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1

Economical Development Of Bangladesh - Problems & Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to discuss and suggest ways to overcome the barriers hindering the economic development of Bangladesh, including the steps the government has taken and is taking for a better future. The inefficiency of government policies, admisnistration, systems and managements has been discussed and the importance of education to raise awareness among the mass illiterate population of the nation has been pointed out. Researches and Developments made by the Agricultu...

Kazi, Siam Ahmed

2011-01-01

2

Economic problems of nuclear power development in the capitalist countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic problems of the nuclear power development in the USA, Japan, and in the western European countries are discussed. An analysis is presented of the development and estimates are given of capital expendenditures in nuclear power plants and in enrichment and reprocessing plants and of the development of the uranium price within the fuel cycle. The problems of financing nuclear power are considered. (B.S.)

1976-01-01

3

Problems of Social and Economic Development Facing Third World Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The developed Western countries with their free market economy; the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe with their economies that are highly planned and subject to both public ownership and control; the developing countries of the Third World with oscillating differences in their political systems and economic structures yet linked through a common history of conquest and exploitation by colonial powers, are all bedevilled by the problems of organizing their own economies in a manner which would maximize the interest and social welfare of those they purport to serve.

Patterson, P.J.

1984-01-01

4

Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

Marta Gotz

2011-07-01

5

On the Problem of Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Solution to this Prisoner's Dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development, and a universal theory of value. We introduce axioms which serve as the first of two derivations of our solution, our methods, the origin and evolution of our theory, field notes from Mustique, Iceland, and Prince Edward Island, and set the stage for a more thorough discourse. Next we demonstrate that value (V) is a derivative function of relative insularity (IR): V=f´(IR), then model economic development by div...

2008-01-01

6

Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

Abdul Ghafoor Awan

2013-03-01

7

Nuclear power option for solving problems in connection with economic development, energy supply and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs

1994-09-05

8

CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.

S. R. Keshava

2014-06-01

9

Problems of Sociality Support in Socio-Economic Development of the Country ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approaches to sociality interpretation in different economic systems are critically evaluated and its author's conception is proved. The analysis of market-transformational changes in the national area is made. Arguments in favor of development of a sociality state regulation mechanism are given.?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????? ???????-????????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????. ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????????.

Kakhovskaya Yelena V.

2012-05-01

10

Bioenergy and economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioenergy, a promising alternative for developing countries, is already a key resource (in the form of fuelwood, for example) in millions of households around the world. In this book, William Ramsay details the characteristics of a wide variety of bioenergy crops and discusses planning for bioenergy development, emphasising its economic, social, and political aspects. He also analyses how general cost trends, credit problems, and the pricing of alternative fuels affect the viability of various bioenergy options. Concluding with a discussion of how energy and national economic development planning can be coordinated, he argues that some kind of durable national or regional commitment to bioenergy programs is vital if bioenergy is to become a successful modern alternative to fuel and play a key role in the economic development process.

Ramsay, W.

1985-01-01

11

Causality problem in Economic Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.

JOSÉ LUIS RETOLAZA

2007-12-01

12

Economic Development and Economic Integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macroeconomists dedicated substantial efforts to clarify the puzzle of growing incomes in some regions of the world and rising differences in standards of living across the globe. Although the question of why economies perform differently is as old as the theory of economic thought itself, it is only since recent times that economists integrate development patterns over the very long-run into formal dynamic general equilibrium models. The models we present here consider development patte...

Scha?fer, Andreas

2013-01-01

13

Forecasting Problems for Economic Macroparameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with problems of forecasting of economic macroparameters on the basis of the principle of «subjective multideterminism», i.e. an expert account of maximal amount of interrelated «objective» and «subjective» causes. A description is given of the system of support of decision-making in forecasting the level of inflation and gross domestic product on the basis of the tree solution method.

Voloshyn, Oleksiy; Satyr, Victoria

2008-01-01

14

An Analysis of the Social System and Planning Problems for the Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic growth is tied with planning in the modern world. It is widely believed that if a country seeks to uplift its economy it must adopt the path of planning. The word “Planning” itself is, however, ambiguous. It is used with many meanings. It has been known to cover the shooting of those who disagree, or it may mean nothing more than consultation, making sure that all interested parties are properly informed about each other’s and the government’s intentions. It may involve the setting of targets with no compulsion to achieve them, but with certain inducements to try, setting up of targets with a larger number of physical controls to back them up. And it can mean no more than the attempt to work out what needs to be done if a given objective is to be achieved. In reality, planning has become a part of human life in every civilized society. Plans are the outcome of necessity. It is always wise to plan than to do and undertake any work without planning. Planning paves the direction and procedure to attain any goal or objectives. Planning now touches the lives of all of us at numerous points and no one, can afford to be ignorant about its principle and practice. Planning is a part of life and relevant to all of us. The house wife plans her budget and allocates her time and the businessman similarly budgets his time and resources.

Kailash Pati

2012-01-01

15

The nuclear electric option in developing countries: Technical, economic, and political problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned

1984-01-01

16

Fabricating economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is concerned with the institutions of Irish economics; it is structured around two arguments each of which links to the thesis presented in Garvin’s Preventing the future (2004). Overall it will be demonstrated that Irish economics was shaped by intellectual trends experienced within economic thought globally as well as the social considerations that were peculiar to Ireland. The evidence presented indicates that firstly while Economic Development mattered to the Irish economy it...

Brownlow, Graham

2009-01-01

17

Innovative Economic Development Models ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper presented the relevance of developing an innovative model of economic. Typical models of innovative development of economy were analyzed and the perspectives of improvement of the innovation development of Ukraine were highlighted.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????...

Milevskaya Tatyana S

2012-01-01

18

Fabricating 'Economic development'  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much of the literature, regardless of academic discipline, presents the publication of Economic Development in 1958 as analogous to a “big bang” event in the creation of modern Ireland. However, such a “big bang” perspective misrepresents the sophistication of economic debates prior to Whitaker’s report as well as distorting the interpretation of subsequent developments. This paper reappraises Irish economic thinking before and after the publication of

Brownlow, Graham

2010-01-01

19

MWD economics still a problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of drilling variables monitored downhole with MWD (measurement while drilling) equipment is increasing, along with better analysis of information. The analyzed product now allows operators to develop efficient and timely drilling procedures and plans. Despite these developments, however, acceptance of MWD and surface real-time well computing technologies has been slow. The relatively new technologies and equipment are sometimes difficult to interpret and maintain. In most cases, specialists are required at the drilling site. The variables now being monitored downhole with MWD equipment include: mud temperature (annular and tubing), weight on the bit, downhole torque, inclination, direction, tool face heading, temperature, short resistivity of formation, and gamma radiation. Gamma radiation is the newest variable logged downhole. The performance and economics of MWD systems are discussed.

1984-10-01

20

Annual overall economic development program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document for the State of Hawaii Economic Development District examines the problems, needs, and resources of the district and sets forth goals of the development program, together with the strategy devised to achieve these goals. The overall objectives and policies cover population, the economy, physical environment, facility systems, and socio-cultural advancement. The following subjects are discussed in detail: primary economic activities (tourism, defense, Federal civilian expenditures and employment, agriculture); secondary and potential economic activities (construction, diversified agriculture, non-agricultural potential); human resources; trade; financial resources; tax incentives; administrative organization and growth centers; and a summary of the proposed projects. (MCW)

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Finance and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic grow...

Ugo Panizza

2012-01-01

22

Problems of an economic diversification of the oil countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of large surpluses in the oil countries of the near-east has not only led to considerable financial problems, but also thrown up important questions with regard to the economic development of these countries. This article examines the problems which have arisen in six of these countries since 1973 with respect of their efforts to advance their economic development by diversification.

Habluetzel, R.

1981-06-01

23

Entrepreneurship in economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

Naude?, Wim

2008-01-01

24

Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system

1977-05-13

25

Keynes and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price i...

Thirlwall, A. P.

2007-01-01

26

States and Economic Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is s [...] trong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

Atul, Kohli.

27

Economic issues in the legacy problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

1984-01-01

28

Editorial: Economic Development (November 2010)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local gov...

Chris McPhee; Saad Bashir

2010-01-01

29

Keynes and economic development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância p [...] ara os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários. Abstract in english It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates [...] that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.

A. P., Thirlwall.

30

Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

2009-07-01

31

Ill-posed inverse problems in economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A parameter of an econometric model is identified if there is a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping from the population distribution of the available data to the parameter. Often, this mapping is obtained by inverting a mapping from the parameter to the population distribution. If the inverse mapping is discontinuous, then estimation of the parameter usually presents an ill-posed inverse problem. Such problems arise in many settings in economics and other fields where the parameter of interest ...

2013-01-01

32

UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.

GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

2011-01-01

33

Credit Market Development and Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Italy for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. The purpose of this study was to investigated the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying...

Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

2009-01-01

34

Energy utilization and economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a modern economy is dependent on three propositions, energy resources, transportation and information. Energy resource industries play a leading role, manufacturing industries become basic industries, and both these industries afford a common basis for economic development. This paper explores the relationship between energy use and economic development as well as proposing some views on the proper utilization and exploitation of energy resources. The energy sources of the earth come from the planet itself, from the sun and other celestial bodies. While the earth exists, its energy resources will never become exhausted. The change in the form of energy used by man, from firewood to coal, oil and atomic energy, in its turn, leads to changes in modes of production and in ways of life. There are examples of low efficiency, waste, ecological imbalance and malpractice harmful to the overall and long-term interests of the earth as a result of energy utilization. These problems should be resolved through international cooperation. (author). 2 tabs.

Zhang, L.; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Zhong, Y. [Guangdong Provincial Institute for Technical Personnel, Wushan, Guangzjpi (China)

1995-12-31

35

The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)

Yapa, Lakshman S.

1985-01-01

36

Property rights and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter develops a unified analytical framework, drawing on and extending the existing literature on the subject, for studying the role of property rights in economic development. It addresses two fundamental and related questions concerning the relationship between property rights and economic activity. (i) What are the mechanisms through which property rights affect economic activity? (ii) What are the determinants of property rights? In answering these, it surveys some of the main emp...

2009-01-01

37

Regional and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

2004-12-01

38

Economic development partnerships  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economy and the environment are inextricably linked. Neither one can be concentrated on to the total exclusion of the other. When the economy declines, so does public and private support for aggressive clean air measures. So a healthy economy is a necessary partner for a healthful environment. California is going through tough economic times and, in the future, when things have improved, the South Coast Air Quality Management District wants to be able to look back and say it pitched in and did its share to help in the recovery. The author gives a few examples of what it has done and what it is doing.

Nikkila, N.

1994-12-31

39

Remittances And Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The document contains a paper submitted for consideration by the House of Commons Select Committee on International Development in the course of the inquiry into Migration and Development. It is largely a product of the author's longstanding interest in migratory flows from the Punjab region of Northern India and Pakistan to the UK, and in the impact which counter-flows of remittances have on the local economy in and around their villages of origin.

Ballard, Roger

2003-01-01

40

Essays in Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, this thesis is neither wholly empirical or theoretical, macro or micro and instead may be viewed as an eclectic mix of approaches and ideas that go some way toinvestigating the challenges faced by the world's least developed economies. The first chapter...

Mott, Graham

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Differential evolution algorithm for emission constrained economic power dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed to solve emission constrained economic power dispatch (ECEPD) problem. Traditionally electric power systems are operated in such a way that the total fuel cost is minimized regardless of emissions produced. With increased requirements for environmental protection, alternative strategies are required. The proposed algorithm attempts to reduce the production of atmospheric emissions such as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, caused by the operation of fossil-fueled thermal generation. Such reduction is achieved by including emissions as a constraint in the objective of the overall dispatching problem. A simple constraint approach to handle the system constraints is proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30-bus system and is compared with conventional methods. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the emission constrained economic power dispatch problem. (author)

Abou El Ela, A.A.; Spea, S.R. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University (Egypt); Abido, M.A. [Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia)

2010-10-15

42

Economic interpretation of sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

Birk Mortensen, J. [Copenhagen Univ., Inst. of Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)

1994-03-01

43

Economic field development planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a field having been discovered and a general method of reservoir exploitation selected, ways are described to attain the reservoir management goal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of in-depth, overview development planning and to suggest the timing of such reviews. 2 refs.

Bennett, P.M.

1981-01-01

44

STRATEGY OF TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL ASPECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.

V. Medvid’

2013-03-01

45

Manufacturing and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for the hypothesis that manufacturing is the main engine of growth in developing countries. The paper opens with an overview of the main arguments supporting the engine of growth hypothesis and then examines each of these arguments using a mix of statistical analysis of secondary data and secondary literature. The paper concludes that manufacturing will continue to be important in accelerating growth and achieving catch-up in developi...

Szirmai, Adam

2011-01-01

46

Economic development from renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is one of several prepared in support of the Yukon Economic Forums. It discusses aspects of introducing renewable energy technologies into the Yukon's economy, their resource potential in the Yukon, and the economic, social and environmental benefits that use of renewable energy would confer on the Territory. To illustrate these benefits, various case studies that could be implemented in the Yukon, are described, stressing the variety of choices, job creation and skills development opportunities, financial savings, economic diversification, investment and trade potentials, environmental and social benefits, and ways to overcome energy market barriers. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

Campbell, B.; Pape, A. [Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

1999-10-01

47

Conservation and economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

48

Conservation and economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

49

Economic Development: Threats and Opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology) known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by ec...

Vincenzo Ruggiero

2012-01-01

50

Energy-based economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fields of economic development and energy policy and planning have converged in recent years to form an emerging discipline, which we term ''energy-based economic development'' (EBED). Despite the significant amount of stimulus funds, as well as state and local funding, that are being allocated to EBED initiatives in the United States, the emerging discipline has received scant attention in the energy, policy, and development literature. The link between energy and economic development in the literature is still theoretical, mostly focused on the need for and the potential benefits of EBED, and rarely applied. Furthermore, funding for EBED has outpaced understanding of the discipline, development of rigorous technical approaches, and meaningful ways to measure impact. Such information would not only help practitioners and policymakers more thoroughly understand the confines of the discipline and shape goals and approaches accordingly, but also help researchers identify, track, and evaluate a variety of activities in the field. With national and international attention focused on the convergence of these fields, researchers and practitioners have a rare opportunity to develop and implement the tools necessary to evaluate and communicate the potentially broader impacts that EBED may hold for society. If ways to leverage and sustain the injection of funds in this discipline are not identified, the opportunity may end before we can achieve either energy policy or economic development goals. In an attempt to respond to this need, this analysis explores the connection between energy and economic development, beginning with a review of the trends in each field and the goals that each seeks to achieve. On the basis of this information, we define the discipline of EBED, review the existing literature on it, and offer insights and perspectives on its emergence. (author)

Carley, Sanya [School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 1315 East Tenth St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lawrence, Sara; Brown, Adrienne [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Rd., P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Nourafshan, Andrew [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, P.O. Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Benami, Elinor [Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 3305, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599 (United States)

2011-01-15

51

Stock Market Development and Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for France for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. Stock market development is estimated by the general stock market index. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Approach: To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. A vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Finally, Granger causality test was applied in order to find the direction of causality between the examined variables of the estimated model. Results: A short-run increase economic growth of per 1% leaded to an increase of stock market index per 0.24% in France, while an increase of interest rate per 1% leaded to a decrease of stock market index per 0.64% in France. The estimated coefficient of error correction term found statistically significant with a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that economic growth causes stock market development in France. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development, while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development in France.

Athanasios Vazakidis

2009-01-01

52

Energy prices and economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the economic impact for developed and developing countries of energy price increases since the 1970s. They evaluate the conservation response, the supply response, particular impacts on developing countries, and energy imports in relation to gross domestic product (GDP). The effect has been one of diverting a proportion of GDP in oil importing countries to oil exporters and a redistribution of world income. A series of severn tables illustrates the trends in these areas.

Pierce, D.; Westoby, R.

1985-01-01

53

Economic development: How should we proceed?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the following questions: where were we in a systemic and development sense in October 2000? What changes have occurred in the last three years? What are the main problems regarding economic development and, opposed to them, the created stereotypes? What are the key mistakes from economic aspect? What should be done in the short run and in the medium run? In addition to providing the necessary level of investment as the most important tool of sustainable development and growth in gross domestic product, it is also necessary to ensure: conditions for efficient market functioning, firm and uncompromising legal protection of businesses innovative management, modern technological base. If such conditions are fulfilled, it will be possible to transform the economy, to ensure sustainable economic growth and to regularly service foreign debts. The alternative is a populist scenario, with a short-run rise in living standards and its fall in the medium and long run.

Stamenkovi? Stojan

2004-01-01

54

Credit Market Development and Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Italy for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. The purpose of this study was to investigated the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: For this purpose unit root tests were carried out according to Dickey-Fuller (1979. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.4% in Italy, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.5% in Italy. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The results suggested that economic growth has a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate had a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

Athanasios Vazakidis

2009-01-01

55

Third World development: problems and prospects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are no easy solutions to the abject poverty and hunger of the world's people. Rather than give answers, the authors provide a background for understanding the nature of the barriers to economic development in the poorer regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America as a first step for approaching the problem. Believing that previous theories about Third World development are too general or too broad in scope, they begin with an overview of the problem before moving on to discuss economic and demographic aspects. They describe socio-cultural traits of Third World countries to illustrate their theory that many noneconomic traits, such as religious tradition and social structure, frequently tie into the forces that inhibit a country's economic development. The same socio-cultural traits that set Third World countries apart from developed nations may prevent underdeveloped countries from achieving higher economic status. 207 references, 9 figures, 18 tables.

Stockwell, E.G.; Laidlaw, K.A.

1981-01-01

56

Legal Institutions and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in explaining cross-country variation in economic development. Finally, it presents and discusses three different views of why we can observe the large cross-country variation in legal institutions, the s...

Beck, T. H. L.

2010-01-01

57

The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

2010-01-01

58

The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.

Orlov Pyotr A.

2013-01-01

59

Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growt...

Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

2009-01-01

60

REGIONALIZATION, ELEMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The regional process that is taking place in Europe in recent decades, was determined by the awareness of the important role that regional policies hold in the balanced development of territories, the goal being the revival of economic and social development, locally, the economic recovery of more underdeveloped areas, to reduce the differences existing among the levels of development of regions. The action is aimed at increasing the efficiency of public authorities (central, local in the use of resources they dispose of, in the development of some economic and financial policies aimed at encouraging investments, employment increase, living conditions improvement, taking into account the determinants of balancing regional development (resources, the development of technological processes and knowledge, political and institutional framework. The paper briefly presents the concepts of regionalism, regionalisation, whose common denominator is decentralization, that involves a multilevel governance, as well as the importance which the new model of economic and social development, consisting in the transfer of some prerogatives of the central administrative systems towards local communities, hold in solving problems that occur in regional, local plan.

Florina Popa

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Efficiency of economic development models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.

Oana Camelia Iacob

2013-03-01

62

Influence of Economic Factors on Development in China  

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Full Text Available The article deals with problems caused by economic factors in the development of international tourism in China. Factors posing threads to development of tourism in China are considered.

Viktoria S. Matyushkina

2012-05-01

63

Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

1977-01-01

64

Modern Problems Economic Units. A Program for Grade Twelve.  

Science.gov (United States)

GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Modern problems, economic units. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes an outline of the Bloomington school philosophy, identification of main areas of modern economics, basic objectives, and techniques for evaluating objectives. The guide covers six units: a) importance…

Carlson, Marshall; Hutton, Joseph

65

A Dual Algorithm for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A linear description for the economic lot-sizing problem consisting of exponentially many linear inequalities was given by Barany, Van Roy and Wolsey in 1984. Using this formulation we present a dual algorithm for the economic lot-sizing problem, which is of the same complexity as the Wagner and Whitin dynamic programming algorithm. Besides its use in sensitivity analysis the dual algorithm also provides an alternative proof of the fact that the linear description is complete.

Hoesel, S.; Wagelmans, A. P. M.; Kolen, A. W. J.

1991-01-01

66

Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

Samir SAYAH

2008-06-01

67

Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD) algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB) problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission...

2013-01-01

68

Rare-Earth Economics: The Balance Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

TMS has forged cooperative agreements with several carefully selected organizations that actively work to benefit the materials science community. In this occasional series, JOM will provide an update on the activities of these organizations. This installment, by the Center for Resource Recovery & Recycling (CR3), focuses on the importance of recycling of rare earths to mitigate the so-called Balance Problem. The CR3 is a research center established by Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Colorado School of Mines, and KU Leuven. Twenty-eight corporations and national laboratories along with support from the U.S. National Science Foundation's Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) program are sponsors of the center.

Binnemans, K.; Jones, P. T.; Van Acker, K.; Blanpain, B.; Mishra, B.; Apelian, D.

2013-07-01

69

Ecological and economic problems of coal desulfurization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reviews relationships between coal price and its quality since the introduction of price reforms and new regulations on permissible sulfur dioxide emission, valid since 1990 in Poland. Experience in high-sulfur coal preparation, desulfurization and utilization abroad is discussed. Technological flowsheets of power coal preparation schemes used abroad and in Poland are given. A concept of coal desulfurization and reduction of sulfur dioxide emission in Poland is presented. Actual preparation methods allow the total sulfur content in coal to be reduced by about 60% depending on pyrite sulfur content. Environmental protection problems related to sulfur content in power coal are considered. 12 refs.

Hycnar, J.; Broma, Z.; Drogon, W.

1991-02-01

70

Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in 2007, his work has become worldwide recognized as an efficient means towards sustainable development with a focus on human development. The philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is basically a means to achieve happiness at the individual, community and country levels because the Sufficiency Economy Approach is applicable to the micro and macro levels. All the principles are much related to human development process toward right living, therefore right interaction and relation with other beings on this planet including natural resources. From this basis, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy provides a practical tool to cultivate necessary conditions and to alter human well-being through happiness development process.

Anawat Bunnag

2013-01-01

71

/ Science, religion and economic development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Exploraram-se as correlações entre os índices cientométricos, as variáveis macroeconômicas e os resultados de pesquisas sobre a atitude moral-religiosa em diversos países. Os resultados mostram que se requer de um umbral mínimo de desenvolvimento econômico (por volta de 1000US$ de PIB per cápita) pa [...] ra que a ciência e a economia de um país interatuem. Por encima de esse umbral se evidencia una interação positiva entre o desenvolvimento econômico, o desenvolvimento científico e atitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconhecemos ainda os mecanismos de estas interações. Abstract in spanish Se exploraron las correlaciones entre los índices cientométricos, las variables macroeconómicas y los resultados de encuestas sobre la actitud moral-religiosa en diversos países. Los resultados muestran que se requiere de un umbral mínimo de desarrollo económico (alrededor de 1000US$ de PIB per capi [...] ta) para que la ciencia y la economía de un país interactúen. Por encima de ese umbral se evidencia una interacción positiva entre el desarrollo económico, el desarrollo científico y actitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconocemos todavía los mecanismos de estas interacciones. Abstract in english The correlations between scientometric indices, macroeconomic variables and results from attitude polls in different countries were explored. The results show that a minimum threshold of economic development (around GDP per capita of 1000US$) is required for science and the economy of a country to i [...] nteract. Above that threshold, a positive interaction can be observed between economic development, scientific development and tolerant moral-religious attitudes. The way these interactions occur remains to be uncovered.

Klaus, Jaffe.

72

Problems of Ukraine trade potential development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

2014-05-01

73

How Economics Influences Students' Views about Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been proposed by some social scientists that studying economics and economic models has a narrowing effect on students? views. This thesis discusses how economics may influence a student?s views about development. As part of the investigation into this issue, one hundred and sixty-six economics students completed questionnaires and thirty-seven of these students were also interviewed. The research has not uncovered much evidence to indicate that studying economic models has...

Cunningham, John

2007-01-01

74

Revelation of Three Periods of Japan Economic Development on the Economic Development of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the development stage, the actuality of China economy is very similar to the initial stage of 1970s in Japan, so we can use some feasible experiences to solve economic problems by Japan at the beginning of 1970s. The research to the foam economy in the middle and late stage of 1980s in Japan induces the consideration whether China would follow the same old disastrous road of Japan in 1980s. After that, from the long term depression of Japan in 1990s, we should exactly treat the China depression theory which has been occurred. Reviewing the course from the boom at the beginning of 1970s to the formation and break of foam in the middle and late of 1980s and to the long term depression in 1990s of economic development experienced by Japan, we can get some revelations about many aspects such as macro-economic control and financial security.

Shijie Ma

2009-02-01

75

Development Questions of Russian-Korean Economic Cooperation  

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Full Text Available This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.

Petr S. Andreev

2012-11-01

76

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

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Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna

2010-12-01

77

Innovation, economic diversification and human development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we bridge a gap between innovation economics and the human development approach by analyzing positive and negative effects of different types of economic diversification on social welfare. Economic variety is a driver and outcome of economic development. However, diversification leads to ambiguous effects on the well-being of human agents: on the one hand, increasing variety augments the freedom of human agents to choose. On the other hand, it can overburden their capabilities t...

Hartmann, Dominik; Pyka, Andreas

2013-01-01

78

Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

Science.gov (United States)

As many cities have begin to grapple with their vast areas of brownfields that dot the urban landscape, the federal government has begun to step in and provide various financial assistance in order to assist with the redevelopment of abandoned, idled and underused industrial and commercial facilities. This website, provided by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, provides information about the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), which is a competitive grant program that is meant to serve as a stimulus for local government and private sector parties to start the long redevelopment process. The site contains detailed information about the program, along with archived webcasts that talk about various success stories that have been funded with monies from the program thus far. Also on the site, information is provided about how brownfields are defined and how monies for the program have been distributed to various communities. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the related publications available here, including those that detail various brownfields initiative and the potential long-term effects of environmental degradation.

79

Electricity use and economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)

Ferguson, R. [Solar Network Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, W. [Energy Audit Company, Chathill, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Hill, R. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre

2000-11-01

80

Reproduction, fertility and socio-economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapid growth of population in the third world countries specially in recent decades has posed an important social problem. There have been some attempts to propose solutions for this problem by scientists from various disciplines. However, it seems that an integrated approach calling for collaboration of various efforts can be more fruitful. In this work, we study the relation of women fertility and socio-economical indices along with government's programmed efforts in the third world countries. Employing a statistical approach, we show that development indices such as gross national product, infant mortality rate, education enrolment, and access to mass media along with government's programmed efforts are effective in reducing the fertility rate, but more important is the interaction between these factors. Thus, an integrated approach emerges as a better solution to population control

Meshkani Z

1997-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

Zhang, Yu Aimee

2012-01-01

82

Genetic algorithm solution to the economic dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two genetic algorithm (GA) solutions to the economic dispatch problem are presented. An advantage of the GA solutions is that they do not impose any convexity restrictions on the generator cost functions. Another advantage is that GAs can be very effectively coded to work on parallel machines. Test results with systems of up to 72 generating units with nonconvex cost functions show that both GAs outperform the dynamic programming solution to the economic dispatch problem. Furthermore, the execution time of the second GA solution increases almost linearly with the number of generators. (author)

Bakirtzis, A.; Petridis, V.; Kazarlis, S. (Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Faculty of Electrical Engineering)

1994-07-01

83

Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework for Various Types of Economic Thermal Power Dispatch Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a ...

Srikrishna Subramanian; Ganesan Sivarajan

2010-01-01

84

Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx. The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission. The proposed AD algorithm is applied for EED of a simple power system.

Aristidis VLACHOS

2013-06-01

85

The Relationship between Credit Market Development and Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic ...

Antonios Adamopoulos

2010-01-01

86

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

87

Energy-based economic development: Mapping the developing country context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy-based economic development (EBED) can provide economic, social and environmental benefits related to national economic development and sustainable growth activities. As both policy and research interests in responsible mechanisms for economic development grow, EBED benefits are becoming increasingly attractive to planners in both developed and developing countries. The incentives, trade-offs, and payoffs for developing countries, however, are not well documented. To help address that g...

Carley, Sanya; Desai, Sameeksha; Bazilian, Morgan

2012-01-01

88

Development drilling problems offshore Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper highlights the major drilling problems encountered in the field development programmes offshore Malaysia from 1978 to mid-1983. The major problems identified were pipe sticking which was common in all the areas and top hole drilling problems encountered in a few fields offshore Sabah and Sarawak. Generally, the problems were related to drilling deviated wells through the soft and unconsolidated formations common in this region. Preventive measures employed by the Contractors have been effective in overcoming these problems in the later years of the period under consideration.

Osman, M.N.; Maung, M.

1984-02-01

89

Economic Content of the Global Food Problem in the Context of Reproduction of Labour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers concepts of economic essence of wages, analyses types of income, by means of which population gets food, systemises factors that influence some income, which is spent for food products. It shows that the global food problem significantly depends on development of labour relations. Insufficient catering reduces working capacity of a person and, as a consequence, slows down economic development of under-developed countries.

Malakhov? Larysa V.

2013-12-01

90

Social Security and Minority Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the thirty years of the implementation of reform and opening up policy, China has made significant achievements in the economic development. And the western region resided by the minorities has also made great progress in the economic growth. However, there is still a great gap compared with the well-developed eastern coastal region. Relatively speaking, the economic development of western region is still backward. People have lower ability of self-protection and the family security and t...

Wei Zheng

2009-01-01

91

Economics of Software Product Development Collectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Where software product development occurs is shifting from single companies to groups or collectives of companies. In this article, we retrace the evolution of how software product development is organized and then offer insights into the economic motivation for collectives, which will be relevant to companies considering joining a software product development collective. Building on the literature on software product line economics, we identify three factors affecting the economics of collec...

Michael Weiss

2011-01-01

92

The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

Stéphane J. Baele

2013-11-01

93

Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are require. Therefore, in this paper, we investigated the environmental/economic power dispatch problem by employing a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The power dispatch is formulated into a bi-objective optimization problem, which is to minimize the fuel cost as well as pollutant emission simultaneously. Two objectives are merged in to a single objective by using the weighted sum method. Best cost and best emission solution are obtained for different loading conditions for the standard IEEE 118-bus, 14 generating units system.

Neha Mishra

2013-04-01

94

ECONOMIC CHANGE IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural and rural sector is connected with great hopes in the economic recovery not only in our country, but world-wide. Rural firms and business should do their best to respond to the challenges of the changes and this way, to bring an improvement to the markets and to the whole economic and social environment. If the advanced, more opened economies are more competitive, this is due to their capacity of change, by raising the quality of the offer (merchandise they sell.

MARINA LUMINI?A SÂRBOVAN

2009-05-01

95

A Causal Relationship between Financial Market Development and Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial market development and economic growth for United Kingdom for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests b...

Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

2010-01-01

96

Energy problems and the developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy problems are becoming increasingly important in the general context of the control of resources which includes the amounts of energy available, the cost of obtaining them, the political and economic constraints and the exhaustion of the reserves. These problems, which are very crucial and important to the developing countries that must have some access to energy resources and learn how to husband them by the most careful decisions based on the best possible situation analysis and on the maximum practical knowledge are examined

2007-08-15

97

The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side, it is an impediment to economic development of most nations. This paper correlates urbanization with economic development indicators of developing countries and concludes that there is weak relationship between urban growth and economic development in developing countries. To further the understanding of this relationship, the study also compares the economic situation of urban and rural areas which shows that, it was better in the cities.

Terwase Shabu

2010-12-01

98

Economic lot scheduling problem with consideration of money time value  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP is a challenge between sequencing and lot sizing. In this problem, several products must be produced on a single machine in a cyclical production pattern and the primary goal is to minimize the total setup and holding expenditures. Since time affects the value of money, it is necessary to take into account the time value of money when gradual payment is the case. In this paper, a new ELSP model with the consideration of the time value of money is considered. The proposed model of this paper is formulated as a nonlinear mixed integer model and a hybrid GA is presented to solve the resulted model for large-scale problems. The proposed method is solved for some benchmark problems for large-scale problems.

Maryam Mokhlesian

2010-06-01

99

TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

Todt Horst

2009-05-01

100

FAO: Economic and Social Development Department  

...prices,volatility,Commodity Markets,Policy,Briefs,Economic,Committee,Commodity,Problems,CCP,Committee on World Food Security,CFS,Nutrition,Information,Employment,FAOSTAT,statistical,databases, lobal information and early warning system (GIEWS),Commodity price database,Agricultural census,censuses,land rights,CountrySTAT,Learning resources,food security,e-learning course,...Forum on Food Security and Nutrition,Ending hunger prices,volatility,Commodity Markets,Policy,Briefs,Economic,Committee,Commodity,Problems,CCP,Committee on World Food Security,CFS,Nutrition,Information,Employment,FAOSTAT,statistical,databases, lobal information and early warning system (GIEWS),Commodity price database,Agricultural census,censuses,land ...for better nutrition OECD-FAO Food Outlook 2013-2022Slower agricultural production growth expected Policy briefsEconomic and social perspectives Meetings and events Committee on World Food Security (CFS) Committee on Commodity Problems (CCP) Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) International conference on forests for food security ...

 
 
 
 
101

Problems of nuclear power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The answers are reported given by the head of the department for peaceful uses of nuclear energy of the secretariat of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance, Mr. A. Pasenkov to questions given him in an interview for APN. The questions were related to the current state and development of world nuclear power, nuclear safety and the attitude of the general public to nuclear power in the West and in the CMEA countries. (B.S.)

1982-10-01

102

Design of the regions’ economic development strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present Russian economy is undergoing the same trends of the modern economic development, which take place in developed countries. These processes comprise globalization, advanced development of the service industries, post-industrial society formation, intellectual component expansion in the results of any industry, informatization of the society, running out of traditional sources of social and economic growth. In such conditions search for new ways and factors of the regional self-development is critical.

Olga Patsuk

2010-06-01

103

THE ROLE OF ART AND CULTURE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual

S.R. KESHAVA

2013-03-01

104

Economic lot scheduling problem with consideration of money time value  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) is a challenge between sequencing and lot sizing. In this problem, several products must be produced on a single machine in a cyclical production pattern and the primary goal is to minimize the total setup and holding expenditures. Since time affects the value of money, it is necessary to take into account the time value of money when gradual payment is the case. In this paper, a new ELSP model with the consideration of the time value of money is con...

2010-01-01

105

Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

2013-06-01

106

The economic development of Libya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book focuses on the development of the Libyan economy over the last decade. The book surveys both the structural developments in the Libyan economy and the experience of the individual sectors. It considers the potential for industrial development and the prospects for agriculture both in terms of natural resources and political commitments. The book also examines developments in the service sector especially banking.

Khader, B.; El-Wifati, B.

1986-01-01

107

Conflict between Developing Economic and Protecting Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation, this still has the dispute. In this essay I will analyze the conflict between the developing economic and protecting environment. Through the analysis cause where can get a balance between them.

Longlong Guo

2009-02-01

108

????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????? GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ????????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.   ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????. ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????.

?.?. ???’??????

2012-03-01

109

Economic Reform and Regional Development of Laos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural region by improving the infrastructure and information network. Moreover, the new policy to open the country leads to increase in the international cooperation and attractive foreign direct investment (FDI. Laos has successfully developed amicable relations with regional states, being a members of many international organization, particularly, a member of ASEAN is necessary for Laos in respect of its economic progress both regional and global procedure.

Hatthachan Phimphanthavong

2012-03-01

110

Economic development in rural Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation described the impact that the wind power industry has had on the rural community of Pincher Creek, Alberta. Rural communities dominated by agriculture are facing threats to traditional agriculture by competing interests, climate change and economies of scale. The elements of success that the wind industry can bring to the agricultural community include land owner compensation, land tax assessment, property values, green energy and community pride. This presentation included slides of the construction and commissioning phases of the Pincher Creek wind turbine array. The beneficial economic outcomes per 100 MW in the short- and long-term periods were outlined. The wind energy project has brought millions of dollars into the local economy and there is strong public support for the wind industry in Pincher Creek. tabs., figs.

Aris, S. [Canadian Wind Energy Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

111

Does Geographic Factors Determine Local Economic Development?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of geographic characteristics on the local economic development. There are two important reasons related to that objective. First, study on this topic in the case of Indonesia is rather limited, especially in the field of local economic development of the country. Second, geographically, Indonesia is a heterogeneous country and its consequence is development policy should also consider the geographic characteristics of the country. The stu...

2009-01-01

112

Interaction between economic and financial development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a model of financial and economic development which assumes the consumption of real resources by the financial sector. Financial development occurs endogenously as the economy reaches a critical threshold of economic development. Compared to financial autarky, financial intermediaries allocate savings, net of their costs of operation, to more productive investments. Whenever the technology financed by intermediaries is more capital-intensive than that operated in financial...

2006-01-01

113

Economics of aquaculture development in greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

(OCR non controlé) General terms of reference for the project and conclusions reached by other consultants point out that Greece offers good opportunities to develop aquaculture to the level of a socially and economically significant industry. Aquaculture development is stated to contribute to Government aims such as food security, preservation of foreign exchange, social and economic development of remote rural areas and contribution to the gross national product by rational use of water re...

Bailly, Denis

1987-01-01

114

Augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for economic dispatch problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problems. The proposed ALHN is a new improvement of continuous Hopfield neural network by using augmented Lagrange function as its energy function. The ALHN is applied for solving different ED problems consisting of classical ED, ED with fuel constraint, ED with piecewise quadratic fuel cost, ED with prohibited operating zones, combined heat and power ED, and ED for hydrothermal systems. The proposed method has been tested on different systems and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods. The result comparison has shown that the proposed ALHN can obtain less total costs and faster computational times than many others. Therefore, ALHN could be a very powerful method for solving the ED problems.

Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Schegner, Peter; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

2012-11-01

115

ECONOMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ROMANIA’S SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the drawbacks of traditional economic growth, the article highlights the current problems of sustainable development in the European area. The author considers that EU environmental requirements must be balanced against our country’s potential to apply the principle of ecological responsibility. Furthermore, the European character of sustainable development does not cancel out the national dimensions of this process. In this context, we identify the main economic requirements for Romania’s sustainable development, and we analyse the possibility of meeting the objectives assumed through the National Strategy for Sustainable Development

Alexandru Tofan

2009-10-01

116

Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic growth are mainly analyzed through the so-call...

Costantini, Valeria; Monni, Salvatore

2006-01-01

117

Coal: energy for economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than half of the world`s coal production is used to generate electricity, and more than 40% of the world`s electricity capacity is coal-fired. Coal is also the major fuel source used in the manufacture of steel and cement. Coal offers a safe, secure and widespread source of relatively inexpensive energy. Modern mining methods mean that it can be produced with minimal impact on the environment, and clean coal technologies result in reduced emissions of particulates and sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The evidence for global warming due to carbon dioxide is inconclusive. It is important to use finite resources efficiently, but carbon taxes should not be applied to solve the global warming problem.

Toohey, A.C. [World Coal Institute (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

118

Development of economic collector systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of systems of the different modular concepts was introduced for collector development work. The HELIOMAN-3-32/A collector module was used as the basis of comparison. Because of the results of this comparison, the single axis/horizontal north-south variant was given preference for development work. Activities for the design and development of the following components for the single axis horizontal trough following the sun took place: Parabolic mirror (1.5 m long, 1.1 m wide, thickness of glass 5 mm), absorber (38 mm diameter), trough structure (combination of several rows of mirrors), trough drive with 4 joint drive. Apart from this development work for a cylindrical paraboloid collector, the complete unit of a collector area was also considered (reducing the price).

Kraft, M.

1983-01-01

119

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TIMES OF CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development generally speaking should enable sustained economic growth. When we talk about the steady growth it is necessary to mention that he cannot be based on excessive use or abuse the use of natural resources. In this paper the author wants to emphasize the importance of economic development, long-term stable and sustainable growth is a priority of every company that goes through a transition period. The Great Depression was in the thirties of the 20th century and during that time the world faced a major financial problem, today the world is going through a similar period. The basis of sustainable development is in the basic economic principles, that is. Principle of simple and expanded reproduction and all that is spent must be reimbursed and that is to provide new value.

Aleksandra Vidovi?

2013-07-01

120

Does Economic Crisis Affect Sustainable Development?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of our work is to show how sustainable development is defined and measuredand to highlight the impact of economic crisis on social, environmental, economic and institutional of thisconcept. Our paper is focused on 3 dimensions regarding sustainable development: first section is oriented tocreate an theoretical approach of the sustainable development aspects that include an old and new literaturereview in this respect, the second part present the sustainable development indicators and the final sectionmake an analyze (case study about the level of sustainable development indicators in Romania, comparingwith EU-27, in the actual context of financial crises.

Alina Cristina Nu??

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

EMPIRICAL ESSAYS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In developing countries, where formal credit and insurance markets are incomplete or non-existent, households use informal mechanisms to increase their consumption, savings and insurance possibilities. This dissertation studies two of these informal devices: participation in Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (roscas), and internal migration. I mainly follow an empirical approach, using the Indonesia Family Life Survey dataset (IFLS).

Groppo, Valeria

2012-01-01

122

Euroregion and Local Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concerns for regional development policies and strategies are included in the classification basedon NUTS I, II, III, the European Union as a priority aiming to overcome the gaps between countries, areas,regions, urban and rural non-discriminatory basis as balanced.

Roxana-Maria Toma

2012-05-01

123

Indicators of socio-economic development  

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Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

124

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

125

Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Lookin...

Alexandra Berger Masson

2013-01-01

126

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN UNION CAUSED BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

Iulia-Alexandra Perc?

2011-09-01

127

PUBLIC GOODS AND THE PROBLEM OF ECONOMIC CALCULUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be for the production of essential assets that are neglected by private investors. The problem is how to choose between public possibilities of spending the money after the application of the first criteria.

Gabriel-Andrei Donici

2010-06-01

128

An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Economic Dispatch(ED problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA, for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the FA to ED for different Test Case system. ED is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Simulated Annealing (SA, Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, and Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

R.Subramanian

2013-03-01

129

The role of FDI in economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with two questions: First, what are the determinants of FDI? Second, what is the role of FDI in economic development? In order to provide some answers to these questions, we draw upon the existing theoretical and empirical literature as well as insights derived from five country studies that we have conducted. Important location advantages include a stable social, political and economic environment, liberal trade policies, and geographical proximity to large and growing econo...

Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Kind, Hans Jarle; Norda?s, Hildegunn Kyvik

2001-01-01

130

IMF and economic reform in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader l...

2010-01-01

131

The European origins of economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large literature suggests that European settlement outside of Europe shaped institutional, educational, technological, cultural, and economic outcomes. This literature has had a serious gap: no direct measure of colonial European settlement. In this paper, we (1) construct a new database on the European share of the population during the early stages of colonization and (2) examine its impact on the level of economic development today. We find a remarkably strong impact of colonial European...

2012-01-01

132

Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

2014-08-01

133

Economic Incentive Programs: Performance Evaluation and the Iowa Department of Economic Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Iowa Department of Economic Development (IDED) oversees a broad range of economic development programs and services designed to meet the needs of individuals, companies and communities. Evaluating economic incentive programs can help determine what wo...

D. A. Keele

1999-01-01

134

Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

Winkler, Adalbert

2005-01-01

135

Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

Winkler, Adalbert

1998-01-01

136

Contribution of Services to Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Service activities have become the main engine for sustainable development. The share of services in the global economic output is about 70% and their contribution to global employment is about 40%. There are substantial differences between countries and regions of the world in the development of services sector, the share of tertiary activities in both output and employment being higher in strong industrialized economies, but growing rapidly in developing and transition economies as well. As services tend to become essential inputs for every activity, service productivity is a key factor of economic performance not only directly, but also by its multiplier effects spread all over the economy, including manufacturing and agriculture. From a qualitative point of view, services are at the core of transformative processes toward more inclusive societies, reconciliation between economic growth and environment preservation, enhancing knowledge production and improving the exploitation of technological advances, and better governance.

Laurentiu Tachiciu

2012-11-01

137

Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

Shek, Daniel T. L.

2005-01-01

138

Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".

Ali R?za Erdem

2010-02-01

139

Realisation of economic interests of a region in the context of ensuring regional development ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article substantiates a necessity of accounting and modelling co-ordination of interests at different levels of economic activity for development of programmes on planning and regulating processes of regional development. It considers problems of formation of economic security of a region through realisation of regional economic interests. It justifies importance of effective realisation of economic interests for the process of regional development. It determines factors of realisation of...

Bogdan Nataliya N.

2013-01-01

140

Multiobjective particle swarm optimization for environmental/economic dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique for environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem is proposed in this paper. The proposed MOPSO technique evolves a multiobjective version of PSO by proposing redefinition of global best and local best individuals in multiobjective optimization domain. The proposed MOPSO technique has been implemented to solve the EED problem with competing and non-commensurable cost and emission objectives. Several optimization runs of the proposed approach have been carried out on a standard test system. The results demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed MOPSO technique to generate a set of well-distributed Pareto-optimal solutions in one single run. The comparison with the different reported techniques demonstrates the superiority of the proposed MOPSO in terms of the diversity of the Pareto-optimal solutions obtained. In addition, a quality measure to Pareto-optimal solutions has been implemented where the results confirm the potential of the proposed MOPSO technique to solve the multiobjective EED problem and produce high quality nondominated solutions. (author)

Abido, M.A. [Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-15

 
 
 
 
141

Some issues of environmental problem integration in sustainable development strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article treats theoretical-methodological positions of interdependence economic and environmental dimension of development. Approaches to the environmental problems in process of defining development strategies in Serbia are presented. It was pointed that introduction of integrated approach in coordination development policy with environmental policy is necessary.

Miljanovi? Dragana

2006-01-01

142

VOICE PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATIONS OF ROMANIAN AND ENGLISH ECONOMIC TEXTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid repetition of the subject; c to put emphasis on the action or the process; d to convey objectivity; e to avoid a long active subject.

Sim Monica Ariana

2011-07-01

143

State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers a wide range of scientific and practical issues that characterise the state and identify problems of economic development and ways of their solution. The study uses the Enterprise Performance Management (EPM methodology, which allows assessment of indicators of enterprise activity and opens opportunities for inter-country comparison of results and identification of correspondence of Ukrainian realities in the sphere of economic enterprise management with the world tendencies. The goal of the article is publication of results of the “State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises”. The detected, during the comparative analysis, lag from the generally accepted modern requirements and approaches to management confirms the objective necessity of formation of theoretical grounds and development of the relevant practical mechanism of economic enterprise management as a factor of ensuring high efficiency of operational, investment and financial activity of Ukrainian enterprises, establishment of conditions for increasing the economic potential of development and ensuring vitality in the long run.

Ligonenko Larysa O.

2014-01-01

144

The Relationship between Credit Market Development and Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.08%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.56% and also an increase of investments rate per 1% induced an increase of bank credits per 0.18% in Spain. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that economic growth and investment have a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate has a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

Antonios Adamopoulos

2010-01-01

145

Global health funding and economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

Martin Greg

2012-04-01

146

Applying behavioural economics to international development policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many development policies and programmes are premised on a traditional economic model of rationality to predict how individuals will respond to changes in incentives. Despite the emphasis of these programmes on poverty reduction, economists and the development community in general are still unable to fully understand how the poor make decisions, especially under uncertainty and over time. Individuals avail themselves less than predicted in health programmes, participate less than expected in ...

2006-01-01

147

Study on the Interaction of Enterprise Technological Innovation and Regional Economic Development in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

with the development of economy and society, technological innovation has become an important factor of supported the sustainable development of regional economy, it is the guarantee of sustained regional economic growth. This essay to interaction effects of technological innovation and regional economic development as the theme, elaborated advantages in the interaction between technological innovation and regional economic development, and to the problems in the development of the r...

Sun, Jing

2012-01-01

148

The Problems of Economic Security of the Banking System of Ukraine ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the main theoretical and methodological approaches to the definition and evaluation of the banking system economic security of Ukraine. The problems of its ensuring, and factors of types depending on the nature of banking are researched. The analysis of the key indicators of banking activities that reflect its development in Ukraine is implemented; the safety of the banking system for each indicator by comparing the actual values with the limit values according to the method of economic security level estimation of Ukraine is evaluated.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????.

Anisimova Anna V.

2013-01-01

149

Strategies for environmentally sound economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

1991-01-01

150

Problems and prospects of Kumkol deposit development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kumkol deposit's petroleum balance supply situated in Southern-Turgaj depression makes up 153.2 million tones, extracted supply by C1 category includes 89.4 million tones. Petroleum of cretaceous and sediments by its physico-chemical content are light (density 0.835 g/sm3), high-paraffin (12-15 %), low-sulphur content one (0,5 %). Content of light fractions under temperature 300 deg C is up to 45 %, gasoline one is up to 25 %. Gas content of stratum petroleum and saturation pressure substantially is changing by productive horizons. Rational system of Kumkol deposit development with sustaining of reservoir pressure for increase of petroleum extraction rate from bed and increase its output is presented. Technological and economical parameters of the Yuzhneftgas Joint Stock Company operation in condition of market economy and urgent problems on increase of petroleum production are considered

1997-11-04

151

Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

Xinguang Chen

2013-12-01

152

Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-econ...

Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.; Timoshchenkova Olga A.

2013-01-01

153

Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT) to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as part of a comprehensive Economic Effic...

Issa, Ghassan F.; Hussain, Shaki M.; Hussein Al-Bahadili

2009-01-01

154

Economic development and direct foreign investment in the transition economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP) and production in Serbia and other countries are currentl...

Mrdakovi?-Cvetkovi? Ružica

2006-01-01

155

An Advanced Genetic Optimization Algorithm to Solve Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dispatch of electric load is one of the key functions in electrical power system operation, management and planning. The key intention of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. In the present time, energy resources to generate mechanical power supplied to the rotor shaft of generating units are of fossil fuels. This leads to the emission of huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx that results in atmospheric pollution. Reducing those pollutions resulted by usage of fossil-fired generating units has received great consideration. This provides wide field for the researchers to develop a better system to handle those needs. This leads to the development of Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch (CEED techniques. There are various technique proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. The efficient optimization technique among the proposed work is Genetic Algorithm (GA. But still some problems like slower convergence and higher computational complexity exists in using GA for solving CEED problem. To overcome those difficulties, this paper uses Non- Dominated Ranked Genetic Algorithm (NRGA which uses rank based Roulette Wheel selection algorithm with Pareto-based population ranking Algorithm. The simulation result shows that the proposed technique for solving combined economic and emission dispatch problem results in better convergence rate when compared to the existing techniques.

R. Gopalakrishnan

2012-03-01

156

Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

1991-04-01

157

ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND THE LABOR POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article highlights the results of reasoning of the presence of connection between the level of economic freedom in the country and the level of development of labor potential of an individual. As an informational and analytical base for conducting the scientific research, there were used the results of study The Heritage Foundation & the Wall Street Journal (Index of Economic Freedom and United Nations Development Programme (Human Development index from 2005 to 2011. In addition, the article provides some theoretical generalizations about the content of economic freedom and influence factors that determine its level. Scientific publishing has a close relationship with previous researches by the authors of the article, as conceptual, model interaction phenomena of freedom of the human“I” in the context of human work and its potential. These conclusions in the article have practical value for government relations; the level of competence applies to issues of public policy concerning the use and development of labor potential of people.

Volodymyr Moroz

2013-01-01

158

China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel selection systems; as a consequence, there has been a "slump" in the demand for qualified personnel; skilled persons are unable to make good use of their abilities. PMID:12317925

Song, R

1992-01-01

159

Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

1999-01-01

160

Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

Barrett, Steven

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Economic development a program that works  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An economic development program, which focuses on industrial development, of the Loup River Public Power District is outlined in the paper. Addition of constant industrial load and electric heat promotion have balanced the districts seasonal demands. The annual load factor has increased from 44% to 63% over the past 20 years; during the same period, annual energy sales averaged 4.4% per year and peak annual demand increased 2.6% per year. The paper describes the development organization, industrial recruitment program, and success factors.

White, R.E. [Loup River Public Power District, Columbus, NE (United States)

1995-12-31

162

The Problems of Economic Security of the Banking System of Ukraine ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article describes the main theoretical and methodological approaches to the definition and evaluation of the banking system economic security of Ukraine. The problems of its ensuring, and factors of types depending on the nature of banking are researched. The analysis of the key indicators of banking activities that reflect its development in Ukraine is implemented; the safety of the banking system for each indicator by comparing the actual values with the limit values according to the me...

Anisimova Anna V.; Golenitskaya Natalya V.

2013-01-01

163

Economic Disadvantage and Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all an...

Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-01-01

164

Solutions for technological and economic problems of construction in the case of uncertainty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Uncertainty and risk management by means of classification, identification of sources, assessment of consequences and implementation of systematic means to reduce their impact and costs. Developed complex management of technological and economic problems of construction integrated into the automated design and management system of a building throughout the project life cycle. Automated management model and methodology for a construction project used to accumulate and correct data in the imple...

Migilinskas, Darius

2010-01-01

165

Global health funding and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and dise...

Martin Greg; Grant Alexandra; Agostino Mark, D.

2012-01-01

166

Openness and economic growth in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Openness appears to have a strong impact on economic growth especially in DCs, which typically exhibit a high share of physical capital in factor income and a low share of labor. In the neoclassical growth model with partial capital mobility, physical capital's share in factor income determines the difference in the predicted convergence rates for open and closed economies. With a 60 percent share as in developing countries, the convergence rates should differ by a factor of about 2.5. My reg...

Gundlach, Erich

1996-01-01

167

Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Centr...

Mary Emery; Milan Wall; Corry Bregendahl; Cornelia Flora

2008-01-01

168

The real exchange rate and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent empirical studies have found a robust correlation between competitive exchange rates and economic growth in developing economies. This paper presents (i) a formal model to help explain these findings and (ii) econometric evidence on the relation between investment and the real exchange rate. The model emphasizes the existence of (hidden) unemployment as a source of endogenous growth, even under constant returns to scale. Growth promoting policies, however, affect the external balance, ...

2011-01-01

169

Development Problems of Alternative Energy ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article analyzes the problems of using renewable energy sources (RES), particularly wind energy. Assessed the current state of funding green energy market.? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???), ? ????????? ???????????????. ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? «??...

2012-01-01

170

Coal, economic development and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

1995-01-01

171

Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.

Corry Bregendahl

2008-11-01

172

Economic Development Issues for the 1990s: A Practitioners' Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is intended to help economic development practitioners improve their effectiveness in the 1990s. The following things influence economic development: (1) the relationship between the practitioner and the development strategy being followed, (2...

P. D. Koos

1993-01-01

173

Realisation of economic interests of a region in the context of ensuring regional development ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article substantiates a necessity of accounting and modelling co-ordination of interests at different levels of economic activity for development of programmes on planning and regulating processes of regional development. It considers problems of formation of economic security of a region through realisation of regional economic interests. It justifies importance of effective realisation of economic interests for the process of regional development. It determines factors of realisation of economic interests of a region in the context of ensuring economic security of a region. It proves an inseparable link between realisation of economic interests of a region and formation of economic security of a region in the process of regional development.? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????. ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????.

Bogdan Nataliya N.

2013-03-01

174

Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM. The result showed that there is a substantial positive effect of financial development on economic growth in Nigeria. The Granger causality test showed that financial development promotes economic growth, but there is evidence of causality from economic growth to the development of financial intermediaries. Thus, advancement of the financial sector development, including diversification of financial instruments should be pursued to facilitate economic development in Nigeria.

Adelakun, O. J.

2010-04-01

175

Model developed for economic gas dispatch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if? tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative 'what if?' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and off

1993-12-01

176

Organisational Problems in Planning Educational Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papers submitted to a meeting of economists, educators, and government officials discuss the organizational implications of the link between education and economic growth. Following an introduction by Henning Friis, the authors and titles of the papers are (1) Necat Erder, "Some Administrative Problems in Educational Planning," (2) Raymond…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

177

Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

Minh Quang Dao

2012-01-01

178

Openness and economic growth in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Openness appears to have a strong impact on economic growth especially in DCs, which typically exhibit a high share of physical capital in factor income and a low share of labor. In the neoclassical growth model with partial capital mobility, physical capital?s share in factor income determines the difference in the predicted convergence rates for open and closed economies. With a 60 percent share as in many developing countries, the convergence rates should differ by a factor of about 2.5. M...

Gundlach, Erich

1997-01-01

179

Energy and economic development in Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

2007-06-20

180

Economic Reform and Regional Development of Laos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs) reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural r...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Energy and economic development in isolated regions: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High production costs and inadequate supply of electricity are severe handicaps to economic development in remote areas. Costs are increased further by the low level and high variability of electric loads. In order to face these problems a simultaneous development of wind diesel energy resources and productive projects with demand management is proposed. This paper illustrates such a case in Southern Chile where present electricity costs are reduced as consumption is increased from 85 to 468 KWh/person/year. A new refrigeration plant increases the storage capacity for the small fishing activity and effectively uses the output of wind energy generators. (author)

1992-01-01

182

Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

Seyed Komail Tayebi

2011-01-01

183

ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE CONTROL PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIC UNITS ??????????????-????????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The management was established in Bauman Mos-cow State Technical University. The core of the economic theory is engineering economics, above all - product lifecycle management, controlling and organizational-economic modelling. The article illustrates how economists and managers can help teams to achieve innovation

Orlov A. I.

2013-03-01

184

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

Crisan Radu

2012-12-01

185

Economic Growth and regional development disparity in south sulawesi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to analyze the relationship between economic growth and disparity of regional economic development in regencies/cities of South Sulawesi. The Klassen Typology and Williamson Index are adopted to plot the rate of economic growth and income disparity during 2005-2010. The results show that the development of economic in the City of Parepare and Palopo and Regency of North Luwu are able to create simultaneously higher economic growth rate and more equitable distrib...

Razak, Abd Rahman

2008-01-01

186

THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze) can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

Huru Dragos; Hrebrenciuc Andrei

2008-01-01

187

Electrification and social and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1991-05-13

188

Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

1992-01-01

189

Obama’s Economic Policy: Achievements, Problems and Prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. IntroductionIn late November, 2008, just after President Barak Obama won the American election, a group of progressive economists met in New York city at the New School for Social Research, to discuss the ongoing economic crisis and to try to reach a consensus on financial and macroeconomic policies that the group should advise the Obama Administration to implement. Organized under the sponsorship of the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy (SCEPA) and the University of Massa...

Gerald Epstein

2009-01-01

190

Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are requ...

2013-01-01

191

Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

2012-05-01

192

South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

2005-01-01

193

Correlation Analysis Between Scientific and Technological Progress and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There exists an interdependence between scientific and technological progress and economic development. The development of science and technology brings along economic development, meanwhile economic development offers powerful support for it. Based on statistical analysis of the relationship between Sci-Tech investment and economic growth in recent decade, this article explores the dependencies between them, and gives us a measurement model. The result suggests that local Sci-Tech i...

Li, Chengju

2012-01-01

194

THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU

2009-02-01

195

A particle swarm approach to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED) problems in power systems such as, environmental/economic dispatch (EED) and multi-area environmental/economic dispatch. The proposed model considers the environmental impact to achieve the minimization of fuel costs and pollutant emissions, simultaneously. The EED problem is further extended to dispatch the power among different areas to aid emission allowance trading. The perfo...

2010-01-01

196

Specialty «Economic Cybernetics» in Modern Economic Space ????????????? «????????????? ???????????» ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems and perspectives of a specialty «Economics cybernetics» in a context of a historical development and realities of a modern economics of Ukraine.??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? «????????????? ???????????» ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.

Koldovskiy Vyacheslav V.

2012-07-01

197

Specialty «Economic Cybernetics» in Modern Economic Space ????????????? «????????????? ???????????» ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problems and perspectives of a specialty «Economics cybernetics» in a context of a historical development and realities of a modern economics of Ukraine.??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? «????????????? ???????????» ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.

Koldovskiy Vyacheslav V.

2012-01-01

198

Problems of Personality Development - Problem analysis by research results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the concept of 'personality development' is analyzed. We introduce some important conceptual, professional and ethical problems and go through the questions of consumer protection and quality assurance of personality development. At last, a short report about the results of our own research is presented

Mez? Ferenc; Zuzana Nagyová-Lehocká; Dr. Mez? Ferenc (1973-) (pszichológus)

2011-01-01

199

Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

Motta, R.S. da (ed.)

2001-07-01

200

Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

Anca Maria GHERMAN

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

How do disparities in health change with economic development?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Socio-economic disparities in health are persistent, pervasive and difficult to modify. Disparities, particularly for non-communicable chronic diseases, appear to change with economic development and may be specific to the stage of economic development and/or epidemiological transition. Most evidence concerning health disparities comes from Europe and North America, where contextual or cultural effects may have built up over centuries of economic development. Evidence from other s...

2013-01-01

202

Optimization programs for economic/energy modelling problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two readily available computer programs, namely MINOS and MINOS/AUGMENTED, may be used to solve various classes of economic energy models and these programs could, if necessary, be modified to improve their performance on such models. The models are described.

Hodson, S.M.

1981-10-01

203

Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

1992-01-01

204

Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

1991-01-01

205

Status, problems and projects for development of district, urban planning and architecture in bulgaria in early 21st century (against the background of the market economy and the upcoming financial and economic crisis). part 1 ?????????, ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ??i ?. (? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????) ????? 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, mu...

Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

2012-01-01

206

Energy Issues and Problems in Developing Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, the developing countries due to changes in supply and demand for energy in the world, are facing several problems, such as: 1. Energy growth. 2.Energy consumption 3.Environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to study the problems caused by the increase in the energy consumption of the developing countries. also several guideline and solution schemes are recommended for these problems

1999-05-01

207

Contingent work: The problem of disembeddedness and economic reembeddedness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All economic action is embedded in social contexts (Granovetter 1985). However, contingent work practices make work relations more episodic, transient and marketlike. They produce dislocated and time-space spanning social contexts and, therefore, contribute to what Giddens (1990) has called the process of disembedding. The aim of the paper is to relate contingent work practices to a wider societal context by looking at how these disembedded practices become reembedded in local contexts of int...

Haunschild, Axel

2004-01-01

208

About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

Voloshyn, Oleksiy

2006-01-01

209

Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems During Childhood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood psychological conditions including depression and substance abuse are a growing concern among American children, but their long-term economic costs are unknown. This paper uses unique data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) following groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years prospectively collecting information on education, income, work, and marriage. Following siblings offers an opportunity to control for unobserved family and neighborhood effects. A r...

Smith, James Patrick; Monica, Santa; Smith, Gillian C.

2010-01-01

210

Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficiesThe Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

Joaquín Lira-Olivares

2011-12-01

211

Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo / METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

Lira-Olivares, Joaquín; González Rodulfo, Sara; De Abreu De Abreu, Jessica.

212

Quantum economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

Vukoti? Veselin

2011-01-01

213

Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

Townsend, Robert

2010-09-01

214

RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of ...

2011-01-01

215

Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

2010-01-01

216

The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

Bruno Gurtner

2010-03-01

217

The Contributions of Capital Market to Economic Development in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virtually all aspects of human endeavor entail the use of money either self-generated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which could be raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulations carefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators. Economic development is a process by which a high degree of self reliant economic growth in a given society is sustained over a given time. It is associated with substantial reduction on poverty and unemployment levels, and income inequality. This paper examines the concept of capital market, the concept of economic growth and economic development, relationship between economic growth and development, factors that determines economic growth and development, framework of regulating the capital market, highlight of recent reforms in the capital market, the contributions of capital market to economic development in Nigeria.

Adewuyi, I. D.

2011-04-01

218

Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

2010-10-01

219

LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) - OECD  

...Local scenarios of demographic change programmes at the local level on how better confront demographic changes. employment,development,sustainable,skills,change,older,workers,...pregnancy,Demographics,shrinkage,Fertility,silver LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs OECD Home ...Local Development › LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) › Local scenarios of demographic change LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) LEED ...Local Economic and Employment Development) SMEs and entrepreneurship Tourism Local scenarios of demographic change Send Print Tweet   A LEED project for 2011-2012 Policies ...

220

The development of the problem decomposition diagnostic  

Science.gov (United States)

The Problem Decomposition Diagnostic is a testing instrument designed to help determine student ability in two areas of problem solving. As the name implies, all versions of the test have been intended to gauge student ability to decompose, or break up, complex physics problems into simpler sub-problems. Additionally, later versions of the PDD sought to also examine the strategy the student would use to solve such sub-problems. This thesis is organized in a roughly chronological manner, following the development of the Problem Decomposition Diagnostic from early open response tests and interview tasks to the current multiple-choice format instrument. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in developing this instrument and measuring its validity. Extensive appendices include every version of the test, plus a complete laboratory course which helped inspire this work and informed a number of the aspects of the PDD.

van Domelen, David John

 
 
 
 
221

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

Ioan Beudean

2012-01-01

222

Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

2007-01-01

223

Development of economic instruments in Estonian environmental policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report gives an overview of the attempts of Estonia to improve the management of environmental protection with the help of market forces. Economic tools designed for the more efficient use of natural resources and reduction of emissions have recently been introduced in Estonia as complementary means to direct regulation, in particular emission charges for the control of water, air pollution and solid waste disposal. Also geological extraction fees have been set for the use of natural resources such as oil shale, peat, mineral building materials and water resources. It was a political decision by Estonian government not to increase the pollution charge rates according to overall inflation. The major concern was that the charges would have increased the danger of bankruptcy of many lively important enterprises. The another concern was that the monopoly position of producers. The revenue raising character of economic control measures is still dominating since tax rates are set relatively too low to provide a real economic incentive to big consumers of resources or to polluters. A stepwise revision of the pollution charges have been the approach used in Estonia. The tax rates have been increased three times since their implementation, i.e. in four years period. The last revision of the order of taxation of environment and the tax rates belongs to February 1994. The major current problem with the system of charges has been the effect of the hyper inflation which, during the first years of implementation, has almost completely wiped out the real revenues derived from taxation of environment. An essentially important result expected from the further development of economic instruments for pollution control is the gradual shift in the production and consumption to a more efficient and environmentally friendly direction, which will form a basis for sustainable development in Estonia. (au) 11 refs.

Kallaste, T. [Stockholm Environment Institute-Tallinn, Tallinn (Estonia)

1994-11-01

224

Multiobjective fuzzy dominance based bacterial foraging algorithm to solve economic emission dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)

Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

2010-12-15

225

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.

Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

2013-01-01

226

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J. B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H. V.; Guegan, J. -F.; Hochberg, M. E.

2007-01-01

227

An Integrated GA-ABC Optimization Technique to Solve Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unit Commitment (UC) and Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems are significant research areas to determine the economical generation schedule with all generating unit constraints, such as unit ramp rates, unit minimum and maximum generation capabilities and minimum up-time and down-time. This study proposed a technique for solving the UC and ELD problems using bio-inspired techniques like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Optimization. The experiments are performed in two...

Surekha, P.; Archana, N.; Sumathi, S.

2012-01-01

228

Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.

Balcha, Berhanu

2001-01-01

229

What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impac...

Monica Raileanu-Szeles

2011-01-01

230

Modelling Influence of Fiscal Policy upon Economic Development ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article characterises a macro-economic model, which describes dynamics of influence of fiscal load upon economic development of Ukraine. Parameters of the model are calculated on the basis of statistical data for 2000 – 2012. The article analyses fiscal load of Ukraine: its optimal level for economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. It assesses and compares calculations of the taxation load, traces its dynamics and compares results with analogous indicators of the developed ...

Aleksandrova Mar?ya M.

2013-01-01

231

Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

2005-01-01

232

The Scenary Forecasting of Regions Social and Economic Development Dynamics ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scenarios of regions social and economic development by various tax and budgetary policy versions realization are considered in the article.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????-????????? ????????.

Guryanova Lidiya S.

2012-11-01

233

The Scenary Forecasting of Regions Social and Economic Development Dynamics ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scenarios of regions social and economic development by various tax and budgetary policy versions realization are considered in the article.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????-????????? ????????.

Guryanova Lidiya S.

2012-01-01

234

Development of the Knowledge Economy in Russia and Ukraine: Problems and Factors of Development ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????: ???????? ? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyses reasons and factors of development of the knowledge economy in Russia and Ukraine. It justifies urgency of development of the knowledge economy, for which the following is typical: high index of economic freedom, the developed civil society and democracy, and knowledge economy. It considers problems of development of education, information and communication technologies, national innovation system, in particular, technology parks and increase of their efficiency. It analy...

Zolotykh Irina B.

2013-01-01

235

Technical and economic problems of nuclear fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is presented of nuclear fuel reprocessing problems with a view to the significance, history and the current state of reprocessing. Factors stipulating international cooperation are discussed and some results are given of cooperation between capitalist countries. Data are tabulated on constructed, projected or reconstructed reprocessing plants in the capitalist countries. The conclusion is arrived at that the lack of reprocessing capacities for highly irradiated oxide fuels may, in the future, be only coped with by constructing new reprocessing plants, this in harmony with projecting and constructing nuclear power installations. (J.H.)

1976-01-01

236

Economic impact of corrosion and scaling problems in geothermal energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and scaling problems have a significant impact on geothermal plant economics. A power plant must amortize the capital investment over a 20-year period and achieve satisfactory operating efficiency to achieve financial success. Corrosion and scale incrustations have been encountered in all geothermal plants, and to various degrees, adversely affected plant life times and power output. Using published data this report analyzes known geothermal corrosion and scaling phenomena for significant cost impacts on plant design and operation. It has been necessary to speculate about causes and mechanisms in order to estimate impacts on conceptual geothermal plants. Silica is highly soluble in hot geothermal water and solubility decreases as water is cooled in a geothermal power plant. Calculations indicate as much as 30,000 tons/year could pass through a 100 MWe water cycle plant. The major cost impact will be on the reinjection well system where costs of 1 to 10 mills/kwhr of power produced could accrue to waste handling alone. On the other hand, steam cycle geothermal plants have a definite advantage in that significant silica problems will probably only occur in hot dry rock concepts, where steam above 250 C is produced. Calculation methods are given for estimating the required size and cost impact of a silica filtration plant and for sizing scrubbers. The choice of materials is significantly affected by the pH of the geothermal water, temperature, chloride, and H{sub s} contents. Plant concepts which attempt to handle acid waters above 180 C will be forced to use expensive corrosion resistant alloys or develop specialized materials. On the other hand, handling steam up to 500 C, and pH 9 water up to 180 C appears feasible using nominal cost steels, typical of today's geothermal plants. A number of factors affecting plant or component availability have been identified. The most significant is a corrosion fatigue problem in geothermal turbines at the Geyser's geothermal plant which is presently reducing plant output by about 10%. This is equivalent to over $3 million per year in increased oil consumption to replace the power. In the course of assessing the cost implications of corrosion and scaling problems, a number of areas of technological uncertainty were identified which should be considered in R and D planning in support of geothermal energy. Materials development with both laboratory and field testing will be necessary. The economic analysis on which this report is based was done in support of an AEC Division of Applied Technology program to assess the factors affecting geothermal plant economics. The results of this report are to be used to develop computer models of overall plant economics, of which corrosion and scaling problems are only a part. The translation of the economic analysis to the report which appears here, was done on AEC Special Studies Funds.

Shannon, D.W.

1975-01-01

237

Status, problems and projects for development of district, urban planning and architecture in bulgaria in early 21st century (against the background of the market economy and the upcoming financial and economic crisis. part 1 ?????????, ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ??i ?. (? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ????? 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????, ??????????, ?????? ???? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????.

Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

2012-10-01

238

FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market development, a similar finding with that of Huang and Temple (2005. As for financial openness, equity-related assets and liabilities have a more robust impact on financial development. Finally, government policy in terms of less government enterprises / government investment and interest rate liberalization have a significant effect on the banking sector rather on the stock market sector.

Filippidis Ioannis

2013-07-01

239

Economic and social development, energy and environment in Latin America and the West Indies - an ovierview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After giving a short overview of the economic and social development of Latin America since 1980 the present article deals with the various problems relating to the energy supply of that region, namely economic growth, diversification, inefficiency, and environmental effects. If discusses the relationships that exist in Latin America between energy, environment, and the social situation and endeavours to outline possible approaches towards a socially and environmentally sustainable development. (UA)

1995-12-01

240

Review of the Economics of Sustainable Development  

This paper sets out the emerging findings of the review I am leading of the \\economics of .... papers and some more formal pieces that we have published on \\the Review's .... language of assets, a good starting point for the following \\technical ...

 
 
 
 
241

Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

Ravshan Yuldashev

2010-06-01

242

Universities and economic development activities:a UK regional comparison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK - the North West and the South East of England - which have very different levels of economic performance. Quantitative data from the UK government's Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey are used to track economic development funding and acti...

2011-01-01

243

Financial development and economic growth:a panel data approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter). Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27), and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel dat...

Leita?o, Nuno Carlos

2010-01-01

244

Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC and support from the Economic Development Administration (EDA, Denver Region, conducted a series of case studies focusing on promising programs in Indian Country that were meeting with success. These case studies reflect the positive economic conditions in order to build on them and provide a framework for other communities to follow.

Kurt Mantonya

2008-11-01

245

Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Capacity Building, Economic Empowerment, and Barriers to Economic Empowerment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To measure capacity building, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment among youths involved in vocational skills development some scales were designed by the researcher while other scales were used either in their original or modified versions. The paper presents the scales developed by the researcher to measure these variables. Scales measuring the participants’ skills acquisition, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment were designed by the researcher. Training satisfaction scale was modified to measure the participants’ perception of training received. Self-esteem, perceived control, and personal growth initiative scales were used in their original versions. Using a factorial analysis, the cronbach’s alpha of the developed instruments achieved a reliability level at or above .70. The developed scales have contributed to knowledge as they can be used to measure future research questions. It is hoped that several research directions could be pursued using the developed scales.

Bede Obinna Amadi

2012-08-01

246

Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

2011-12-28

247

Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development.

Adamov, E.O.; Bryunin, S.V.; Orlov, V.V. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-08-01

248

Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

1996-03-10

249

Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications of factors of economic development an improved classification of the driving forces of advancing national economic development was offered, the basis of which systemically factors amount. It was proved that the optimistic scenario of socio-economic development of Ukraine can be based only on the economic model of advancing development, which should take into account the non renewable resources, based on the rapid establishment of mechanisms for high-tech export-oriented economy, which is the driving force of intellectual resources, cultural values, and creative energy. Guenon-factor of advancing economic development is defined. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Guenon-factor concentrates the cause of changes in the system state and can be represented by two levels depending on the degree of objectivity and distance from the system itself. The studies presented an opportunity to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. Each factor of the formed registry was described by a brief characteristic or feature showing its impact on economic development. Likely Guenon-factor is characterized by variability, however, still forms the initial system-factors in the study of which are seen as the prospect for further research.

E.Yu. Yahelskaia

2014-06-01

250

Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetra...

Vittorio Valli; Donatella Saccone

2009-01-01

251

A Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The significant impact of international tourism in stimulating economic growth is especially important from a policy perspective. For this reason, the relationship between international tourism and economic growth would seem to be an interesting empirical issue. In particular, if there is a causal link between international tourism demand and economic growth, then appropriate policy implications may be developed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether tourism specialization is im...

Chang, C. L.; Khamkaew, T.; Mcaleer, M. J.

2009-01-01

252

Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

Mcbride, John Edward

2004-01-01

253

Economic development and industrial structure - an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

1997-09-01

254

Modelling Influence of Fiscal Policy upon Economic Development ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article characterises a macro-economic model, which describes dynamics of influence of fiscal load upon economic development of Ukraine. Parameters of the model are calculated on the basis of statistical data for 2000 – 2012. The article analyses fiscal load of Ukraine: its optimal level for economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. It assesses and compares calculations of the taxation load, traces its dynamics and compares results with analogous indicators of the developed countries of the world. It analyses prospects of application of the proposed approach for forecasting development of the national economy.? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 2000 – 2012 ??. ?????????? ????????? ??????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????: ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 19,29% ???. ????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????.

Aleksandrova Mar?ya M.

2013-10-01

255

Understanding and Implementing Economic Development for a Rural Indian Community - Final Report 1982.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Overall Economic Development Plan for the Haliwa-Saponi Tribal Community is developed to address the problems of the American Indian people residing in the rural areas of Halifax and Warren County, North Carolina who are in the unemployed and low inco...

A. Richardson K. Wilson

1982-01-01

256

A particle swarm approach to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem  

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Full Text Available This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED problems in power systems such as, environmental/economic dispatch (EED and multi-area environmental/economic dispatch. The proposed model considers the environmental impact to achieve the minimization of fuel costs and pollutant emissions, simultaneously. The EED problem is further extended to dispatch the power among different areas to aid emission allowance trading. The performance of the proposed PSO is compared with conventional method and genetic algorithm. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithms give global optimum solution compared to the other methods. The results obtained also show that the proposed PSO algorithms can provide comparable dispatch solutions with reduced computation time for all types of ED problems.

Yee Ming Chen

2010-06-01

257

Economic Load Dispatch Problem with Reduce Power Losses using Firefly Algorithm  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA for solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem with Reduce Power Losses (ELD. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator True power output & transmission losses. It has been achieved by using optimization techniques such as dynamic programming, integer programming, and mixedinteger non linear programming. On the other hand, a broad class of Meta heuristics has been developed for reliability-redundancy optimization. Recently, a new meta-heuristics called Firefly Algorithm (FA algorithm has emerged. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behavior of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the Firefly Algorithm (FA to ELD for different Test Case system. ELD is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO and Bacterial Foraging algorithms (BFA and other optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods. Keywords- Firefly Algorithm ; Economic load dispatch; Genetic algorithm; Particle swarm optimization; Artificial Bee Colony optimization; Biogeography-Based Optimization ; Bacterial Foraging algorithms.

Kuldeep Kumar Swarnkar

2012-05-01

258

Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

Jacob Raglend, I. [School of Electrical Sciences, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B. [School of Electrical Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 004 (India); Kothari, D.P. [FNAE, FNASC, SMIEEE, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

2010-07-15

259

Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

2010-07-01

260

Problems of nuclear power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW)

1978-04-07

 
 
 
 
261

Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development. Connections are revealed to have no significant influence on the internal control of resources but a significant direct influence on economic development through value chain activities. Through the analyses in this paper the notion of â??boundary utilityâ?? is elaborated as the crossing and transformation of the dynamic composite underlying boundaries to enable innovation for positive impact on economic development.

Brink, Tove

2010-01-01

262

Macro-Economic Indicators of Development of Ukrainian Regions ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of macro-economic indicators of Ukrainian regions. It considers the resource and natural potential and socio-economic development of individual regions, which is a result of the imperfect territorial administration. It analyses main macro-economic indicators of development of regions of the country by geographic division, namely: areas of territories, population, gross regional product of a mega-region, employment and unemployment, and volume of investments. It specifies conditions of stable socio-economic development of each mega-region. It identifies a mechanism of synchronisation of decisions, which is based on self-governing. It offers ways of perfection of the system of administration of territorial socio-economic systems in Ukraine.?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ????????-????????? ????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????. ?????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ? ???????.

Bril Mikhail S.

2013-04-01

263

RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

SORINA-GEANINA M?RG?RIT (ST?NESCU

2011-01-01

264

Developing Metacognitive and Problem-Solving Skills through Problem Manipulation  

Science.gov (United States)

In a collaborative effort between the our university's department of chemistry and the academic resource center, we designed a model for general chemistry recitation based on a problem manipulation method in which students actively assess the skills and knowledge used to answer a chemical problem and then manipulate the problem to create a new…

Parker Siburt, Claire J.; Bissell, Ahrash N.; Macphail, Richard A.

2011-01-01

265

An Applied Using Local Wisdom to Making Ironware for Community Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Arts and craft were important for economics and society of northeastern people in Thailand: For all that, local wisdom to make ironware lack interest from society. This research aimed to an applied using local wisdom to make ironware for community economic development. Approach: Research method was a qualitative research which studied populations who lived in 5 provinces: Khai village, Chaiyaphum; Pai village, Buriram province; Muang Wan village, Khonkaen prov...

Chalor Yaekkhoksung; Songkoon Chantachon; Prasopsuk Ritthidet

2009-01-01

266

The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the lo...

Bhuiyan, Md Anowar H.; Siwar, C.; Ismail, Shaharuddin M.; Islam, R.

2011-01-01

267

Economic Development Strategies to Promote Quality Child Care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Across the country as state and local teams have conducted economic analyses of the child care sector, they have faced the challenge of how to take the next step and build linkages between economic development and child care policy. The intent of this doc...

B. Markeson J. Hallas M. Warner N. Barai S. Adriance

2004-01-01

268

Tax Reforms in the Context of Socio-Economic Development ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the existing approaches to the study and the justification of tax reforms in the context of their impact on socio-economic development. The needs of the tax reform study on the basis of evolutionary economics are shown.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.

Gurnak Olexandr V.

2012-05-01

269

The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes the general nature of two-sector environmental and natural resource problems and highlights the issue of two sector models where one sector imposes a one-sided negative externality on the other sector, e.g. the polluting sector causes changes in the economic value of the fishery sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can be used to describe the optimal link between the two sectors.

Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

2011-01-01

270

Appropriate Technological Development Guidelines for Rubber Plantation for Community Economic Development Using Local Wisdom in Northeastern Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The agriculturists in northeastern Thailand had more rubber plantations. They faced the problem for high investments from using the new technologies. The purposes of the study was to examine appropriate technological development guide lines for rubber plantation for community economic development using local wisdom. Approach: As a qualitative research, documentary and fieldwork were carried out using a survey, interviews, observations and workshop. The researc...

Prathip Channuan; Subunn Ieamvijarn; Budsakorn Saenyabud; Prasopsuk Rittidet

2009-01-01

271

Religion as a factor of political culture and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the...

2005-01-01

272

PPP IN RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BOON OR BANE!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PPP in today's globalised world is seen as an efficient mechanism to develop infrastructure in developing economy and transform the static economy into dynamic economy. Despite more than six decades of planning, rural India is having high illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, ignorance, blind beliefs, and other social economic evils, when compared to Urban India. Government proposed PPP in rural development to utilize the private sector efficiencies to finance and build the socio- economic infrastructure in India

S, R. Keshava

2014-06-01

273

Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

De Bruyn, S.

2013-07-15

274

An Effective Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm to Slove Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

K. Thanushkodi

2012-01-01

275

Wind power engineering: development problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Status and prospects of wind power engineering development in different countries are considered. Basic parameters of wind power plants developed in Russia and abroad are presented. The conclusion is made that wind power engineering in our country constitutes independent trend of scientific-technical progress. Scientific and production potential enabling solution of the whole complex of engineering problems related to development and design of wind power plants, tests of facilities and their systems, construction and operation of wind power plants and evaluation of wind potential is created

1993-08-01

276

Development of Economic Models for EOL Service Parts Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with a decision problem for final purchase quantity needed for the appropriate support of service parts for S Electronics which is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. The cost elements of the final purchase quantity, the economic models, the optimal solution methods, and the expected effect are presented.

Wan Seon Shin

2012-10-01

277

Monetary Policy And Economic Development In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals.

Rajendra N.Shendge

2012-09-01

278

Ecological, economic and social problems of the coal industry in the Kuzbass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterizes the Kuzbass coal basin with its 78 underground mines, 25 surface mines, 16 coal preparation plants and 150.4 Mt coal production in 1990. Amount of pollutants emitted is given. Economic production indices are provided. Effect of the coal industry on the hydrosphere, atmosphere and land is analyzed. Completeness of coal extraction is considered. The following problems are dealt with: occupational injuries and accidents, working conditions and health and social problems.

Zhdamirov, V.M.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Mikhal' chenko, B.B. (Ministerstvo Ugol' noi Promyshlennosti (USSR))

1991-11-01

279

Cardinal priority ranking based decision making for economic-emission dispatch problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the economic emission dispatch (EED) problem relating to real and reactive power scheduling of thermal power generating units. The formulated EED problem is solved using weighting method to generate non-inferior solutions which allows explicit trade-offs between objective levels for each non-inferior solutions. Fuzzy decision making methodology is exploited to decide the generation schedule. To access the indifference band, interaction with the decision maker is obtained...

2009-01-01

280

Social-Economic Development of Region: Institutional Aspect ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????: ????????????????? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The institutional aspects of social-economic development of region are considered where the special role is played by regional authorities and civil society institutions that serve as institutional basis for the formation of the social economy.??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?...

Zhavoronkov Vladimir A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Social-Economic Development of Region: Institutional Aspect ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????: ????????????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The institutional aspects of social-economic development of region are considered where the special role is played by regional authorities and civil society institutions that serve as institutional basis for the formation of the social economy.??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.

Zhavoronkov Vladimir A.

2012-05-01

282

Institutional economics – a potential tool of the research on socio-economic development of regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite not questioning the important role of the processes of globalization in shaping the conditions for national economies, there is still a discussion on the role of regions (considered as the components of states) in economic development. Despite globalization processes, territorial specificity is increasingly being exposed as an important, if not the primary factor in building sustainable competitive advantage.Institutional economics, with its variety of research approaches seems to be ...

Soko?owicz, Mariusz E.

2013-01-01

283

The relationship between savings and economic growth in countries with different level of economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to analyze the cause and effect relationship between economic growth and savings in advanced economies and in emerging and developing countries2. In this work we used the method based on studies in macroeconomics and international finance as well as econometric methods (co-integration models and Granger's causality test). All statistical data used in this paper came from the International Monetary Fund database (World Economic Outlook database). The results confirmed ...

Misztal, Piotr

2011-01-01

284

EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

2012-06-01

285

Federalism and economic development in India: An assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines India's federal system in the context of prospects for India's future economic growth and development. After a brief review of India's recent policy reforms and economic development outcomes, and of the country's federal institutions, the analysis focuses on the major issues with respect to India's federal system in terms of their developmental consequences. We examine the impacts of tax assignments, expenditure authority and the intergovernmental transfer system on the fo...

Singh, Nirvikar; Srinivasan, T. N.

2006-01-01

286

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight....

D?r?ban? Simina; Stef?nescu Patrick; Crisan Radu

2012-01-01

287

International Conference on Agricultural Economics, Rural Development and Informatics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Faculty of Agricultural Economic and Rural Development was founded in 2002 to strengthen training in agribusiness, rural development, agricultural public administration, informatics, statistics and business planning at the Debrecen University. Study of human factors influencing managerial efficiency is also of a major importance at the Faculty. Economic research is related to crop production, animal breeding and farm mechanization as well as finance, marketing and informatics.

Nábrádi András; Herdon Miklós (1950- ) (gépészmérnök); Lazányi János (1951-) (mez?gazdász)

2007-01-01

288

Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural pe...

Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

2010-01-01

289

The United Arab Emirates: Some lessons in economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil was discovered in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) just 50 years ago. During that time, UAE has been able to transform itself into a rapidly modernizing country, which is fast becoming a major economic hub and a key player on the international economic landscape. This paper discusses a number of aspects of the development strategy of the UAE that contributed to its phenomenal development: (i) the political system, which has resulted in a perception of stability and minimal political risk, e...

Nyarko, Yaw

2010-01-01

290

Constitutions and economic development: Evidence from the American Indian Nations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an empirical examination of economic and institutional development. Utilizing a novel data set on American Indian tribal nations, we investigate how constitutional design affects economic development, while holding the broader legal and political environment fixed. Instrumental variables regressions, using the party of the US President at the time of the initial adoption of tribal constitutions as an instrument for constitutional design, indicate that parliamentary systems...

Akee, Randall K. Q.; Jorgensen, Miriam; Sunde, Uwe

2012-01-01

291

An empirical analysis of the effects of consanguineous marriages on economic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, development experiences toward economic development are investigated to provide an alternative analysis of economic development, human capital, and genetic inheritance in the light of consanguineous marriages. The countries analyzed in the study are discussed in accordance with consanguineous marriage practices and classified by their per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. A broad range of countries are analyzed in the study. Arab countries that experienced high rates of growth in their gross national income during the twentieth century but failed to fulfill adequate development measures as reflected in the growth in national income, countries undergoing transition from tight government regulation to free market democracy, and African nations that have experienced complications in the process of development show important differences in the process of economic development. It is shown that the countries that have reached high average development within the context of per capita GDP have overcome problems integral to consanguineous marriage. PMID:21105495

Bildirici, Melike; Kökdener, Meltem; Ersin, Oezgür ömer

2010-01-01

292

ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

2011-01-01

293

Socio-Economic Reforms in 1965 with the Industry as a Problem ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ?. ?? ?????????????? ??? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to highlight the analytical approach E. G. Lieberman to develop key areas of reform in 1965 in industry related to socio-economic incentives production.???? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ???? ? ??????????????, ????????? ? ?????????-?...

Rudenko Rostislav G.; Zima Aleksandr G.

2012-01-01

294

The strategic economic plan and the role of independent power in economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Independent power production (IPP) in Newfoundland was examined within the context of the province's Strategic Economic Plan. Provisions of the Plan were summarized, with special reference to the promotion of alternative energy technologies and government efforts to amend regulations to facilitate development of alternative energy sources by independent producers. IPP was considered to be an ideal tool for regional economic development and diversification, assuming that environmental concerns were carefully considered and addressed. Some of the benefits ascribed to IPP included strengthening the private sector, creating new small business opportunities, improving competitiveness, promoting regional development, contributing to import substitution and enhance the province's technology and knowledge base

1993-03-18

295

Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations.

Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

2010-01-01

296

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY WOMEN IN GULBARGA CITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of elderly is a major social problem across the world. Many of the studies were already made onthe elderly, but only a few such studies throws light on the problems of the elderly women. Hence, the present study ismade on the elderly women in Gulbarga city. About 150 elderly women were surveyed in Gulbarga city throughInterview Schedule to collect the information on socio-economic and health conditions of the elderly women. Thestudy revealed that majority of the respondents are satisfied with the basic needs, but are not satisfied with their life,as they are not getting adequate care and respect from the younger.

K.S Malipatil

2012-06-01

297

Financing of Innovative Development of Economic Objects in Ukraine: Structure Harmonization ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????: ???????????? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with one aspect of the solution of actual problems of science to identify the law, subordinating structural processes in economic systems the proportion of the golden section. The application of this law can improve the development of managerial influences on innovation processes in Ukraine.? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ??...

Reshetnyak Yelena I.

2010-01-01

298

The economics of the thermohaline circulation - A problem with multiple thresholds of unknown locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A potentially serious environmental threat facing humanity is the possibility of a collapse of the thermohaline circulation. Resulting climate changes, including absolute cooling near Greenland and northwest Europe, could be abrupt. Collapse of the thermohaline circulation may be triggered if the temperature or the rate of temperature change exceeds certain thresholds. The locations of these thresholds are unknown. Economic regulation of this problem requires solution methods for a class of dynamic optimization problems with multiple thresholds located in n-dimensional space. This class of problems has hitherto not been discussed in the literature. We present a model for the economic regulation of CO2 emissions in the presence of threshold-triggered risk of a collapsing thermohaline circulation and derive optimality conditions for regulation. (author)

2007-11-01

299

International economic problems in the mid-eighties: Energy - technology - environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn (FRG), in 1984 invited to an international meeting of experts for discussing ''International economic problems in the mid-eighties''. The meeting took place from November 19 to 20, and gathered about 700 experts from 40 countries. The topics on the agenda were those problems which in the industrialized societies throughout the world are of prime interest: Energy forms the basis of industrial production. Modern technologies have changed the countries' economic structures, and their social life, considerably. The natural environment is exposed to impacts induced by industry, or traffic and transport, which have reached a level causing anxiety and alarm, especially in areas of agglomeration. Remedial action taken so far still is patchwork, optimum solutions still are out of range. The problems resulting from this situation were discussed during the meeting by politicians, members of the business community, and scientists from various countries. (orig./HP)

1984-11-19

300

Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally develo...

M. Golberg K. Sinclair

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Long-Lasting Development – Basic Principle of Economic Development of Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to have long-lasting economic and social development in any field, the economic and the other socio-human, cultural, ecologic, technological aspects must be compatible. Any economic and social development must take into account the complex nature of the system as well as its interdependency and correlation with other systems.

Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

2013-01-01

302

An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Turkish Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.

Burcu Ozcan,

2011-01-01

303

International competition policy and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past half century many nations have adopted policies whose function is to discourage cartels and other restrictive practices. Industrialized nations led the movement toward pro-competition policies, but more recently, developing nations have begun to join the parade. Initial steps have also been taken toward the implementation of competition policies spanning national borders, and proposals for their extension have been made. This paper analyzes the consequences national and intern...

Scherer, Frederic Michael

1996-01-01

304

Globalization, literacy levels and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper estimated models for GDP growth rates, poverty levels, and inequality measures for the period 1990–2000 using data on 54 developing countries at five-yearly intervals. Issues of globalization were investigated by analysing the differential effects of the countries’ exports and imports and by postulating trans-logarithmic models that allow for non-linear effects of literacy levels and measures of openness. The main findings were that literacy rates affected growth rates in a qua...

Bhargava, Alok

2008-01-01

305

Nature's role in sustaining economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's ...

Dasgupta, Partha

2010-01-01

306

Economic incentives for future fuel developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost of nuclear fuel is put into perspective by a short review of the total nuclear power costs and comparisons are made with other types of thermal electricity generating plants. Fuel costs are divided into components of natural uranium, enrichment services, fabrication, inventory and back end, which are used as a structure for discussing the impact of different development trends on the final fuel costs and, consequently, the incentives for future fuel improvements. The factors related to fuel design and performance affect nuclear power plant operation and are the most important incentive for future fuel development, depending on the power system under which the nuclear power plants operate. The potential impact of fuel improvements, both in terms of design and verification of performance, is analysed and discussed with respect to the following: plant operation: load follow, capacity factors; fuel utilization: extended burnup, improved moderation, low parasitic absorption; back end costs: volume of fuel, MOX fuel; fabrication processes: improved processes; fuel related technology: fuel management, safety analysis. A short historical review is given for each item in order to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, the expected impact of changes that have occurred and the incentives to continue development along historical trends. Constraints which might limit the actual benefits of these potential improvements are pointed out. The areas in which the incentives for further improvements in design and performance of nuclear fuel are most pronounced are identified and discussed. (author)

1986-09-15

307

Strategic evaluation of economic feasibility of mountain tourist region development: Case study of Stara Planina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper covers theoretical, methodological and practical discoveries and evaluation of the economic aspects of development and planning of the mountain tourist regions. The basic aspects of economic-spatial theories, analysis and methods are presented for research of development effects in the mountain regions. It is also pointed to the basic terms of the mountain tourist regions development in the countries of the European Union which realize respective development results The work analyses significance of tourism in development of the mountain regions characterized by the capability for innovative activities, i.e. starting the whole range of complementary activities which reversibly influence the forming of growth and development poles. Especially are analyzed commercial and non-commercial effects of realization of the mountain tourist centers in ecologically saved, but as a rule, economically not enough developed mountain regions. The approach in the strategic evaluation of the economic feasibility of development of the tourist region is considered in accordance with the experience of the countries with higher degree of mountain region development, on example of Stara Planina. The analysis of economic feasibility of mountain region development Stara Planina covered the following segments: market, consumption, number of employed, investment means and economic effects of exploitation. Considering the fact that Stara planina is region covered by the Park of Nature and Tourist region for which the Spatial plan is done, a special problem was harmonization of development and protection functions, i.e. evaluation of economic and ecological acceptability for development implementation. The Spatial plan foreseen rational model of sustainable regional development of the Stara planina region based on integration of urban and rural economies on one side and development of tourism and protection of nature, on the other.

Miliji? Saša

2009-01-01

308

World Development Report 1985. International Capital and Economic Development. World Development Indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development, this report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international…

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC.

309

Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

1993-10-18

310

Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

Athanasios Vazakidis

2011-01-01

311

Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

1988-01-01

312

Climatic change and economic development: equity rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with alternative equity rules in the allocation of carbon emissions among countries. It is composed in two parts. The first one provides a discussion of such rules which enlightens their key characteristics. The second part proposes some calculations whose aim is to evaluate the implications of a strict egalitarian rule. Although the changes in emissions and key indicators implied by such a rule are large, implementing an emissions trading regime strongly helps both the attainment of the target and development paths in poor countries

2007-06-01

313

Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the value of stocks traded as a ratio of stock market capitalisation. The study utilised advanced econometric techniques of Unit Root Tests, Vector Autoregressive (VAR and Granger Causality Tests to explore the relationships. The empirical results showed a uni-directional causal link that runs from stock market development to economic growth and there is evidence of an indirect transmission mechanism through the effect of stock market development on investment.

Tichaona Zivengwa

2011-09-01

314

Status, problems and projects for development of district, urban planning and architecture in bulgaria in early 21st century (against the background of the market economy and the upcoming financial and economic crisis) part 2 ?????????, ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ??i ?. (? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????) ????? 2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Part 2 of the article has a brief overview of the real estate market in Bulgaria and projections concerning future investments into urban development projects. The author considers design and development of business centres, business parks, multi-purpose centres, high-rise buildings and residential housing. In 2000 - late 2008, the pace of construction was very fast, and it caused negative compromises in the construction industry. Due to the hotel boom, the Black Sea coast now accommodates nu...

Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

2012-01-01

315

Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics: An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics”. The breadth of coverage is substantial, and includes original research and comprehensive review papers on theoretical, empirical and numerical topics in Financial Economics and Econometrics by l...

Chang, Chia-lin; Allen, David; Mcaleer, Michael

2013-01-01

316

Causal Relationships Between Financial and Economic Development in Gulf Countries  

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This paper examines the causal relationships between financial and economic aggregates in three Gulf countries, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, over the 64?quarterly period from 1973 to 1988.Patrick's causality patterns at different stages of economic development were also investigated by dividing the entire analysis period into the sub-periods of 1973?81, and 1982?88. Financial variables used were M1, M2 and the total bank credits. Exports in all the three countries plus government expend...

Gu?rsoy, Cudi Tuncer; Al-aali, Hassan

2000-01-01

317

Investments – Fundamental Element for Economic Development of Republic of Moldova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital market represents a important element of the financialconomic system of any modern economy and they play an important role in the allocation of capital within the economy. The development of the capital market represents the essential component of the restructuring process of the economic system. The analysis of environmental, economic, political and legal factors represents a strategic step for the opportunity to invest in a particular country.

Svetlana Bîrlea

2013-08-01

318

Important economic considerations for Australian coalbed methane development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Australia has vast coalbed methane resources, but its successful commercialisation faces difficult technical hurdles. Domestic and export gas market opportunities have been identified which provide outlets for coalbed methane production from the Bowen Basin, and also provide an opportunity for the construction of a methane processing plant with the resultant methanol being exported to Japan. Government assistance will be required, however, in order to bridge the gap between sub-economic and economic returns on coalbed methane development. 2 figs.

Barker, B.J.; Heron, D.H. (North Queensland Energy Pty Ltd, Qld (Australia))

1992-01-01

319

Causal Relationships between Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to examine the causality relations between financial development, trade openness and economic growth (GDP for the Turkish economy. Approach: In time series context, recently developed econometric techniques were used: namely the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF for unit root, Johansen and Juselius (JJ for cointegration and Granger causality test for causal relationships. Results: The findings of the study showed that while trade openness has a positive effect, financial development has a negative effect on growth. Conclusion: Moreover, the Granger causality test results revealed the presence of bicausal relationship between financial development, trade openness and growth indicating that economic policies aimed at financial development and trade openness have a statistically significant impact on economic growth.

Fatih Yucel

2009-01-01

320

Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for Greece  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1979-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 2.2%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 5.6% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development for Greece.

A. Vazakidis

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

DEVELOPMENT AND INFLUENCE OF THE PERIODICAL »RIBARSTVO« ON THE ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC BRANCH OF FISH FARMING  

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In its development, the periodical has changed its name, its form, its owner and publisher, but it has been constantly dealing with the problems of freshwater fish farming. The development of the economic and scientific branch of freshwater fish farming and the development of the periodical are a reversible process. In this paper, the author will present their mutual influences and their contents in more detail and suggest further options for their mutual influence. The periodical has been pu...

2000-01-01

322

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Santhirasegaram, Selvarathinam

323

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

2007-01-01

324

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

HA Qazi

2009-09-01

325

Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24749779

Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

2014-06-01

326

Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

2000-01-01

327

Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO{sub 2}-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities.

Li Yong [Tsinghua University Beijing, School of Public Policy and Management, Programme of Management, Science and Engineering, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China)], E-mail: yongli03@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Oberheitmann, Andreas [Research Center for International Environmental Policy (RCIEP), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, Sino-Italian Energy Efficiency Building, Room 1004, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China); Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI Essen) (Germany); Centrum fuer internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM) (Germany)], E-mail: oberheitmann@tsinghua.edu.cn

2009-04-15

328

Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO{sub 2}-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

Li, Yong [Tsinghua University Beijing, School of Public Policy and Management, Programme of Management, Science and Engineering, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China); Oberheitmann, Andreas [Research Center for International Environmental Policy (RCIEP), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, Sino-Italian Energy Efficiency Building, Room 1004, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China)]|[Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI Essen) (Germany)]|[Centrum fuer internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM) (Germany)

2009-04-15

329

Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

2009-04-01

330

Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

2009-04-01

331

Financial Development and Economic Growth in Emerging Asian Countries  

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Full Text Available Many countries removed constraints on goods, services and capital gradually after fall of Bretton Woods system and globalization of financial markets accelerated especially as of 1980s. This process contributed to the development of financial sectors in many countries. Therefore many studies have been conducted about the possible effects of financial sector on major macroeconomic variables in recent years. This study investigates the possible effects of financial sector development on economic growth in emerging Asian countries during the period 1992-2011 by panel regression. We found that various indicators representing the development of banking sector and stock market had positive effect on economic growth in emerging Asian countries.

Yilmaz Bayar

2014-04-01

332

Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the contribution of different measures of human capital development to economic growth in Nigeria. It used data from Nigeria and adopted the growth account model which specifies the growth of GDP as a function of labour and capital. The model also included a measure of policy reforms. Based on the estimated regression and a descriptive statistical analysis of trends of government commitment to human capital development, it was found that though little commitment had been accorded health compare to education, empirical analysis showed that both education and health components of human capital development are crucial to economic growth in Nigeria.

Wakeel A. Isola

2012-11-01

333

Energy in developing countries. Prospects and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UN study ''The Future of the World Economy'', prepared under the direction of W. Leontief, is the general frame of reference of this paper. Its central scenario postulates a reduction from 12:1 to 7:1 in the disparity in per-capita income between developed and developing countries over the period 1970-2000 and presumes that the gross product of the developing countries would have to grow by 6.9% over that period. Such growth rate would require that total electricity-generating capacity in the developing countries would have to increase at least from 97,000MW installed in 1970 to 1,300,000MW by the year 2000. Very conservatively, this would at least require an investment of US$ 716x109 at 1974 prices. Considering the forecast size of interconnected grids and the necessary security of supply requirements, at best 20 developing countries would be candidates for nuclear power plants by 1985 and another 19 by the year 2000. Total fossil-fuel consumption in these countries would have to increase by 9.7% annually throughout the period, and their share in world consumption would increase from about 8.6% in 1970 to 27% in 2000. Overall energy production in the developing countries (including the centrally planned economies of Asia) would increase sevenfold and their consumption twelvefold. The paper concludes that every effort should be made to minimize the energy/gross domestic product coefficient, and the expansion of the indigenous resource base should be pursued forcefully. It points out that it might be economically more advantageous to provide the many millions of scattered rural communities with self-contained energy packages based on such local resources as are available. It foresees some scope for nuclear energy in some of the more advanced developing countries but states that, until the end of the century, oil will undoubtedly remain the dominant factor in energy supply in the developing world. Finally, the enormous capital requirements create considerable doubt as to whether traditional mechanisms for energy financing will be adequate for the task. (author)

1977-05-13

334

Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies. PMID:24415372

Doelle, H W

1996-09-01

335

Analysis of Irregularity of Economic Development of the Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In article results of research of non-uniformity of economic development of regions of Ukraine on indicators of level of economic development and dynamics of economic development over the last ten years are presented.? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????...

Geyman O. A.; Krupa Olesya. M.

2009-01-01

336

Analysis of Irregularity of Economic Development of the Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article results of research of non-uniformity of economic development of regions of Ukraine on indicators of level of economic development and dynamics of economic development over the last ten years are presented.? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???.

Geyman O. A.

2009-04-01

337

78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development...Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership...selected to serve as members of EDA's Performance Review Board. The Performance...

2013-11-13

338

Development of the Rural Problem in Romania: an Interpretative Frame  

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Full Text Available The underdevelopment of agricultural sector in Romania was and still is an important topicin the relations with the European Union. Throughout this article I approach the problem from ahistorical perspective, arguing that the backwardness of agriculture can be traced in the nineteenthcentury development model applied of Romania. The foundation of national state during thenineteenth century was directly connected with the integration of the provinces which formed themodern Romania in the capitalist trade system. The economic and cultural exchanges which followedsupported the development of national state but worsened the living conditions of the majority ofpopulation, consisting in peasants. As the grains became the main export products, the transformationof the rural area followed a specific path, different of modernization.

Cornel Micu

2010-06-01

339

A novel string structure for economic dispatch problems with practical constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The novel string structure for solving the economic dispatch problems through genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The proposed string scheme can effectively prevent getting infeasible solution when evolutionary computation methods are preceded. Therefore, it can increase the searching efficiency and also solution quality dramatically. Many nonlinear characteristics of the power generators and practical constraints, such as generation limitation, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zone, transmission loss and nonlinear cost functions are all considered for realistic operation. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are demonstrated by three real systems, and compared with the literatures method in terms of the solution quality and computation efficiency. The experimental shows encouraging results that the proposed approach was indeed capable of obtaining higher quality and efficiency solutions in economic dispatch problems

2008-12-01

340

Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization Technique in Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

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Full Text Available Since the introduction of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO technique in 1992, the algorithm starts to gain popularity due to its attractive features. However, several shortcomings such as slow convergence and stagnation motivate many researchers to stop further implementation of ACO. Therefore, in order to overcome these drawbacks, ACO is proposed to be combined with Differential Evolution (DE and cloning process. This paper presents Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT technique in solving economic load dispatch problem. The combination creates a new algorithm that will be termed as Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT. DEIANT was utilized to optimize economic load dispatch problem. A comparison was made between DEIANT and classical ACO to evaluate the performance of the new algorithm. In realizing the effectiveness of the proposed technique, IEEE 57-Bus Reliable Test System (RTS has been used as the test specimen. Results obtained from the study revealed that the proposed DEIANT has superior computation time.

N. A. Rahmat

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Hybrid Tabu Search and Algorithm Genetic for Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem  

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Full Text Available The application of optimization techniques to power system planning and operation problems has been an area of active research in the recent past. Genetic Algorithm (GA, Tabu Search (TS are widely used to combinatorial optimization in recent years. Combining the advantages of individual algorithms, a hybrid TS/GA algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is proposed in this paper, using the method of penalty to transform the problem ED with constraints in a simple problem without constraints. An IEEE 57-bus power system has been used to test the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of the proposed algorithm with GA, TS and proposed TS/GA hybrid method has the strongest capability of finding global optimal solution within reasonable computing time. We then give a comparison between two algorithms hybrids (Tabu Search / Genetic Algorithm TS/GA and (Tabu Search/ quasi-Newton method TS/QN.

Bakhta NAAMA

2013-06-01

342

Ant colony optimisation for economic dispatch problem with non-smooth cost functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a novel and efficient optimisation approach based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth cost functions. In order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm, three additional techniques, i.e. priority list, variable reduction, and zoom feature are presented. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed ACO is applied to two types of ED problems with non-smooth cost functions. Firstly, the ED problem with valve-point loading effects consists of 13 and 40 generating units. Secondly, the ED problem considering the multiple fuels consists of 10 units. Additionally, the results of the proposed ACO are compared with those of the conventional heuristic approaches. The experimental results show that the proposed ACO approach is comparatively capable of obtaining higher quality solution and faster computational time. (author)

Pothiya, Saravuth; Kongprawechnon, Waree [School of Communication, Instrumentation and Control, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani (Thailand); Ngamroo, Issarachai [Center of Excellence for Innovative Energy Systems, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

2010-06-15

343

Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

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Full Text Available In the recent restructured power system scenario and complex market strategy, operation at absolute minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electric power. The economic load dispatch (ELD problem which accounts for minimization of both generation cost and power loss is itself a multiple conflicting objective function problem. In this paper, a modified shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (MSFLA, which is an improved version of memetic algorithm, is proposed for solving the ELD problem. It is a relatively new evolutionary method where local search is applied during the evolutionary cycle. The idea of memetic algorithm comes from memes, which unlike genes can adapt themselves. The performance of MSFLA has been shown more efficient than traditional evolutionary algorithms for such type of ELD problem. The application and validity of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated for IEEE 30 bus test system as well as a practical power network of 203 bus 264 lines 23 machines system.

Priyanka Roy

2011-09-01

344

Analytical solutions for some problems of optimum with applications in air traffic and economics  

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Full Text Available Analytical solutions for some problems of optimum with applications in air traffic and economics are given. For air traffic minimal distances between commercial airplanes (flight corridors are imposed considering various trajectories: straightlines, orthodromes and loxodromes. Some other applications are related to target functions submitted to linear or nonlinear restrictions. Although specialized numerical codes exist the analytical solutions are useful giving a more clear understanding, suggesting new ways of approach and providing fast tests for preconception.

Corneliu BERBENTE

2014-04-01

345

RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the crisis’ context can be thus formulated: rural development and agriculture are factors of accentuating the crisis or (potential solutions of mitigating the crisis and re-launch economic growth? Starting from today’s state of the Romanian rural setting (precarious infrastructure, insufficient technical endowment of the rural territory, villages and households; preponderantly agricultural rural economy; low absorption of agricultural workforce in non agricultural rural economy etc. and agriculture (all levels of agricultural activity are unbalanced; very slow economic growth with a high degree of weather dependency (from simple to double; technical and structural obsolescence of the capital; reduced investment and as an effect, insignificant growth and modernising of assets; low absorption of European funding; low productivity and output; still high presence of sustenance agricultural economy; major unbalance in food supply safety; low importance of commercial agriculture; markets contraction; increasing transformation of Romanian agricultural goods in a market for imported goods; price distortion; profoundly negative trade balance for agricultural goods; unbalanced participation of farms in the distribution of the profit from agricultural activities, considering the smallest portion of the Gross Added Value returns to the farmers and most of it to the traders, all these leading to a reduced degree of compatibility and competitiveness of Romanian agriculture on the European market and in a broader sense the world market, accepting from the economic practice and doctrine the fact that agriculture is a vital economic activity for society, and it represents a sector that contributes to maintaining the stability, continuity and growth of economy, and, in the current situation, in mitigating, to a great extent, the economic crisis. But, this contribution can manifest itself only in the presence of massive investments in productivity increasing infrastructure (watering systems, farms consolidation and in the technical and technological endowment of the rural setting and villages, in rural non agricultural economy, agriculture and rural development as a whole, as factors of economical growth.

P. I. OTIMAN

2009-05-01

346

Time Lag between Economic Development and Flood Fatality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic development allows a country to better manage and mitigate the risk from disasters. This paper presents a case study aimed at clarifying the relationship between economic development and flood fatality change. The focus is the largest city of China-Chongqing City that is located in Southwest China. The economy of the city jump-started in 1998 since it was raised to be one of the four municipalities under direct control of China’s central government. By analyzing various data for th...

2012-01-01

347

Fifty Years of Malaysian Economic Development:Policies and Achievements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysia is a small country but has big achievement in economic development to its credit. This year (August 2007) the country celebrates the completion of the first 50 years of its independence. It is in the fitness of things that this paper takes a look at its economic achievements over the past decades and the policies that shaped its success story in the matter. This is all the more apt as not a few regard Malaysia as a role model for the developing countries, especially the OIC members. ...

2007-01-01

348

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

1991-01-01

349

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

1991-01-01

350

Economic, Social and Political Aspect of Globalization on Health in Developing Countries (with Segregation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.

Batool Rafat

2013-07-01

351

Japan's model of economic development: Relevant and nonrelevant elements for developing economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Japan was the first non-western country to accomplish successful industrialization, and the dominant perception of its industrial policy had over-emphasized specific characteristics of Japan. However, from the perspective of today's development thinking, Japan's economic history shared a wide range of common factors in usual economic development: macroeconomic stability, human resource development, and economic infrastructure. Industrial policy in Japan sometimes worked well and sometimes did...

2009-01-01

352

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom ...

2007-01-01

353

Causal Relationships between Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to examine the causality relations between financial development, trade openness and economic growth (GDP) for the Turkish economy. Approach: In time series context, recently developed econometric techniques were used: namely the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) for unit root, Johansen and Juselius (JJ) for cointegration and Granger causality test for causal relationships. Results: The findings of the study showed that ...

Fatih Yucel

2009-01-01

354

The Contributions of Banks Reform to Economic Development in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking system occupies a unique position in every economy and that is why it often attracts more than a casual regulatory attention. The banks act as catalyst to economic development. This review examined the contributions of banks to the economic development in Nigeria. The study highlighted banks as efficient mechanism for mobilizing financial resources and allocating same for productive investment. Given the key roles that banks play in facilitating economic growth and financing developmental projects, particularly key infrastructure, agriculture and industry, most emerging market economies have been known to use the domestic financial institutions to execute real sector big ticket projects. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigerian banks to compete favourably in the competitive global financial system, the current reforms in Nigeria banking system must be sustained and strengthened.

Adewuyi, I. D.

2011-12-01

355

The relationship between financial development and economic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing countries in Asia and Africa have economically often been lagging behind the economies of the West. One reason can be found by looking at the executive capacities and the necessary financial structures. Global financial crisis has made the situation worse for many of the developing countries. What can be done to make developing countries in Asia and Africa stronger participants in the growing global economy? Will an improved financial sector reflected by an expansion of the insuran...

Opheim, Magnus

2011-01-01

356

Tourism in the global development strategy of Macedonia: Economic perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study makes an attempt to identify the adequate position of tourism within the global development strategy of Macedonia. The paper discusses two, extremely opposite attitudes. The first, argues that necessary preconditions must be established in order tourism to have intensive development, thus clearly stating in the development strategy the priority orientation of tourism industry. The second underlines the fake image of tourism and its economic contributions. The paper brings out ...

Petrevska, Biljana

2011-01-01

357

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1993-01-01

358

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

1993-01-01

359

Development of Methods of Economic Monitoring of the Logistic System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of logistic customer service is the main advantage in competitive activity of the modern market enterprises. Taking into account that changes in enterprises working modes and in environment take place quickly enough, it is possible to talk about the necessity in further development of the systems of such phenomena monitoring. The analysis of literary sources allows to say that the issue of development of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic systems hasn’t be Literary sources today do not provide precise classifications of methods of economic monitoring. However, taking into account that economic monitoring overlaps with controlling, diagnostics etc we should use the experience of these subjects.Summarizing the review of the existing methods, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that there are no materials considering the methods and models of monitoring the objects of research. Most of the works basically deal with analysis.Relying on the determination of control methods, and also the concept of monitoring, it is possible to give the determination of the method of economic monitoring – it is the sum total of ways and methods which help to achieve the goals of monitoring.It is suggested to distinguish (to classify monitoring methods into such groups: supervision, evaluation, forecasting. When systematizing this information and also taking into account the elements of logistic service, the approach to forming the groups of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic system is offered.As the methods of supervision in the systems of economic monitoring it is suggested to take the methods of collection of information as a basis, that is used in marketing. en studied thoroughly enough. There is a small number of works, which purposefully consider the questions of economic monitoring. They mainly focus on financial matters.

A. Abukhamedekh

2011-03-01

360

Key Technical Problems in Artificial Heart Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight key technical problems must be thoroughly investigated and researched before a ten-year implanted artificial heart can be successfully designed and constructed. These problems are: Biomedical (Hemolysis, Protein Denaturation, and Blood Trauma; Coagu...

1966-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Using Logo to Develop Problem Solving Skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes using computer programing teaching problem solving. Describes the problem-solving technique of Top-Down Design, discusses its application to LOGO, and provides examples of programs using LOGO. (MDH)

Denenberg, Stewart A.

1993-01-01

362

Neuro-genetic hybrid approach for the solution of non-convex economic dispatch problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ED (Economic Dispatch) is non-convex constrained optimization problem, and is used for both on line and offline studies in power system operation. Conventionally, it is solved as convex problem using optimization techniques by approximating generator input/output characteristic. Curves of monotonically increasing nature thus resulting in an inaccurate dispatch. The GA (Genetic Algorithm) has been used for the solution of this problem owing to its inherent ability to address the convex and non-convex problems equally. This approach brings the solution to the global minimum region of search space in a short time and then takes longer time to converge to near optimal results. GA based hybrid approaches are used to fine tune the near optimal results produced by GA. This paper proposes NGH (Neuro Genetic Hybrid) approach to solve the economic dispatch with valve point effect. The proposed approach combines the GA with the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) using SI (Swarm Intelligence) learning rule. The GA acts as a global optimizer and the neural network fine tunes the GA results to the desired targets. Three machines standard test system has been tested for validation of the approach. Comparing the results with GA and NGH model based on back-propagation learning, the proposed approach gives contrast improvements showing the promise of the approach. (author)

2009-07-01

363

An effortless hybrid method to solve economic load dispatch problem in power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. {yields} The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. {yields} Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. {yields} Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.

Pourakbari-Kasmaei, M., E-mail: mahdi.pourakbari@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, 22 Bahman Blvd., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Rashidi-Nejad, M., E-mail: mrashidi@mail.uk.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, 22 Bahman Blvd., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-08-15

364

Problems and prospects of post-crisis development of entrepreneurship: a regional aspect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.

P.A. Fisunenko

2012-06-01

365

Research Interregional Disproportions of Social and Economic Development in Ukraine ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article the analysis of interregional disproportions of socio and economic development is presented in a country, basic factors that assist the origin of disproportion and the system of indexes is offered for the estimation of interregional disproportions in Ukraine are outlined.? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ? ??????, ????????...

Kizim Nikolay A.; Moschitskaya Tatyana. A.,

2011-01-01

366

Research Interregional Disproportions of Social and Economic Development in Ukraine ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the analysis of interregional disproportions of socio and economic development is presented in a country, basic factors that assist the origin of disproportion and the system of indexes is offered for the estimation of interregional disproportions in Ukraine are outlined.? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ? ??????, ???????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???????.

Kizim Nikolay A.

2011-02-01

367

Economic--GNP per Capita Learning Module. Development Education Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

368

Community Economic Development: Building Capacity through Stronger Partnerships.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information Service Report is part of a technical assistance grant from the Department of Commerce, the purpose of which was to conduct state workshops on economic development issues germane to that state or region. The report is based primarily on a ...

L. Gillen J. Murphy B. Rivers

1988-01-01

369

[Development of the Bandama Valley. Sanitary and social problems].  

Science.gov (United States)

As with all water resources development projects in countries with hot climate, the man-made lake of Kossou in Ivory Coast presents social and sanitary problems. Although the resettlement and the economic recuperation of the inhabitants are well on the way, the health hazards and especially that of the generalization of schistosomiasis calls for an urgent solution. Though well planed in advance, the creation of this man-made lake, illustrates the necessity at the very beginning of a project that will distrub all the ecology of a region, to establish the total disadvantages and health hazards incurved by the people who live there. To the cost of a project should be added that of measures that would contribute to the reduction of these risks before it is too late. PMID:189949

Picot, H

1976-01-01

370

Inoculant production in developing countries - Problems, potentials and success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable agriculture is a long-term goal that seeks to overcome some of problems and constraints that confront the economic viability, environmental soundness and social acceptance of agricultural production systems. In this context, bio-fertilizers assume special significance particularly because they are 'eco-friendly', but also since their alternative, chemical fertilizers are expensive. Undoubtedly, the most commonly used bio-fertilizers are soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, but others like Azolla, Azospirillum, various cyanobacteria also contribute significant amounts of N to e.g. rice. Other bacteria like Frankia and Acetobacter contribute N to trees of the genus Casuarina and sugarcane, respectively. Furthermore, although they are rarely used as inoculants, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphobacteria help countless plants solubilise and assimilate soil phosphorus. Despite these advantages, bio-fertilizers could be more widely used in developing countries. Contingent upon greater use is improved quality of the inoculants, and all aspects of their production are discussed here. (author)

2001-03-13

371

Solving Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect using a Modified ABC Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for solving economic dispatch (ED problem with valve-point effect using a modified artificial bee colony (MABC algorithm. Artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent population-based optimization method which has been successfully used in many complex problems. This paper proposes a novel best mechanism algorithm based on a modified ABC algorithm, in which a new mutation strategy inspired from the differential evolution (DE is introduced in order to improve the exploitation process. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the numerical studies have been performed for two different sample systems. The results of the proposed method are compared with other techniques reported in recent literature. The results clearly show that the proposed MABC algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms in solving ED problem with the valve-point effect.

Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

2013-06-01

372

Role of agricultural policy for economic development in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is primarily an Agricultural based country. Agriculture is the back bone of Indian Economy. It is contributed nearly 17.5% gross domestic product with labour force of 52% that means 52% of population depend upon directly on agriculture. It has play vital role in Indian economy. Agricultural is a way of life, a tradition, which for centuries, has shaped the thought the outlook, the culture and the economic life of the people of India. It will be continue to central of all strategies for plan socio-economic development of the country.

Pawar Vikas J.

2012-06-01

373

Finance, economic development and the transition: the East German case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of banks in the transition concerns three issues: the bad loans problem, the role of banks in providing a solution to the problems of corporate governance of privatized enterprises and the access of new enterprises to finance for investment. This paper shows how the combination of early privatization of the banking system plus financial restructuring of enterprises by the Treuhand prevented the development of a 'bad loans' problem in East Germany. The merits of banks as large stakeho...

Carlin, Wendy; Richthofen, Peter

1995-01-01

374

From Transition to Opportunity: Security through Economic Development & Institutional Strengthening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Economic Crisis affects us all. It does not favor structured long-term development reforms that project stability and growth. Rather it requests for reforms that are necessary to prepare society at large to counter with measures in the short-term, the existing crisis. This paper aims to portray that only long-term development reforms and institutionalized strengthening will effectively counter the fiscal crisis both in the short-term and in the long-term. The article is looking at the dimensions of economic security and development, on the supranationalization of cross border cooperation and it proposes the creation of a Foreign Direct Investment Network through the prism of an Interoperable European Development Network that will be associated both with countries wishing to re-structure or reform as to be more attractive to the Euro-Atlantic Institutions.

Valbona Zeneli

2012-08-01

375

Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.

2001-01-01

376

A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T. This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T yields a necessary boundary condition p(T = 0, where p(t is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T, the new necessary condition is that y(T should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T. We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP. The minimising free value y(T is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP discrete-time results are also presented.

Alan Zinober

2013-04-01

377

A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T) = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the fu [...] nctional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T). This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T) yields a necessary boundary condition p(T) = 0, where p(t) is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T), the new necessary condition is that y(T) should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T). We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP). The minimising free value y(T) is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP) discrete-time results are also presented.

Alan, Zinober; Suliadi, Sufahani.

378

Institutions and Development in Mexico. Are Formal Economic Reforms Enough?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines whether the current political arrangements framing the Mexican politics help in consolidating and advancing those economic reforms that have been implemented in Mexico since the 1982 severe economic crises. I will argue that these arrangements create impediments to the co-ordination required to sustain and advance those policy changes that are needed under the new economic model. Formal and informal institutional environments that do not provide for the adequate enforcement of political exchanges also generate high transaction costs. Politicians will have to design complex mechanisms to protect their rent allocation. Many political transactions will not be implemented, and those that may be so will tend to generate relatively inefficient public policies. The capability of the political system to enforce the new economic rules as well as property and other legal rights is also weak. As these factors play a key role for the allocative efficiency of markets and, consequently, for growth and development, the paper concludes that formal macroeconomic and structural reforms in economic sectors may not be enough.

Manuel Palma-Rangel

2006-03-01

379

Issues of health economics in the practice of radiotherapy in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been a rapid expansion of radiation oncology services in developing countries over the past decade. The question arises of how far, how fast and which technology should be introduced and expanded and yet remain sustainable. The problem can be reduced to a simple issue of an increasing number of cancer cases (refer S. Whelan), hence increasing demand for radiotherapy in less-developed countries while the current resources for treatment are at present concentrated in well-developed countries. By 2015 there will be a shortfall of 10,000 teletherapy machines for providing radiotherapy. Micro- and macro-economic aspects that affect development of radiotherapy in developing countries are discussed

2002-11-25

380

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricu...

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

A Basic Economic Model for Judging Production Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The described technical-economic model clarifies the influence of different production technological factors on the processing cost of a part. The model represents the fundamental theory for the judging of different types of production development. Various influential factors can be weighted against each other, which leads to different production development scenarios and their effects on the processing cost can be studied. This implies a way to generate a basis of decision by which a company...

Sta?hl, Jan-eric; Andersson, Carin; Jo?nsson, Mathias

2007-01-01

382

Department for Economic Development, Ge... - norad.no  

... Department for Economic Development, Gender and Governance Send email to Name:* E-mail:* Subject:* Message: Add a file: CC: Eriksen, Bjørn Holter Director Hoven, Tori Director Eriksen, Halvor Fridtjof Gregers Higher Executive Officer Rommetvedt, Heidi Higher Executive OfficerOil for Development Section Stigset, Petter Assistant Director Aronsen, Ida Adviser Bergskaug, Ingvild Senior Adviser Christophersen, Hans Peter Senior Adviser Engebretsen, Rebecca Higher Executive Officer Gilani, ...

383

Nurkse and the role of finance in development economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ragnar Nurkse was one the pioneers in development economics. This paper celebrates the hundredth anniversary of his birth with a critical retrospective of his overall contribution to the field, in particular his views on the importance of employment policy in mobilizing domestic resources and the difficulties surrounding the use of external resources to finance development. It also demonstrates the affinity between Nurkse's theory of mobilizing domestic resources and employer-of-last-resort p...

Kregel, Jan

2007-01-01

384

IDEOLOGICAL SOURCES OF THE ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY AND ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, the author elucidates the fundamental characteristics of theeconomic democracy. Therefore, the concept is also introduced through its historicaldevelopment beginning in the 18th century up to present day. Particular space isdevoted to the development of the concept in both theory and practice of the formerCzechoslovakia. The focus is on the ideological diversity of the authors developing theconcept of economic democracy, as well as the heterogeneity of the interpretations ofits content.

MARIÁN SEKERÁK

2012-01-01

385

From Economic to Sustainable Development: Enlarging the concept of law  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The title "From Economic to Sustainable Development: Enlarging the Concept of Law" signals a meta-theoretical approach. However, this thesis is also firmly centred in practice by questioning if, and in what form, law has a role to play in implementation of sustainable development, apart from being a tool for shaping concrete legal mechanisms, such as international conventions and national laws and regulation. Thus, at its core, the research is focused on the role of law in a process of politi...

Jensen, Hanne Birgitte

2006-01-01

386

The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. ...

2010-01-01

387

Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480

Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

2006-08-01

388

The agency problem and medical acting: an example of applying economic theory to medical ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors attempt to build a bridge between economic theory and medical ethics to offer a new perspective to tackle ethical challenges in the physician-patient encounter. They apply elements of new institutional economics to the ethically relevant dimensions of the physician-patient relationship in a descriptive heuristic sense. The principal-agent theory can be used to analytically grasp existing action problems in the physician-patient relationship and as a basis for shaping recommendations at the institutional level. Furthermore, the patients' increased self-determination and modern opportunities for the medical laity to inform themselves lead to a less asymmetrical distribution of information between physician and patient and therefore require new interaction models. Based on the analysis presented here, the authors recommend that, apart from the physician's necessary individual ethics, greater consideration should be given to approaches of institutional ethics and hence to incentive systems within medical ethics. PMID:18470634

Langer, Andreas; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Brink, Alexander; Eurich, Johannes

2009-03-01

389

Some problems on development of HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High temperature gas reactors are the technological extension of graphite-moderated, carbon dioxide-cooled, thermal neutron reactors. The whole core is constructed with highly heat-resistant ceramics, and chemically inert helium is used as the coolant, therefore energy can be extracted at highest temperature. The invention of coated particle fuel enabled to realize the sufficiently high exit temperature of coolant. The Dragon reactor of 20 MWt of OECD, the AVR reactor of 15 MWe in FRG, and the Peach Bottom reactor of 45 MWe in USA were put in operation from 1964 to 1967, and demonstrated excellent results beyond expectation. Two prototype reactors, the Fort St. Vrain reactor of 342 MWe in USA and the THTR reactor of 300 MWe in FRG, are under construction now. If the FSV reactor will be operated successfully, the possibility of HTGRs as the next power generation reactor will arise. However, the technology of HTGRs is not yet complete, and the problems are the insufficient accumulation of the data, the introduction of thorium cycle, the use of highly enriched uranium, the apprehension about aseismatic construction, and so on. The recent situation of the HTGRs in FRG, USA, France and Japan is reported. The safety of HTGRs is excellent, the effects on environment are small, and HTGRs are valuable in view of future nuclear fuel policy. The reactor type suitable to Japan must be developed. (Kako, I.)

1976-01-01

390

Attracting, Developing, and Maintaining Human Capital: A New Model for Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

"Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development," a 2011 book by Timothy Bartik, Senior Economist at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, provides a new evidence-based approach for effective economic development. This approach is designed to support business growth and job creation by improving worker…

America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

391

An Integrated GA-ABC Optimization Technique to Solve Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unit Commitment (UC and Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems are significant research areas to determine the economical generation schedule with all generating unit constraints, such as unit ramp rates, unit minimum and maximum generation capabilities and minimum up-time and down-time. This study proposed a technique for solving the UC and ELD problems using bio-inspired techniques like Genetic Algorithm (GA and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC Optimization. The experiments are performed in two phases: UC phase and ELD phase. In the UC phase, a turn-on and turn-off schedule for a given combination of generating units is performed using GA, thus satisfying a set of dynamic operational constraints. During the second ELD phase, the pre-committed schedules are optimized and the optimal load is distributed among the scheduled units using ABC algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is investigated on two test systems namely, IEEE 30 bus system and ten unit system. Experimental results prove that the proposed method is capable of yielding higher quality solution including mathematical simplicity, fast convergence, diversity maintenance, robustness and scalability for the complex UC-ELD problem.

S. Sumathi

2012-01-01

392

Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish mortgage finance system is attracting much international attention due to its simple, robust and efficient securitization principle, the balance principle. Housing finance experts consider how the model can be introduced in other countries to overcome shortcomings in previous mortgage systems (e.g., in the US) or to alleviate the gigantic unmet needs for housing finance around the world. In support of such efforts the research challenge was the development of a methodology for screening of readiness for transplanting this financing system to other countries. However, the development of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the requirements of infrastructure in respect to protecting â??security of collateralâ??, and on international monitoring systems providing information on the status of what cadaster, real property registration and other functions of importance for securing collateral and for valuation of properties. In the absence of data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between formal property rights regimes and real credit with implications for development strategies. The PhD was co-sponsored by VP Securities A/S, www.vp.dk

Haldrup, Karin

2011-01-01

393

Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

Abu Nurudeen

2009-12-01

394

Religion as a factor of political culture and economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the “spirit of capitalism” in orthodox countries. For that purpose this article compares political-historical circumstances on the territory of the Western and Eastern Church on one, and pictures the theological-philosophical basis of both Protestantism and Orthodoxy on the other side.

Risti? Irena

2005-01-01

395

Interrelation of Inequality of Income with the Concepts of Economic Development ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies interaction of inequality of distribution of income and economic growth in correspondence with evolution of concepts of economic development. It is shown that economic growth, as a criterion of economic development, corresponds with conceptual foundations of stable development. The body of indicators of stable development at a regional level is formed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ????????, ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????.

Dmitrishin Lesya I.

2013-02-01

396

Interrelation of Inequality of Income with the Concepts of Economic Development ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article studies interaction of inequality of distribution of income and economic growth in correspondence with evolution of concepts of economic development. It is shown that economic growth, as a criterion of economic development, corresponds with conceptual foundations of stable development. The body of indicators of stable development at a regional level is formed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????...

Dmitrishin Lesya I.

2013-01-01

397

Current Status, Trends and Priorities of Social-Economic Development of Ukraine ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article investigates the current state, trends and priorities for economic and social development of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????.

Dykha Mariya V.

2012-01-01

398

Environmental/economic power dispatch problem using multi-objective differential evolution algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a multi-objective differential evolution (MODE) algorithm for environmental/economic power dispatch (EED) problem. The EED problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained multi-objective problem with competing and non-commensurable objectives of fuel cost, emission and system loss. The proposed MODE approach adopts an external elitist archive to retain non-dominated solutions found during the evolutionary process. In order to preserve the diversity of Pareto optimality, a crowding entropy diversity measure tactic is proposed. The crowding entropy strategy is able to measure the crowding degree of the solutions more accurately. In addition, fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise solution. Several optimization runs of the proposed approach have been carried out on the IEEE 30- and 118-bus test system. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed MODE approach to generate well-distributed Pareto optimal non-dominated solutions of multi-objective EED problem. The comparison with reported results of other MOEAs reveals the superiority of the proposed MODE approach and confirms its potential for solving other power systems multi-objective optimization problems. (author)

Wu, L.H.; Wang, Y.N.; Yuan, X.F. [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, South of Lushan Road, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Zhou, S.W. [College of Information and Electrical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China)

2010-09-15

399

An {epsilon}-dominance-based multiobjective genetic algorithm for economic emission load dispatch optimization problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a novel multiobjective genetic algorithm approach for economic emission load dispatch (EELD) optimization problem is presented. The EELD problem is formulated as a non-linear constrained multiobjective optimization problem with both equality and inequality constraints. A new optimization algorithm which is based on concept of co-evolution and repair algorithm for handling non-linear constraints is presented. The algorithm maintains a finite-sized archive of non-dominated solutions which gets iteratively updated in the presence of new solutions based on the concept of {epsilon}-dominance. The use of {epsilon}-dominance also makes the algorithms practical by allowing a decision maker to control the resolution of the Pareto-set approximation by choosing an appropriate {epsilon} value. The proposed approach is carried out on the standard IEEE 30-bus 6-genrator test system. The results demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach to generate true and well-distributed Pareto-optimal non-dominated solutions of the multiobjective EELD problem in one single run. Simulation results with the proposed approach have been compared to those reported in the literature. The comparison demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach and confirms its potential to solve the multiobjective EELD problem. (author)

Osman, M.S. [High Institute of Technology, 10th Ramadan City (Egypt); Abo-Sinna, M.A.; Mousa, A.A. [Faculty of Engineering, Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia University (Egypt)

2009-11-15

400

After privatisation: Economic development, social transformation and corporate governance in the Baltic states  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general problem in emerging economies is that there is no well-defined system that supports a balanced relationship between management and other stakeholders of the firm. This paper describes how emerging systems of corporate governance in the Baltic States have interacted with economic development and social transformation, and how after privatisation foundations for such a system of corporate governance are beginning to take root. We identify some sub-systems of corporate governance tha...

Ainamo, Antti; Cardwell, William

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Energy and economic development [Brazil: A country profile on sustainable energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When energy specialists discuss the relationships between energy use and economic development, the focus is usually on how energy supports economic growth, alleviates poverty and increases people's well-being. On rare occasions, though, the effect that a country's choices for promoting economic development have on energy production and use is a matter of concern. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the way Brazil's choices for promoting economic development over time have impacted primary and final energy use in the country. Economic growth has different levels of quality, which lead to different economic development paths. Some paths are more effective than others in creating wealth and in protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations. Quality actually matters as much for economic development as for energy. This chapter is divided into four sections covering energy and economic development relationships, the evolution of final energy use in Brazil, strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in the country and a summary of main issues. In Section 5.1, energy and economic development relationships are discussed, setting the background for the analysis of the impacts on final energy use of some of Brazil's choices for promoting economic development. The section begins by focusing on the basics of energy and economic development relationships. It should be noted that most energy specialists usually discuss only the basics of energy and economic development (the 'energy in support of economic development' theme), but this approach alone is not enough to explain differences in countries' final energy use patterns, or to identify strategies to enhance sustainable energy development. In this sense, the main contribution of this section is to further illuminate the role of social and economic choices in determining the effectiveness of a given country's economic development and that country's primary and final energy use patterns. Section 5.2 assesses energy use in Brazil by analysing energy intensities. A decomposition analysis technique is applied to final energy use figures to help identify the factors affecting final energy use in the Brazilian economy. Such a technique allows the decomposition of energy use changes into three basic effects: activity, structure and intensity. The activity effect results from the impact of overall economic growth on final energy use. The structure effect derives from the impact that the sectoral composition of the economy has on the final energy use of a country. The intensity effect refers to the final energy requirements per unit of activity of each sector considered (sectoral breakdown). Findings are contrasted with historical events and circumstances to provide a better understanding of the impacts of Brazil's economic and social choices on its final energy use patterns. Section 5.3 recommends synergetic strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in Brazil based on what has been learned from the country's previous economic and social choices and from the experiences of other countries. The final section is a summary of the main issues related to Brazil's energy system and its economic development. The chapter presents indicators mainly related to energy intensity. Other important economic indicators that are part of the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) set are addressed in other parts of the report: fuel mix in Chapter 2, reserves to production ratios in Chapter 3, technology efficiencies in Chapter 4, per capita energy use in Chapter 7 and import dependence in Chapter 8

2006-08-01

402

Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeking to identify the principal actions needed to make sure that the process towards sustainability be given a much wider impulsion, the Fifth Environmental Action Programme of the ED underlined the increasing need for the application of a broader range of instruments aimed at influencing decisions which affect the environment. In this perspective economic tools were seen as the most adequate and powerful instruments available for efficient use and management of natural resource base in addition to and complementary not only to direct regulations but also to social pressure, negotiation and other forms of moral suasion. Thus, at the beginning of the 1990s, the European environmental policy began a transformation from merely growth-oriented model to sustainable development, moving into its second stage of environmental agenda. Widening the portfolio of policy instruments represents a main aspect of the Sixth Environmental Action Programme as well. In the search for innovative and sustainable solutions to the problems of the internalisation of the negative as well as positive impacts of production and consumption patterns on the environment, the new Programme requires, inter alia: encouraging reforms of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development; analysing the environmental efficiency of tradable environmental permits as a generic instrument and of emission trading with a view to promoting and implementing their use where feasible; promoting and encouraging the use of fiscal measures such as environmentally related taxes and incentives, at the appropriate national or Community level; promoting the integration of environmental protection requirements in standardisation activities. In ardor to analyse whether the process towards sustainability started in 1992 has taken roots, several evaluation studies revealed that broadening the range of instruments had proved to be more difficulty than envisaged when the recent European environmental policy was adopted. With the inevitable consequence that the most common environmental policy solution had frequently continued to be direct regulations. The scant progress in widening the range of instruments for control and behavioural change confirms the existence of a large disagreement between the normative prescriptions of economic theory and decisions effectively taken within the political process. If a large divergence between theory and practices often prevails, the relevant issue is then to understand why ED and Member States have failed to refer to the proposed wider box of instruments. In this direction, this paper points out the usefulness of the contribution that public choice theory can provide for understanding why particular environmental instruments are actually adopted and implemented. According to the individualistic approach of public choice, the paper deals with the issue concerning the choice and implementation of environmental policy tools through the analysis of the functioning of two strictly connected markets: the political market and the para-political market, and tries to give an explanation as to why in representative democracies, in which forces may be identified as demand and supply, an incentive-oriented environmental policy has many difficulties of being implemented

2005-11-01

403

Economic opportunities from east coast natural gas developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect economic benefits associated with the development of the Sable Offshore Energy and Pipeline project were discussed. A perspective of the relative size of the project compared to other activities in the economy was also presented. It was announced that the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council (APEC) is developing a new project which will take a close look at the natural gas industry and how Atlantic Canada can maximize the economic opportunities presented by this development. It was pointed out that major developments such as the Hibernia and Terra Nova Crude Oil projects and the Sable natural gas projects are attracting billions of dollars in new investment capital to Atlantic Canada. There are currently over 30 new mineral and energy projects in the four Atlantic provinces. The total value of these projects has been estimated to be in the order of $24 billion with the majority of them maturing within the next five to eight years. While small by national Canadian standards, these projects nevertheless have the potential to contribute to a much stronger economy in the four Atlantic provinces for many years to come

1998-04-20

404

Philippine energy development strategy: the economic cost of institutional inefficiencies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the Philippine energy development strategy in the light of the present projections of energy prices and discusses the implications of this strategy regarding the past and future investment plans of the energy sector. In reviewing the past decisions, the paper indicates the economic costs associated with the sub-optimality of these decisions, as well as costs related to implementation inefficiencies. In discussing the future investment strategy, the paper describes some recent accomplishments in the development of least-cost investment plans and the establishment of the coordinating machinery. Finally, the paper points out the lessons from the Philippine experience which may be of value to other developing countries. (author).

Razavi, Hossein (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-09-01

405

Rural regions in the EU: exploring differences in economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Search for driving forces behind economic development in rural regions of the EU From a recent OECD analysis, it appeared that there were dynamic rural regions which showed an employment performance above the national average during the 1980s, and that there were also rural regions whose employment growth lagged behind. This observation directly prompts the following question: why do some rural regions show a higher employment performance than others? Can the sectoral mix of employment explai...

Terluin, Ida Joke

2001-01-01

406

Green finance is essential for economic development and sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...

2013-01-01

407

Economic conditioning of pork production development in the world  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors try to define the specific economic conditions of pork production in the world. Differentiation of pig production in regional and species scheme was also analysed and some predictions of the world pig market in the future presented. This paper presents also the regions that have particular conditions to develop pork production and to be leaders on the world pork market.

Magdalena Kozera

2010-01-01

408

An Environmental-Economic Measure of Sustainable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A central issue in the study of sustainable development is the interplay of growth and sacrifice in a dynamic economy. This paper investigates the relationship among current consumption, sacrifice, and sustainability improvement in a general context and in two canonical, stylized economies. We argue that the maximin value of utility measures what is sustainable and provides the limit to growth. Maximin value is interpreted as a dynamic environmental-economic carrying capacity and current util...

2013-01-01

409

Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

Zaheer Khan KAKAR

2011-12-01

410

Public finance and economic growth: Empirical evidence from developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study is an empirical test of the effects of different categories of government expenditure, revenue and deficits on economic growth in developing countries. It is based on panel data of annual series over the last three decades for 103 countries, which are further classified into low-income, high-income, mineral exports dependent, and foreign aid dependent groups. Our findings suggest that the effects of the fiscal variables on growth vary across these groups of countries. But broadly, c...

Odedokun, Matthew O.

2001-01-01

411

Lessons from post-colonial Malaysian economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysian economic development has been shaped by public policy in response to changing national and external conditions. Public investments peaked in the 1970s and early 1980s, until the policy reversals driven by sovereign debt concerns and new policy ideology fads. Foreign investments continued to be favoured after independence for ethnic political reasons. Thus, foreign investments continued to be very significant in financial services as well as manufacturing growth, both for import subs...

S, Jomo K.; Hui, Wee Chong

2010-01-01

412

Domestic capital formation, financial intermediation and economic development in Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focusses on the reasons of the poor performance of domestic resource mobilization in Peru. It begins with an analysis of the structure of domestic savings and its changes in the course of economic development (Section II) . After the description of the Peruvian financial sector (Section III) financial policies since the early 1970 are reviewed and the effects of financial repression discussed (Section IV). Finally some policy suggestions to improve domestic resource mobilization ar...

Fischer, Bernhard

1987-01-01

413

Telecommunications infrastructure and economic development: a simultaneous approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate how telecommunications infrastructure affects economic growth. This issue is important and has received considerable attention in the popular press concerning the creation of the information superhighway and its potential impacts on the economy. We use evidence from 21 OECD countries over the past twenty years to examine the impacts that telecommunications developments may have had. We estimate a structural model which endogenizes telecommunication investment by s...

Ro?ller, Lars-hendrik; Waverman, Leonard

1996-01-01

414

Environmental issues in economic partnership agreements: Implications for developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This issue paper, titled 'Environmental Issues in Economic Partnership Agreements: Implications for Developing Countries', and written by Mrs. Beatrice Dove-Edwin, is a contribution to that process. The paper exhaustively reviews all rules related to trade and environment in several of the already signed EPAs. The aim of the paper is to enable ACP countries to understand how trade policy related to the environment has been introduced in EPAs, and how those policies might impact sustainable de...

2009-01-01

415

Institutional Explanations of Economic Development: the Role of Precious Metals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent research has emphasized the influence of colonization on the institutional development and economic performance in former European colonies. Where European colonizers settled, they replicated the investment-conducive institutions found at home. It has been argued that a harsh disease environment and a highly urbanized native population worked against colonization. We show evidence for another significant element explaining the endogenous character of colonization strategies and the for...

Papyrakis, Elissaios; Gerlagh, Reyer

2005-01-01

416

Economic partnership agreements: a pro-development tool?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) put an end to the preferential non-reciprocal commercial treatment from the European Union (EU) to African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries, in force since 1975 and until December 2007 (the deadline for EPAs deals). Negotiations are being challenging as only a small number of countries have closed full EPAs with EU by now, on the grounds that EPAs are missing their development goal. This dissertation intends to analyse EPAs negotiation round, evalua...

Bastos, Marlene Elizabete Lourenc?o

2009-01-01

417

Socio-economic Scenario Development for Climate Change Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socio-economic scenarios constitute an important tool for exploring the long-term consequences of anthropogenic climate change and available response options. They have been applied for different purposes and to a different degree in various areas of climate change analysis, typically in combination with projections of future climate change. Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) has used them to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios for the 21st century and to investigate strategies...

Kriegler, Elmar; O Neill, Brian-c; Hallegatte, Ste?phane; Kram, Tom; Moss, Richard-h; Lempert, Robert; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

418

Building Human Capital for Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examined issues dealing with the effectiveness of the Nigerian educationsector in meeting the human capital needed for economic development in an era of reforms. The paper is essentially a descriptive analysis of a set of indicators to assess the readiness of the sector in providing the needed human capital for the diverse segments of the Nigerian economy. The indicators used to assess the effectiveness of the education sector include: level of funding, the rate of return ...

Omojimite, Ben U.

2011-01-01

419

The economic and demographic transition, mortality, and comparative development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a unified growth theory to investigate the mechanics generating the economic and demographic transition, and the role of mortality differences for comparative development. The framework can replicate the quantitative patterns in historical time series data and in contemporaneous cross-country panel data, including the bi-modal distribution of the endogenous variables across countries. The results suggest that differences in extrinsic mortality might explain a substantial part of th...

Cervellati, Matteo; Sunde, Uwe

2013-01-01

420

The Economic and Demographic Transition, Mortality, and Comparative Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a unified growth theory to investigate the mechanics generating the economic and demographic transition, and the role of mortality differences for comparative development. The framework can replicate the quantitative patterns in historical time series data and in contemporaneous cross-country panel data, including the bi-modal distribution of the endogenous variables across countries. The results suggest that differences in extrinsic mortality might explain a substantial part of th...

Sunde, Uwe; Cervellati, Matteo

2013-01-01

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