system and is compared with conventional methods. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the emission constrained economic power dispatch problem. (author)

  6. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

  7. Essays in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    MOTT, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, this thesis is neither wholly empirical or theoretical, macro or micro and instead may be viewed as an eclectic mix of approaches and ideas that go some way toinvestigating the challenges faced by the world's least developed economies. The first chapter...

  8. Institutions, Economic Development, and Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Michael; Klasen, Stephan; Schwarze, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a unified framework linking two important debates: First, the debate about the respective roles of geography and institutions on economic development; Second, the literature on the role of technological change and economic development on agricultural intensification and land use changes. We use this framework to study empirically deforestation patterns at the rainforest margin. To this end we specify an empirical model that can explore the causal chain ranging from geographi...

  9. Essays on Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies agricultural technology adoption, child labor and development. Although adoption of fertilizers has been high in South Asia, farmers may fail to use it efficiently. Besides higher costs incurred by households engaged in agriculture, inefficient use of fertilizers may also have negative consequences for the environment. The first chapter of this dissertation uses a field experiment in Bangladesh to study whether providing farmers access to a simple rule-of-thumb tool ...

  10. Economic Globalization, Marketization Reform and Economic Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yanhui; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01

    Economic globalization is one of the hottest topics among academics, government agencies and other concerned organizations. This paper investigates whether the overall benefits of economic globalization are greater than their costs, and discusses the interaction among economic globalization, economic development, and marketization reform in China, so as to present an answer to the question of how China should participate in economic globalization.

  11. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  12. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  13. STRATEGY OF TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Medvid’

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.

  14. Higher Education and Economic Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    It is essential for economic development with the physical objects-with the development of human capital is required. But of these who we need to be the first priority of the problem is old. Especially in the development of human capital is higher education, there happened an important place in this area is person?s aproductively ability. Higher education saw the economic scale is clearly evident in the market demand for services which have pace. Returns to scale cost-benefit analysis and eco...

  15. Economic Development: Threats and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2012-01-01

    Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology) known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by ec...

  16. Three essays on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Errico, Paula Luciana

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to study some of the mechanisms suggested by the economic literature as factors that could prevent individuals from attaining certain domains of well-being. This thesis is divided in three independent essays providing new evidence on three issues within the field of economic development: the effect of social networks on immigrants’ labor market outcomes (first essay), the long-lasting impact of income inequality on entrepreneurial success and job cre...

  17. The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Erber, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

  18. Income Redistribution and Socio-economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericková Beáta Mikušová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trade off efficiency and equity issue, which is represented by income redistribution, becomes increasingly debated not only in economic and social, but also in political dimension. Solution of this trade-off problem is projected into the implementation of social policy and results achieved in macroeconomics policy, with the goal to define the optimal scope and character of the income redistribution processes. The submitted empirical study responds to this problem through the investigation of research question focused on the existence of a relationship between the social protection expenditure (expenditure on policy of family, old age and unemployment and the achieved level of socio-economic development (quantified by Human Development Index HDI. The existence of this relationship is statistically tested in a sample of 15 countries. The research sample is heterogeneous in relation to the analyzed indicators, and it contains countries with a different level of economics development and income redistribution policy. Based on the results of quantitative analysis in most surveyed countries, impact of social protection expenditure on the reached level of economic development was confirmed. The correlation between the social protection expenditure and socio-economic development is positive in the case of the family and old-age pension policy, and negative in the case of employment policy

  19. The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Pyotr A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.

  20. Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria). Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies r...

  1. Efficiency of economic development models

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Camelia Iacob; Ana-Maria VOlintiru; Andrei Mihai Cristea

    2013-01-01

    The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the wor...

  2. UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mu...

  3. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  4. Social ties and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Fernando; Anchorena, Jose

    2008-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious general equilibrium model where agents allocate time across three activities: production, trade, and leisure. Leisure includes time spent socializing, which economizes transaction costs. Our framework yields multiple equilibria in terms of the number of social ties and predicts that the number of social ties is positively associated with development, a relationship we observe in cross-country data. The model captures additional dimensions of data, namely: (i) increas...

  5. Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anawat Bunnag

    2013-01-01

    Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Eco...

  6. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.

    1979-04-01

    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  7. Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The ...

  8. Corporate governance, innovative enterprise, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Lazonick, William

    2006-01-01

    The notion that good corporate governance means maximizing shareholder value derives from the neoclassical theory of the market economy. I explain why this perspective is highly problematic for understanding the operation and performance of the business corporation and hence the institutions that, for the sake of economic development, should govern it. The main problem is that the market-economy perspective cannot comprehend the process of innovation, including the role of the business corpor...

  9. Rare-Earth Economics: The Balance Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnemans, K.; Jones, P. T.; Van Acker, K.; Blanpain, B.; Mishra, B.; Apelian, D.

    2013-07-01

    TMS has forged cooperative agreements with several carefully selected organizations that actively work to benefit the materials science community. In this occasional series, JOM will provide an update on the activities of these organizations. This installment, by the Center for Resource Recovery & Recycling (CR3), focuses on the importance of recycling of rare earths to mitigate the so-called Balance Problem. The CR3 is a research center established by Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Colorado School of Mines, and KU Leuven. Twenty-eight corporations and national laboratories along with support from the U.S. National Science Foundation's Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) program are sponsors of the center.

  10. Population growth and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, S

    1989-01-01

    The Malthusian and neo-Malthusian approaches to the role of population growth in economic development and resource depletion are briefly outlined. Three arguments are then presented that emphasize demographic determinism, empirical evidence, and cause and effect. The author concludes that non-coercive family planning programs may have a role to play in countries that are unable to reduce inequalities, particularly for the poor and for women. PMID:12316895

  11. Introduction: Long term economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  12. Introduction: Long term economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  13. Social capital and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    ????????, ?????? ??????????; ????????, ??????? ??????????; Mishenina, Natalia Viktorivna; Oliynik, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature on social capital and development and identifies key properties of this concept that are then used in a model illustrating the potential welfare effects from social capital, in terms of both wellbeing and economic benefits. The model focuses on access to inputs into the growth process and identifies necessary conditions for benefits from social capital in terms of the availability of the right kind of intermediary making access to capital resources possible, a...

  14. Topics in Local Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bubbico, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current debate in literature about local economic development by considering two different topics: quality of institutions, and the role of clusters in innovation and productivity growth. The research is built upon three papers. The first paper deals with the analysis of the effect of administrative continuity on administrative efficiency. The analysis underlines the importance of different typologies of social capital. Findings reveal a positive impact on ...

  15. ENTERPRISE STEADY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ivanchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of a modern enterprise should be its ability to dynamic changes. Development and implementation of an efficient business model of an enterprise is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Such a business model should include the availability of flexible strategies, moving plans, resources mobilizing alternatives and so on. However, despite the enterprises' desire for dynamic development, ensuring sustainability in the market environment is of great importance for an enterprise. Fragmented categorial and conceptual apparatus of the given problem prompted the subject of the research, which is to determine the economic content and usefulness of the category of steady economic development in the practice of company management. The paper presents a critical analysis of economists' views on the nature of such categories as "sustainability" and "steady economic development"; differentiation of the concepts of sustainability and stability of a company; substantiation of the expediency of using the term "steady economic de­velopment" in the practice of company management. Scientific novelties of the research are proposed interpretations of economic categories "sustainability" and "steady economic development". In particular, the author considers enterprise sustainability as the ability of a company to return to the balanced condition after deviations caused by destabilizing influence of external or internal factors. The main feature of stability and sustainability of a company is that stability implies immutability and sustainability means the ability to maintain equilibrium operation. A specific feature of the proposed approach to the definition of steady economic development is represented by the following content specifications: the purpose of development is increased enterprise flexibility and adaptability to internal and external destabilizing factors; the direction of development within the steady space borders can follow the ascending, descending or stagnation vector and different trajectories; in the case of lost sustainability resulting from development processes the company quickly returns to sustainable operation and restores its equilibrium. The practical significance is that specification of the content features of the concept "steady economic development" provides unconditional basis for a modern approach to enterprise development management from the standpoint of sustainability.

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA

    2013-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

  17. Teaching Economics to the Best Undergraduates: What Are the Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students with negative repercussions on their performance. The literature suggests that the students' problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the style and method of teaching together with the course content. Particularly attacked are the chalk and talk…

  18. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  19. Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiansyah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD problem is a common task in the operational planning of a power system, which requires to be optimized. This paper presents an effective and reliable particle swarm optimization (PSO technique for the economic load dispatch problem. The results have been demonstrated for ELD of standard 3-generator and 6-generator systems with and without consideration of transmission losses. The final results obtained using PSO are compared with conventional quadratic programming and found to be encouraging.

  20. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Samir SAYAH; Khaled ZEHAR

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  1. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir SAYAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  2. The economic crisis and the great problems of mankind

    OpenAIRE

    C?t?lin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU; Alexandru C?t?lin POPA

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis that humanity is currently facing proves to be the most severe one since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Poor financial system, unsustainable public debt and competitiveness inequalities in the world have greatly contributed to the crisis. Naturally, economic policy makers are concerned about problems related to the restoration of fiscal, trade and monetary balances and are trying to boost investment, employment and consumption. Solving these problems is difficult, but ...

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  4. Homopolar welding development and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, J.A.; Harville, M.W.; Weldon, J.M. [Parker Kinetic Designs, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Carnes, R.W.; Hudson, R.S.; Nichols, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Electromechanics

    1996-09-01

    Homopolar welding (HPW) is a single-shot solid-state resistance forge welding process that is under development as a single-station pipe welding method. Weld quality issues have been addressed by a Joint Industry Program and the process economics favor commercial use. Fielding of a HPW system is dependent on process tooling design, the speed of the process, and the economics of the process. The HPW weld speed of three seconds makes weld advance times of 12 to 20 minutes possible and will result in a large reduction in overall pipeline construction costs. In addition, HPW is an inherently controllable process, so the weld power pulse will be tailorable to meet a variety of weld and material requirements.

  5. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  6. Problems of Ukraine trade potential development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

  7. Nuclear power and economic development: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables

  8. Universities and National Development: Issues and Problems in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relevance and contribution of universities to national development in economic, sociocultural, and political dimensions. Discusses rates of return, employment, vocational curricula, equality, and ideology. Concludes that a major problem in developing nations is ambivalence of universities stemming from their international and national…

  9. Dificultades de la gobernanza del desarrollo económico en el entorno regional de Medellín / Les difficultés de la gouvernance du développement économique dans la région nord de la ville de Medellín / Governance Problems Related to Economic Development in Medellín's Periphery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Polanco.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La perennidad del páramo del entorno regional de Medellín es un problema de gobernanza del desarrollo económico. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar las dificultades de esta gobernanza. Las primeras conciernen a la relación entre desarrollo económico y protección ambiental. Las segundas, tie [...] nen que ver con la institucionalización de reglas de juego entre actores gubernamentales. Se consideran elementos teóricos de la nueva geografía económica y del neoinstitucionalismo, partiendo de los resultados de un análisis espacial multiobjetivo. Se observa que la gobernanza es sensible al efecto de aglomeración económica, pues presenta mayores dificultades técnicas conforme se está más cerca de la ciudad. Finalmente, las dificultades políticas radican en reglas de juego excluyentes, como consecuencia de una lógica de proyecto burocrática. Abstract in english Conservation efforts aimed at preserving forest resources in the Páramo (moor) System of the northern periphery of Medellín is a territorial governance problem related to economic development. The scope of this article is to identify technical and political difficulties of governance. Technical diff [...] iculties concern the relationship between economic development and environmental preservation. Political difficulties have to do with the institutionalization of rules between government actors. This study uses a New Economic Geography and Neoinstitutionalism approach and applies a Multi-objective Spatial Analysis. Results suggest that technical difficulties of governance are affected by economic agglomeration effects, increasing as territories get closer to the city. Finally, the tenets of the bureaucratic project promote non-inclusive political rules.

  10. Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Bunnag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in 2007, his work has become worldwide recognized as an efficient means towards sustainable development with a focus on human development. The philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is basically a means to achieve happiness at the individual, community and country levels because the Sufficiency Economy Approach is applicable to the micro and macro levels. All the principles are much related to human development process toward right living, therefore right interaction and relation with other beings on this planet including natural resources. From this basis, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy provides a practical tool to cultivate necessary conditions and to alter human well-being through happiness development process.

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

  12. Solution of Economic Dispatch Problem using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED with transmission loss by satisfying the linear equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA.

  13. Particle swarm optimization for various types of economic dispatch problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyakumar, D.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu (India); Jayabarathi, T.; Raghunathan, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu (India)

    2006-01-15

    This paper describes a successful adaptation of the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED) problems in power systems such as, multi-area ED with tie line limits, ED with multiple fuel options, combined environmental economic dispatch, and the ED of generators with prohibited operating zones. Numerical examples typical to each type are solved on Matlab 6.5 platform, using both the PSO method and the classical evolutionary programming (CEP) approach. The results obtained show that the proposed PSO based ED algorithm can provide comparable dispatch solutions with reduced computation time for all types of ED problems. (author)

  14. Economic and Financial Problems via Multiobjective Stochastic Optimization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Jihlava : College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojackova, H.) ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-14445S; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic multiobjective optimization problems * efficient solution * Wasserstein metric * L_1 norm * empirical estimates * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-economic and financial problems via multiobjective stochastic optimization.pdf

  15. Resonances from economic development for current economic policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    RUANE, FRANCES

    2008-01-01

    On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.

  16. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-01-01

    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is a...

  17. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    OpenAIRE

    R.Prathiba; M. Balasingh Moses; S Sakthivel

    2014-01-01

    Economic load dispatch (ELD) is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA). This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other n...

  18. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    The social and economical development must be approached in such a way that it minimizes the effects of the economic activity over the deterioration of resources and to discourage waste. The pollution control depends on humans’ ability to understand the seriousness of the ecological lack of balance.The sustainable lasting development, being a long term economical development, is possible by efficiently using the economical instruments (cost, profit); the political, juridical and social ones, ...

  19. Understanding Islam: Development, Economics and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; Krichene, Noureddine; Mirakhor, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the foundational rules governing human, economic and financial development in Islam, as understood from the Quran and from the life and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), are summarized. These rules pave the path to development as the basis of institutional structure, which in turn, underpin the path of economic and social progress. The essential elements in the life of a Muslim—the unity of creation, freedom and freedom of choice, economic and human development, econom...

  20. Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria. Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies ripe more benefits from globalization among others that they should provide economic environments that are conducive, capable of attracting foreign investors and strong enough to support the strength and capacity of the domestic industry, otherwise, the globalization opportunities could only be seen as a mirage.

  1. Electricity use and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)

  2. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. ...of the following community development...meet the specified economic development objective. (a) Community Development...

  3. Assets of Nation (Pyramid of Economic Development)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ovais; mashkoor, Aasim

    2015-01-01

    The theory of economic development have designed to explore the assets of nations which explain and analyzed the emphasize on Water crisis, deforestation, land of agriculture for yield and minerals. these are the main resources of improving and generating economic health. we analyzed further significant factors which help to designed the qualitative theory of economic development.

  4. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore MH; Burton I

    2003-07-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  5. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... development as well as public expenditures....

  6. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Menshikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  7. Innovation, economic diversification and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Dominik; Pyka, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we bridge a gap between innovation economics and the human development approach by analyzing positive and negative effects of different types of economic diversification on social welfare. Economic variety is a driver and outcome of economic development. However, diversification leads to ambiguous effects on the well-being of human agents: on the one hand, increasing variety augments the freedom of human agents to choose. On the other hand, it can overburden their capabilities t...

  8. Problems and Prospects of Ensuring Economic Safety of the Construction Organizations ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achkasov Anatoliy Ye.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific-theoretical problems of construction branch of Ukraine in aspect of external financial and economic safety of the construction organizations are investigated. Financial and economic bases of functioning of a construction complex and investment dominants of its sustainable development are analysed. Deterrents of development of construction business are defined. It is system the perspective directions of development of construction branch and their coordination communications with environment are presented.??????????? ??????-????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????. ???????????????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????.

  9. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  10. Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Aimee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: WHO CARES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. McNeill

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author, an experienced anthropologist who worked in Central and Eastern Europe, has used his "outsider" professional perspective to look at questions of greed and need as they relate to matters of economics. The problems that arise due human fallibility in scientific knowledge application have been considered, specifically in the fields of anthropology and economics. Basing on the experience of anthropologists, whose scientific research has often been used in the past century to abuse vulnerable people groups, the author argues that the need for ethical standards and practices is even more urgent in the field of economics than it is in anthropology. The increased urgency results from the great influence that money has on human behavior. The development of standards and practices to check and balance human tendencies to exploit others will never be complete, he claims, but must be an ongoing priority. The process must also be creative to deal with the tendency to try to avoid or circumvent it. It has been concluded that we are professionally responsible to ensure that the results of our research and teaching help produce improving care for the needs of vulnerable people in the world around us.

  12. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kornukh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative changes of an economic component of a corporation’s activities conditioned by the level of innovativeness of all kinds of activities for providing economic growth within the chosen mission, motivation and activity intellectualization. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The study made enables stating the fact that the category «corporation’s economic development» transforms into the category «corporation’s economic and innovative development» and from this perspective all components of the latter will be treated as «corporation’s operational and innovative development», «corporation’s financial and innovative development», «corporation’s investment and innovative development» and «corporation’s logistic and innovative development». Also working out a system of dynamic indicators for determining the level of innovativeness of a corporation’s economic development and a system of motivating and intellectualizing a corporation’s economic and innovative activities is a direction for further research.

  13. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

    2014-09-01

    Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  14. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  15. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  16. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Problems via Heavy Tails.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Busines Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 396-401 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/0956; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization problems * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tailed distributions * stable distribution * Pareto distribution * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Kankova-empirical estimates in economic and financial problems via heavy tails.pdf

  17. Economic sense and problems of mineral raw economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consider the role of mineral raw recourses in the society life, historical development of rock-ore business, the areas of applying of mineral raw, economic aspects, tendencies and prospects of their development in our country and abroad. In this work also was paid attention to exhaustion of profitable mineral recourses and measures of their rational using

  18. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  19. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  20. Regulatory problems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical regulatory problems of developing countries are discussed relative to the lack of governmental understanding of a new technology, budget restrictions, manpower shortage, and organizational deficiencies. Consequences of these problems include the shortcomings of national nuclear laws, the limited role of national regulatory bodies in contract negotiations, their co-operation with utilities, and the control of plant activities. Recommendations outline the early establishment of a national regulatory body, conditions for reactor sale approval, and periodic review of the proper functioning of the national regulatory body. (author)

  1. Colonial Heritage and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Asoni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    While the importance of institutions for explaining cross-country income differences is widely recognized, comparatively little is known about the origins of economic institutions. One strand of the literature emphasizes cultural differences while another points at exogenous environmental factors such as mortality and climate. Both are supported by some empirical evidence. I reconcile the two schools of institutional origins by proposing a theory of self-selection of colonists to different ge...

  2. Law, economic growth and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A., Asongu

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law channels. As a policy implication results support benefits of the rule o...

  3. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete...

  4. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

  5. ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.

  6. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....

  7. BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE REGION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshunetlev A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines

  8. Adventuresports and Economic Development Team Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Adventuresports Institute offers a two-year degree program at Garrett Community College (McHenry, Maryland) that combines courses in adventure sports with economics, marketing, environmental science, and events management. The goal is to develop an infrastructure for the adventure sport industry and promote economic development in Appalachia based…

  9. Economics of organisations and development

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    La presente tesis contiene tres ensayos sobre la Econom??a de las Organizaciones y el Desarrollo Econ??mico. Cada cap??tulo se centra en un t??pico distinto, cuya relevancia ha sido destacada por la literatura sobre Desarrollo Econ??mico en la ??ltimas dos d??cadas.La motivaci??n del primer ensayo reside en el hecho de que el inapropiado funcionamiento de las instituciones pol??ticas y econ??micas constituye un obst??culo severo para el progreso econ??mico. El ensayo analiza el rol de la con...

  10. Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Udin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.

  11. A Model of Quantum Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sobey, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Economic Development (or the QED MODEL) is an entirely new field of theoretical economic conceptualisation into the evolutionary end point of the New Global Economy. A full description of the process of forming a kernel of fundamental 'quantum like' logic of the architecture and mechanics of these totally new quantum economies is included, as well as some of the more urgent and suggested effects on Humanity. The interdisciplinary boundaries of Free Market Economics and Quant...

  12. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  13. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Optimization Problems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houda, Michal; Ka?ková, Vlasta

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 19, ?. 29 (2012), s. 50-69. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/1610; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/houda-empirical estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf

  14. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....

  15. Is inclusive development a sustainable development? : A political economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pushparaj, Soundararajan

    2013-01-01

    A major development policy challenge in the contemporary economic policy discourse is to sustain the development momentum. Prevailing political economic realities influence the economic thinking to accommodate the political compulsions. The inclusive development is one such development strategy. Inclusive development is not a mere political pragmatism but a sensible development strategy. This paper discusses the relevance of distributive justice in relation to civil disturbance across and wit...

  16. Educational Reform for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Nicolas; Waters, Alan R.

    1974-01-01

    Article describes a hypothetical formal educational system developed from a particular knowledge of the existing forms of formal education in the less developed nations of Africa and Latin America. (Author)

  17. Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

  18. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

  19. Economic development and nuclear proliferation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors argue that the impact of nuclear-weapons programs on the development prospects of countries economically able to undertake such programs would likely be fairly small. The amounts involved and the backward linkages are usually sufficiently small that nuclear-weapons programs in most less-developed countries (LDCs) can be considered an enclave activity. On the other hand, economic development clearly facilitates bomb development. The chapter sets forth the main characteristics of economic growth that are likely to facilitate bomb development, then considers the ''bomb levy'' necessary for various types of countries to produce bombs on a scale considered appropriate for LDCs. It concludes that it will be policy-imposed costs rather than economic costs in themselves that will prevent determined LDC governments of moderate income and population from developing nuclear weapons. 16 references, 2 tables

  20. [Outlier cases in surgical disciplines. Micro-economic and macro-economic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecklenburg, A; Liebeneiner, J; Schaefer, O

    2009-09-01

    Postoperative complications will always occur and the negative impact puts strain on patients, relatives and the attending physicians. The conversion to a remuneration system based on flat rates (diagnosis-related groups) presents additional economic problems for hospitals in some resource-intensive treatments. This particularly pertains to extremely cost-intensive cases in which costs succeed revenue by the factor of 2 and are often surgical procedures. Here the economic risk increases with the number of interventions performed. Despite improvements in the remuneration system this problem persists. An improved payment for these treatments is desirable. To achieve this it is necessary to systematically analyze the extremely cost-intensive cases by experts of different medical disciplines to create a data basis for a proposal of a cost-covering payment. PMID:19636515

  1. An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Subramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Dispatch(ED problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA, for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the FA to ED for different Test Case system. ED is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Simulated Annealing (SA, Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, and Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  2. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

  3. GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ???’??????

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

  4. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... new policy options to promote the environmental sustainability of biofuels feedstock production... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic...

  5. Economical development versus sustainable development; Desenvolvimento economico versus desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Katty Maria da Costa; Ferretti Filho, Neuclair Joao [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento]. E-mails: ktmattos@terra.com.br; neuclair@terra.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The natural resources have if turned more and more scarce, should be taken in your consideration possible exhausted. With that threat, alternatives are looked for so that the socioeconomic development is maintainable. As the impact of the section agroindustrial in the environmental deterioration is significant, the environmental externalisation of the productive process and the need of economical internalization of those effects should be considered. The introduction of the natural capital in the economical analysis is made necessary since the costs of the environmental degradation and of the consumption of natural resources they have not been added in those processes, being evaluated the flows of natural stocks and contributing to the definition of a maintainable scale of the economy. When these industrial organizations embrace a great productive area of the Country, as it is the case of the compound of the alcohol industry, the problems caused for the it burns of the sugar cane plantation they become fundamental. Now, there is an emergent change of paradigms in the society, in that is necessary to notice the group of values that they address our economical development and our relationship with the natural atmosphere. The use of the sustainable is the great challenge civilization of next decades. (author)

  6. Design of the regions’ economic development strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Patsuk

    2010-01-01

    At present Russian economy is undergoing the same trends of the modern economic development, which take place in developed countries. These processes comprise globalization, advanced development of the service industries, post-industrial society formation, intellectual component expansion in the results of any industry, informatization of the society, running out of traditional sources of social and economic growth. In such conditions search for new ways and factors of the regional self-deve...

  7. Economics of aquaculture development in greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, Denis

    1987-01-01

    (OCR non controlé) General terms of reference for the project and conclusions reached by other consultants point out that Greece offers good opportunities to develop aquaculture to the level of a socially and economically significant industry. Aquaculture development is stated to contribute to Government aims such as food security, preservation of foreign exchange, social and economic development of remote rural areas and contribution to the gross national product by rational use of water res...

  8. ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND THE LABOR POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Moroz; Mykhaylo Moroz

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the results of reasoning of the presence of connection between the level of economic freedom in the country and the level of development of labor potential of an individual. As an informational and analytical base for conducting the scientific research, there were used the results of study The Heritage Foundation & the Wall Street Journal (Index of Economic Freedom) and United Nations Development Programme (Human Development index) from 2005 to 2011. In addition, the ar...

  9. Development of economical decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

  10. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Vinh (Vincent); Do, Trang; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  11. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  12. The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Terwase Shabu

    2010-01-01

    The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side,...

  13. Research on Water Resource Problems of Capital Economic Circle Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Jinghua; Xiang, Nan; Guo, Lin; Gu, Runbo

    2010-01-01

    Capital Economic Circle that is located in north of China belongs to water resources shortage regions. The per capita water of it is only 1/7 of the per capita water of the whole country, and 1/30 of the per capita water of the whole world. Thus water resources problems become one of the key factors that restrict regional development. According to the analysis of water resources situation in Capital Economic Circle, in this paper we find out some main problems existing in regional water resou...

  14. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked as...... number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new...

  15. Modeling Economic Output and Economic Growth with respect to Economic Freedom : A comparative study of developing and developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erik; Tretow, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is an empirical comparative study examining the relationship between economic performance and economic freedom in two sample groups consisting of 25 developed and 25 developing countries respectively. The relationship is analyzed with results from ordinary and robust linear regressions using an extended Solow-Swan exogenous growth model. The obtained results show a significant positive correlation between economic freedom and economic output (GDP/capita), while the correl...

  16. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  17. How behavioral economics can help to avoid ‘The last mile problem’ in whole genome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S.; Amy L. McGuire; Green, Robert C.; Ubel, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Editorial summary Failure to consider lessons from behavioral economics in the case of whole genome sequencing may cause us to run into the ‘last mile problem’ - the failure to integrate newly developed technology, on which billions of dollars have been invested, into society in a way that improves human behavior and decision-making.

  18. Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)

  19. Nuclear power for economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

  20. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2006-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

  1. Euroregion and Local Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Maria Toma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerns for regional development policies and strategies are included in the classification basedon NUTS I, II, III, the European Union as a priority aiming to overcome the gaps between countries, areas,regions, urban and rural non-discriminatory basis as balanced.

  2. Euroregion and Local Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana-Maria Toma

    2012-01-01

    Concerns for regional development policies and strategies are included in the classification basedon NUTS I, II, III, the European Union as a priority aiming to overcome the gaps between countries, areas,regions, urban and rural non-discriminatory basis as balanced.

  3. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Muntean, Mihaela-Carmen; Nistor, Costel; Nistor, Rozalia; Manea, Ludmila Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic lo...

  4. Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The state of Sarawak is situated on Borneo Island in East Malaysia. It is the largest state in Malaysia covering an area of approximately 124 thousand square kilometres. Sarawak’s population is approximately 2.07 million people, which makes it the fourth most populous state in the country. There are several distinguished characteristics of the economic development process in Sarawak which highlight the contrast in economic development in Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. On the whole, the Mal...

  5. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prathiba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

  6. BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROANCA DUMITRU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and Sustainable development concepts have emerged at different moments in history.However, at this time, they are related to each other more than ever, because at one point, one of them evolutiondetermined the other’s birth, preventing humanity to destroy itself.This paper intends to present some conceptual delimitation, evolution of the concept of economic growth, butalso several theories and models of economic growth that was the subject of specialists’ researches. Like any economicphenomenon, growth brings some benefits and some costs. When these costs threaten the future of humanity, somesolutions need to be found, no matter how hard ware them to implement, to remove unwanted effects.In this light, the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development, with this emergence and evolution, butespecially with the link between sustainable development and economic growth.

  7. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe,Olusegun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.

  8. Economic problems in the field of nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed at optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle some economic aspects of the spent fuel reprocessing in Western Europe and the USA are surveyed in terms of data published up to 1973. Given the projected demand for reprocessing capacities the total spent fuel reprocessing costs are summarized as well as their ingradients and contributions to nuclear electricity generating costs. Capital, operation and maintenance costs and their dependence on productivity and load factor of reprocessing plants are identified with a reference on different reprocessing technologies. Relative contributions of spent fuel storage and transportation, fuel losses, waste disposal and reprocessing plants location to the fuel reprocessing costs are discussed. Economic aspects of developing single- and multipurpose plants to reprocess spent fuels from different types of reactors are also considered

  9. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TIMES OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vidovi?

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development generally speaking should enable sustained economic growth. When we talk about the steady growth it is necessary to mention that he cannot be based on excessive use or abuse the use of natural resources. In this paper the author wants to emphasize the importance of economic development, long-term stable and sustainable growth is a priority of every company that goes through a transition period. The Great Depression was in the thirties of the 20th century and during that time the world faced a major financial problem, today the world is going through a similar period. The basis of sustainable development is in the basic economic principles, that is. Principle of simple and expanded reproduction and all that is spent must be reimbursed and that is to provide new value.

  10. DEVELOPING INDIA: INCLUSIVE POLICY AND ECONOMIC INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on to study the overall socio-economic condition and the development process through the government as well banking services and achieving sustainable development through the fulfillment of all basic needs of weaker section of society and eradicate social exclusion in this agree-based, developing, mix-economy accepted democratic country to make positive changes

  11. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  12. THE PROBLEMS AND ECONOMIC REFLECTIONS OF ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (BĂDULESCU ANASTASE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the problems and reflections of Romania,in the period after the aderation to EU, this being a period when all the economic activities will be tested according to their level of efficiency and productivity of work. Maintining the traditional form of organization of work, of investments of structure of the finite products may transform the country into a colony, into an exporter of raw materials and workforce in the EU. We can notice the same thing, based on our research, in the case of the Moldavian Republic: the exports and investments influence very little the economic growth. This is due to the reduced performances of Moldavian exporters, and, even more, to the uncompetitive structure on groups of products. Half of the Moldavian exports is assured by the agro-alimentary market, without noticing some obvious trends of specialization in other new branches. The cause of this trend is the weak productive potential of national agriculture and industry (Anastase.I 2010.

  13. Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R?za Erdem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".

  14. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  15. The European origins of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Easterly, William; Levine, Ross

    2012-01-01

    A large literature suggests that European settlement outside of Europe shaped institutional, educational, technological, cultural, and economic outcomes. This literature has had a serious gap: no direct measure of colonial European settlement. In this paper, we (1) construct a new database on the European share of the population during the early stages of colonization and (2) examine its impact on the level of economic development today. We find a remarkably strong impact of colonial European...

  16. A New Engine of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Poole

    2010-01-01

    As our global economy shifts from one dominated by production to one based on knowledge, governments are looking for new ways to add value to the people they serve. Open Government initiatives have emerged as one response to these new economic realities. In this article, we discuss how the theory of a multi-sided stakeholder platform can be applied to create an innovative engine of regional economic development. We describe that engine, its parts, and the value that the participants realize f...

  17. Culture and Economic Development in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beugelsdijk, S.

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation consists of a collection of papers on the relationship between culture and economic development in mainly western European regions. Data sources like the EVS make it possible to measure culture. This allows the author to operationalise concepts like social capital and empirically explore the relation between (types of) social capital and economic growth. In addition, he investigates the antecedents of cultural differences in European regions.

  18. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    OLOWE, OLUSEGUN; Matthew,Oluwatoyin; Fasina,Fagbeminiyi

    2011-01-01

    This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countl...

  19. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  20. Does economic growth influence financial development. Case study on Russian economic growth and financial development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tishchenko, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The objective of the thesis is to evaluate connection between economic growth and financial development. Especially, identify if there is causal relationship between economic growth and financial development. Previous studies are still in disagreement of causal relationship. Therefore, the thesis tries to clarify this connection. The study concentrates its efforts on developing markets, particularly on Russian economic growth and its effect on financial developme...

  1. Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinskaya O.Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

  2. Time-Inconsistent Planning: A Computational Problem in Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinberg, Jon; Oren, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    In many settings, people exhibit behavior that is inconsistent across time --- we allocate a block of time to get work done and then procrastinate, or put effort into a project and then later fail to complete it. An active line of research in behavioral economics and related fields has developed and analyzed models for this type of time-inconsistent behavior. Here we propose a graph-theoretic model of tasks and goals, in which dependencies among actions are represented by a directed graph, an...

  3. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Berger Masson

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Lookin...

  4. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  5. Problem-based Learning: Developing Information Literacy through Real Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eileen E.; Zarinnia, E. Anne

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how problem-based learning can be a context for developing information problem-solving skills, from defining an information need to evaluating information to articulating ideas through argumentation. It supports critical thinking, teaching for understanding, and development of student information literacy skills. (AEF)

  6. Essays on Labor and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    GOÑI-PACCHIONI, Edwin Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This work comprises four essays in two related areas: labor and development economics. On the labor side, two essays study (i) the effects of sizeable policy reforms over labor informality and (ii) the relation between productivity and wages in a context of substantial informality and high turnover rates. On the development side, two essays provide a comparison between developed and developing countries in the following aspects: (iii) the degree of complementarity of production factors and th...

  7. Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Adalbert

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

  8. Problems and prospects of Kumkol deposit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumkol deposit's petroleum balance supply situated in Southern-Turgaj depression makes up 153.2 million tones, extracted supply by C1 category includes 89.4 million tones. Petroleum of cretaceous and sediments by its physico-chemical content are light (density 0.835 g/sm3), high-paraffin (12-15 %), low-sulphur content one (0,5 %). Content of light fractions under temperature 300 deg C is up to 45 %, gasoline one is up to 25 %. Gas content of stratum petroleum and saturation pressure substantially is changing by productive horizons. Rational system of Kumkol deposit development with sustaining of reservoir pressure for increase of petroleum extraction rate from bed and increase its output is presented. Technological and economical parameters of the Yuzhneftgas Joint Stock Company operation in condition of market economy and urgent problems on increase of petroleum production are considered

  9. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader literature on development strategy. In particular, it is widely accepted that a common characteristic of...

  10. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  11. Does financial development promote economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Venâncio, Sara Filipa Meixedo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between financial development and economic growth, using two panel of 17 and 19 developed countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2011 and 2000 to 2011, respectively. This study includes variables that measure the development of the financial sector in order to explain the GDP per capita growth, using modified ordinary least squares, fixed and random effects estimations. The results indicate that domestic credit provided by banking sector and domes...

  12. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  13. Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vazakidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Approach: To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences according to Dickey-Fuller (1979. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. A vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. Finally, Granger causality test was applied in order to find the direction of causality between the examined variables of the estimated model. Results: A short-run increase of stock market index per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.06% in Greece, also an increase of bank lending per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.14% in Greece, while an increase of productivity per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.32% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term found statistically significant with a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that economic growth causes stock market development and industrial production index, while industrial production index causes credit market development for Greece. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development and credit market development through industrial production growth in Greece.

  14. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  15. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  16. Tested program for Third World economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, R.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the responsibility for the inability of Western-oriented Third World Countries (1) to make democratic economic institutions work rests upon advisers to American and international financial institutions who recommend principles of economic growth distilled out of Keynesian recipes for an over-saving Western society of the 1930s, and out of aspects of American experience with no applicability elsewhere. Applicable aspects of U.S. experience suggest a program relying on capitalistic drives and using fiscal and monetary policy of the type that proved useful in the development of democratic capitalism in the U.S. in the 19th century.

  17. Poverty and economic development of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    The economy of Kenya has been continued to be the largest in the East African region and third largest in Sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa and Nigeria respectively. At present Kenya is one of the most highly literate countries in sub-Saharan Africa. But more than 60% people of Kenya live below the poverty line. Rapid increases in inflation could reduce economic growth and worsen the poverty levels of the citizens of Kenya. In Kenya economic development is dependent on agricultural improv...

  18. Economic development according to Friedrich List

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Armando J. Garcia; Pontes, José Pedro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Listian model of economic development. The economy consists of a primary sector and a potential industrial sector that can arise via industrialization. Industrialization however depends on if the primary sector specializes on the primary product, which can lead to a division of labor between the primary and the industrial sector. In this case, the industrial sector will use a modern technology to produce industrial goods. If such does not occur, the primary secto...

  19. Oligarchic land ownership, entrepreneurship, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinger, Josef; Grossmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theory in which oligarchic ownership of land or other natural resources may impede entrepreneurship in the manufacturing sector and may thereby retard structural change and economic development. We show that, due to oligopsony power of owners in the agricultural labor market, higher ownership concentration depresses entrepreneurial investments by landless, creditconstrained households, whose investment possibilities depend on the income earned in the pr...

  20. Individualism-Collectivism, Governance and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriacou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    While an individualist society prizes personal control, autonomy and individual accomplishments, a collectivist society puts a premium on loyalty and cohesion and imposes mutual obligations in the context of in-groups. It has been argued that individualism will promote economic development directly by sharpening individual incentives to invest, innovate and accumulate wealth. In this article, I argue that the individualist-collectivist dimension can also affect development through its impact ...

  1. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?; Marilena PAPUC

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Mark...

  2. Global health funding and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  3. Global health funding and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  4. Global health funding and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  5. Problems in the design and development of 750 MW turbogenerators

    CERN Document Server

    Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    1963-01-01

    Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un

  6. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  7. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  8. Energy needs for the economic development of developing countries: Present status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  9. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  10. Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguang Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

  11. [Co-piloting economic development and the biosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passet, R

    1992-01-01

    Development has reached a stage of evolution in which its effects on the biosphere have become critical, but the discipline of economics has not yet fully absorbed this change. Economic development is in conflict with the ability of ecosystems to regulate themselves largely because of its focus on the immediate exploitation of resources and neglect of bio- geo-chemical cycles and of effects on the larger environment. Development driven solely by economic considerations is destined to end in destruction. A co-management of economic development and the biosphere is required. Economics suffers from a reductionism in which the natural and the social are both denied their rightful places, and a single type of variable, usually monetary, is overemphasized. A new, multidimensional view of the relationship of the economy to the world is needed. The economy finds its raw materials and disposes of its wastes in the natural sphere, but its purpose and ends reside in the sociocultural sphere. The natural and social spheres are related to the economy, but they obey their own laws, which must be respected in economic calculations. The reproductive and renewing mechanisms of the biosphere should be considered constraints to be respected by development and included in economic calculations. Growth in per capita income should not be considered development when, as often happens, it is accompanied by destruction of sociocultural values and degradation of the relationship between individuals and their environment. The reality of economic development is that it is a process of creative destruction in which minerals, raw materials, and energy are transformed to create objects, while material and energy wastes are discarded in the environment. The models used by economists should take account of these processes. The concept of a multidimensional development in perpetual transformation and sensitive to human activity suggests the responsibility of each generation to its successors. Human beings have the responsibility of managing development in harmony with the regulatory mechanisms of nature. The management problem for the economists is to assure development of the productive sphere in interdependence with the rest of the environment without reducing them to market principles that are not their own and without so diluting the economic principles that they become meaningless. PMID:12343880

  12. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU; Iulian DR?GHICI

    2013-01-01

    Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribut...

  13. Financial liberalisation, bureaucratic corruption and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Forgues-Puccio, Gonzalo F.

    2008-01-01

    We study the eþect of international financial integration on economic development when the quality of governance may be compromised by corruption. Our analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model of a small economy in which growth is driven by capital accumulation and public policy is administered by government appointed bureaucrats. Corruption may arise due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds, an opportunity that is made more attractive by financial libera...

  14. "Universities, Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development'

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzazian, Navid; Åstebro, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increased trend in the number of spin-offs generated by universities in the past thirty years. Past research reveals that the majority of these start-ups are located in the same region as the university from which they originated. In this paper, we investigate critically what universities do to encourage entrepreneurship to increase regional economic development. We will also discuss whether maximizing local entrepreneurship necessarily maximizes total welfare. Unfortunately...

  15. Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success

    OpenAIRE

    Corry Bregendahl; Cornelia Flora; Milan Wall; Mary Emery

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Centr...

  16. Financial liberalisation, bureaucratic corruption and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Forgues-Puccio, Gonzalo F.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of international financial integration on economic development when the quality of governance may be compromised by corruption. Our analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model of a small economy in which growth is driven by capital accumulation and public policy is administered by government-appointed bureaucrats. Corruption may arise due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds, an opportunity that is made more attractive by financial liber...

  17. Essays on Empirical Development and Political Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bei

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...

  18. A comprehensive view of regional economic development in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Regional economic development has become a widely popular research subject within economics and economic geography. The rise of the 'new economic geography' in economics and the recent development in economic geography with (among others) institutional, evolutionary and relational 'turns' have introduced a considerable number of new conceptual and theoretical instruments that can be utilised in the analysis of regional development. The variety of different approaches has certainly produced ma...

  19. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsing, A.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the localized nature of economic development: externalities, learning and governance. Externalities play a central role in the new geographical economics of Krugman and in new economic geography of clusters and indust...

  20. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  1. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  2. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  3. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  4. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly CAREY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia’s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  5. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  6. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollin...

  7. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  8. Problems of collection development in special libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses factors affecting collection development, scope, definition and process of collection development, highlights importance of collection development policy manual, presents peculiar circumstances and background of document acquisition transaction in libraries, points out many problems relating to document selection and document procurement processes. Discusses various types of vendor-controlled order plans with their merits and demerits. In conclusion other problems concerned with te...

  9. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  10. Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Komail Tayebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

  11. Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, S; Bote, M; Meadows, R

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

  12. Problems of Stable Development of the Odessa Region ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitsenko Vitaliy S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of market-oriented socio-economic relations in Ukraine contribute to activation of processes of development of city and regional infrastructure. This results in increase of volume of production of various material benefits, directed at satisfaction of first priority needs of the population. This also results in the growth of social tension connected with pollution of environment caused by activity of industrial, processing, agricultural and other enterprises. In order to assess problems of stable development of the Odessa oblast, economic and social measuring instruments were used with a set of various indicators. Results of the studies testify to a low level of ecological management and high level of ecological danger in the region. That is why, solution of the issue of ecological component of stable development through development of economic and social components should become the first priority task at the level of the Odessa region.? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ? ???????, ??????????????? ?? ?????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????????????, ???????????????????? ? ?????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????.

  13. Finance, growth and human development: An Islamic economic development perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    In a growing body of literature, importance of financial sector development and growth on human development has been emphasized but so far little empirical evidence to support this. Islam is a progrowth religion but the concept of development in Islam is multidimensional, understanding the relationship between finance, growth and human development would help us better explain and develop a sustainable pro-Islamic economic growth model, which would help eradicate mass poverty, income inequalit...

  14. Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corry Bregendahl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.

  15. Model developed for economic gas dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if? tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative 'what if?' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and off

  16. Historical development of radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)

  17. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Maria GHERMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

  18. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 2004 : Accelerating Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguignon, François; Pleskovic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Presenting the proceedings of the May 2003 World Bank Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), the volume imparts new research findings and discussions on key policy issues related to poverty reduction by eminent scholars and practitioners from around the world. Topics include Fostering Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Growth; Challenges of Development in Lagging Regions; P...

  19. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  20. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission dispatch problem using modified Ant colony optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Gopalakrishnan; A Krishnan

    2013-08-01

    Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the significant performance of the proposed MACO approach.

  1. Exploring the Development of China’s National Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-chun LIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently the economic studies in China rely mainly on western theories, which, however, prove to be far from enough for research and study of Chinese issues. If the same mode is used for the modernization of different nations and different regions, then why should the different nations and national economies exist at all? And what consequences would be caused? How to build the socialism with Chinese characteristics? All of these issues cannot be explained by simply using general economic theories, requirements and goals. The approach of development through a pure pursuit of economic growth and using it as a criterion to judge social development is highly limited. The limitation of “economic imperialism” is becoming increasingly highlighted.
    What is the core theory of the “Chinese economics”? What is the development trend of the “Chinese economics”? Total Westernization is not a solution and digitalization will not solve the problem, either. Undoubtedly, any Chinese economics without considering exiting conditions in China and its national economy can hardly be reasonable. A study of China’s national economics is a development of its nationality research and also an extension of China’s economics and cultural studies. Therefore the national economics can be viewed as an integration of all the three key factors, ie. nationality, economy and culture.
    The national economics is a brand-new field of learning. It occupies a special place in the national studies and has also developed as the main contents of national studies. Besides, it is becoming increasingly important in economic studies and has become a special field for present economic studies. The study and research of national economics is very important and significant.
    Keywords: National Economics, Disciplinary Construction, Theoretical Innovation
    Résumé En ce qui concerne la recherche actuelle de l’économie, la théorie fondamentale de la science économique de notre pays reste encore la théorie économique occidentale. Néanmoins, il ne suffit pas de recourir seulement à la théorie occidentale pour étudier les problèmes chinois. Si on procède à la modernisation des nations et des régions différentes par le même modèle, la nation et l’économie nationale ont encore des raisons d’être ? Quelles sont les conséquences ? Comment développer un socialisme à la chinoise ? Ces questions ne peuvent par s’expliquer par la théorie, la demande et l’objectif de la science économique générale. La conception de developpement qui vise uniquement à la croissance économique et la considère comme l’indice du développement social présente des inconvénients, les limites de « l’impérialisme économique » s’accentuent davantage.
    En quoi réside le noyau théorique de « l’économie chinoise » ? Quel est l’avenir de « l’économie chinoise » ? L’occidentalisation intégrale n’a pas d’issue, la numérisation ne résout pas non plus les problèmes. Sans aucun doute, la science économique chinoise détachée de la réalité de la Chine et de l’économie nationale est inimaginable. Alors l’étude de la science économique nationale ne constitue pas seulement le développement de la recherche de la nation, mais aussi l’enrichissement de la recherche de l’économie chinoise, et également l’approfondissement de la recherche culturelle de notre pays. On peur dire que la science économique nationale est une synthèse de la nation, l’économie et la culture

  2. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  3. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  4. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES...Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic...

  5. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  6. ECONOMIC FREEDOM – A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the ”architecture” of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals’ life.

  7. Electric power, emissions and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use in the developing world has been growing rapidly over recent decades, both absolutely and relative to the growth in industrialized countries albeit from a very low base. In the next century, developing country commercial energy consumption in general and electricity consumption in particular, is expected to continue to rise with striking rapidity because of population growth, income growth and substitution of modern commercial fuels for traditional biomass fuels. Because the power sector is one of the fastest-growing energy sectors, it raises significant domestic environmental issues, while the sector's role in global warming scenarios has made it a key feature of international environmental policy. This paper focuses on the relationships between economic development, electric power and polluting emissions. 10 refs

  8. Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adelakun, O. J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM). The result showed that there is a substantial positiv...

  9. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  10. Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

  11. Quantum economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukoti? Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  12. Electrification and social and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  13. Economic evaluation of strategies for managing crying and sleeping problems

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, S; St, J; Sleep, J; Gillham, P

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To estimate the financial cost to the NHS of infant crying and sleeping problems in the first 12 weeks of age and to assess the cost effectiveness of behavioural and educational interventions aimed at reducing infant crying and sleeping problems relative to usual services.?METHODS—A cost burden analysis and cost effectiveness analysis were conducted using data from the Crying Or Sleeping Infants (COSI) Study, a three armed prospective randomised controlled trial that...

  14. Localizing vector optimization problems with application to welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Uderzo, Amos

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, the Polyak's principle, concerning convexity of the images of small balls through C1,1 mappings, is employed in the study of vector optimization problems. This leads to extend to such a context achievements of local programming, an approach to nonlinear optimization, due to B.T. Polyak, which consists in exploiting the benefits of the convex local behaviour of certain nonconvex problems. In doing so, solution existence and optimality conditions are esta...

  15. Development of highly economical BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitachi has been developing BWR core for the purpose of achieving the requirements of improved reliability and economy of nuclear power generation. Recent noticeable tendencies show an increasing need for improvements in the economy by reducing the fuel cycle cost. In order to meet these needs, we have been developing and putting into practical use, highly economical boiling water reactor (BWR) core step-wise, while confirming their application results, by fully utilizing BWR core design techniques, fuel manufacturing techniques, and the related appraisal techniques which have been accumulated since the beginning of research in nuclear power. Highly economical STEP I fuel that attains a discharge exposure of 33 GWd/t began commercial use in 1987. The commercial use of STEP II fuel corresponding to a discharge exposure of about 39.5 GWd/t began in 1991, while the STEP III fuel, having an increased discharge exposure of 45 GWd/t, is now being prepared to be put to commercial use in order to improve the economy even more. (author)

  16. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial ...

  17. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Maria GHERMAN; George ?TEFAN

    2013-01-01

    In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal) and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in ...

  18. Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems During Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James Patrick; Monica, Santa; Smith, Gillian C

    2010-01-01

    Childhood psychological conditions including depression and substance abuse are a growing concern among American children, but their long-term economic costs are unknown. This paper uses unique data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) following groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years prospectively collecting information on education, income, work, and marriage. Following siblings offers an opportunity to control for unobserved family and neighborhood effects. A r...

  19. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  20. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Berger Masson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Looking back on our experiences and outcomes since 2010, this article shows how the development and introduction of this new approach to local open innovation has changed the rules of the game in the region.

  1. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  2. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  3. The Analysis of Inequality of Economic Development of Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raevneva Elena V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problem of inequality of socio-economic development of administrative and territorial formations. Analyzing the statistical data it proves the hypothesis about the presence of inequality of economic development of the regions of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????????-??????????????? ???????????. ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????.

  4. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

  5. / METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

  6. Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  7. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  8. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future

  9. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

  10. Economic thinking of post-industrial society: formation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.

  11. THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huru Dragos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  12. Problem of identification parameters of energy-dependent economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaiduchok O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The system model of two sector economics, in which power and production sectors acts separately, is described. Production is divided into two sectors – the first sector produced the final product, and the second sector – the energy that is required to produce the final product. The models for the sectors power are recorded. The system model as the system of differential equation is obtained. An algorithm for defining identification parameters is described. Control parameters for system model for main macroeconomic indicators are shown.

  13. Environmental and health problems of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental variables largely determine the disease pattern in developing countries. Infections and malnutrition predominate, due to the effects of both poverty (a summary of many aspects of material deprivation) and a high ambient temperature. Environmental changes may be intended to improve health--examples include improved domestic water supplies and sanitation--or they may be due to socio-economic developments, which often have favourable or unfavourable health consequences. These are explored for water resource developments, where the health effects are complex, and for deforestation and urbanization. Although environmental impact assessment has been of value in reducing the adverse health impacts of socio-economic development projects, the use of health opportunity assessment is proposed as a more positive approach to optimizing the consequences of development to human health. PMID:8222995

  14. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  15. Managing Sustainable Development of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Viktorovna Lenkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development permeates the entire economy, affecting the development of certain commercial structures, local areas and even countries. As mentioned above, the stability of the whole system is derived from the stability of its constituent elements. Although, in practice, a direct relationship between these phenomena do not exist. Identification of these mechanisms will form a model of sustainable development management of socio-economic system based on the balanced development of its individual elements. This project is aimed at solving the problem of finding a balance between the need to develop socio-economic systems in modern conditions and sustainability of their operation. Crises of recent years have actualized questions the sustainability of commercial organizations, as showed no willingness of individual companies to major changes in the external environment, as well as proven strategies unsustainability developed earlier in their development. Meanwhile, in terms of increased competition in some markets and in some regions, as well as in terms of accelerating changes in the environment of non-standard search ("breakthrough" strategic decisions, radical transformation of existing ideas about the technologies and the possible trajectories of development is often the deciding factor and the pledge successful companies in the future. Objects of research-oil and gas companies and local territory of the Russian Federation. Subject of research-theoretical and methodological, organizational and practical aspects of sustainable development of the energy profile of Russian and local areas.

  16. Evaluating the Economic Impact of International Remittances on Developing Countries Using Household Surveys: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This literature review covers 50 recent empirical studies of the economic impact of international remittances on the developing world that are based on household survey data. It begins by reviewing the considerable methodological problems confronting economic work on international remittances, and then examines the strengths and weaknesses of various economic studies of the impact of remittances in the developing world on such outcomes as: poverty and inequality, health and education, investm...

  17. Socio-economic development and its axiological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Chojnicki, Zbyszko

    2010-01-01

    The article presents notions and issues concerning socio-economic development in an axiological perspective. Their presentation is limited to those the present author considers valid, and ignores their wider context as expounded in the various theories of socio-economic development. Underlying the axiological approach to socio-economic development is the opinion that the character of and research on socio-economic development are not neutral axiologically because values are an inh...

  18. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribution of tourism and agro-tourism sector in accomplishment of GDP, by average made on the analyzed period and by annual growth rate, analyze that place Romania on the position 150 of 176 countries surveyed with an annual growth rate of 1.52% from GDP.

  19. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahibul Ahyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  20. Nuclear energy; real problems of the long term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst general public accepts the operation of western designed nuclear power stations as safe, waste management and decommission still figure as open problems, although such views are not in agreement with technical and economic status of these operations. A concern with imagined problems can have the effect of neglecting the real ones. In considering the long term development of nuclear energy the real problems can be associated with the wide use of plutonium and multiplication of national reprocessing and enrichment installations. Nuclear proliferation safety could be retained and developed through establishment of international nuclear fuel centres. Their operation would be particularly beneficial for small or medium nuclear countries. Several arguments are given why it is not premature to initiate a study which would identify and analyze the problems of establishing an international nuclear fuel centre. Central Europe could be a region which could be served by one of such nuclear fuel centres. (author)

  1. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  2. On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life II: Evolutionary Stable Economic Development Strategy in Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a solution to 'The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development' on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models 'The Problem of Sustainabl...

  3. The Problem of Modelling of Economic Dynamics in Differential Form

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyshov, S I; Voronin, A V

    2008-01-01

    Traditional models of macroeconomic dynamics are fundamentally incorrect. The reason lies in a misunderstanding of peculiarities of the analysis of infinitesimal quantities. However, even those types of solutions that are envisaged by the above-mentioned models are nonrepresentative in the sense of the reflection of realities. It became obvious that the techniques of the theory of linear differential equations were insufficient here. Accordingly, the scientists' attention switched to the theory of nonlinear differential equations. At the same time, balance and, accordingly, the model with matrix properties are objectively inherent in the economic system. For the reduction of this model to a differential form, there exist rather elementary means that proved to be unclaimed. Macroeconomic rhetoric - the power of the accelerator, a lag on the part of demand, etc. - accompanied by the use of a lot of abstract coefficients prevailed. However, there is no organic interrelation between matrix and nonlinear different...

  4. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.

  5. Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK)

  6. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  7. DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF THE SOUTHEAST ASIAN ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Oziewicz, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian economies have already gone a long way of development. Firstly, they have survived a period of economic miracle, which de facto was not a miracle, but based on good macroeconomic policy and strong foundations, such as high interest rate and macroeconomic stability. Secondly, the economies have experienced deep crisis, which has proven that good policies are not sufficient condition for development. Apart of them economy needs good, mature institutions and management. Reforming...

  8. Economism

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, P.

    2010-01-01

    Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

  9. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  10. Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

  11. Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazil Yozgat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shaping the regions countries. Industrial Revolution in Europe and made major investments in the first half of the 19th century particularly central Europe and Balkan region. Balkan regions represent complex and diverse reality. These regions are from Old Continent to Central Europe, South East Europe and Mediterranean. From Adriatic to Black Sea and Mediterranean also. In these regions there are some different economic, social and political events. I.e. Croatia moves to final round member of European Union some countries face to particular problems of political subjects.I offer framework analysis of the regional country by country based on the existing set of criteria, which are variables of social and economic development. Those variables are including (cluster industry, expenditure R&D od GDP, variations of capitals, population and market, some trade block which are impact of economic and social developmentProposed key pillars to support sustainable competitiveness in the Western Balkans. Sustaining competitiveness =Human capital development==Regional Cluster==SectorPolicy reforms.(OECD,2008Key words. Balkan region, Social development, Globalisation, Sustainable development

  12. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Labdani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

  14. Economic development and logistics performance : a probabilistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J Sánchez; Cipoletta Tomassián, Georgina; Perrotti, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    There is not a consensus about a complete set of explanatory variables that could ultimately explain the linkages behind achieving economic development. In spite of this, determinants of economic development and especially the linkages between economic development and logistics performance are topics of growing interest within the recent literature, both in economic growth theory and maritime studies. In this paper our attention is focused on the importance of logistics perform...

  15. Economic Determinants of Regional Integration in Developing Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Regional integration is often viewed as a way to support development and economic growth in developing countries through the related with it benefits to trade and welfare. Economic integration theory goes through two development stages each of which addresses the political and economic context relevant for its time. The first stage is regarded as classic theory or static analysis and includes the traditional theories of economic integration that explain the possible benefits of integration. T...

  16. Estimating the economic impacts of geothermal resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of geothermal plants, as all other energy facilities, may have significant economic impacts on local and regional economies. Often the magnitudes of these impacts will be of great interest to both environmental and economic development planners. Because of their availability and relative ease of use, input-output models are often used to estimate selected economic impacts arising from resource development. This paper demonstrates the methodology for two case studies of potential development of geothermal facilities of 100 MW average capacity in the US Pacific Northwest, in order to highlight the effects of different local economic structures. Results indicate that geothermal development can lead to significant economic impacts at the local level

  17. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO2. To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  18. Smoking bans and the secondhand smoking problem: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Annette; Nell, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone. PMID:21842184

  19. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-01-01

    Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may b...

  20. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  1. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of re...

  2. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the analysis shows that the propagation of error method introduces essentially negligible error, especially when compared to the uncertainty associated with some of the estimates themselves. The results of these uncertainty analyses generally quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty in the overall cost estimation. The obvious generalization—that capital cost uncertainty is the main driver—can be shown to be an accurate generalization for the current state of reactor cost analysis. However, the detailed analysis on a component-by-component basis helps to demonstrate which components would benefit most from research and development to decrease the uncertainty, as well as which components would benefit from research and development to decrease the absolute cost.

  3. Problems of tourism development in transboundary areas

    OpenAIRE

    I. Shpylovyy

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of tourism development in cross-border areas, justified the need for a cross-border inter-regional eco-tourism cluster in the Azov-Black Sea region, defined its main objectives and development potential.

  4. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.

  5. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  6. On the Essential Multidimensionality of an Economic Problem: Towards Tradeoffs-Free Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleny, Milan

    2009-01-01

    The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeo...

  7. On the Essential Multidimensionality of an Economic Problem: Towards Tradeoffs-Free Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Zelený

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeoffs are not attributes of objectives, criteria or dimensions, as it is habitually assumed, but are the properties of the very sets of possibilities, alternatives or options they purport to value and measure. We use De novo programming, through which the so called feasible set of opportunities can be redefined towards optimal, tradeoffs-free configuration. The implications of tradeoff-free economics are too vast to foresee and elaborate in a single paper; they do touch the very foundations of economic thought. So me numerical examples are given in order to illustrate system-design calculations in linear systems.

  8. Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    DMIRTY CHISTILIN

    2010-01-01

    This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

  9. Financial development and economic growth: An empirical analysis for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economic growth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study w...

  10. What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
    slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
    Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

  11. Is Economic Growth Criminogenic for Firms In Developing Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between economy level crime rates or individual level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms which is an important issue especially for developing economies. Using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries we find that economic growth has a negative effect on crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the rela...

  12. Recent trends in economic theory – implications for development geography

    OpenAIRE

    Reinert, Erik S.; Riiser, Vemund

    1994-01-01

    Development geography and mainstream economic theory have for many years lived separate lives. Especially so since the downfall of development economics, an academic subject which has repeatedly been pronounced dead by one of today’s leading US economists. The geographical dimension - the location of production in space - has completely disappeared from neo-classical economic theory. This is, in one sense, curious, because the ‘founding father’ of neo-classical economic theory ...

  13. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  14. The University and Local Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MULLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  15. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  16. Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Socio-Economic Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Socio-Economic Impact Statement contained in this volume is part of the overall application for approval of the the development of the Terra Nova Field, prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada on behalf and in cooperation with its co-proponents. It describes the baseline conditions for, and the effects of the Terra Nova Development on the fishery, industry, employment, demography, housing, social infrastructure and services, public infrastructure, and municipal government. A description of the scope of the assessment and the methodology employed is complemented by a 10-page glossary and a 36-item bibliography

  17. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Beudean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  18. Social groups and economic poverty: A problem in measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    This paper points to some elementary conflicts between the claims of interpersonal and intergroup justice as they manifest themselves in the process of seeking a real-valued index of poverty which is required to satisfy certain seemingly desirable properties. It indicates how ‘group-sensitive’ poverty measures, similar to the Anand-Sen (1995) ‘Gender Adjusted Human Development Index’ and the Subramanian-Majumdar (2002) ‘Group-Disparity Adjusted Deprivation Index’, may be constructed. Some pro...

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS THE BASE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS IN MODERN CONDITIONS

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    Z. I. Nalgiev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In article transition problems to the stable, socially focused growth, maintenance of competitiveness of social and economicsubsystems of national economy, formation of bases of a postindustrial society in the conditions of globalization of world space, tocreation of the is innovative-focused economic system are considered. The specified problems dictate necessity of formation of strategyof development of the Russian economy on accurately certain conceptual basis in which quality, in view of necessity of socialization, it isexpedient to use a sustainable development paradigm.

  20. Rural Economic Development: Policy Implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C. Alinno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rural emancipation. The paper adopted the exploratory research approach involving the use of secondary source with minimal primary source to generate data through questionnaire and interview guide. The paper observes that the problem is not the lack of effective policy/programme initiation and formulation but the dearth of the political will to implement; high incidence of corruption; complete absence of purposive leadership; misguided and misdirected priority; placing the wrong person at the strategic position; inconsistency and absent of continuity in policy/programmes implementation in government affairs. For a way out amongst others, involvement of the benefiting rural/urban communities in monitoring the implementation of programmes or project execution in their domain is important while avoiding the pitfall of role conflict in policies and programmes formulation cum implementation.

  1. Mineral development prospects of the Indochina area: Potential exceeds problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reform is under way in several nations within the Indochina area to stimulate economic growth and foreign investment. Though once forbidden, participation by foreign companies in mining exploration and development activities in Myanmar, Kampuchea, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam is now being solicited by the respective governments. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of mineral and energy resources in the region and outlines possible development scenarios based on economic policies, financial and infrastructural constraints and industry interest. The investment climates for resource-related projects are assessed qualitatively by country. Clearly, the long-term development potential of mineral and energy resources in the Indochina area is large, and the potential gains outweigh any of today's problems. (author). 34 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs

  2. Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added

    OpenAIRE

    Nipinth Suwanrong; Khaentaphon Samdaengdech; Thaksina Krairach

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1) the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2) the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3) the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-Sa-ket Province...

  3. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ECONOMIC SECTOR IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAL ALIN-MIHAI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available the economic sector plays an important role in the development of the local economy. Local economic development is also a continuous and complex process of planning and implementing strategic programmes and sustainable development policies for the purpose of improving the quality of life of the entire local community by diligently using local resources, may they be human or financial. Also, this article contains a description of the principles of local development, of the actors, factors and sources of local economic development and of their role in the process of planning, elaborating and implementing the strategies for local economic development, as well as a description of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

  5. An Explanation of Economic Change and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fusari, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The contribution to the explanation of economic change that this paper sets out is centered on a core of interconnected endogenous variables, mainly innovation, radical uncertainty and entrepreneurship, which current economic analyses consider only in part and separately, sometimes as endogenous but for the most as exogenous. The article (and the formalized model) suppose that the functioning of the economy is not disturbed by the operation of pathological factors mainly concer...

  6. On Dictatorship, Economic Development and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Artige, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to account for varying economic performances and political stability under dictatorship. We argue that economic welfare and social order are the contemporary relevant factors of political regimes' stability. Societies with low natural level of social order tend to tolerate predatory behavior from dictators in exchange of a provision of civil peace. The fear of anarchy may explain why populations are locked in the worst dictatorships. In contrast, in societies enjoying a relati...

  7. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  8. [Demo-economic models of development: evolution and recent trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1983-01-01

    Among the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest was the elaboration of empirical and inductive demographic-economic models to assist in planning. 1 of the disadvantages of existing models and systems of national income accounting was that income distribution was ignored in favor of the total value of production. Demographic variables were not regarded as endogenous. By the early 1970s, the societal changes attendant on rural exodus and urban unemployment, the increasing absorption of traditional structures into the modern sector, and changes in the roles of women and young people had become obvious, and the need for new models that would reflect such changes was clear. Some macromodels designed to assist medium and long range planning were 1st elaborated in the mid 1970s; the Bachue development models were particularly promising because of their improved database. New models were developed which incorporated consumption problems based on basic needs. An increased focus on the interaction of macroeconomic variables with microsociological and demographic variables, the household and family, and employment and the labor market became necessary. The Bachue models, which had been the most successful of recent models in integrating economic and sociodemographic structures and variables, usually include 4 principal modules which cover demography and the educational system, the economy, employment, and income distribution; basic needs models include a 5th module. The Bachue models are based on a general equilibrium model subject to certain constraints, while the basic needs models are based on dynamic disequilibrium models. A major problem of the models is that technological progress is fundamentally exogenous; there is no intimate link between productivity and elevation of the educational level of the labor force. To avoid unmanageable complexity, households are reconstructed for each period on the basis of the demographic and economic data in the model. PMID:12312449

  9. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  10. Siting problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain aspects affecting the limits of development of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia are analyzed, such as nuclear power plant safety, reliability, economic aspects, regional siting, ecological aspects, and linkage to the district heating system. With regard to health protection of the population the maximum possible installed output of a nuclear power plant will be around 10,000 MW. The siting is always a compromise. The maximum design variant of 4x1000 MW has been used at Temelin. The most rational project with regard to safety is the incorporation of newly built nuclear power plants into large power complexes. Important factors from the economic point of view are budget costs, power losses due to long-distance transmission, requisition of agricultural soil, and the technical life-span of the nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  11. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Mantonya; Milan Wall

    2008-01-01

    Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC) and suppor...

  12. Economical Distinctions and Social Problems of Iran: Rates of Unemployment and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohhamad ali Feizpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Human resources as one of the important indexes of production and development have always suffered from social problems including committing suicide. Committing suicide is amongst the first ten causes of mortality. In some countries, it is among the first three causes of the death of young people who are the main capital of the society. Although an economic view to social problems especially committing suicide has just come to the forefront during the past decade, focusing on this view has been so widespread that the relationships between social and economic problems at the international, national, local, family, and individual levels has been the concern of economists and social scientists alike. Having this view in mind, it is illogical to ignore the role of economy in social problems; therefore, there have been many studies aimed at investigating this relationship. On the one hand, the rate of unemployment is one of the economic variables that has resulted in a remarkable discrimination in different areas. On the other hand, committing suicide is one of the social problems that has caught the attention of experts and communities alike. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the relationships of the two variables – society and economy – in different parts of Iran base on the province.     Materials & Methods   In terms of the aim, this study is practical and it employed a descriptive-analytical approach. Library research was employed to collect the necessary data. The number of those committed suicide and the rate of unemployment from 1386 to 1389 were the major and most important sources of data for the present study. These data were extracted from the annual report declared by the Statistics Center of Iran. The independent variable of the model was the number of those who had committed suicide per 10000 people and the rate of unemployment defined as the ratio of the unemployed population to the active population (the employed and unemployed, which was considered as the explanatory variable. It is necessary to mention that since the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between unemployment and committing suicide and due to the lack of continuous access to the data on committing suicide, the data were limited to a range of four years. Therefore, because of time and budget restrictions, measurement method used in this study, the regression estimate method, was a mixture of the time-series and sequential data, in which the time-series data were mixed with the sequential data and resulted in a set of data which had the characteristics of both the time-series and sequential data.       Discussion of Results & Conclusions   In the studies which use mixed data, it is necessary for them to be studied before the estimation of the model and to be studied in terms of the assumptions that the mixed data of some tests have about the data. One of the most important tests is the lamer test used for selecting the methods of panel regression and pulling regression. This test reveals that whether the coefficients of determining the regression using the permanent effects are meaningfully bigger than the coefficients of determining the model of pulling regression or not. The results of the present study indicated that since the possibility of the obtained F lamer (0.0021 is lesser than 0.05, therefore the null hypothesis of being a pulling model was rejected, and the hypothesis of being panel was accepted. After identifying the estimated model, in order to compare the permanent effect methods and the incidental effect methods in terms of the explanatory strength of the comparing dependent variable, Heisman test was used. The result of this test also showed that since the amount of the attained possibility (0.0183 was lesser than 0.05, the model’s estimate with permanent effects was accepted. Before estimating the model, it is necessary to investigate the permanency of all the utilized variables. However, in this study due to time limitations it was not possible to have a single root test so the results of the single root tests are not valid. Therefore, there was no need for the single root table test, consequently the need for the panel overlap tests was canceled too. On the other hand, after studying the permanency of the data due to the mixed data it is possible for the studies on this sort of data to show differences in the variances. Taking into the consideration the important effects of differences in variances on estimation, standard deviation, and inferential statistics, differences or similarities in the variances need to be identified before the estimation. To test the equality of variances in the table data, the test of LR was utilized. Since the estimated Prob is lesser than 0.05, the null hypothesis on the variance of the paradoxical sentences was rejected. Therefore the model has inequality and differences in the variances. Thus, the model should be estimated so that the problem of differences in the variances is alleviated. One of the methods of alleviating the problems of differences in variances is the Generalized Square Model. In this model, this problem is alleviated if there will be a self-independence in the model. Testing the data of the model, the estimation of the model and the results will be dealt with.   The results showed that since the total statistical probability (Prob= 0.013 in the model is lesser than 0.05, the general meaningfulness of the model was accepted. Studying the estimation results in the model in this study, we realized that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between unemployment and committing suicide since the estimated coefficient was 0.363693 and the probability for unemployment as a variable was 0.004. Thus it can be said that in Iran and consequently in different provinces, the rate of committing suicide increases to 0.36 with each 0.01 increase in the unemployment rate. So, the results indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between committing suicide and the rate of unemployment.   Although different aspects of committing suicide such as sociological and psychological aspects are important, the economic aspect plays an important role as well. The economic factors affect the social factors, the individuals, and the society at large. Thus the relationship is quite clear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between economic problems – here unemployment as a representative of it – and the social problems – here suicide as a representative of it. In the present study, after studying the sociological view and the Durkheim’s theory, the Hammer’s view, the first pure economic view on suicide, was reviewed. Comparing the results of the present study with the experimental bulks of research on the topic and the theoretical literature of the field of crime economy, it is apparent that the results are in line with most studies on crime economy (Balky et al., 2003; Lin, 2006; Rodriguez, 2006; Suzuki, 2008; Sadeghi et al., 2004; Mehregan et al. 2010. Unemployment decreases self-confidence. Every one of these factors increases the possibility of committing suicide. Thus, although the economic problems and unemployment should not be considered as the only contributors to suicide, the positive relationships between unemployment and suicide should not be taken for granted. So, determining the role of unemployment and economic problems is the case that is crucially important in terms of the security affairs.     Keywords : Social Problems, Economic Factors, Committing Suicide, Unemployment Rate, Mixed Data, Provinces of Iran

  13. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  15. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  16. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  17. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, RUSU (CIGU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development became a goal for knowledge society, but one of the main question in literature remains as how close is the relationship between economic dvelopment, knowledge society and local governments' level. Given the great diversity of situations and frameworks both across countries and within them in the European Union, I consider that each country must have own policies designed to implement process of decentralization with the commitment of "healthy" economy in a society dominated by the technology and innovation. In this context, the problem occurs in decentralization should be managed on two levels: on the one hand in terms of central-local budgets relations, and on the other hand, in the local public finance structural plan. The paper will try to emphasize the connection between decentralization, local economic sustainable development and knowledge society, taking into account an overview of this three aspects and empirical evidences. In this regard, I will use the background offered by literature and the official statiscal data for analysis to identify the variables which explain decentralization and local economic development in the knowledge society. I estimate the analysis to confirm the hypothesis that there are good aspects, but also deficiencies that require solutions and budgetary policy options as part undisputed positioning local government finance as an engine of development of the whole nation. I consider that the paper can be a useful viewpoint in understanding local public finances in decentralization, which allows researchers to include other sources of information for researching an in a much more complex approach.

  18. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  19. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

  20. FDI and regional economic integration in SAARC region: problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Nasim; Khan, Tamanna

    2011-01-01

    Regional integration has the potential to promote economic development in member countries irrespective of size and the level of growth. This potential can be exploited only through deeper cooperation. However, there are a number of challenges which restrict this region to tap its potential. As most of SAARC countries are underdeveloped economic integration is much needed for the development of this region. The process of economic integration in South Asia gathered momentum with the implement...

  1. Optimal Power Flow Solution for Combined Economic Emission dispatch Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ajay - D - Vimal Raj

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF in Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED environment of thermal units while satisfying the constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance and line flow limits. Particle Swarm Optimization is a population based stochastic optimization, developed by Kennedy and Eberhart [12], in which members within a group share the information among them to achieve the global best position. This method is dynamic in nature and it overcomes the shortcomings of other evolutionary computation techniques such as premature convergence and provides high quality solutions. The performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated on IEEE 30 bus system with six generating units. The problem has been formulated as a single optimization problem to obtain the solution for optimal power flow problem with combined fuel cost and environment impact as objectives. The results obtained by the proposed method are better than any other evolutionary computation techniques proposed so far.

  2. Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

  3. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad,; Phouphet KYOPHILAVONG

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  4. CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    FLAVIA BARNA; PETRU-OVIDIU MURA

    2010-01-01

    Capital markets play an important role in the economic development of emerging capital markets. Well functioning markets insure that both corporations and investors get or receive fair prices for their securities. In the literature on endogenous growth, the link between capital markets development and economic growth has received much attention. Thispaper examines the correlation between capital market development and economic growth in Romania using a regression function. The results show t...

  5. Stock markets, banks, and economic development: Theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the different functions that capital markets and banks have in economic development, and it reviews the debate about marketbased vs. bank-based financial systems. Using data for a sample of 40 countries over the period 1975-98, the paper then shows that variation in both banking sector and stock market development can explain variation in economic growth, but the degree to which a financial system is market- or bank-based cannot explain economic development across countri...

  6. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Reid; Smith, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these cha...

  7. The Relationship between LGBT Inclusion and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V.L.; Nezhad, S.; Waaldijk, C.; Meulen, van der, SH Stan

    2016-01-01

    Greater inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in emerging economies is positively associated with a country’s economic development, according to this study. The findings suggest that LGBT equality should be part of economic development programs and policies. The study analyzes the impact of the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people on economic development in 39 emerging economies and other selected countries, and presents findings that demons...

  8. The Role of Cooperative Societies in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The aim is to investigate the ways in which cooperatives can act as agents towards sustainable community development. The paper is a descriptive survey, which involves the collection of data for the purpose of describing the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The paper posits that for over 160 years now cooperatives have been an effective way for people to exert control over their economic livel...

  9. [30 years' development of economic theories in confrontation with facts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1969, R. Frish and J. Tinbergen received the first Nobel Price in Economics. 200 years after Quesnay's "economic tables", economics were at last considered as a science. During the last thirty years, economics haven't lost their scientific reputation, but, confronted with different situations in the world and in France, economics have been unable to bring appropriate solutions to every problem. Nowadays, economics are quite far from the promises born after the Second World War: indeed, until the 1974 world crisis, Keynes' theory (from a macro-economic point of view) and Walras' formalisation of the markets (from a micro-economic point of view) were sufficient to give satisfying representations of any economic reality and mechanism. Nevertheless, these theories were unable to deal with both growing unemployment and raising inflation in the late 70's and early 80's. Today, economics present a wide variety of efficient analysis of society. Game theory, behaviour theory or econometrics are new means used to found new kinds of reality representation. Therefore, if economics can no longer be considered as an exact science, it remains nevertheless scientific. PMID:7736311

  10. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  11. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

  12. The Scenary Forecasting of Regions Social and Economic Development Dynamics ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guryanova Lidiya S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The scenarios of regions social and economic development by various tax and budgetary policy versions realization are considered in the article.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????-????????? ????????.

  13. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  14. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-01-01

    Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  15. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  16. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ? Economic dispatch. ? We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ? Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  18. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  19. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market development, a similar finding with that of Huang and Temple (2005. As for financial openness, equity-related assets and liabilities have a more robust impact on financial development. Finally, government policy in terms of less government enterprises / government investment and interest rate liberalization have a significant effect on the banking sector rather on the stock market sector.

  20. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Parshyn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.

  1. Regional Integration in Southern African Development Community.Politics Versus Economics : Politics versus Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Annick

    2009-01-01

    Regional integration has gained keen drive since the 1980s throughout the world. Political and economic considerations complement each other in any kind of process; yet classical economic integration theory would advocate that regional integration is an economic process occurring largely as a result of greater interaction between neighboring states, functioning almost like a kind of invisible hand. This theory is based on the historical example of the development of the European Union, yet it...

  2. The world economic development with the ISER-PIUS for developing and developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power as a base for the world economic development has, unfortunately, been posing some potential risks including excessive radiation and radioactivity releases from the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl-4 as well as the future risks of nuclear waste management. On the other hand, it is a fact that nuclear power is already being used substantially as an economical energy option throughout the world. Therefore, the ISER-PIUS is now envissaged to be used eventually as safe and economical power source to be employed widely in the world. The present economic conditions and future economic development in Indonesia, taken as an example of less developed country, are described briefly. It is insisted that the policy of nuclear power introduction into a less developed country is neither economical nor realistic. More feasible seems a system of domestically designed and developed inherently safe reactor like ISER-PIUS. An analysis is also made of the future potential of such reactors in advanced countries in terms of the future of ISER-PIUS. It is concluded that cheap electricity and heat are needed for the economic development in less developed nations and for the maintenance of the economy level now attained by developed countries as well. International collaboration for the ISER-PIUS development will be a vehecle for the world-wide economic development in the next century. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is conc1uded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role for growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequences of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even ...

  4. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint analysis of how natural resources and aid potentially affect total output in society through rent-seeking activities. We survey the existing evidence on both direct and indirect effects of windfalls a...

  5. Symbolic values, occupational choice, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo; Jeanne, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Channeling human resources into the right occupations has historically been a key to economic prosperity. Occupational choices are not only driven by the material rewards associated with the various occupations, but also by the esteem that they confer. We propose a model of endogenous growth in which occupations carry a symbolic value that makes them more or less attractive; the evolution of symbolic values is endogenous and determined by purposive transmission of value systems within familie...

  6. Three essays on peripherality and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Solla, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract] Chapter 1 derives a panel data econometric specification which relates the different factors that explain the pattern of economic growth in Spain along the 1989-2010 period. The growth of GDP per capita (GDPpc) in Spain up until the crisis of 2008 was characterised by strong job creation and productivity stagnation. Unlike other European countries, Spain did not experience the phenomenon of capital deepening with increasing productivity, as the GDPpc intense growth in Spain was ...

  7. Financial development and economic growth:a panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Nuno Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter). Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27), and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel dat...

  8. Social change through integrated social and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, A. (Antoinette)

    2006-01-01

    Twelve years into democracy, South Africa is still facing deep-seated social and economic inequalities. The expanding divide between the rich and the poor emphasises the sharp division between the modern economy and the marginalised second economy, which characterises the two worlds in South Africa. South Africa’s macroeconomic policy fosters economic growth, which is essential for socio-economic development, but at the same time it also highlights the challenges required for development, whi...

  9. History, expectations, and public policy: Economic development in Eastern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Andreas; Steger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the process of economic development in Eastern Germany since the German reunification we set up a dynamic macroeconomic model of a small open economy where both capital and labor are mobile and there are increasing returns to scale at the aggregate level. The model features multiple equilibria as well as (local and global) indeterminacy. Expectations matter for resulting equilibrium dynamics, implying that economic confidence may be crucial for the process of economic development...

  10. The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nazura Abdul Manap; Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of societi...

  11. Problem Based Learning and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    An engineering education that integrates education for sustainable development (ESD) perspectives claims for a learning approach centred on students, interdisciplinary and problem oriented, and this cannot be achieve through an “add on” strategy. Example of such active learning approaches are...... problem based learning (PBL), project based learning (PjBL), case study, role play, group discussion, field work, etc. These learning approaches are capable of integrating education for sustainable development (ESD) in engineering education at different levels, and do not aim to substitute the core...... scientific and technological knowledge but instead align it with the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the professional practice. It is agreed among ESD experts that PBL is a suitable learning approach to integrate ESD in the engineering curricula. This paper provides an overview of the...

  12. Economic and social development, energy and environment in Latin America and the West Indies - an ovierview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving a short overview of the economic and social development of Latin America since 1980 the present article deals with the various problems relating to the energy supply of that region, namely economic growth, diversification, inefficiency, and environmental effects. If discusses the relationships that exist in Latin America between energy, environment, and the social situation and endeavours to outline possible approaches towards a socially and environmentally sustainable development. (UA)

  13. Technical and economical problems of decommissioning nuclear power plants (NPP) in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction per new century has brought to atomic Engineering many new problems. One of them, which has got a serious urgency, we now shall consider. It is a problem of decommissioning NPP in Russia. By 2014 all maintained nowadays NPP in Russian Federation will develop the regular service life. And all of them on idea should be removed from operation. But, as we understand, in today's difficult economic conditions, to it NPP the procedure of prolongation of service life will be applied, and where it is impossible by virtue of the various reasons, the procedure of translation NPP in nuclear - safe condition and in a mode of a long storage under supervision, before acceptance of the decision about a method and way of financing of a decommissioning will be applied. Possible the following variants will be: use platforms of the old NPP for construction new NPP, or using as burial place NPP. The variant of a decommissioning up to a condition 'green grass' is represented unprofitable because of its dearness. The similar decommissioning was carried out in Japan. Was removed from operation research reactor of a type WWR. The expenses for this method of a decommissioning considerably surpass expenses for a method of a burial place NPP basically because of high cost of dismantle and transportation in long-term storehouses of the 1 contour equipment. The most urgent problem of decommissioning NPP, which developed their regular service life - is financing this final stage of a exploitation cycle of the block. I shall remind, that the financing is carried out from uniform fund of decommissioning. The formation of this fund occurs by deduction 1.3 % of cost of the put electric power to the consumers by all maintained NPP of Russia. The expenditure of this fund is carried on time on some tens years. They are spent for 3 basic stages: preparation to decommissioning NPP, long endurance under supervision, dismantle and burial the NPP equipment. Nowadays on faculty NPP MPEI under the direction of the senior lecturer Mikhail A. Skachek was estimated the basic economic parameters of decommissioning process NPP with the various types of reactors (WWR-440, WWR-1000, RBMK-1000) Now we are researching the subscription of disposal the nuclear waste in a total cost of decommissioning NPP. The estimation of expenses for decommissioning NPP was carried out with the helps of the program DECOST - adapted on faculty NPP MPEI to a Russian economy conditions of the transition period. Program 'DECOST' is developed for an estimation of expenses and payments for removal from operation of nuclear power installations in different conditions. (author)

  14. Financial development and economic growth: Evidence of non-linearity

    OpenAIRE

    Doumbia, Djeneba

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the non-linear relationship between financial development and economic growth. It mainly relies on the Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR) model of Gonzalés et al. (2005) and three metrics of financial development to endogenously assess the impact of financial development on growth. Using a sample of 43 advanced and developing economies over the period 1975–2009, the paper highlights that financial development supports economic growth in low-income and lower middle i...

  15. ARTICLE REVIEW THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  16. ARTICLE REVIEW THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  17. Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

  18. Environmental Economics in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Convery, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental concerns must be integrated into the development process, but African countries still face many challenges as they work to achieve development that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Many countries have already launched National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPs) and National Conservation Strategies; however, in preparing and implementing them, econom...

  19. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  20. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  1. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafas Furqani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM to see whether the Islamic financial system contributes to the economic development and economic development that contribute to the transformation of the operation of the Islamic financial system in the longrun. We use time series data of total Islamic bank financing (IB financing and real GDP per capita (RGDP, fixed investment (GFCF, and trade activities (TRADE to represent real economic sectors. We found that in the short-run only fixed investment that granger cause Islamic bank to develop for 1997:1-2005:4. Where as in the long-run, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between Islamic bank and fixed investment and there is evidence to support ‘demand following’ hypothesis of GDP and Islamic bank, where increase in GDP causes Islamic banking to develop and not vice versa. Islamic banking is also found to have less contribution to the international trade in the form of export and import of goods and services.Keywords: Islamic banking, economic growth, Malaysia, VECM

  2. Afghanistan : Economic Incentives and Development Initiatives to Reduce Opium Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Christopher; Mansfield, David; Oldham, Peter; Byrd, William

    2008-01-01

    This report is about how to progressively reduce over time Afghanistan's dependence on opium - currently the country's leading economic activity - by development initiatives and shifting economic incentives toward sustainable legal livelihoods. Specifically, the report identifies additional investments and policy and institutional measures to support development responses that can counterb...

  3. Rural Community Colleges and Economic Development: Leaders' Perspectives on Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2004-01-01

    Rural communities often lag behind urban and suburban areas in economic development. Community colleges often contribute to economic development projects in rural areas, but they often seek collaboration with other community partners. This research study was conducted to better understand rural community college presidents' perceptions of the…

  4. An Effective Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm to Slove Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thanushkodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

  5. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  6. Cumulative Estimate of the Ukrainian Regional Economical Development Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Atamaniuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels. The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH;• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH;• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH.The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.

  7. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  8. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mantonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC and support from the Economic Development Administration (EDA, Denver Region, conducted a series of case studies focusing on promising programs in Indian Country that were meeting with success. These case studies reflect the positive economic conditions in order to build on them and provide a framework for other communities to follow.

  9. Mathematical programming based approaches for classes of complex network problems : economical and sociological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nasini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...

  10. Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali R?za Erdem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work....

  11. The economic impact of diseases and parasitic problems in freshwater fish production

    OpenAIRE

    Okaeme, A.N.; Obiekezie, A.I.; Ogbondeminu, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases and parasitic problems could constitute significant economic losses in fish production if not controlled, thus the need to continue monitoring its prevalence. Based on field studies on feral and intensively raised fish at the Kainji Lake Research Institute Nigeria, some diseases and parasitic problems have been identified. These include; helminthiasis; fungal disease; protozoa which include Myxosoma sp., Myxobolus spp., Henneguya sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthopthrius sp. bacterial mainl...

  12. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  13. Problems and perspectives of nuclear energetics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical situation in developing nuclear power engineering, conditioned by application of uranium-plutonium fuel cycle is state. It is shown that the fuel cycle doesn't close and there exists no satisfactory solution of the problem on the acculating transplutonium elements. Creation of safe nuclear power engineering on the basis of homogenous cascade molten salt reactors on thorium and uranium molten fluoride salts is substantiated. By sustaining thermal neutrons flow there exists no essential accumulation of transplutonium elements in the reactor in the whole course of its lifetime. The safety problems are considered and recommendations relative to exclusion of precedents of global ecological accidents are given. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  15. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang He; Bertness, Mark D.; John F. Bruno; Bo Li; Guoqian Chen; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Junhong Bai; Tao Sun; Steven C. Pennings; Jianguo Liu; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Baoshan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impact...

  16. Influence of Transformation Demographic Model on Economic Development of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeykina, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The page represents model of influence of the occurred demographic changes on economic development of Russia. Transformation of model birth rate in modern Russia and its rapprochement to type of the western countries (Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain). Reflection of a social and economic conjuncture in a channel of "the second demographic transition" to which all advanced countries follow. Russia has followed the road long-term changes of economic and demographic model, and return to former mod...

  17. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, John Edward

    2004-01-01

    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  18. Equilibrium in Economic Development A Perspective of Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Akhter Hussain; Shah, Tariq; Ahmad, Eatzaz

    2011-01-01

    Each system owns different resources which need to be prioritized for bringing economic equilibrium in the society. This study identifies equilibrium in economic development and its relationship with social capital. Inter temporal accumulation of social capital of certain quantum takes place when cycle of economic activities is started at different levels of the systems; individuals, group, organization and State. In each system different combinations of resource allocation in spe...

  19. The role of tourism in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Creaco, Salvo; Querini, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    Tourism is now one of the world's largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of ...

  20. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Europe 2004 : Economic Integration and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguignon, Francois; Jacquet, Pierre; Pleskovic, Boris

    2007-01-01

    To address these broad questions: How to analyze the impact of globalization? What is the effect of rich countries' policies on developing ones? How to redefine the development agenda and scale-up the aid effort? The European Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE-Europe) focused on some of the problematic features of globalization and discussed the global impact of developed countries...

  1. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  2. Modelling Influence of Fiscal Policy upon Economic Development ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Mar?ya M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises a macro-economic model, which describes dynamics of influence of fiscal load upon economic development of Ukraine. Parameters of the model are calculated on the basis of statistical data for 2000 – 2012. The article analyses fiscal load of Ukraine: its optimal level for economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. It assesses and compares calculations of the taxation load, traces its dynamics and compares results with analogous indicators of the developed countries of the world. It analyses prospects of application of the proposed approach for forecasting development of the national economy.? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 2000 – 2012 ??. ?????????? ????????? ??????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????: ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 19,29% ???. ????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????.

  3. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture. PMID:12284704

  4. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKMEKÇİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

  5. Socio-Economic Reforms in 1965 with the Industry as a Problem ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ?. ?? ?????????????? ??? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Rostislav G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the analytical approach E. G. Lieberman to develop key areas of reform in 1965 in industry related to socio-economic incentives production.???? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ???? ? ??????????????, ????????? ? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ????????????.

  6. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Reid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.

  7. Evaluation of Rural Economic and Social Development Level in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Guo-jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the background of urban and reral balanced development, in order to promote the understanding for rural development in Chongqing , and this article evaluated its economic and social development. Based on the development status of Chongqing's urban and rural areas, we set the indicators system of evaluation for Chongqing rural economic and social development, and prove its reason through the factor analysis and gray relational analysis. Finally we get the composite score and ranking of each district. Taking cluster analysis to composite scores and correlation analysis with per capita investment in fixed assets, road density and the economic pattern,and also taking hierarchical display, we get three levels area of rural development status, and prove that it is correct to increase investment and build infrastructure and make a rational economic distribution. It also shows that , for every regional rural economic and social development states, an hour economic areas is better than the northeast of Chongqing ,and the northeast of Chongqing is better than the southest of Chongqing overall. Finally, we try to explore some overall measures for superior areas such as an hour economic area, Wanzhou district and poor areas , the northeast and the southeast of Chongqing and Tongnan county in the west edge.

  8. Macro-Economic Indicators of Development of Ukrainian Regions ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Mikhail S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of macro-economic indicators of Ukrainian regions. It considers the resource and natural potential and socio-economic development of individual regions, which is a result of the imperfect territorial administration. It analyses main macro-economic indicators of development of regions of the country by geographic division, namely: areas of territories, population, gross regional product of a mega-region, employment and unemployment, and volume of investments. It specifies conditions of stable socio-economic development of each mega-region. It identifies a mechanism of synchronisation of decisions, which is based on self-governing. It offers ways of perfection of the system of administration of territorial socio-economic systems in Ukraine.?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ????????-????????? ????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????. ?????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ? ???????.

  9. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Botezat

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial mana¬gement performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  10. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Bolos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial mana¬gement performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  11. Problems in software development for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

  12. Tax Reforms in the Context of Socio-Economic Development ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurnak Olexandr V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the existing approaches to the study and the justification of tax reforms in the context of their impact on socio-economic development. The needs of the tax reform study on the basis of evolutionary economics are shown.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.

  13. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

  14. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can str...

  15. ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

    2012-01-01

    Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of seve...

  16. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wennekers, A.R.M.; Stel, A J; Thurik, A.R.; Reynolds, P.

    2005-01-01

    Based upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country's rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regressing GEM's 2002 data for nascent entrepreneurship in 36 countries on the level of economic development as measured either by per capita income or by an index for innovative capacity, we find support for a U-sh...

  17. Does Rural Financial Development Spur Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sani Ibrahim, Mr. Saifullahi

    2013-01-01

    Robust economic development is not possible without financial deepening more especially in rural community where vast majority of the populace of Less Developed Countries (LDCs) resides. This paper analyses the impact of rural financial development on economic growth of Nigeria. The study uses time series data covering 1980 to 2011 periods paving the way for the application of Johansen and Juselius model of cointegration to detect the long-run relation among the variables in question. Accordi...

  18. A new model based analysis method for regional economic development effects

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Günter; Binder, Jan

    2002-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to provide a new method for the estimation and evaluation of long time ago implemented transport infrastructure and policy measures. This requires before and after data on a small spatial aggregation level. The main problem consists in the separation of the overall economic development, from the spatial impact of the implemented measures. Therefore, timeseries data of economic growth seem to be necessary, at least for some selected variables. However, longterm data...

  19. The Study of Poverty as a Deterrent to Economic Development of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey A. Surkov

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to an actual problem of poverty in Russia. Availability of poverty constrains economic development of Russia, because reduces economic activity of its inhabitants. Poverty separation by types is given. Based on surveys of different kinds dependencies poverty “poverty equation” built. The difference between the right and left parts of this equation shows the degree of social tension. Dependence of this tension on the time was obtained, and a comparison with significant event...

  20. Review of principles of economic development - will this be enough to reverse the enviromental loss?

    OpenAIRE

    Vyniarchuk, N.

    2012-01-01

    All in all, we expect integration of sustainable development principles into state policies to force governments be more accurate in their prediction of adverse effects the further progress may possibly bring. At the same time we believe that ecology alone, deprived from economic research and analysis, is unlikely to cope with environmental problems on its own the same as international economics without environmental restriction and limitations will probably lead to complete devastation and d...

  1. The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anowar H. Bhuiyan; C. Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Islam, R.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the...

  2. Energy in developing countries. Prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UN study ''The Future of the World Economy'', prepared under the direction of W. Leontief, is the general frame of reference of this paper. Its central scenario postulates a reduction from 12:1 to 7:1 in the disparity in per-capita income between developed and developing countries over the period 1970-2000 and presumes that the gross product of the developing countries would have to grow by 6.9% over that period. Such growth rate would require that total electricity-generating capacity in the developing countries would have to increase at least from 97,000MW installed in 1970 to 1,300,000MW by the year 2000. Very conservatively, this would at least require an investment of US$ 716x109 at 1974 prices. Considering the forecast size of interconnected grids and the necessary security of supply requirements, at best 20 developing countries would be candidates for nuclear power plants by 1985 and another 19 by the year 2000. Total fossil-fuel consumption in these countries would have to increase by 9.7% annually throughout the period, and their share in world consumption would increase from about 8.6% in 1970 to 27% in 2000. Overall energy production in the developing countries (including the centrally planned economies of Asia) would increase sevenfold and their consumption twelvefold. The paper concludes that every effort should be made to minimize the energy/gross domestic product coefficient, and the expansion of the indigenous resource base should be pursued forcefully. It points out that it might be economically more advantageous to provide the many millions of scattered rural communities with self-contained energy packages based on such local resources as are available. It foresees some scope for nuclear energy in some of the more advanced developing countries but states that, until the end of the century, oil will undoubtedly remain the dominant factor in energy supply in the developing world. Finally, the enormous capital requirements create considerable doubt as to whether traditional mechanisms for energy financing will be adequate for the task. (author)

  3. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  4. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  5. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Kanishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all directions. Recently improvement of commercial and economic relations between states is in the heart of diplomatic dialogue. Main reasons of interest in economic diplomacy are based on the following: globalization of trade and business, implementation of economic reforms in processes of orientation to a market economy, which shrinks area of non-market economy in the world and leads to reduction of characteristic of its closeness and self-sufficiency. Tasks which are the basis of interests of economic diplomacy also include: amplifying struggle between individual links of the global economic system, growth of number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment, expansion of regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investment processes which determine at a considerable extent the leading role of the EU, MERCOSUR, NAFTA, FTAA and others. Modern trends in development of economic diplomacy in the context of globalization are based on management decisions on different levels of structure of the world market – on mega, macro, meso and micro levels. Deep analysis of current geo-economic trends is an important step in understanding the nature and features of effective use of tools of economic diplomacy in international economic relations. The current situation of economic diplomacy is characterized by next trends: activation of multilateral regular relations between countries, that consequences in integration processes in trade and business; providing economic reforms, aimed on creation market economy, which constricts the area of non-market economy; the increasing of the number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment in trade balance of countries; expand regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investments; increased state involvement in promotion and protection of national interests on the world market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The economic diplomacy influences on the overall trends of world market trade, investment, innovation and socio-cultural spheres of life. On the other hand, new challenges of internationalization and globalization give a qualitatively new dimension in economic diplomacy, which is focused on achieving positive result of foreign economic activity of countries.

  6. Training: The Competitive Advantage to Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Gary Kai; Wismer, Jack N.

    1989-01-01

    Identifies socioeconomic trends affecting education and training, arguing that community colleges should be more involved in developing human resources. Discusses five phases in establishing customized training programs for industry: needs assessment, coalition building, model building/development, implementation, and evaluation. (DMM)

  7. Are smartphones smart for economic development?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartje, Rebecca; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the worldwide spread of smartphones continues, developing countries have become important markets for these devices. Smartphones' independence of landline networks qualifies them for communication and Internet access in rural areas of developing countries. Drawing upon rural Southeast Asian survey data, this paper provides probably the first empirical evidence for smartphones' contribution to households' income.

  8. A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Dhagash

    2015-01-01

    Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...

  9. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  10. Private Enterprise-led Economic Development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    the world’s ten fastest-growing economies in 2010 were from there. But their growth has failed to translate into job creation and inclusive development. This experience has encouraged a renewed search for a sustainable economic development model for the sub-continent. The present dissertation...... emphasis on soft economics (i.e. the human side of economic activities) as a new theoretical platform for understanding economic growth and development. Furthermore, it introduces human capability development and the enabling factors as a framework for studying entrepreneurship and enterprise growth......As a continent, Africa occupies nearly a quarter of the World’s land area and home for one-seventh of its population. But a large proportion of the people, especially those living in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) are mired in abject poverty. Recent years have witnessed some positive developments. Six of...

  11. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful drinking. Such a different net impact between men and women could potentially contribute to growing gender-related health inequalities during a crisis. PMID:25771482

  12. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...development of next-generation biofuels, increase flexible fuel vehicle...transport, and distribution of biofuels; and (c) Identifying new...to promote the environmental sustainability of biofuels feedstock production,...

  13. Housing and Economic Development Payment Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — To fulfill international aid reporting requirements, USAID built a data repository for tracking all foreign assistance activities funded by the U.S. Government....

  14. Role of Islamic banks in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    saleem, shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to give the real meaning of DEVELOPMENT from Islamic perspective. Most of Muslim countries are LDCs and using the religious and social ideology of Islam is very useful to establish institutions and to bring moral and ethical change for development in these countries. Islam appears to be the only dynamic religion and tells us about prevention of interest, similar to Christian and Jewish theologies. But at the same time gives a comprehensive setoff trade and...

  15. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-01-01

    Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

  16. Local governance, decentralization and local economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, Wafaa; Donsimoni, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    When studying local development, we find that decentralization and local governance are inseparable factors that contribute strongly into the efficiency of local development attempts. Decentralization gives local authorities more responsibilities and freedom of action without having to refer to central institutions. Enhanced local governance allows the establishment of strategies that better cope with local needs, reduces opposition and corruption, and increases cooperation between local acto...

  17. DISPUTES OVER THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF VOJVODINA (1964-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ???????

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the economic and political crises which started to spread in the socialist Yugoslavia,at the beginning of the sixties, disputes occurred between the communist leaderships of the Republicof Serbia and Autonomous province of Vojvodina. The reason for this was the state ofeconomy of Vojvodina. In 1965, great economic reform was introduced in Yugoslavija, whichcreated economic wholes by merging several municipalities. This caused several problems, suchas jealousy between economic centres, particulary in Vojvodina. As the result of the well-organizedaction taken by the highest party forums in the province, Novi Sad prospered as the capital ofVojvodina – as it could be seen from the minutes of the party meetings. According to the so farunpublished archive documentation, those events remained hidden from the public eye.

  18. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  19. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

  20. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. OTIMAN

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense) to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian) economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the ...

  1. The relationship between savings and economic growth in countries with different level of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Misztal, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the cause and effect relationship between economic growth and savings in advanced economies and in emerging and developing countries2. In this work we used the method based on studies in macroeconomics and international finance as well as econometric methods (co-integration models and Granger's causality test). All statistical data used in this paper came from the International Monetary Fund database (World Economic Outlook database). The results confirmed ...

  2. Social-Economic Development of Region: Institutional Aspect ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????: ????????????????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhavoronkov Vladimir A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The institutional aspects of social-economic development of region are considered where the special role is played by regional authorities and civil society institutions that serve as institutional basis for the formation of the social economy.??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.

  3. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how...... to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant...... impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their...

  4. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the...... data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning...... screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between...

  5. Organizational and Economic Support for Small Business Development in Ukraine ??????????????-????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorova Victoria Volodymyrivna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of competitiveness of potential of small enterprises are certain. The economic mechanism of renewal and development of small enterprise of Ukraine is resulted. Tasks which are decided by a small enterprise are certain.?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????????????.

  6. Triple Play: Three Educators Explore Education and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Robert M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the ways in which the University of Wisconsin system, the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education, and the Department of Public Instruction contribute to the economic development of the state. (JOW)

  7. Economic Development in Islamic Perspective: Concept, Objectives, and Some Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Zubair

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the concept and objectives of economic development from an Islamic perspective.A few related issues including motivation, role of the state, population, and growth-equity trade off have also been discussed.

  8. International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Özden, Ça?lar; Schiff,Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and th...

  9. EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

  10. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  11. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan EKMEKÇİOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The m...

  12. Stock Exchange Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mustafa Al-Qudah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Amman stock exchange development measured by MarketCapitalization Ratio (MCR) and Value Traded Ratio (VTR) and Jordan economic growth measured by GrossDomestic Product Growth (GDPG) for the period 1978–2012. The study used Vector Error Correction Model(VECM) to examine the hypotheses. The study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationshipbetween Amman stock exchange development and Jordan economic growth. In addition, the ...

  13. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural pe...

  14. Economic development and intellectual capital : an international study

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Víctor Raúl; Alfaro Navarro, José Luis; Nevado Peña, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study relationships between economic development and the national level of intellectual capital. To measure the intellectual capital of nations we have used a model adapted to microeconomic level that takes into account aspects not contemplated by GDP. It considers intangible assets such as human development, economic structure, international trade, foreign image and innovation. This model is applied to 82 countries grouped in three clusters according to the...

  15. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-01-01

    Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as...

  16. Economic Development in Eastern Germany: History, Expectations, and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Steger, Thomas M.; Schäfer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the process of economic development in Eastern Germany since the German reunification we set up a dynamic macroeconomic model of a small open economy where both capital and labor are mobile and there are increasing returns to scale at the aggregate level. The model features multiple equilibria and (local and global) indeterminacy. Expectations matter for resulting equilibrium dynamics, implying that good or bad moods are crucial for the process of economic development. We argue t...

  17. Federalism and economic development in India: An assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar; Srinivasan, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines India’s federal system in the context of prospects for India’s future economic growth and development. After a brief review of India’s recent policy reforms and economic development outcomes, and of the country’s federal institutions, the analysis focuses on the major issues with respect to India’s federal system in terms of their developmental consequences. We examine the impacts of tax assignments, expenditure authority and the intergovernmental transfer system on the f...

  18. Innovative clusters: a solution for the economic development of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela-Cornelia DAN

    2012-01-01

    The Europe 2020 Strategy emphasizes the importance of the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The flagships of the strategy (digital agenda for the EU, innovation union, resource efficient Europe, industrial policy for the globalization agenda) are setting the frame for economic development. Innovative clusters are seen as a solution to the crisis, a tool for competitiveness and regional development. Given the economic situation of Romania we bring in discussion the potential of clusters...

  19. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural peopl...

  20. GAPS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INTER AND INTRA EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Diaconu; Andrei Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Economic development is a subject that generates much controversy, mainly because of the widening gaps between poor and rich nations. In the present paper, we intend to identify and explain the differences that exist both between and within the European Union states, from an economic development point of view. In order to reach this objective, we have collected, analysed and interpreted information included in various statistical data bases, reports and year books. The results show that the d...

  1. Immigrants' Genes: Genetic Diversity and Economic Development in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of genetic diversity on economic development in the United States. Our estimation strategy exploits that immigrants from different countries of origin differed in their genetic diversity and that these immigrants settled in different regions. Based on a sample of over 2250 counties, we find that increases in genetic diversity of US counties that arose due to immigration during the 19th century had a significant positive effect on US counties' economic development. We als...

  2. Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev Volodymyr M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

  3. The analysis of economic development and forecasting of info-communications development in the Republic of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamno Armand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of the Republic of Cameroon at the present time is analyzed. The dependence between the level of economy development and the level of info-communication development is shown. The problems inter-fering an output of the Republic of Cameroon on the modern level in the field of info-communications are considered. It is stated that Cameroon is going through scientific and technical and information revolution which has already distinctly changed the conditions and the way of economic development of the country.

  4. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I also characterized the respondents with respect to their preferred type of advertisement. The results of the latter showed that the number of clickers on banner advertisement is higher than that of pop-up advertisement, and that its efficiency rates are higher as well. In addition, the characterization of advertisers gave that the probability to advertise a banner advertisement is higher if the manager is either a female, married, older than 40 and employed in the construction, Car Dealership or wedding industry.

  5. Emerging markets, industrialisation and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    1995-01-01

    Abstract An outstanding feature of the world financial economy during the last decade or so has been the establishment and the very fast expansion of stock markets in developing countries. Between 1982 and 1992 the total combined capitalisation of companies quoted on the emerging markets included in the IFC list rose from less than hundred billion dollars to nearly a trillion U.S. dollars.

  6. Sustainable economic development and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bertinelli, Luisito; Strobl, Eric; Zou, Benteng

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between growth and pollution is studied through a vintage capital model, where new technology is more environmentally friendly. We find that once the optimal scrapping age of technologies is reached, an economy may achieve two possible cases of sustainable development, one in which pollution falls and another in which it stabilizes, or a catastrophic outcome, where environmental quality reaches its lower bound. The outcome will depend on countries' investment path and their p...

  7. International competition policy and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    1996-01-01

    During the past half century many nations have adopted policies whose function is to discourage cartels and other restrictive practices. Industrialized nations led the movement toward pro-competition policies, but more recently, developing nations have begun to join the parade. Initial steps have also been taken toward the implementation of competition policies spanning national borders, and proposals for their extension have been made. This paper analyzes the consequences national and intern...

  8. Globalization, literacy levels and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Alok

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimated models for GDP growth rates, poverty levels, and inequality measures for the period 1990–2000 using data on 54 developing countries at five-yearly intervals. Issues of globalization were investigated by analysing the differential effects of the countries’ exports and imports and by postulating trans-logarithmic models that allow for non-linear effects of literacy levels and measures of openness. The main findings were that literacy rates affected growth rates in a quadrat...

  9. Economic incentives for future fuel developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of nuclear fuel is put into perspective by a short review of the total nuclear power costs and comparisons are made with other types of thermal electricity generating plants. Fuel costs are divided into components of natural uranium, enrichment services, fabrication, inventory and back end, which are used as a structure for discussing the impact of different development trends on the final fuel costs and, consequently, the incentives for future fuel improvements. The factors related to fuel design and performance affect nuclear power plant operation and are the most important incentive for future fuel development, depending on the power system under which the nuclear power plants operate. The potential impact of fuel improvements, both in terms of design and verification of performance, is analysed and discussed with respect to the following: plant operation: load follow, capacity factors; fuel utilization: extended burnup, improved moderation, low parasitic absorption; back end costs: volume of fuel, MOX fuel; fabrication processes: improved processes; fuel related technology: fuel management, safety analysis. A short historical review is given for each item in order to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, the expected impact of changes that have occurred and the incentives to continue development along historical trends. Constraints which might limit the actual benefits of these potential improvements are pointed out. The areas in which the incentives for further improvements in design and performance of nuclear fuel are most pronounced are identified and discussed. (author)

  10. The strategic economic plan and the role of independent power in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent power production (IPP) in Newfoundland was examined within the context of the province's Strategic Economic Plan. Provisions of the Plan were summarized, with special reference to the promotion of alternative energy technologies and government efforts to amend regulations to facilitate development of alternative energy sources by independent producers. IPP was considered to be an ideal tool for regional economic development and diversification, assuming that environmental concerns were carefully considered and addressed. Some of the benefits ascribed to IPP included strengthening the private sector, creating new small business opportunities, improving competitiveness, promoting regional development, contributing to import substitution and enhance the province's technology and knowledge base

  11. A systems approach to the economics of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plays a very important role in the long-term energy policy of Czechoslovakia. Its development is directly linked to the development of a nuclear power complex which includes, in addition to nuclear power itself, a series of new special nuclear production processes. The nuclear power complex is a large and highly complex technological and socio-economic scheme whose establishment requires substantial structural changes in the national economy. Accordingly, it is important to consider the economics of nuclear power development and management in relation to the development of the nuclear complex as a whole. Such an approach helps to reveal the interrelationship between the development of nuclear power and the development of the national economy as a whole, and makes it possible to determine the factors limiting development and also to establish the general economic necessity of introducing nuclear power production and ways of actively affecting it. (author)

  12. Problemy i vozmozhnosti razvitija vneshnejekonomicheskoj dejatel'nosti Sankt-Peterburga, Leningradskoj oblasti i Respubliki Karelija [Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  13. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes that economic valuation is vital for bringing, ecosystems to decision-making agendas in developing countries and that great effort must be made to bridge the gap between scientists and decision makers.

  14. Ant colony optimisation for economic dispatch problem with non-smooth cost functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Kongprawechnon, Waree [School of Communication, Instrumentation and Control, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani (Thailand); Ngamroo, Issarachai [Center of Excellence for Innovative Energy Systems, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel and efficient optimisation approach based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth cost functions. In order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm, three additional techniques, i.e. priority list, variable reduction, and zoom feature are presented. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed ACO is applied to two types of ED problems with non-smooth cost functions. Firstly, the ED problem with valve-point loading effects consists of 13 and 40 generating units. Secondly, the ED problem considering the multiple fuels consists of 10 units. Additionally, the results of the proposed ACO are compared with those of the conventional heuristic approaches. The experimental results show that the proposed ACO approach is comparatively capable of obtaining higher quality solution and faster computational time. (author)

  15. Climatic change and economic development: equity rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with alternative equity rules in the allocation of carbon emissions among countries. It is composed in two parts. The first one provides a discussion of such rules which enlightens their key characteristics. The second part proposes some calculations whose aim is to evaluate the implications of a strict egalitarian rule. Although the changes in emissions and key indicators implied by such a rule are large, implementing an emissions trading regime strongly helps both the attainment of the target and development paths in poor countries

  16. Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

  17. Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

  18. Developments in world enrichment supply and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the supply and demand situation for enriched uranium in the 1990s, how advanced technology can impact the market and the restructuring of the United States uranium enrichment enterprise. In the 1990s, utilities are expected to spend about US $2.5 billion per year for enrichment services. (One billion = 109). Enrichment demand in the world outside centrally planned economies area should increase through the 1990s, from 25 million separate work units today to over 30 million by 2000. However, there should be a plentiful supply of enriched uranium at reasonable prices in the 1990s. It appears that the world enrichment market will become even more competitive, with additional suppliers entering the market. The United States of America and other countries are actively developing advanced technology, since it promises lower prices. There is a strong incentive to be the first to develop and deploy advanced technology. The USA is in the process of restructuring its enrichment enterprise to give it added stability and flexibility. (author). 8 figs

  19. An Efficient Novel TANAN’s Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    OpenAIRE

    R.Subramanian,; Dr.K.Thanushkodi

    2013-01-01

    The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems in powergeneration systems is to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the totalcost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents anefficient Novel TANAN’s Algorithm (NTA), for solving ELDProblem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost ofthe generating units having quadratic cost characteristicssubjected to limits on generator true power output andtransmission losses and including valve point loading effects. TheNTA is a simple ...

  20. The Effect of Wind Power Plants on the Total Cost of Production in Economic Dispatch Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Ansari; Siamak Bandari; Mehdi Ghazavi Dozein; Mohsen Kalantar

    2013-01-01

    This Study presents a new approach for Economic Dispatch (ED) problems incorporating wind power plants using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. As the wind power plant is renewable and clean, widely distributed, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land, its effect to conventional units that should be analyzed. Also the total cost is dependent on wind speed in specific period of time. Therefore, the mathematical techniques are not appropriate to find th...