WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Long-term economic development problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term economic development of New Mexico parallels the major energy issue of the nation - the impact of non-proliferation policy. The short lifespan and waste of energy resources in this country reflects a lack of foresight which can no longer be tolerated. The principal unknowns affecting uranium development in New Mexico are the extent and demand for uranium, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the lifespan of nuclear power plants, with or without reprocessing. Further areas of concern include the costs of reprocessing facilities, the evaluation of fuel cycles to minimize proliferation, and the impacts of waste disposal

2

Problems of Social and Economic Development Facing Third World Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The developed Western countries with their free market economy; the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe with their economies that are highly planned and subject to both public ownership and control; the developing countries of the Third World with oscillating differences in their political systems and economic structures yet linked through a common history of conquest and exploitation by colonial powers, are all bedevilled by the problems of organizing their own economies in a manner which would maximize the interest and social welfare of those they purport to serve.

Patterson, P.J.

1984-01-01

3

Problems and prospects of socio-economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with issues of status and trends of regional economic and social development, as well as the identification of priority areas that improve the attractiveness and competitiveness of the region.

Shihragim Kutaev

2012-01-01

4

Teaching Local Economic Development Using Problem-Based Service Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The course was a senior-level 3 credit seminar designed primarily for junior and senior economics majors and minors. This capstone-type course offered an opportunity for 18 students to learn about urban economics as it applies to local economic development while being actively involved in the actual practice of community and economic development through a partnership with Burlington's innovative Community and Economic Development Office (CEDO). Specifically, Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's economic development division: 1. Collected data to enable an up-to-date understanding of economic/demographic trends and conditions in Burlington and the region. CEDO has previously hired outside consultants to periodically produce a data rich document titled "Jobs and People." My students put together "Jobs and People IV." Key contributions unique to J&P IV were the construction of time series based on NAICS instead of SIC industry codes and the addition of variables to reflect Burlington's movement away from manufacturing to an economy based more on the arts, technology and sustainable agriculture. This report is now used throughout the state of Vermont. 2. Developed a dataset in excel with formulas and sources that makes it easy for CEDO staff to keep "Jobs and People" continuously updated and to modify the data and charts to meet their changing needs. CEDO will now need to rely less on expensive outside consultants. Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's community development division: 1. Conducted a survey of Burlington residents on their quality of life in the historical but economically challenged Old North End neighborhood. The survey was also designed to gather information about the types of supports residents want and to identify the role played by CEDO sponsored neighborhood associations in resident perceptions of quality of life.

Brooks, Nancy

5

French Academic and Private Research on Economic Development Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper has been written to acquaint the reader with a French economic development school. This survey concentrates on academic and semi-academic research institutes and consulting firms. The aim of the survey is to report on the major aspects and feat...

A. G. Nowicki

1968-01-01

6

Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

Abdul Ghafoor Awan

2013-03-01

7

THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

Orlov A. I.

2014-05-01

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Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The ob...

Abdul Ghafoor Awan

2013-01-01

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS AND STATE REGULATION SMALL-SCALE FARMING AGRICULTURE ????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper clarifies the conceptual apparatus of subjects of small farms in agriculture, sup-plemented theory of the balance development of the market products, systematized the in-struments of state control of the development process of SFB in AIC subject to the condi-tions of economic space WTO

Tubalets A. A.

2012-12-01

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMICS-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTING FUTURE POLLUTION PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The research in this project was devoted to developing a methodology having utility for an ultimate purpose of identifying potential future toxic substance pollution problems. An approach was desired that would be systematic, comprehensive, and futuristic. The methodology that ha...

11

Nuclear power complexes and economic-ecological problems of nuclear power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of constructing NPP's at separate sites in densely populated areas on economic efficiency of nuclear power and its ecological implications has been investigated. Locating NPP's and nuclear fuel cycle plants at different sites results in large scale shipments of fresh and spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. The fact increases the risk of a detrimental environmental impact, duration of the external fuel cycle, and worsens, in the end, nuclear power economics. The prudence of creating nuclear parks is discussed. The parks may be especially efficient if the program of developing NPP's with fast breeder reactors is a success. Comparative evaluations show that from economic standpoint deployment of nuclear parks in the European part of the USSR has no disadvantage before construction of separate NPP's and supporting fuel cycle facilities of equivalent capacity, even if the construction of nuclear parks runs dearer by 30% than assumed. The possibility for nuclear parks to meet a part of demand for ''off-peak'' energy production, district heating and process heat production is also shortly discussed

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An Analysis of the Social System and Planning Problems for the Economic Development  

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Full Text Available Economic growth is tied with planning in the modern world. It is widely believed that if a country seeks to uplift its economy it must adopt the path of planning. The word “Planning” itself is, however, ambiguous. It is used with many meanings. It has been known to cover the shooting of those who disagree, or it may mean nothing more than consultation, making sure that all interested parties are properly informed about each other’s and the government’s intentions. It may involve the setting of targets with no compulsion to achieve them, but with certain inducements to try, setting up of targets with a larger number of physical controls to back them up. And it can mean no more than the attempt to work out what needs to be done if a given objective is to be achieved. In reality, planning has become a part of human life in every civilized society. Plans are the outcome of necessity. It is always wise to plan than to do and undertake any work without planning. Planning paves the direction and procedure to attain any goal or objectives. Planning now touches the lives of all of us at numerous points and no one, can afford to be ignorant about its principle and practice. Planning is a part of life and relevant to all of us. The house wife plans her budget and allocates her time and the businessman similarly budgets his time and resources.

Kailash Pati

2012-01-01

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The nuclear electric option in developing countries: Technical, economic, and political problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned

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Economic Creativity Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC. The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007 for Economic Creativity Development (ECD. This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitabi” (in Persian meaning Dy-namism and Restlessness. According to this theory, ECD relates to connections between emotion and thought. The ECD includes pro-moting individual readiness, utilization of eco-nomic resources, attitude towards economic af-fairs development, enhancing the utilization of economic experiences, conducting economic ac-tivity education, development of economic thinking and development of emotion of thought.

Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi

2014-06-01

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Economic development and civil development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is commonly held that economic development automatically brings civil development with it, as if between the two there were a cause-effect relationship. While economic development is obviously a necessary condition for civil development, it is not a sufficient one. On the other hand, without certain fundamental pre-requisites in the civil development field, such as a minimum level of education, economic development is impossible. Thus, the two phenomena are best conceived of in terms of interaction rather than causal relations.

P. SYLOS LABINI

2013-10-01

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Energy and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development

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Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

2011-01-01

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Entrepreneurship in economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

Naude?, Wim

2008-01-01

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International Economic Development Council  

Science.gov (United States)

Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

20

Economic conditions and alcohol problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and two alcohol-related outcomes--liquor consumption and highway vehicle fatalities. Fixed-effect models are estimated for the 48 contiguous states over the 1975-1988 time period. Alcohol consumption and traffic deaths vary procyclically, with a major portion of the effect of economic downturns attributed to reductions in incomes, rather than employment. The intake of hard liquor is the most sensitive to the state of the macroeconomy. There is no evidence, however, that fluctuations in economic conditions have a disproportionate impact on the drunk-driving of young adults. PMID:10156503

Ruhm, C J

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system

22

Analyses and problems of spatial development for planning networks of social and economic infrastructure on the national level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transport networks are the most important programmes of the European Union, more precisely, the network of fast railroads and the reorganisation of air traffic. In the North European area we are thus witness to intensive planning, design and positioning corner stones, that connect relations of mobility between expansive territorial basins and international destinations, as well as directing transport between global economies. These starting points are the basis for analysing defined needs in directing strategic spatial development in Slovenia and understanding spatial development problems in establishing priorities.

Peter Guli?

2000-01-01

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Finance and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

Ugo Panizza

2012-03-01

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Economics 14.126 Problem Set III  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem set for a PhD level economics class at MIT covering game theory. The questions are purely theoretical and do not deal substantially with economic applications. Solutions are available here: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/80316/14-12-fall-2005/contents/assignments/ps3sol.pdf.

Ew Fudenberg, Sergei I.

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Compression of indicators in diagnostics of socio-economic development of a company: problems and ways of solution ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????: ???????? ? ???? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article shows the role of integral indicators and methods of their construction in assessment of the state of a company in dynamics of its development. It draws attention to the problem of comparability of values, obtained through various methods of compression. It offers a method of interpretation of the rates of growth of diagnostic indicators for construction of integral assessments of both profitable and unprofitable (at some periods companies. It substantiates expediency of analysis of rate dynamics of complex indicators.???????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????. ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ? ????????? (? ????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????.

Nadtoka Tatyana B.

2013-03-01

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Poverty ? a major economical problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poverty is the state for the majority of the world?s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this?...

Assistent Professor Somogyi János

2008-01-01

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Ghana--medical care amid economic problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages were the main problem with drugs being the greatest worry. Food for the wards was another problem, both in otaining and in affording it. All other necessities were equally difficult to find. Most members of the health team found their personal and family problems overwhelming, and there was a high rate of absenteeism. Planning the future of Legon Hospital became an impossible task. Medical care in a arapidly deteriorating economic situation poses its own problems, problems in many ways different from those found in countries that are equally poor but more stable. PMID:7441643

Bacon, L

1980-07-01

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States and Economic Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is s [...] trong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

Atul, Kohli.

29

Economic issues in the legacy problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

30

WATER-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN NORTHEASTERN MONTENEGRO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the problems of water economic northeastern Montenegro municipalities Berane, Andrijevica and Plav. It points to the problem of exploitation of water, protection of water and water protection. Within exploit water resources, the possibilities of water supply of population and industry, water supply, agriculture, hydropower exploitation, tourism and recreational use. Current and future use of water resources considered GeoScape, requires a new approach, which should be in a...

Goran Rajovic; Jelisavka Bulatovic

2013-01-01

31

Environmentally sustainable economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

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Applying Economic Analysis to Environmental Problems: Opportunities and Constraints Applying Economic Analysis to Environmental Problems: Opportunities and Constraints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Applying Economic Analysis to Environmental Problems: Opportunities and Constraints Economic analysis of environmental and natural resource mgement problems is receiving increasing attention. Whether the concern is with traditional pollution related issues, especially of air and water in urban areas, or with more complex natural resource management problems in rural areas, economists are increasingly being called upon to conduct analysis and offer policy advice for meeting these needs. This paper discusses the evolution of economic analysis of environmental concerns and considers some of the constraints to and opportunities for expanded economic analysis of environmental pmblems. Experience from both developing and developed countries is used to illustrate various points and an assessment of recent experience is offered.

John A. Dixon

1990-03-01

33

Western Economic Developments: May 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

FRB San Francisco's bi-monthly publication Western Economic Developments summarizes economic growth and development in the Twelfth District. The economy remained strong throughout the first quarter of 2000, with an employment growth rate of 2.5 percent annually. California's economic growth rate was especially high, due to "usually rapid growth of income and consumer spending."

34

Keynes and economic development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância p [...] ara os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários. Abstract in english It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates [...] that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.

A. P., Thirlwall.

35

WATER-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN NORTHEASTERN MONTENEGRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the problems of water economic northeastern Montenegro municipalities Berane, Andrijevica and Plav. It points to the problem of exploitation of water, protection of water and water protection. Within exploit water resources, the possibilities of water supply of population and industry, water supply, agriculture, hydropower exploitation, tourism and recreational use. Current and future use of water resources considered GeoScape, requires a new approach, which should be in accordance with the concept of active protection of the environment.

Goran Rajovic

2013-04-01

36

Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

2009-07-01

37

On some problems of physical economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)

38

UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.

GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

2011-01-01

39

Mathematical model in economic environmental problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

1996-12-31

40

Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In presented article ?Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power? I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical policy. After that I tried to define resulting facts from such process.When I wanted to achieve stated goal, I describe information process and integration problems of Slovac Republic, especially what is neccessary when we want to be ready to create assumptions for future development. I evaluate development in Slovac Republic as a period of the wasted occasions, that remove from society essential part of competitive advantages, that would enable society to integrate to the european structure from the economical, as well as from the social view as relatively equal society.Consequently I described globalisation process and trespassing of economical power, where first of all I mentioned signs of concrete social environment in present time. After such description I mentioned basic fact, that are forming global policy, goals and ways of tools applying of such policy.In last part I mentioned bearers of economical power in global economy. In conclusion I can state, that as concern to the transitive states of middle and eastern Europe, bearers of economical power have elaborated shocking scenario of its transmission to the market economy. In presented article I wanted to present process that would be basis, very important for realizastion of economies restructuralisation.Since till now mentioned fact was successfully achieved only in few cases, monopolisation of decision on the level of institutions, that manage forming of global economy as well as pressing of strongest economical subjects interests in world economical system are results of mentioned development.

Vodzinský Vladimír

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

Aseev, Sergei M.; Besov, Konstantin O.; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V.

2012-04-01

42

Regional and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased febec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

43

Economic development and tropical disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development stands for an improved quality of life through gains in health, education, living standards, and higher income. Development is based on economic growth. Although all indicators of development: GDP per capita, average life expectancy at birth, and per capita income have been rising in almost all countries, including the "developing" countries over the past decades, economic growth did not lead to the expected disappearance of infectious diseases. Economic growth is associated with severe degradation of the natural world. Though economic growth is essential for development, it is a highly imperfect proxy for it. The people who suffer from the adverse effects of economic growth are often different from those who benefit from it. Economic development shows two faces with regard to tropical diseases: it is essential for their prevention and cure and it contributes to their transmission and severity through its impact on the environment. The pivotal point is poverty. If economic growth leads to improved education and social organization, even adverse effects can be mastered by the community. PMID:7840461

Brinkmann, U K

1994-12-15

44

Industrial Agglomeration and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper outlines a static equilibrium model, which analyses the economic development in a two-country case by considering interregional migration in R&D-sectors. The effects of migration and firm decisions on both industrial agglomeration and economic development will be shown: lock-in-effects and free market entry will lead to a concentration of firms. In addition, the consideration of fundamental and secondary research activity leads to a higher number of firms and products by means of co...

Hafner, Kurt A.

2004-01-01

45

STRATEGY OF TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL ASPECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.

V. Medvid’

2013-03-01

46

Economic interpretation of sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

Birk Mortensen, J. [Copenhagen Univ., Inst. of Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)

1994-03-01

47

Economic interpretation of sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

48

Economic Development of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2013-01-01

49

Home Economics Curriculum: Purpose, Problems, Possibilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical focus of home economics is on the well-being of the individual and the family. The promotion of individual autonomy is, therefore, an appropriate mission for home economics education. (SK)

Baldwin, Edith E.

1990-01-01

50

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY - THE PROSPECTS OF BORROWING ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? – ??????????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of economic development in various countries and the prospects for borrowing from the process of formation and implementation of economic and social policies as an example consider the strategy of Europe 2020 and the socio-economic development strategy of Russia until 2020

Pasko S. N.

2013-02-01

51

75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department...Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond provision in Section...governments, known as ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under...

2010-07-12

52

Energy-based economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fields of economic development and energy policy and planning have converged in recent years to form an emerging discipline, which we term ''energy-based economic development'' (EBED). Despite the significant amount of stimulus funds, as well as state and local funding, that are being allocated to EBED initiatives in the United States, the emerging discipline has received scant attention in the energy, policy, and development literature. The link between energy and economic development in the literature is still theoretical, mostly focused on the need for and the potential benefits of EBED, and rarely applied. Furthermore, funding for EBED has outpaced understanding of the discipline, development of rigorous technical approaches, and meaningful ways to measure impact. Such information would not only help practitioners and policymakers more thoroughly understand the confines of the discipline and shape goals and approaches accordingly, but also help researchers identify, track, and evaluate a variety of activities in the field. With national and international attention focused on the convergence of these fields, researchers and practitioners have a rare opportunity to develop and implement the tools necessary to evaluate and communicate the potentially broader impacts that EBED may hold for society. If ways to leverage and sustain the injection of funds in this discipline are not identified, the opportunity may end before we can achieve either energy policy or economic development goals. In an attempt to respond to this need, this analysis explores the connection between energy and economic development, beginning with a review of the trends in each field and the goals that each seeks to achieve. On the basis of this information, we define the discipline of EBED, review the existing literature on it, and offer insights and perspectives on its emergence. (author)

Carley, Sanya [School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 1315 East Tenth St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lawrence, Sara; Brown, Adrienne [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Rd., P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Nourafshan, Andrew [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, P.O. Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Benami, Elinor [Department of Economics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 3305, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599 (United States)

2011-01-15

53

The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.

Orlov Pyotr A.

2013-01-01

54

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

... Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential... Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum...a powerful engine of economic growth, they must...Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, to set...installing new biomass energy systems or producing new...

2010-01-01

55

The Economic Development of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prior to the early part of the 19th century, China’s economy had long been superior to that of the West’s. The Chinese’s ability to utilize science and technology had been instrumental in leading their enormous population to economic prosperity and for a while, superiority. During the 18th century European science and technology surpassed that of the Chinese. It is my contention that a variety of Chinese contributions expedited Europe’s prolific economic development and aided in its e...

Levy, Brandon

2012-01-01

56

The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

Erber, Georg

2010-01-01

57

Facilitating economic development through the reform of economic instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic development in many ways depends on the level of human capital in the national economy, including that of economists. Market reforms in the former Soviet Bloc urged drastic changes in economic curriculum necessary to prepare the next generation of economic leaders. This paper states that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on ...

Osipian, Ararat

2004-01-01

58

Process of Growth and Economic Policy in Developing Countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to help readers understand the problems of fostering economic growth and combating poverty in in developing countries. It provides insight into how the process of economic growth really works and explores how economic policy can o...

2005-01-01

59

Food preservation problems in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the basic problems relating to food preservation in developing countries as well as outlining the relative importance of these problems among the whole group of basic socio-economic problems of the world today. Statistics are presented (using the USA as an example of a well-developed country) on the importance of technology in the production and preservation of foods. The food preservation problems of the developing countries are outlined in a general manner with specific illustrations of the problems themselves and the magnitude of these problems. These data are presented in such a manner as to be consistent with the topic of the panel itself. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

60

Efficiency of economic development models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.

Oana Camelia Iacob

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

ENTERPRISE STEADY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATIO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main characteristic of a modern enterprise should be its ability to dynamic changes. Development and implementation of an efficient business model of an enterprise is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Such a business model should include the availability of flexible strategies, moving plans, resources mobilizing alternatives and so on. However, despite the enterprises' desire for dynamic development, ensuring sustainability in the market environment is of great importance for an enterprise. Fragmented categorial and conceptual apparatus of the given problem prompted the subject of the research, which is to determine the economic content and usefulness of the category of steady economic development in the practice of company management. The paper presents a critical analysis of economists' views on the nature of such categories as "sustainability" and "steady economic development"; differentiation of the concepts of sustainability and stability of a company; substantiation of the expediency of using the term "steady economic de­velopment" in the practice of company management. Scientific novelties of the research are proposed interpretations of economic categories "sustainability" and "steady economic development". In particular, the author considers enterprise sustainability as the ability of a company to return to the balanced condition after deviations caused by destabilizing influence of external or internal factors. The main feature of stability and sustainability of a company is that stability implies immutability and sustainability means the ability to maintain equilibrium operation. A specific feature of the proposed approach to the definition of steady economic development is represented by the following content specifications: the purpose of development is increased enterprise flexibility and adaptability to internal and external destabilizing factors; the direction of development within the steady space borders can follow the ascending, descending or stagnation vector and different trajectories; in the case of lost sustainability resulting from development processes the company quickly returns to sustainable operation and restores its equilibrium. The practical significance is that specification of the content features of the concept "steady economic development" provides unconditional basis for a modern approach to enterprise development management from the standpoint of sustainability.

K. Ivanchuk

2014-09-01

62

Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

63

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

Vergina CHIRITESCU

2013-12-01

64

Economic aspects of geothermal development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost of drilling geothermal wells has large influence on the economical conditions of geothermal development. The variation of drilling cost in different European countries is large and this variation can hardly be explained by the different price levels in these countries. It is of importance of the geothermal development in Europe that this price difference can be explained. In the development of high-temperature fields for electricity generation, the subsurface cost (drilling) is typically 30-50% of the total development cost and the variation in predicted yields from wells can influence the total development cost by some 25%. Economical conditions for low-temperature development are more complex than high-temperature development and the variation in surface costs seems to have larger influence on the total development cost than is the case for high-temperature development. In spite of that, the energy price of geothermal energy for heating purposes seems to be favorable both in Iceland and other European countries. Direct savings in the Icelandic society by using geothermal energy instead of oil for heating of houses is at present equivalent to about 5% of the State budget. Analyzes of the drilling development in 30 high-temperature geothermal fields shows that the yield of each km drilled into these fields is fairly constant. In 67% of the cases, the yield is in the range 1,8-4,8 MW per drilled km. These results indicate that the 'geological risk' is relatively low for high-temperature geothermal development. On the other hand, some 10-20 wells have been required to learn about the reservoir conditions and to delineate the reservoir. It is therefore of importance that geothermal developers put large emphases on the drilling of the first wells in order to minimize the number of wells required for learning. Data is not available for a similar analyzes for low-temperature fields. (orig.)

Stefansson, V. [Orkustofnun, Reykjavik (Iceland)

1999-12-01

65

UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and ...

GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

2011-01-01

66

Economics 201B: Game Theory Problem Set #2  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem set for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. This set of questions focuses on Bayesian Games and mechanism design, specifically, sequentiality, signaling, the Beer-Quiche game, the Hold Up Problem, the Revelation Principle and the Principle-Agent Problem.

Levine, David

67

A Study of Education Investment and Xinjiang Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a main form for human capital investment, education has irreplaceable effect on national or regional economic development. This paper, based on the relationship between Xinjiang regional economic development and education, analyzes the present conditions of Xinjiang educational investment, the scale and problems of Xinjiang education, the contribution of education to Xinjiang economy, and how to drive Xinjiang regional economic development. Finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy suggestions as future references.

Jinbo Wang

2009-04-01

68

ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

69

Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

Samir SAYAH

2008-06-01

70

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

71

Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework for Various Types of Economic Thermal Power Dispatch Problems  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a single execution. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving economic load dispatch problem, combined economic and emission dispatch problem, multiarea economic dispatch problem and economic dispatch problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed methodology is tested with different scale of power systems. The generating unit operational constraints are also considered. The simulation results obtained by proposed methodology for various economic dispatch problems are compared with previous literatures in terms of solution quality. Numerical simulation results indicate an improvement in total cost saving and hence the superiority of the proposed method is also revealed for economic dispatch problems.

Srikrishna Subramanian

2010-05-01

72

The dispositive principle as a basis for economic relations development  

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Full Text Available This article analyses the problems of civil law regulation, identifies contentious issues, and states that the dispositive principle can act as a basis for economic relations development.

Primak T.

2014-04-01

73

Urban economic development : a conceptual framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to develop an economic policy framework for local urban authorities to empower them to increase economic growth and development and thus quality of life of its residents. The study integrates conventional economic growth theories with the urban environment and shows their applicability within the urban environment. An urban area is perceived as an economic powerhouse within the national economy where the majority of economic activity is generated. The concentratio...

Jordaan, Andre Cillie

2001-01-01

74

Urban economic development : a conceptual framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to develop an economic policy framework for local urban authorities to empower them to increase economic growth and development and thus quality of life of its residents. The study integrates conventional economic growth theories with the urban environment and shows their applicability within the urban environment. An urban area is perceived as an economic powerhouse within the national economy where the majority of economic activity is generated. The conce...

Jordaan, Andre Cillie

2006-01-01

75

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents...Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum for the Secretary of...

2010-01-01

76

Problem of Evolutional Self-Improvement of Socio- and Economic Systems ???????? ????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????-????????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the modern problems of evolutional self-improvement of the socio-economic systems are examined for prevention of a crises and providing of the sustainable development.? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????.

Kulik Vladimir V.

2012-05-01

77

Women in Development and Home Economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the history of home economics in international development related to women, current involvement of home economics professionals in development endeavors, contributions of home economics to women in development (including strategies aimed at productivity, family welfare, and women-specific projects), and barriers to participation by home…

Firebaugh, Francille M.

1985-01-01

78

Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects  

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Full Text Available The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria. Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies ripe more benefits from globalization among others that they should provide economic environments that are conducive, capable of attracting foreign investors and strong enough to support the strength and capacity of the domestic industry, otherwise, the globalization opportunities could only be seen as a mirage.

Abubakar, M. B.

2010-04-01

79

Resonances from Economic Development for current economic policymaking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.

Ruane, Frances

2008-01-01

80

Development Questions of Russian-Korean Economic Cooperation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.

Petr S. Andreev

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna

2010-12-01

82

WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"  

Science.gov (United States)

The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

83

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A HEALTH ECONOMICS APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research analyzes the link between health economics and its determinants and sustainable development, emphasizing the significance that quality, equity and accessibility of health services have on the populations’ health, with implications upon the sustainable development of a society. The concept of sustainable development, although widely used, has different meanings, being  an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Since health effects are one of the driving factors of a society’s economic and sustainable development, this paper discusses current trends in healthcare economics and argues the need and usefulness of economic evaluation in health.  

Marius Ioan Pantea

2013-05-01

84

Economic theory and social change: problems and revisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although many economists do a serious and respectable work, main stream economic theory contains an almost complete disregard for the importance of social, cultural and political structures which are the very foundation of the society. Worse than that, such disregard is developed into arrogance when representatives and textbook maintain the illusions of economic main stream science as value free, and sometimes it is even asserted that only if the economic system could be free from disturbing ...

Fusari, Angelo

2010-01-01

85

Development of adolescent problem behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

1999-04-01

86

Particle swarm optimization for various types of economic dispatch problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a successful adaptation of the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED) problems in power systems such as, multi-area ED with tie line limits, ED with multiple fuel options, combined environmental economic dispatch, and the ED of generators with prohibited operating zones. Numerical examples typical to each type are solved on Matlab 6.5 platform, using both the PSO method and the classical evolutionary programming (CEP) approach. The results obtained show that the proposed PSO based ED algorithm can provide comparable dispatch solutions with reduced computation time for all types of ED problems. (author)

Jeyakumar, D.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu (India); Jayabarathi, T.; Raghunathan, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu (India)

2006-01-15

87

Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

Zhang, Yu Aimee

2012-01-01

88

Economic Content of the Global Food Problem in the Context of Reproduction of Labour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers concepts of economic essence of wages, analyses types of income, by means of which population gets food, systemises factors that influence some income, which is spent for food products. It shows that the global food problem significantly depends on development of labour relations. Insufficient catering reduces working capacity of a person and, as a consequence, slows down economic development of under-developed countries.

Malakhov? Larysa V.

2013-12-01

89

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: WHO CARES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the author, an experienced anthropologist who worked in Central and Eastern Europe, has used his "outsider" professional perspective to look at questions of greed and need as they relate to matters of economics. The problems that arise due human fallibility in scientific knowledge application have been considered, specifically in the fields of anthropology and economics. Basing on the experience of anthropologists, whose scientific research has often been used in the past century to abuse vulnerable people groups, the author argues that the need for ethical standards and practices is even more urgent in the field of economics than it is in anthropology. The increased urgency results from the great influence that money has on human behavior. The development of standards and practices to check and balance human tendencies to exploit others will never be complete, he claims, but must be an ongoing priority. The process must also be creative to deal with the tendency to try to avoid or circumvent it. It has been concluded that we are professionally responsible to ensure that the results of our research and teaching help produce improving care for the needs of vulnerable people in the world around us.

J. McNeill

2012-06-01

90

Economic and innovative development of corporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative changes of an economic component of a corporation’s activities conditioned by the level of innovativeness of all kinds of activities for providing economic growth within the chosen mission, motivation and activity intellectualization. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The study made enables stating the fact that the category «corporation’s economic development» transforms into the category «corporation’s economic and innovative development» and from this perspective all components of the latter will be treated as «corporation’s operational and innovative development», «corporation’s financial and innovative development», «corporation’s investment and innovative development» and «corporation’s logistic and innovative development». Also working out a system of dynamic indicators for determining the level of innovativeness of a corporation’s economic development and a system of motivating and intellectualizing a corporation’s economic and innovative activities is a direction for further research.

O.V. Kornukh

2014-09-01

91

An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Economic Dispatch(ED) problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA), for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is...

Subramanian, R.; Thanushkodi, Dr K.

2013-01-01

92

Simulation Optimization for the Stochastic Economic Lot Scheduling Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study simulation optimization methods for the stochastic economic lot scheduling problem. In contrast to prior research, we focus on methods that treat this problem as a black box. Based on a large-scale numerical study, we compare approximate dynamic programming with a global search for parameters of simple control policies. We propose two value function approximation schemes based on linear combinations of piecewise- constant functions as well as control policies that can be ...

Lo?hndorf, Nils; Minner, Stefan

2013-01-01

93

CLIMATE CHANGE: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS AND POLICIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use the tools of environmental economics to analyse the problems and policies related to climate change. This will involve examining the scientific evidence on greenhouse gas concentrations and climate change, related forecasts, the potential costs of climate change, the costs of mitigating greehouse gases, the optimal emissions path and the policies introduced to deal with the problem.

Dr. Kontsas Stamatis

2011-12-01

94

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

95

Quasivariational Inequalities for a Dynamic Competitive Economic Equilibrium Problem  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider a dynamic competitive economic equilibrium problem in terms of maximization of utility functions and of excess demand functions. This equilibrium problem is studied by means of a time-dependent quasivariational inequality which is set in the Lebesgue space . This approach allows us to obtain an existence result of time-dependent equilibrium solutions.

Donato MariaBernadette

2009-01-01

96

Europe’s economic problems in an international perspective  

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Full Text Available The author sees signs that the European Community is entering a phase of steady economic growth, with inflation under control and a favourable outlook for exports. However, these assumptions are dependent on other trading nations getting a firmer control over their domestic fiscal and monetary policies. In particular, the US federal budget deficit will remain a problem, as will the continuing balance of trade surplus in Japan. The major problem for the European countries will remain unemployment.

R.S. MASERA

2013-12-01

97

Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation  

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Full Text Available For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009 addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in choosing the economic valuation method best suited to the aspect of biodiversity addressed, to put difficulties into perspective and possibly find solutions for them.

Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux

2011-03-01

98

Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students  

Science.gov (United States)

A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

2010-01-01

99

Time Allocation in Economics and the Implications for Economic Development  

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Full Text Available In a modern and more complex society, in which there are not borders between the professional family and social life of individuals, time should be viewed as an economic resource and it has to be optimized, rationalized and controlled.In this paper I will try to identify the main coordinates and the dominant points of view of economic thinking focused on time allocation, at both national and international level. The paper also presents an analysis of the correlation between time use and economic development, on the basis of some regression models.

Nicoleta CARAGEA

2009-06-01

100

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

Stéphane J. Baele

2013-11-01

102

13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic development information...

2010-01-01

103

Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are require. Therefore, in this paper, we investigated the environmental/economic power dispatch problem by employing a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The power dispatch is formulated into a bi-objective optimization problem, which is to minimize the fuel cost as well as pollutant emission simultaneously. Two objectives are merged in to a single objective by using the weighted sum method. Best cost and best emission solution are obtained for different loading conditions for the standard IEEE 118-bus, 14 generating units system.

Neha Mishra

2013-04-01

104

Social Security and Minority Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the thirty years of the implementation of reform and opening up policy, China has made significant achievements in the economic development. And the western region resided by the minorities has also made great progress in the economic growth. However, there is still a great gap compared with the well-developed eastern coastal region. Relatively speaking, the economic development of western region is still backward. People have lower ability of self-protection and the family security and they have stronger desire for social security. Social security, as the means and mechanism to promote economic development and safeguard the social stability, plays an important part in the economic system of the minorities. Under the circumstances that the economy in minority areas needs to be improved urgently, the interaction will become more significant of the social security and economic development of the minorities.

Wei Zheng

2009-06-01

105

Language Problems of Developing Nations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the papers in this collection were presented at a conference on language problems of the developing nations at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia in November 1966. This conference was one of the several organized and sponsored by the Committee on Sociolinguistics of the Social Science Research Council in its effort to promote…

Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.; And Others

106

The Analysis of Inequality of Economic Development of Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article studies the problem of inequality of socio-economic development of administrative and territorial formations. Analyzing the statistical data it proves the hypothesis about the presence of inequality of economic development of the regions of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????????-??????????????? ?????????...

Raevneva Elena V.; Krupa Olesya. M.

2010-01-01

107

ECONOMIC CHANGE IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agricultural and rural sector is connected with great hopes in the economic recovery not only in our country, but world-wide. Rural firms and business should do their best to respond to the challenges of the changes and this way, to bring an improvement to the markets and to the whole economic and social environment. If the advanced, more opened economies are more competitive, this is due to their capacity of change, by raising the quality of the offer (merchandise they sell.

MARINA LUMINI?A SÂRBOVAN

2009-05-01

108

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

Ana Mihei

2010-12-01

109

The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries  

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Full Text Available The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side, it is an impediment to economic development of most nations. This paper correlates urbanization with economic development indicators of developing countries and concludes that there is weak relationship between urban growth and economic development in developing countries. To further the understanding of this relationship, the study also compares the economic situation of urban and rural areas which shows that, it was better in the cities.

Terwase Shabu

2010-12-01

110

Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan  

Science.gov (United States)

Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

2014-09-01

111

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential...Documents Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum...achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a key role...

2010-01-01

112

The debt problem of developing countries: developments and alternative solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The debt crisis was triggered in 1982 by a combination of adverse external factors and poor economic and financial policies on the part of debtor countries. Furthermore, after the second oil "shock", stagnation in the industrial area caused a sharp slowdown in world trade, thus further deteriorating exports for developing countries. The present work analyses the debt problem for developing countries, its causes, the policies enacted thus far and possible solutions. The strategy to combat the problem between 1982 and 1985 is detailed and the Baker Plan is considered. The author then looks at more recent developments and innovative schemes to facilitate the solution of the debt problem. Finally, estimates are provided of the impact of some debt relief efforts on the banking system and on debtor countries.

L. TORNETTA

2013-12-01

113

Is inclusive development a sustainable development? : A political economic perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A major development policy challenge in the contemporary economic policy discourse is to sustain the development momentum. Prevailing political economic realities influence the economic thinking to accommodate the political compulsions. The inclusive development is one such development strategy. Inclusive development is not a mere political pragmatism but a sensible development strategy. This paper discusses the relevance of distributive justice in relation to civil disturbance across and wit...

Pushparaj, Soundararajan

2013-01-01

114

Assessing Competition Policy on Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementation of competition policies is one of the most recommended strategies to developing countries as a tool for achieving economic development. Using a panel dataset of over 100 countries and 7 years (from 2005-2011, I estimate the effect of competition on economic development, and also determine which of the comprehensive policy factors are the most relevant for increasing competition. A fixed effects instrumental variable approach is used.I find that competition intensity positively impacts economic development. The estimate is highly significant when effectiveness of antimonopoly policy and squared years of experience handling competition law are used as instruments for competition intensity. Political stability is shown to be a determinant for higher achievement in development. Macroeconomic environment and financial market development are also significant factors that contribute to higher economic development. Less developed countries should work intensively to improve their institutional quality and implement pro-competitive policies that are not only related to competition laws.

Tilsa Oré Monago

2013-06-01

115

Cuckoo Search for Solving Economic Dispatch Load Problem  

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Full Text Available Economic Load Dispatch (ELD is a process of scheduling the required load demand among available generation units such that the fuel cost of operation is minimized. The ELD problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem with both equality and inequality constraints. In this paper, two test systems of the ELD problems are solved by adopting the Cuckoo Search (CS Algorithm. A comparison of obtained simulation results by using the CS is carried out against six other swarm intelligence algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization, Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, Harmony Search and Firefly Algorithm. The effectiveness of each swarm intelligence algorithm is demonstrated on a test system comprising three-generators and other containing six-generators. Results denote superiority of the Cuckoo Search Algorithm and confirm its potential to solve the ELD problem.

Adriane B. S. Serapião

2013-11-01

116

Does Economic Growth Promote Financial Development?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010 from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financial development respectively.These findings suggest that policies that stimulate economic growth and human capitaldevelopment as well as keep inflation rates at low levels are needed to improve the financialsystems of the study countries.

Michael Adusei

2014-04-01

117

Economical development versus sustainable development; Desenvolvimento economico versus desenvolvimento sustentavel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural resources have if turned more and more scarce, should be taken in your consideration possible exhausted. With that threat, alternatives are looked for so that the socioeconomic development is maintainable. As the impact of the section agroindustrial in the environmental deterioration is significant, the environmental externalisation of the productive process and the need of economical internalization of those effects should be considered. The introduction of the natural capital in the economical analysis is made necessary since the costs of the environmental degradation and of the consumption of natural resources they have not been added in those processes, being evaluated the flows of natural stocks and contributing to the definition of a maintainable scale of the economy. When these industrial organizations embrace a great productive area of the Country, as it is the case of the compound of the alcohol industry, the problems caused for the it burns of the sugar cane plantation they become fundamental. Now, there is an emergent change of paradigms in the society, in that is necessary to notice the group of values that they address our economical development and our relationship with the natural atmosphere. The use of the sustainable is the great challenge civilization of next decades. (author)

Mattos, Katty Maria da Costa; Ferretti Filho, Neuclair Joao [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento]. E-mails: ktmattos@terra.com.br; neuclair@terra.com.br

2000-07-01

118

Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

119

Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

2012-11-01

120

Design of the regions’ economic development strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At present Russian economy is undergoing the same trends of the modern economic development, which take place in developed countries. These processes comprise globalization, advanced development of the service industries, post-industrial society formation, intellectual component expansion in the results of any industry, informatization of the society, running out of traditional sources of social and economic growth. In such conditions search for new ways and factors of the regional self-deve...

Olga Patsuk

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

REGIONALIZATION, ELEMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The regional process that is taking place in Europe in recent decades, was determined by the awareness of the important role that regional policies hold in the balanced development of territories, the goal being the revival of economic and social development, locally, the economic recovery of more underdeveloped areas, to reduce the differences existing among the levels of development of regions. The action is aimed at increasing the efficiency of public authorities (central, local) in the us...

Florina Popa

2014-01-01

122

GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

?.?. ???’??????

2012-03-01

123

Technological and economical problems in exploitation of coal stripe mines in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taking into consideration the restructure of the mining-energetic industry into the new economic conditions, financial, technical and technological problems are analysed, as well as their influence on the economic effects of the coal production in Bulgaria. Ecological standards for environmental policy are noticed. Perspectives for development of the coal production industry are pointed out, especially in the mining/power complex Maritsa East, one of the most important region for power generation in Bulgaria

124

Conflict between Developing Economic and Protecting Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation, this still has the dispute. In this essay I will analyze the conflict between the developing economic and protecting environment. Through the analysis cause where can get a balance between them.

Longlong Guo

2009-02-01

125

Economic Reform and Regional Development of Laos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural region by improving the infrastructure and information network. Moreover, the new policy to open the country leads to increase in the international cooperation and attractive foreign direct investment (FDI. Laos has successfully developed amicable relations with regional states, being a members of many international organization, particularly, a member of ASEAN is necessary for Laos in respect of its economic progress both regional and global procedure.

Hatthachan Phimphanthavong

2012-03-01

126

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

127

ECONOMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ROMANIA’S SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the drawbacks of traditional economic growth, the article highlights the current problems of sustainable development in the European area. The author considers that EU environmental requirements must be balanced against our country’s potential to apply the principle of ecological responsibility. Furthermore, the European character of sustainable development does not cancel out the national dimensions of this process. In this context, we identify the main economic requirements for Romania’s sustainable development, and we analyse the possibility of meeting the objectives assumed through the National Strategy for Sustainable Development

Alexandru Tofan

2009-10-01

128

Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)

129

Development of economical decontamination processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

130

Economics of Software Product Development Collectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Where software product development occurs is shifting from single companies to groups or collectives of companies. In this article, we retrace the evolution of how software product development is organized and then offer insights into the economic motivation for collectives, which will be relevant to companies considering joining a software product development collective. Building on the literature on software product line economics, we identify three factors affecting the economics of collectives (level of contribution, number of members, and diversity of use, and develop a model that links those factors to three economic outcomes (time, quality, and cost. This model can be used by potential members when deciding whether or not to join a collective.

Michael Weiss

2011-10-01

131

Sustainable development paradigm: ecological-economic aspects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors outline economic and ecological aspects of a sustainable development paradigm. They call for active methods of nature preservation, including introducing environment-friendly innovations.

Tahir Ernazarov

2009-10-01

132

Economism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

P. Simons

2010-07-01

133

Personal Development Planning and the Economics Tribe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experience of outsourcing personal development planning (PDP) for first-year economics students to a central team is examined in the context of a research-led university. A pilot programme running PDP as a conference for 120 students was evaluated.The process suggests that there are differences between tutor and student perceptions which can be usefully addressed, especially the issue of developing conceptual understanding.The prevailing pedagogy of economics is reviewed to try to illu...

Lee, Anne

2007-01-01

134

Perinatal infections--problems in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of infections from the biologic mother to her offspring is popularly known as perinatal infection (PI). It is not synonymous to infections during the perinatal or neonatal period. Physicians should avoid focusing attention only on the TORCH agents in the evaluation of suspected PI. Perinatal period begins from 28 weeks of gestation. Would one consider in utero infections in the first or second trimester of pregnancy as PIs? Developing countries have difficulty in collecting reliable and accurate data of PIs. These data are useful to define the magnitude of the problems, to monitor the trends, to recognise the mode of spread, and to find a solution of PIs. Most PIs are asymptomatic and diagnosis is extremely difficult. Developing countries need rapid, easy-to-operate, simple, and cheap diagnostic tools urgently. Access to health care in the remote city is limited. Newer drugs are too expensive and very few patients can benefit from these. Each developing country should prioritize its PI problems and tackle those that have serious public health problems and socio-economic impact. Most developing countries should focus on HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and HBV (hepatitis B virus) infections. Other countries where ophthalmia, malaria or tuberculosis are prevalent or endemic, should focus on these. Developing countries are more willing to allocate the budget for prevention of diseases than for treatment. There may be problem of promulgating the information on prevention of diseases because of illiteracy, multi-lingual community. Vaccines where available, should be affordable. Other effective prevention guidelines should be workable in poorer nations. The government should play an important role in enforcing immunisation program by intensive promotion program or by legislation. PMID:9803816

Ho, N K

1998-06-01

135

From community development to sustainable island socio-economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a document presented at the workshop of the local economic development network promoted by the Lévé-Débout programme (Rodrigues, 2001). It analyses the approach for community development and territorial competitiveness as a process where human capital, not only financial resources, must be considered. The author proposes a possible bottom-up strategy, where economic development and poverty reduction strategies are combined. He also presents the ILO experiences with Local Economic ...

Canzanelli, Giancarlo

2001-01-01

136

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TIMES OF CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development generally speaking should enable sustained economic growth. When we talk about the steady growth it is necessary to mention that he cannot be based on excessive use or abuse the use of natural resources. In this paper the author wants to emphasize the importance of economic development, long-term stable and sustainable growth is a priority of every company that goes through a transition period. The Great Depression was in the thirties of the 20th century and during that time the world faced a major financial problem, today the world is going through a similar period. The basis of sustainable development is in the basic economic principles, that is. Principle of simple and expanded reproduction and all that is spent must be reimbursed and that is to provide new value.

Aleksandra Vidovi?

2013-07-01

137

Does Economic Crisis Affect Sustainable Development?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of our work is to show how sustainable development is defined and measuredand to highlight the impact of economic crisis on social, environmental, economic and institutional of thisconcept. Our paper is focused on 3 dimensions regarding sustainable development: first section is oriented tocreate an theoretical approach of the sustainable development aspects that include an old and new literaturereview in this respect, the second part present the sustainable development indicators and the final sectionmake an analyze (case study about the level of sustainable development indicators in Romania, comparingwith EU-27, in the actual context of financial crises.

Alina Cristina Nu??

2012-05-01

138

Transportation, Telecommunication and Economic Development in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transport and communication sector are the two major sectors of any economy having significant influence on economic growth through enhancing economies of scale in the production process and by connecting people. Present study aspires by inspecting the influence of transportation and communication on economic development using Solow growth model. For that purpose, the authors have gathered time series data for the periods from 1972 to 2010. Autoregressive models are drawn on as an estimation technique for reliable results. The research has come across with the causal association between two sets of variables like; Capital and GDP; and Telecommunication and GDP. Findings uncover Capital and Transportation (roads km as the dynamics establishing encouraging for the economic development of Pakistan. While Communication (telephone line has deduced as the aspect depressing economic development. It is proposed that Govt. should provide training programs to educate the labor in terms of technical skills.

Muhammad Zahir Faridi

2011-10-01

139

Nigerian stock exchange and economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.

Olowe,Olusegun

2011-12-01

140

BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available Economic growth and Sustainable development concepts have emerged at different moments in history.However, at this time, they are related to each other more than ever, because at one point, one of them evolutiondetermined the other’s birth, preventing humanity to destroy itself.This paper intends to present some conceptual delimitation, evolution of the concept of economic growth, butalso several theories and models of economic growth that was the subject of specialists’ researches. Like any economicphenomenon, growth brings some benefits and some costs. When these costs threaten the future of humanity, somesolutions need to be found, no matter how hard ware them to implement, to remove unwanted effects.In this light, the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development, with this emergence and evolution, butespecially with the link between sustainable development and economic growth.

TROANCA DUMITRU

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution.

2000-01-01

142

PUBLIC GOODS AND THE PROBLEM OF ECONOMIC CALCULUS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be...

Gabriel-Andrei Donici; Cristian Încal??r?u

2010-01-01

143

A Dream Experiment in Development Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development

Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

2013-01-01

144

Organizational and economic problems of the technical and technological providing of grain production ??????????????-????????????? ???????? ???????-???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The organizational and economic problems of the technical and technological providing of grain production are reflected. The modern state of material hardware of the grain production of the Ternopil region is analyzed. Innovative directions of development of technologies of grain production are certain and them hardware in a region.???????? ??????????????-????????????? ???????? ???????-???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????. ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????-???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????? ? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????.

Khristenko Galina M.

2012-08-01

145

PUBLIC GOODS AND THE PROBLEM OF ECONOMIC CALCULUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be for the production of essential assets that are neglected by private investors. The problem is how to choose between public possibilities of spending the money after the application of the first criteria.

Gabriel-Andrei Donici

2010-06-01

146

Indicators of socio-economic development  

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Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

147

FDI FLOWS AND HOST COUNTRY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The propose of the paper is to analyze the relation between economic development and FDI flows. FDI should have a positive effect on economic growth as a result of positive externalities generated for host countries by multinational companies (MNCs. There are several studies on this issue, some of them pointing out that FDI has a considerable positive effect on host country economic growth but the magnitude depends on host country conditions, while other works indicate that there is no powerful interdependence between inward FDI to host country economic growth. However, it is generally accepted that there is a functional link between the degree of openness of trade and foreign direct investment, especially in developing countries.

IMOLA DRIG?

2011-01-01

148

The development of small innovative enterprises through harmonising economic interests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The harmonisation of economic interests is one of the essential preconditions for the development of enterprises, including small ones. As practice shows, the harmonisation of major interests of small innovative business requires not only market instruments, but also state regulation, which demands the development of a corresponding mechanism. This study sets out to develop and justify the macroeconomic mechanism of development of small innovative enterprises on the basis of harmonisation of basic economic interests of their agents. The research significance of the results presented in the article consists in the fact that, for the first time, the problem of economic interest harmonisation has been considered in relation to the agents of small innovative business. The author juxtaposes the major economic interests of these agents and identifies their compatibility and conflict areas. The article offers a mechanism for the development of small innovative businesses, including two sets of instruments — those aimed at combining the agents’ efforts on the basis of their common economic interests and prevention of conflicts resulting from their incompatibility. The recommendations on the application of instruments for harmonizing economic interests can be used in drawing up programmes for the development of small innovative business at the federal, regional, and municipal levels.

Duplenko N. G.

2012-01-01

149

Does economic growth influence financial development. Case study on Russian economic growth and financial development.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The objective of the thesis is to evaluate connection between economic growth and financial development. Especially, identify if there is causal relationship between economic growth and financial development. Previous studies are still in disagreement of causal relationship. Therefore, the thesis tries to clarify this connection. The study concentrates its efforts on developing markets, particularly on Russian economic growth and its effect on financial developme...

Tishchenko, Ilya

2009-01-01

150

Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

1991-12-31

151

Culture and Economic Development in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation consists of a collection of papers on the relationship between culture and economic development in mainly western European regions. Data sources like the EVS make it possible to measure culture. This allows the author to operationalise concepts like social capital and empirically explore the relation between (types of) social capital and economic growth. In addition, he investigates the antecedents of cultural differences in European regions.

Beugelsdijk, S.

2003-01-01

152

Transportation, Telecommunication and Economic Development in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport and communication sector are the two major sectors of any economy having significant influence on economic growth through enhancing economies of scale in the production process and by connecting people. Present study aspires by inspecting the influence of transportation and communication on economic development using Solow growth model. For that purpose, the authors have gathered time series data for the periods from 1972 to 2010. Autoregressive models are drawn on as an estimatio...

Muhammad Zahir Faridi; Muhammad Shaukat Malik; Furrukh Bashir

2011-01-01

153

Institutional Cognitive Economics: some recent developments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By investigating the connection between mind working and institutional processes, Institutional Cognitive Economics turns out to be the most appropriate in order to overcome some limits in New Institutional Economics. This leads us to develop further this approach. This paper integrates F. Hayek’s theory on knowledge production and A. Bandura’s social cognitive theory with the fertile contributions coming from Self-Organization approach and cognitive path-dependence, by considering also t...

Gigante, Anna Azzurra

2013-01-01

154

Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

2014-08-01

155

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

2006-01-01

156

Development Problems of Alternative Energy ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article analyzes the problems of using renewable energy sources (RES), particularly wind energy. Assessed the current state of funding green energy market.? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???), ? ????????? ???????????????. ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? «??...

Demyanenko Tatyana I.

2012-01-01

157

Development Problems of Alternative Energy ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the problems of using renewable energy sources (RES, particularly wind energy. Assessed the current state of funding green energy market.? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???, ? ????????? ???????????????. ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? «???????» ??????????.

Demyanenko Tatyana I.

2012-08-01

158

24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598.615 Section 598...Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic development standards. The project or...

2010-04-01

159

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 570.203...Activities § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic development activities in...

2010-04-01

160

13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other economic development objectives. 120.862 Section...Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic development objectives. A Project that...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Special economic development activities. 1003.203... § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in...

2010-04-01

162

32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174...174.9 Economic development conveyances. ...transfer real property and personal property to the LRA...transfer is an Economic Development Conveyance (EDC...adopts a redevelopment plan. The...

2010-07-01

163

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...funds for special economic development activities in addition...out as part of an economic development project. Special activities...housing. Special economic development activities include: ...and other real property equipment and improvements,...

2010-04-01

164

24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...out as part of an economic development project. Guidelines...contamination. Special economic development activities include: ...and other real property equipment and improvements, including...to carry out an economic development project, excluding...

2010-04-01

165

Environmental problems and developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and possibly immune system damage, and temperature increases which will increase the levels of the seas. PMID:12285660

1992-06-01

166

Contribution of Services to Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Service activities have become the main engine for sustainable development. The share of services in the global economic output is about 70% and their contribution to global employment is about 40%. There are substantial differences between countries and regions of the world in the development of services sector, the share of tertiary activities in both output and employment being higher in strong industrialized economies, but growing rapidly in developing and transition economies as well. As services tend to become essential inputs for every activity, service productivity is a key factor of economic performance not only directly, but also by its multiplier effects spread all over the economy, including manufacturing and agriculture. From a qualitative point of view, services are at the core of transformative processes toward more inclusive societies, reconciliation between economic growth and environment preservation, enhancing knowledge production and improving the exploitation of technological advances, and better governance.

Laurentiu Tachiciu

2012-11-01

167

Multiobjective particle swarm optimization for environmental/economic dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique for environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem is proposed in this paper. The proposed MOPSO technique evolves a multiobjective version of PSO by proposing redefinition of global best and local best individuals in multiobjective optimization domain. The proposed MOPSO technique has been implemented to solve the EED problem with competing and non-commensurable cost and emission objectives. Several optimization runs of the proposed approach have been carried out on a standard test system. The results demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed MOPSO technique to generate a set of well-distributed Pareto-optimal solutions in one single run. The comparison with the different reported techniques demonstrates the superiority of the proposed MOPSO in terms of the diversity of the Pareto-optimal solutions obtained. In addition, a quality measure to Pareto-optimal solutions has been implemented where the results confirm the potential of the proposed MOPSO technique to solve the multiobjective EED problem and produce high quality nondominated solutions. (author)

Abido, M.A. [Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-15

168

Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

R. Prathiba

2014-05-01

169

[The problem of oxygen in developing countries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability of a reliable oxygen (O2) supply is critical for hospitals in developing countries. The AIDS pandemic that is associated with severe pulmonary infections has further enhanced this problem. Today in 2006, even though a number of financially viable solutions adapted to conditions in developing countries are available, lack of oxygen is still a cause of death in Africa including in some capital cities. Hospitals in industrial countries have wall outlets supplied from liquid O2 storage tanks (-183 degrees C). However this solution requires advanced cryogenic technology with storage as well as transportation of liquid O2. In developing countries, O2 is supplied from pressurized O2 cylinders (200 bars) sometimes stored in racks to supply wall outlets but more often moved from bed to bed as needed. This solution is expensive because of the cost of transportation on poor roads in all areas outside capital cities. Frequent supply shortages lead to major disruptions in care quality. Properly maintained O2 concentrators can provide a highly effective low-cost easy-to-use solution for health facilities in developing countries. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process based on reversible nitrogen adsorption is a reliable economical autonomous oxygen production process ideally suited to hospitals in developing countries. It can be used to supply wall outlets or fill cylinders. Return on investment is achieved within one to two years. PMID:17286038

L'Her, P; Tchoua, R; Hutin, R; Soumbou, A; Yos, P; Saissy, J M

2006-12-01

170

Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

Shushu Li

2014-08-01

171

State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers a wide range of scientific and practical issues that characterise the state and identify problems of economic development and ways of their solution. The study uses the Enterprise Performance Management (EPM methodology, which allows assessment of indicators of enterprise activity and opens opportunities for inter-country comparison of results and identification of correspondence of Ukrainian realities in the sphere of economic enterprise management with the world tendencies. The goal of the article is publication of results of the “State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises”. The detected, during the comparative analysis, lag from the generally accepted modern requirements and approaches to management confirms the objective necessity of formation of theoretical grounds and development of the relevant practical mechanism of economic enterprise management as a factor of ensuring high efficiency of operational, investment and financial activity of Ukrainian enterprises, establishment of conditions for increasing the economic potential of development and ensuring vitality in the long run.

Ligonenko Larysa O.

2014-01-01

172

The Relationship between Credit Market Development and Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.08%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.56% and also an increase of investments rate per 1% induced an increase of bank credits per 0.18% in Spain. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that economic growth and investment have a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate has a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

Antonios Adamopoulos

2010-01-01

173

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Zabin, Serena

174

Local Economic Development Debates in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.

Bond, Patrick

2002-01-01

175

Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

Kelly, John

2011-01-01

176

Economic Development: Commitment, Communication, and Coordination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community and junior colleges play a vital role in the economic development process. They serve as catalysts in planning and implementing the efforts of the involved groups. They also provide technical assistance through program offerings, services, and resources. There are specific ways that each group involved can display a commitment,…

Sanders, Carol S.

1988-01-01

177

Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

Dubinskaya O.Y.

2014-03-01

178

Energy needs for the economic development of developing countries: Present status and trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

179

The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

Rajan, Raghuram

2010-01-01

180

Study on the Interaction of Enterprise Technological Innovation and Regional Economic Development in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

with the development of economy and society, technological innovation has become an important factor of supported the sustainable development of regional economy, it is the guarantee of sustained regional economic growth. This essay to interaction effects of technological innovation and regional economic development as the theme, elaborated advantages in the interaction between technological innovation and regional economic development, and to the problems in the development of the r...

Sun, Jing

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Green economic growth premise for sustainable development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Ma...

Trica?, Carmen Lenut?a; Papuc, Marilena

2013-01-01

182

African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisatio...

Gareth Austin

2010-01-01

183

Global health funding and economic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

2012-01-01

184

Global health funding and economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

Martin Greg

2012-04-01

185

Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future.

Flanigan, T. (IRT Publications, Aspen, CO (United States))

186

Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

187

Green economic growth premise for sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?

2013-01-01

188

Social-Economic Analysis of Health Insurance Development in Lithuania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master work analyses health insurance development in Lithuania, its problems, the dynamics of the income and expense of the budget of the mandatory health insurance fund, and the economic and social factors which cause its changes. The results have revealed that the income of the budget of the mandatory health insurance fund equally depend on the number of the unemployed and the employed, the average salary and the personal income tax. There is a tight interdependence between these facto...

Darbutaite?, Inga

2009-01-01

189

Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

190

Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

Xinguang Chen

2013-12-01

191

Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

192

Economics and the refinery's CO2 emissions allocation problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The establishment of a market for CO2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (author)

193

Global health funding and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and dise...

Martin Greg; Grant Alexandra; Agostino Mark, D.

2012-01-01

194

Does Female Empowerment Promote Economic Development?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Empirical evidence suggests that money in the hands of mothers (as opposed to fathers) increases expenditures on children. From this, should we infer that targeting transfers to women is good economic policy? In this paper, we develop a non-cooperative model of household decision making to answer this question. We show that when women have lower wages than men, they may spend more on children, even when they have exactly the same preferences as their husbands. However, this does not necessari...

Doepke, Matthias; Tertilt, Miche?le

2014-01-01

195

Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence The paper usses Granger causality tests on economic development and population growth for 44 countries to discriminate among several alternative hypotheses. The time series evidence does not provide an unambiguous picture as to the exact nature of the relationship. Therefore, previous attempts to generalize such relationship based on simple cross-section data are strongly suspect.

Munir Quddus

1986-03-01

196

The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-09-01

197

Problems of collection development in special libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discusses factors affecting collection development, scope, definition and process of collection development, highlights importance of collection development policy manual, presents peculiar circumstances and background of document acquisition transaction in libraries, points out many problems relating to document selection and document procurement processes. Discusses various types of vendor-controlled order plans with their merits and demerits. In conclusion other problems concerned with te...

Sridhar, M. S.

1995-01-01

198

THE STRATEGY OF ICT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of the experience of industrial countries, information and communication technology (ICT in developing countries can be a major important factor for fast and quick access of these countries to the higher levels of development. For the reason that developing economies do not act at optimized and effective conditions, so the introduction of ICT in such economies provides potential in grant authority to these economies to go through the steps of development more quickly. In present article, the internal use strategy of ICT is compared with export of productions and services of technology (as a resource of exchange-bringing to the countries that which one of these technologies has the more importance in economical development of countries specially developing countries and Iran

Morteza Jamali Paghaleh

2011-08-01

199

Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

Smith, J P

1991-01-01

200

World financial and economic crisis and problems of social responsibility of economic subjects ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share of shadow economy. The article provides examples of social irresponsibility of marketing in chase of profit, revealed in industrially developed countries and Ukraine. They cause huge irreplaceable damage to society. The article justifies a conclusion that in countries, economic systems of which cannot ensure a proper level of state regulation of economy and social responsibility of economic subjects, the population is destined to be exploited by socially irresponsible subjects of business, moral and physical degradation and even extinction. The concept of socially responsible marketing, based only on the growth of consciousness of company owners and social initiative, cannot be realised widely.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????, ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????. ? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????. ????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????.

Orlov Petr A.

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

Gareth Austin

2010-03-01

202

Coal, economic development and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

203

Economic geography and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country's location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income differences between SSA countries. We base our empirical analysis on a new economic geogr...

Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

2008-01-01

204

Home economics in development through action research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways.

Benn, Jette

2010-01-01

205

Environmental economics and biodiversity management in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reconciling and operationalizing the three main concepts of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, and sociocultural - poses formidable problems. Environmental economics and valuation can play a key role in helping to incorporate concerns about biodiversity loss into the traditional decision-making framework. A case study from Madagascar examines the impact of a new national park on tropical forests by using both conventional and newer techniques to economically value damage to forests and watersheds, timber and nontimber forest products, other impacts on local inhabitants, impacts on biodiversity, and ecotourism benefits. In the Sri Lanka case study, an integrated energy-environmental analysis was developed, which helps to eliminate projects with unacceptable impacts, and redesign others. Where economic valuation of environmental impacts was not possible, multiple attribute evaluation techniques were used. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities, especially poor ones, while simultaneously preserving physical and biological systems, offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all three goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. (14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.).

Munasinghe, M. (Policy and Research Div., Environment Dept., World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

206

Study on the Interaction of Enterprise Technological Innovation and Regional Economic Development in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

with the development of economy and society, technological innovation has become an important factor of supported the sustainable development of regional economy, it is the guarantee of sustained regional economic growth. This essay to interaction effects of technological innovation and regional economic development as the theme, elaborated advantages in the interaction between technological innovation and regional economic development, and to the problems in the development of the regional economy, proposed the countermeasures for the technological innovation and regional economy development reciprocal promotion.

Key words: Technological innovation; Regional economic; Creativity

Jing SUN

2012-06-01

207

the creating of conditions for transition of resource territory to sustainable socio-economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presented article is devoted the problem of forming conditions for sustainable socio-economic development of resource territory after exhaustion of mineralresource potential. The features of socio-economic development of the resource territories situated in the conditions of the Far North cause the necessity of transition of such territory to sustainable socio-economic development. The basic conditions of transition of resource territory to sustainable socioeconomic developm...

Nagaeva; Olga Sergeevna

2012-01-01

208

Historical development of radon problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)

209

Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation  

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Full Text Available This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Looking back on our experiences and outcomes since 2010, this article shows how the development and introduction of this new approach to local open innovation has changed the rules of the game in the region.

Alexandra Berger Masson

2013-03-01

210

Model developed for economic gas dispatch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if? tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative 'what if?' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and offagement initiatives toggled on and off

211

Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM. The result showed that there is a substantial positive effect of financial development on economic growth in Nigeria. The Granger causality test showed that financial development promotes economic growth, but there is evidence of causality from economic growth to the development of financial intermediaries. Thus, advancement of the financial sector development, including diversification of financial instruments should be pursued to facilitate economic development in Nigeria.

Adelakun, O. J.

2010-04-01

212

Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation  

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Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

Seyed Komail Tayebi

2011-01-01

213

Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

Minh Quang Dao

2012-01-01

214

POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR THE ECONOMICAL ACTIVITY OF SMEs  

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Full Text Available The Small and medium enterprises bring a significant contribution in what concerns competitiveness, research, innovation, employment as well as the solution to particular problems. We should strive to develop a dynamic and competitive SME sector, which will contribute to economic growth, employment and reduction of poverty. The increased focus on and importance of small and medium-sized enterprises have the objectives to understand the necessity of development, them for the national economy, knowing the optimal strategies to be adopted, practical possibility to adopt strategies of innovation by the SMEs.

BONCEA AMELIA GEORGIANA

2014-05-01

215

The Analysis of Inequality of Economic Development of Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies the problem of inequality of socio-economic development of administrative and territorial formations. Analyzing the statistical data it proves the hypothesis about the presence of inequality of economic development of the regions of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????????-??????????????? ???????????. ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????.

Raevneva Elena V.

2010-04-01

216

Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

217

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

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Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

Crisan Radu

2012-12-01

218

Electrification and social and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issuancial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

219

A ROLE OF ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN MP'S ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Role of Electricity Sector in MP's Economic Infrastructural Development. The study is primarily based on secondary sources and data. The present paper articulates the current problems of electricity with analyze the process and consequences of decline such sector in M.P. on an Empirical basis. To capture the different aspects of MPEB, the study has carried out the new horizon in M.P.'s development particularly its rural areas as well as empowerment of weaker sector of the society. The major finding may reflect a role of govt. in infrastructural development of the state so for as the present status of MBEB is concerned. Issues like development through electricity sector, long term vision its importance for socioeconomic growth and to invest more in order to overcome the perennial problem of electricity sector that has emerged in the study area. Further, the paper highlights the loopholes of electricity distribution system. The paper concludes with some suggestive measures in combating the Role of Electricity (energy in the economic development of the state in particular and country as a whole

DINESH K. AGRAWAL

2013-06-01

220

THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?  

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Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

Huru Dragos

2008-05-01

222

Economic Growth and regional development disparity in south sulawesi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to analyze the relationship between economic growth and disparity of regional economic development in regencies/cities of South Sulawesi. The Klassen Typology and Williamson Index are adopted to plot the rate of economic growth and income disparity during 2005-2010. The results show that the development of economic in the City of Parepare and Palopo and Regency of North Luwu are able to create simultaneously higher economic growth rate and more equitable distrib...

Razak, Abd Rahman

2008-01-01

223

Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria  

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Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

2012-05-01

224

32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development conveyances. 174.10 Section 174.10 National... Real Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances...

2010-07-01

225

24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...economic development project, excluding...in making the project financially feasible...derived from the economic development project. The grantee...as well as any factors it considered...the Office of Management and Budget...

2010-04-01

226

13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.120 Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development of one or more LI...

2010-01-01

227

Economic thinking of post-industrial society: formation and development  

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Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.

Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich

2011-12-01

228

Increasing the economic development benefits of higher education in Michigan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development benefits of higher education can be increased by: 1) competent management of conventional economic development programs that focus on business attract...

Bartik, Timothy J.

2004-01-01

229

Correlation Analysis Between Scientific and Technological Progress and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There exists an interdependence between scientific and technological progress and economic development. The development of science and technology brings along economic development, meanwhile economic development offers powerful support for it. Based on statistical analysis of the relationship between Sci-Tech investment and economic growth in recent decade, this article explores the dependencies between them, and gives us a measurement model. The result suggests that local Sci-Tech i...

Li, Chengju

2012-01-01

230

Nuclear energy; real problems of the long term development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whilst general public accepts the operation of western designed nuclear power stations as safe, waste management and decommission still figure as open problems, although such views are not in agreement with technical and economic status of these operations. A concern with imagined problems can have the effect of neglecting the real ones. In considering the long term development of nuclear energy the real problems can be associated with the wide use of plutonium and multiplication of national reprocessing and enrichment installations. Nuclear proliferation safety could be retained and developed through establishment of international nuclear fuel centres. Their operation would be particularly beneficial for small or medium nuclear countries. Several arguments are given why it is not premature to initiate a study which would identify and analyze the problems of establishing an international nuclear fuel centre. Central Europe could be a region which could be served by one of such nuclear fuel centres. (author)

231

Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level  

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Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

Shahibul Ahyan

2014-01-01

232

/ METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.

2011-12-01

233

/ METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.

234

Obama’s Economic Policy: Achievements, Problems and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1. IntroductionIn late November, 2008, just after President Barak Obama won the American election, a group of progressive economists met in New York city at the New School for Social Research, to discuss the ongoing economic crisis and to try to reach a consensus on financial and macroeconomic policies that the group should advise the Obama Administration to implement. Organized under the sponsorship of the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy (SCEPA and the University of Massach...

Gerald Epstein

2009-06-01

235

Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

1992-05-01

236

Areva's contribution to the local economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Areva, the world leader firm in nuclear power has industrial activities in 43 countries and a staff of 65.583 persons. In 2007 Areva had a turnover of 11923 106 euros and a net profit of 743 106 euros. For about 10 years Areva has been deploying a policy of supporting local economic development that relies on 2 tools: first, investment in viable small and mean-scale firms and secondly, the reconversion of industrial sites into firm parks in which new companies settle to share common services. The investment can be either a loan or the purchase of capital shares. Since 1998, more than 120 investment operations have been carried out representing a total investment of 10 million euros and the creation of 2500 jobs, moreover 6 firm parks have been created. (A.C.)

237

Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the eva mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

238

Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

239

THE EXIGENCIES OF LASTING SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general problem of the economy, respectively the people's concern to choose, prioritize and use available resources so as to satisfy their needs in an increasing manner is a constant of society development, being present in all times and all places. Solving this problem requires the appropriate answers to lots of questions, the most important of them regarding the volume and structure of production to be created, the technologies used for this purpose, resource consumption per effect unit, but also the consequences for the natural environment, the distribution of economic activity outcomes, etc. Sustainable development is an urgent problem of mankind, a vital process, which realization aims to create the general conditions for the progress of mankind. The evolution of national economy corresponding to the principle coordinates of sustainable development involves, of course, knowing the internal conditions and the location of the economy in the general international context. The new vision of sustainable development implies also the development of new strategies for balanced distribution of income and wealth at a worldwide level, a superior social order - which is interested in the life of future generations as much as that of present generations and that focuses more on the planet and human health.

Marius BOI??

2013-06-01

240

Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal) and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in ...

Gherman, Anca Maria; S?tefan, George

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Economic effects in radioisotope-utilizing instruments and their problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic effects at present have been investigated limiting to radioisotope-utilizing instruments for industrial application. These instruments have increased year by year since they were introduced into Japanese industry about a quarter century ago, and reached 6058 sets as of March, 1976, in all industrial fields. Most widely used instruments are thickness gauges, level gauges, densimeters, moisture gauges and sulphur analyzers in this order. Methods for analyzing the economic effects includes several systems, and here, the cost-benefit ratio (C/B) method, which is called IAEA system, was adopted. Investigation has been conducted only on thickness gauges for paper making, coating film thickness gauges, sulphur analyzers and moisture gauges. For the thickness gauges, which are used a lot in paper machines and now fully automated, C/B is 1/3.16. The coating film thickness gauges are being changed from ?-gauges to fluorescent X-ray system, and its C/B is equal to 1/30 to 1/50, very economical. Though the sulphur analyzers for oil industry are used off-line, here the on-line analyzers were investigated. The result of C/B of 1/10 was obtained for the plant whose production is 2,000 kl/day. The neutron moisture gauges are employed a lot specifically in iron and steel industry. Its C/B is from 1/20 to 1/40 for an example used in a pig iron plant. As seen above, the radioisotope- utilizing instruments have very high economic effects, and can contribute to energy saving, labor saving and resource saving in process and quality controls. (Wakatsuki, Y

242

Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

DMIRTY CHISTILIN

2010-06-01

243

What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

Monica Raileanu-Szeles

2011-12-01

244

CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital markets play an important role in the economic development of emerging capital markets. Well functioning markets insure that both corporations and investors get or receive fair prices for their securities. In the literature on endogenous growth, the link between capital markets development and economic growth has received much attention. Thispaper examines the correlation between capital market development and economic growth in Romania using a regression function. The results show that the capital market development is positively correlated with economic growth, with feed-back effect, but the strongest link is from economic growth to capital market, suggesting that financial development follows economic growth, economic growth determining financial institutions to change and develop.

FLAVIA BARNA

2010-01-01

245

Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.

Ghassan F. Issa

2009-01-01

246

Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Socio-Economic Impact Statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Socio-Economic Impact Statement contained in this volume is part of the overall application for approval of the the development of the Terra Nova Field, prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada on behalf and in cooperation with its co-proponents. It describes the baseline conditions for, and the effects of the Terra Nova Development on the fishery, industry, employment, demography, housing, social infrastructure and services, public infrastructure, and municipal government. A description of the scope of the assessment and the methodology employed is complemented by a 10-page glossary and a 36-item bibliography

247

Social economic and environmental challenges of global energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Report to the Moscow International Energy Club `Energy and Society: New Challenges for Mankind`, and this presentation aim to invite the world community to debate the current social development problems through a system investigation of the processes going on in one of the crucial areas, supporting humanity`s existence - i.e. the energy sector of economy - with regard to the intimate inter-relationship and interdependence between energy and society. Special emphasis is placed on the inter-related development of society and energy systems with a specific focus on global and universal socio-economic problems such as: uneven socio-economic growth in different countries; substantial differences in availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; aggravating ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weaponry (including nuclear weapons), their proliferation across the world and a market contribution to the ever greater tensions in a number of regions; alterations in morality, ethics and value systems. The aggravation of these problems, the frequently menacing metamorphoses thereof can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and non-trivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. Whilst being commonplace, the problems listed must be treated somewhat differently at present due to the essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The principal parts of this paper describes the concept of energy-society relationship analysis and its applications in investigating the cross-impact loops: society-energy and energy-society. (author) 15 refs.

Gvishiani, J.M.; Livchits, V.N.; Orlova, E.R.; Smetanina, M.I.; Zimin, I.N. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

248

The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

Bruno Gurtner

2010-03-01

249

Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1) the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2) the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3) the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-S...

Nipinth Suwanrong; Khaentaphon Samdaengdech; Thaksina Krairach

2010-01-01

250

On the problem of constructing a modern, economic radiotelescope complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Criteria for comparing and planning the technical and economic characteristics of large parabolic reflector antenna systems and other types used in radioastronomy and deep space communications are discussed. The experience gained in making and optimizing a series of highly efficient parabolic antennas in the USSR is reviewed. Several ways are indicated for further improving the complex characteristics of antennas similar to the original TNA-1500 64m radio telescope. The suggestions can be applied in planning the characteristics of radiotelescopes which are now being built, in particular, the TNA-8000 with a diameter of 128 m.

Bogomolov, A. F.; Sokolov, A. G.; Poperechenko, B. A.; Polyak, V. S.

1977-01-01

251

The Contributions of Capital Market to Economic Development in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Virtually all aspects of human endeavor entail the use of money either self-generated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which could be raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulations carefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators. Economic development is a process by which a high degree of self reliant economic growth in a given society is sustained over a given time. It is associated with substantial reduction on poverty and unemployment levels, and income inequality. This paper examines the concept of capital market, the concept of economic growth and economic development, relationship between economic growth and development, factors that determines economic growth and development, framework of regulating the capital market, highlight of recent reforms in the capital market, the contributions of capital market to economic development in Nigeria.

Adewuyi, I. D.

2011-04-01

252

Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

2011-12-28

253

Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

2010-10-01

254

Economic consequences of fusion materials development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The programme of qualification and improvement of materials for use in a fusion power station is crucial to the introduction of fusion power into the energy market and power plant studies are used to guide the targets for materials development. It is common to mis-interpret these targets as minimum values that must be achieved for fusion power to be a viable energy source, implying that failure to fully meet these targets will prevent fusion from playing a role in future. It remains important to improve materials properties but this must always be considered in context by an integrated power plant design in which all aspects are consistent. Rather than making fusion an impossibility, different levels of materials performance will lead to a different design in which their use is optimised, for instance compensating reduced lifetime neutron fluence by power density and machine size. Such trade-offs are an economic issue and relatively large variations in materials properties can be accommodated with small changes in overall cost of electricity. The full material impacts are much more complex than just the tolerance to neutron damage, and these must all be considered in a fully integrated way. Of particular importance are the tolerance to heat load, the combined effects of operating temperature and neutron load, which can impact on thermodynamic efficiency, the compatibility of different materials and their phase stability over the characteristic timescale of continuous he characteristic timescale of continuous operation of a power plant. (author)

255

[Demo-economic models of development: evolution and recent trends].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest was the elaboration of empirical and inductive demographic-economic models to assist in planning. 1 of the disadvantages of existing models and systems of national income accounting was that income distribution was ignored in favor of the total value of production. Demographic variables were not regarded as endogenous. By the early 1970s, the societal changes attendant on rural exodus and urban unemployment, the increasing absorption of traditional structures into the modern sector, and changes in the roles of women and young people had become obvious, and the need for new models that would reflect such changes was clear. Some macromodels designed to assist medium and long range planning were 1st elaborated in the mid 1970s; the Bachue development models were particularly promising because of their improved database. New models were developed which incorporated consumption problems based on basic needs. An increased focus on the interaction of macroeconomic variables with microsociological and demographic variables, the household and family, and employment and the labor market became necessary. The Bachue models, which had been the most successful of recent models in integrating economic and sociodemographic structures and variables, usually include 4 principal modules which cover demography and the educational system, the economy, employment, and income distribution; basic needs models include a 5th module. The Bachue models are based on a general equilibrium model subject to certain constraints, while the basic needs models are based on dynamic disequilibrium models. A major problem of the models is that technological progress is fundamentally exogenous; there is no intimate link between productivity and elevation of the educational level of the labor force. To avoid unmanageable complexity, households are reconstructed for each period on the basis of the demographic and economic data in the model. PMID:12312449

Bourcier De Carbon, P

1983-01-01

256

Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

2013-01-01

257

Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

258

Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

Antonios Adamopoulos

2010-07-01

259

Economic and energy environmental systems in Mediterranean basin, problems and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this paper is to analyse problems and perspectives of economic systems of Mediterranean basin in the process of energetic and environmental integration fixed in the 1995 Barcelona declaration

260

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

Ioan Beudean

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.

Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

2013-01-01

262

The Problem of Modelling of Economic Dynamics in Differential Form  

CERN Document Server

Traditional models of macroeconomic dynamics are fundamentally incorrect. The reason lies in a misunderstanding of peculiarities of the analysis of infinitesimal quantities. However, even those types of solutions that are envisaged by the above-mentioned models are nonrepresentative in the sense of the reflection of realities. It became obvious that the techniques of the theory of linear differential equations were insufficient here. Accordingly, the scientists' attention switched to the theory of nonlinear differential equations. At the same time, balance and, accordingly, the model with matrix properties are objectively inherent in the economic system. For the reduction of this model to a differential form, there exist rather elementary means that proved to be unclaimed. Macroeconomic rhetoric - the power of the accelerator, a lag on the part of demand, etc. - accompanied by the use of a lot of abstract coefficients prevailed. However, there is no organic interrelation between matrix and nonlinear different...

Chernyshov, S I; Voronin, A V

2008-01-01

263

Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK)

264

The Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with an Emission Constraint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a generalisation of the lot-sizing problem that includes an emission constraint. Besides the usual financial costs, there are emissions associated with production, keeping inventory and setting up the production process. Because the constraint on the emissions can be seen as a constraint on an alternative cost function, there is also a clear link with bi-objective optimisation. We show that lot-sizing with an emission constraint is NP-hard and propose several solution methods. Fir...

Retel Helmrich, M.; Jans, R. F.; Heuvel, W. Den; Wagelmans, A. P. M.

2012-01-01

265

Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF) problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

Rafik Labdani; Linda Slimani; Tarek Bouktir

2006-01-01

266

Harmony search algorithm for solving combined heat and power economic dispatch problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the key optimization problems in electric power system operation. The problem grows complex if one or more units produce both power and heat. Combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (EDHS) algorithm to solve CHPED. Some standard examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in obtaining the optimal solution. In all cases, the solutions obtained using EDHS algorithm are better than those obtained by other methods.

Khorram, Esmaile, E-mail: eskhor@aut.ac.i [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., 15914 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaberipour, Majid, E-mail: Majid.Jaberipour@gmail.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., 15914 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-15

267

Quantum economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

Vukoti? Veselin

2011-01-01

268

Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

Acemoglu, Daron

2013-01-01

269

Problems of nuclear power in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW)

270

Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

Nettle, D.; Grace, J. B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H. V.; Guegan, J. -F.; Hochberg, M. E.

2007-01-01

271

Clothes from Grain--A Miracle or a Problem? Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time required…

Gleason, Joyce

272

Highway Investment and Rural Economic Development: An Annotated Bibliography  

Science.gov (United States)

Compiled by Dennis M. Brown, Food and Rural Economics Division, US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (described in the July 2, 1999 Scout Report for Business & Economics), this annotated bibliography summarizes studies on the rural economic development implications of highway investment. The bibliography includes some urban studies in addition to rural and covers the effects of highway investment on different industries, local and regional spatial effects, and highway effects over time, among other issues.

Brown, Dennis M.

1999-01-01

273

75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2010-10-18

274

76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2011-10-17

275

77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of...

2012-10-23

276

24 CFR 570.209 - Guidelines for evaluating and selecting economic development projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for evaluating and selecting economic development projects. 570.209 ...evaluating and selecting economic development projects. The following...activities to be carried out for economic development purposes....

2010-04-01

277

76 FR 17662 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant...of Proposal: Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant...40123--Brownfields Economic Development Application, SF...

2011-03-30

278

77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department...

2012-03-30

279

77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) program...David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants Management...

2012-02-01

280

77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...NOFA) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) program...David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants Management...

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) AGENCY...of Proposal: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI). OMB...proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is...

2011-01-13

282

13 CFR 304.1 - Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Designation of Economic Development Districts: Regional eligibility...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.1...

2010-01-01

283

78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual...Office of Rural Housing & Economic Development, Department of Housing and...Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB...

2013-11-29

284

13 CFR 303.7 - Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Requirements for Comprehensive Economic Development Strategies. 303.7 ...Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.7...

2010-01-01

285

77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory...Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...

2012-02-08

286

Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

Rafik Labdani

2006-06-01

287

Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. ice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

288

Conceptualizing Local and Regional Economic Development in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Contemporary literature on local and regional economic development (LRED) in the United States is predominantly empirical and pragmatic, focusing on the conduct and efficacy of economic development policy. While this work is valuable in evaluating the detailed operation of LRED activity, the broader conceptual foundations which underlay economic development practice have been underplayed. We reflect on research and writing around LRED in the U.S. and address some key conce...

Valler, David; Wood, Andrew

2010-01-01

289

What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impac...

Monica Raileanu-Szeles

2011-01-01

290

CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capital markets play an important role in the economic development of emerging capital markets. Well functioning markets insure that both corporations and investors get or receive fair prices for their securities. In the literature on endogenous growth, the link between capital markets development and economic growth has received much attention. Thispaper examines the correlation between capital market development and economic growth in Romania using a regression function. The results show t...

FLAVIA BARNA; PETRU-OVIDIU MURA

2010-01-01

291

Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

292

Post-accession economic development of Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

Witold OR?OWSKI

2011-12-01

293

The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

Mohamed, Issam A. W.

2010-01-01

294

INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.

I. Parshyn

2014-03-01

295

FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market development, a similar finding with that of Huang and Temple (2005. As for financial openness, equity-related assets and liabilities have a more robust impact on financial development. Finally, government policy in terms of less government enterprises / government investment and interest rate liberalization have a significant effect on the banking sector rather on the stock market sector.

Filippidis Ioannis

2013-07-01

296

THE DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????????? ????????????: ????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of department of economics and foreign economic activity is linked with the develop¬ment of economic faculty of Kuban Agricultural Institute. There was shown the role of the heads of the department at different years, begin from V.I. Peremikin - the first Doctor of Economics on the Kuban, talented scientist and manager, and finish to A.B. Melnicov, Dr. Sci. Econ., professor, Honored collaborator of MIA of Russia and Kuban. Also there was examined the main aspects of educational, educational methodical and scientific research work for 1964-2012 years

Rizgaev A. L.

2012-02-01

297

World financial and economic crisis and problems of social responsibility of economic subjects ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share o...

Orlov Petr A.

2013-01-01

298

Relation between Reading Problems and Internalizing Behavior in School for Preadolescent Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal study of 105 economically disadvantaged children examined the relation between reading problems and internalizing behavior in 3rd- and 5th-grade assessments (8- to 12-year olds). The variable-centered results showed that reading problems predicted change in internalizing behavior in the context of child and family predictors. The…

Ackerman, Brian P.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kobak, Roger; Brown, Eleanor D.; Smith, Clare

2007-01-01

299

Technical and economical problems of decommissioning process of the nuclear power units with RBMK-1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical and economical problems of decommissioning process of the nuclear power units world wide are very actual at this moment. Because of their specific construction and the circumstances during the exploitation period, one of the most interesting topics this problem are Russian reactors RBMK-1000. This document issues basic principles of the decommissioning process. (author)

300

Internet Multi-Homing Problems: Explanations from Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Companies seeking to ensure that their Internet connection is resilient often purchase services from multiple providers. This leads them inexorably towards having their IP address range visible in the global routing table, increasing the resource usage of every Internet router. Since this is essentially ‘free', yet impacts the cost and stability of every router in the world, this is a classic ‘tragedy of the commons'. There is little prospect of change in the IPv4 world, but there is a chance to fix the problem as IPv6 is rolled out. Unfortunately, SHIM6, the engineering solution chosen to solve this issue in IPv6, will only be effective if universally adopted, and there are no short-term incentives to prefer SHIM6 over a duplication of the IPv4 arrangements. Incentives could be artificially introduced by requiring payment for adding multi-homed address space to the global routing table — a naïve estimate of the actual cost being 77 000 per routing prefix. However, it would be almost impossible to ensure the substantial revenues involved are correctly redistributed to those bearing the costs.

Clayton, Richard

 
 
 
 
301

The Problems in Sustainable Development of Resource Orientated City and Countermeasures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable development of resource orientated city is a highly regarded problem in China and in the world. By analyzing the status quo of resource orientated city, this paper puts forward the problems in the development of resource orientated city, such as economic structure, spatial structure, environmental pollution, capital and technology, and puts forward countermeasures for these problems. It is concluded that cities should insist on sustainable development in the future.

Zhen Wang; Yuanyuan Liu; Yan Xu

2009-01-01

302

The Problems in Sustainable Development of Resource Orientated City and Countermeasures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable development of resource orientated city is a highly regarded problem in China and in the world. By analyzing the status quo of resource orientated city, this paper puts forward the problems in the development of resource orientated city, such as economic structure, spatial structure, environmental pollution, capital and technology, and puts forward countermeasures for these problems. It is concluded that cities should insist on sustainable development in the future.

Zhen Wang

2009-02-01

303

Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

Ravshan Yuldashev

2010-01-01

304

Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

Ravshan Yuldashev

2010-06-01

305

Universities and economic development activities:a UK regional comparison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK - the North West and the South East of England - which have very different levels of economic performance. Quantitative data from the UK government's Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey are used to track economic development funding and acti...

Decter, M.; Cave, F. D.; Rose, M. B.; Peers, G.; Fogg, H.; Smith, S. M.

2011-01-01

306

Economic development and industrial concentration: An inverted U-curve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper sets up an economic geography model to show the endogenous forces that determine the degree of industry concentration in the course of economic development. The model includes centrifugal forces, such as home market effects and access to intermediate suppliers, and centripetal forces, such as demand pull of dispersed resources and congestion effects. Economic development increases the size of the industrial sector in terms of employment relative to the size of the agricultural sect...

Junius, Karsten

1996-01-01

307

Legacy Information System Development: Problems and Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Information Communication Technology has improved the quality of services being provided by organizations beyond proportions. Another most distinguishing characteristic of ICT is the storage, retrieval, processing as well as the communication of Data. However development of Information System is always associated with many problems and issues. In fact resistance to change is a universally acknowledged fact but since the influence of ICT is felt at all levels therefore automation mostly meets multifold problems. It is because of this fact that despite distinct superiority of ICT still it is implemented in phased manner. Similarly the available technology also limits the working of the Information System. Other issues related with the development of the information are the developmental, operational besides security.

Muheet Ahmed Butt

2012-12-01

308

Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

2005-01-01

309

Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

310

Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System  

Science.gov (United States)

Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

Barry, Frank

2014-01-01

311

THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

Gorkemli Kazar

2014-04-01

312

Optimal Power Flow Solution for Combined Economic Emission dispatch Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF in Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED environment of thermal units while satisfying the constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance and line flow limits. Particle Swarm Optimization is a population based stochastic optimization, developed by Kennedy and Eberhart [12], in which members within a group share the information among them to achieve the global best position. This method is dynamic in nature and it overcomes the shortcomings of other evolutionary computation techniques such as premature convergence and provides high quality solutions. The performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated on IEEE 30 bus system with six generating units. The problem has been formulated as a single optimization problem to obtain the solution for optimal power flow problem with combined fuel cost and environment impact as objectives. The results obtained by the proposed method are better than any other evolutionary computation techniques proposed so far.

P. Ajay - D - Vimal Raj

2007-03-01

313

Addressing Economic Development Goals through Innovative Teaching of University Statistics: A Case Study of Statistical Modelling in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which…

Ezepue, Patrick Oseloka; Ojo, Adegbola

2012-01-01

314

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

...development efforts. The Rural Development Act of 1972 and the Rural Development Policy Act of 1980 direct the Secretary...in coordination with State and local governments, a nationwide rural development program to assure rural...

2010-01-01

315

Cumulative Estimate of the Ukrainian Regional Economical Development Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels. The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH;• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH;• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH.The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.

R. Atamaniuk

2010-12-01

316

Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferationale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

317

Economic Development and Financial Support for Coal Resource Cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses measurement methods and selects relevant indicators from both quantitative and structural aspects, empirically analyses the relationship between financial development and economic development of 2000-2008 in more than 18 coal-resourced cities in China. The results show that financial development takes a significant role in the economic development of coal-resourced cities. However, the high industry concentration of financial resource allocation efficiency.

Zuhuai Yuan

2011-08-01

318

Philosophical premises for African economic development : SENS capability approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this research is the cultural assumptions underpinning Africas strategies of economic development, taking the Lagos Plan of Action (LPA) and the New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) as case studies. It considers the issue whether the neglect of Africas cultural beliefs and values in African plans and policies of economic development may not lead to a development impasse. Accordingly, three major objectives are pursued. The first objective is to attemp...

Ntibagirirwa, Symphorien

2013-01-01

319

Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Capacity Building, Economic Empowerment, and Barriers to Economic Empowerment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To measure capacity building, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment among youths involved in vocational skills development some scales were designed by the researcher while other scales were used either in their original or modified versions. The paper presents the scales developed by the researcher to measure these variables. Scales measuring the participants’ skills acquisition, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment were designed by the researcher. Training satisfaction scale was modified to measure the participants’ perception of training received. Self-esteem, perceived control, and personal growth initiative scales were used in their original versions. Using a factorial analysis, the cronbach’s alpha of the developed instruments achieved a reliability level at or above .70. The developed scales have contributed to knowledge as they can be used to measure future research questions. It is hoped that several research directions could be pursued using the developed scales.

Bede Obinna Amadi

2012-08-01

320

Ecosystem Restoration as Community Economic Development? An Assessment of the Possibilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A demonstration project to test the possibilities of ecosystem restoration as a tool for community development was evaluated in 1998 and 2001. The socioeconomic climate and community problem-solving capacity were compared in four demonstration communities and two control communities. Results showed economic development must be coordinated with…

Hibbard, Michael; Karle, Kristen

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications of factors of economic development an improved classification of the driving forces of advancing national economic development was offered, the basis of which systemically factors amount. It was proved that the optimistic scenario of socio-economic development of Ukraine can be based only on the economic model of advancing development, which should take into account the non renewable resources, based on the rapid establishment of mechanisms for high-tech export-oriented economy, which is the driving force of intellectual resources, cultural values, and creative energy. Guenon-factor of advancing economic development is defined. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Guenon-factor concentrates the cause of changes in the system state and can be represented by two levels depending on the degree of objectivity and distance from the system itself. The studies presented an opportunity to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. Each factor of the formed registry was described by a brief characteristic or feature showing its impact on economic development. Likely Guenon-factor is characterized by variability, however, still forms the initial system-factors in the study of which are seen as the prospect for further research.

E.Yu. Yahelskaia

2014-06-01

322

The Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Itpresents evidence on a cross section of 50 African countries whose data is available for theperiod 1980-2008. Two proxies of financial development are employed: the ratio of credit tothe private sector to total GDP and the ratio of broad money (M2 to total GDP. We establisha positive relationship between financial development and economic growth. However, wefind that the relationship between private sector credit and economic growth is much strongerthan the relationship between money supply and economic growth. In addition, we find thatthe relationship between financial sector development and economic growth is bi-directional.The results suggest that both the financial sector and the real sector are important ininfluencing Africa’s current and future growth trajectory.

Rodgers Anyanga Musamali

2014-04-01

323

Economic development and industrial structure - an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

1997-09-01

324

Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development

Kim, Ki Su

2012-01-01

325

Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

Mcbride, John Edward

2004-01-01

326

Theoretical and Methodical Basis of the Ecologically Balanced Management of Region Social and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors of the article "Theoretical and Methodical Bases of the Ecologically Balanced Management of Region Social and Economic Development" approach to providing the regional ecologically balanced management of social and economic development. This is an especially actual topic for Ukraine.Some basic approaches to a regional management issue were analyzed by the authors of the article. It is offered to understand the way a regional management is carried out, realization and regulation of a complex of purposes, approaches and actions connected with the balanced management of region social and economic development based on the mutual consistency of both national and regional interests.The article considers the ways of solving the basic management problems of region social and economic development. The authors of the article assert that a part of these problems can be solved on a regional level, while some scientists insist on state intervention.The article presents the regional management structure scheme, where the authors suggest distinguishing between the regional management controlled by the state structures and the regional management controlled by the local authority.The authors believe the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development to be effective only if there is an accurate definition between its purposes. The most significant purposes presented in the article separate social and economic development management into economic, social and ecological components.The authors affirm that the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development should provide the achievement of all purposes because the realization of some of them does not improve the entire social and economic system and does not balance its management development.

V. Lukyanykhyn

2011-06-01

327

Nuclear power development, safety and environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)

328

Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

Jacob Raglend, I. [School of Electrical Sciences, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B. [School of Electrical Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 004 (India); Kothari, D.P. [FNAE, FNASC, SMIEEE, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

2010-07-15

329

Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

330

Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

331

Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children's cognitive and emotional development in early childhood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study uses data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study to examine the extent to which economic circumstances in infancy and mother's mental well-being are associated with children's cognitive development and behaviour problems at age 3 years, and what part parenting behaviours and attitudes play in mediating these factors. The analyses derived from Structural Equation Modelling show that economic deprivation and maternal depression separately and collectively diminish the cognitive and emot...

Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Huerta, Maria Carmen

2008-01-01

332

Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.

Neil Reid

2012-01-01

333

Evaluation of Rural Economic and Social Development Level in Chongqing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the background of urban and reral balanced development, in order to promote the understanding for rural development in Chongqing , and this article evaluated its economic and social development. Based on the development status of Chongqing's urban and rural areas, we set the indicators system of evaluation for Chongqing rural economic and social development, and prove its reason through the factor analysis and gray relational analysis. Finally we get the composite score and ranking of each district. Taking cluster analysis to composite scores and correlation analysis with per capita investment in fixed assets, road density and the economic pattern,and also taking hierarchical display, we get three levels area of rural development status, and prove that it is correct to increase investment and build infrastructure and make a rational economic distribution. It also shows that , for every regional rural economic and social development states, an hour economic areas is better than the northeast of Chongqing ,and the northeast of Chongqing is better than the southest of Chongqing overall. Finally, we try to explore some overall measures for superior areas such as an hour economic area, Wanzhou district and poor areas , the northeast and the southeast of Chongqing and Tongnan county in the west edge.

ZHAO Guo-jun

2011-03-01

334

The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes the general nature of two-sector environmental and natural resource problems and highlights the issue of two sector models where one sector imposes a one-sided negative externality on the other sector, e.g. the polluting sector causes changes in the economic value of the fishery sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can be used to describe the optimal link between the two sectors.

Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone GrØnbæk

2011-01-01

335

Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other than maximisation of profit, resources to improve the mastitis situation compete with other fields of management, risk involved with the decision, economic behaviour of the dairy farmer, and valuation of the cost factors by the dairy farmer. For all decision-makers this means that, although financial incentives do have an effect on the management of mastitis, it is not always sufficient to show the economic benefits of improved management to induce an improvement of management of mastitis. PMID:21328153

Hogeveen, H; Huijps, K; Lam, T J G M

2011-01-01

336

Education for Sustainable Development in India: Problems and Prospects  

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Full Text Available India is considered as a world leader amongst the developing countries in terms of economic sustainability and growth. India also has a growing number of literate populations due to rapid expansion of secondary and post-secondary education landscape. However, when it comes to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, India stands more elitist to serve only privileged sections of population. A basic aim of Environmental Education (EE is to succeed in making individuals and communities understand the complex nature of the natural and the built environments resulting from the interaction of their biological, physical, social, economic, and cultural aspects, and acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, and practical skills to participate in a responsible and effective way in anticipating and solving environmental problems, and in the management of the quality of the environment. Education is the single most important means for empowerment and sustained improvement in all well being. Sustainable development is a basic Human Right and unless this target is reached with the potent tool of Education the purpose of Education would remain unfulfilled. Education for Sustainable development is a dynamic undertaking where every person has a chance to benefit from Educational opportunities and learn the life style, behavior and values necessary to create a sustainable future.The present paper aims at identifying the role of education in attaining sustainable development, identifying the problems and future prospects of Education for Sustainable development in India. An attempt is made to recognize the challenges faced by India as regards its education system at various levels in attaining sustainability. Necessary strategies, guidelines and recommendations are provided for Higher Education Institutions in India.

Dr. Hetal Pandya

2011-07-01

337

RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS  

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Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

SORINA-GEANINA M?RG?RIT (ST?NESCU

2011-01-01

338

Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial mana¬gement performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

Marcel Bolos

2006-05-01

339

Development of the Organisational and Economic Mechanism of Effective Realisation of Innovation Development of a Big City ?????????? ??????????????-?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article develops an economic mechanism of effective realisation of social development of a big city, which is oriented at indicators of life quality and which uses principles of innovation development. It considers the role of big cities in political and socio-economic world environment and analyses problems of their development and role of regulating factors. It forms key principles of development of a big city and elements of a complex innovation system. It reveals specific characteristics of a big city as an economic and social system that ensures processes of current consumption, reproductionm of resources and realisation of future needs. It determines stages of development of the strategy of development of a big city. It provides indicators used when assessing activity of a big city. It offers indicators of assessment that take into account indicators of life quality and principles of innovation development.?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????. ??????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ??????? ????????????, ???????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ???????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????.

Ievsieieva Olga A.

2013-05-01

340

PPP IN RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BOON OR BANE!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PPP in today's globalised world is seen as an efficient mechanism to develop infrastructure in developing economy and transform the static economy into dynamic economy. Despite more than six decades of planning, rural India is having high illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, ignorance, blind beliefs, and other social economic evils, when compared to Urban India. Government proposed PPP in rural development to utilize the private sector efficiencies to finance and build the socio- economic infrastructure in India

S, R. Keshava

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Meeting Summary, Economic Development Panel, Business Meeting No.31  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK-B135 The objectives of the meeting were as follows: (1) Learn more about and discuss economic impacts of wind power development in the U.S, highlighting the NWCC report, ''Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Power Development''; (2) Learn more about and discuss wind integration costs and the impacts of recent studies on wind energy development; and (3) Review activities and products planned for FY 2004.

Kevin Bryan

2003-06-18

342

Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

Mastrangelo, Christina M.

1998-01-01

343

SCREENWRITING FORECASTING OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS’S DEVELOPMENT ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the methodological approaches to screenwriting predicting complex economic processes based on the systemic nature of the study. This article presents some of the approaches to the construction of scenarios, such as the imitation modeling of economic processes and expert approach allowing obtaining long term scenarios based on global patterns of development

Nazarenko A. V.

2012-12-01

344

DIRECT FOREING INVESMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a society the attention is preponderantly attracted by the economic growth (an essential fact when we have in view the economic development) and by the resources that lies at the basis of the economy, but the standard of living, the quality of life of the population during that process should not be overviewed.

MIHAELA IONECI

2009-01-01

345

DIRECT FOREING INVESMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a society the attention is preponderantly attracted by the economic growth (an essential fact when we have in view the economic development and by the resources that lies at the basis of the economy, but the standard of living, the quality of life of the population during that process should not be overviewed.

MIHAELA IONECI

2009-05-01

346

Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

2011-01-01

347

Problems in software development for nuclear robotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

348

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization with 29 Member countries from North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific area. The OECD serves as a "forum for governments of the industrialized democracies to study and formulate the best policies possible in all economic and social spheres." Content is organized into activity sections such as development and co-operation, economics, environmental issues, transition economies, trade and transport. Within each activity, visitors can usually find related publications. The OECD site features a news and events page highlighting the latest OECD developments, and a guide to free on-line documents sorted by activity.

1999-01-01

349

Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

2006-11-01

350

REMMITTANCES, BANKING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN FIJI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the role of remittances and economic growth in banking sector development in Fiji using annual data from 1980-2010. This study finds evidence of long run relationship between banking sector development, remittances and economic growth using bounds testing procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001. In addition, our causality analysis based on vector error correction model (VECM and Toda Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test (1995 suggest that there is causality from economic growth and remittances to banking sector development. The study indicates that remittances inflows may not be only important for economic growth but also for development of banking sector. It is thus, important for policymakers to ensure that remittances flow through formal channels.

Janesh Sami

2013-04-01

351

The Role of Savings in the Economic Development of the Republic of Azerbaijan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the possibilities of the accumulation and mobilization of savings and their role in the economic development of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Currently, the national economic growth is mostly based on the resource components; crude oil, natural gas and oil products. For the development of the non-oil sector the mobilization of domestic savings into investments would prove very useful. Savings of people should be the most important investment resource for the development of the non-oil sector, as the foreign capital is mostly involved in production of natural resources like oil and gas. The mobilization of domestic savings is crucial for raising the economic growth and promoting development, as it is the private savings that affect the domestic investments significantly. The most of the savings are made when they are fully channeled into the productive investments. As a result, this will lead to the solution of problems of employment and economic growth.

Nagi Bairamli

2010-12-01

352

Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

De Bruyn, S.

2013-07-15

353

Solving Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect using a Modified ABC Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new approach for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with valve-point effect using a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm. Artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent population-based optimization method which has been successfully used in many complex problems. This paper proposes a novel best mechanism algorithm based on a modified ABC algorithm, in which a new mutation strategy inspired from the differential evolution (DE) is introduced in order to impro...

Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

2013-01-01

354

[Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from the employee's viewpoint or the employer's. The consequences of importing manpower must be studied in relation to possible alternatives. PMID:12346374

Lim, L L

1994-01-01

355

Development of Economic Models for EOL Service Parts Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with a decision problem for final purchase quantity needed for the appropriate support of service parts for S Electronics which is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. The cost elements of the final purchase quantity, the economic models, the optimal solution methods, and the expected effect are presented.

Wan Seon Shin

2012-10-01

356

Monetary Policy And Economic Development In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals.

Rajendra N.Shendge

2012-09-01

357

Talent Development in Economically Disadvantaged Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to summarize what is generally known about talent development and schooling by stating some propositions about the way such programs are structured. This article sets the stage for a series of stories of programs that attempt to address the challenge of talent development in diverse low-income populations. The…

Coleman, Laurence

2006-01-01

358

Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

2014-01-01

359

POST-CRISIS PRIORITIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR UKRAINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Priorities of strategy of economic development of Ukraine in the context of credible desires of its people are examined. The most acceptable strategy must not be oriented both to the European union and on Russia.

?.?. ??????

2011-06-01

360

SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION - NEW ECONOMIC CONCEPT REQUIRED BY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the concept of sustainable development and standard economics, we find innovation presented as one of the most important factors of world economic growth. Although most authors focus their research on sustainable development, this paper will instead focus on sustainable innovation. The paper converges on studying innovation from the perspective of sustainable development and sustains several theoretical results in order to show the importance of adopting innovation process which respects sustainable goals. The paper it is also focused on analyzing the importance of creating sustainable innovative products or services within the constraints of economic, environment and social issues. The paper concludes by enhancing the understanding of the sustainable innovation power in economic environment development, correlated with social and natural environment.

VIOREL CORNESCU

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Does Stock Market Development Promote Economic Growth in Ghana?  

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Full Text Available The study investigates whether the stock market in Ghana contributes to the growth of the Ghanaian economy using quarterly data (2006Q1–2013Q2. A bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality in the vector error correction model are used for analysis. The results of the cointegration analysis indicate that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between stock market development and economic growth. The results of the causality analysis demonstrate that there is a unidirectional causality running from stock market development to economic growth. However, since the long-run regression analysis shows a negative relationship between stock market development and economic growth, we conclude that stock market development does not promote economic growth in Ghana.

Michael Adusei

2014-05-01

362

Government Governance, Legal Environment and Sustainable Economic Development  

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Full Text Available Based on China’s inter-provincial panel data from 1999–2009, this paper has tested the impact and extent of marketization, government governance, and legal environment of sustainable economic development by controlling physical capital, human capital and productivity, so as to find the institutional reality for the difference in China’s economic development and another explanation for it. It turns out that marketization, government governance, and legal environment play significant roles in promoting sustainable economic development. Further tests show that the results of Eastern China are consistent with China’s inter-provincial results; while in Western China, the promotion effect of marketization, government governance, and legal environment on sustainable economic development is not significant.

Feng Wei

2014-04-01

363

Organizational and Economic Support for Small Business Development in Ukraine ??????????????-????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The constituents of competitiveness of potential of small enterprises are certain. The economic mechanism of renewal and development of small enterprise of Ukraine is resulted. Tasks which are decided by a small enterprise are certain.?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????????????.

Prokhorova Victoria Volodymyrivna

2012-09-01

364

Balances Scorecard strategic development of the socio-economic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article describes the Balanced Scorecard as a tool for strategic management of development of socio-economic systems. Detail the structure of the system, including perspectives, strategic objectives, indicators, targets, cause-effect relationship, the strategic alternatives.

Tchaikovskaya Nina Vladimirovna

2008-01-01

365

Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies. PMID:24415372

Doelle, H W

1996-09-01

366

EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE  

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Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

2012-06-01

367

ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

Tchai Tavor

2011-01-01

368

Tourism as a driver of economic development - the Colombian experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current paper analyzes the importance and potentials of the tourism sector for economic development. It is divided into four major parts. After a short introduction, section two presents some theoretical insights into the topic of economic development. Commenting on the most relevant components of the catching-up theory by Abramovitz (1986) and the structural change theory by Baumol (1967) and others, it could be realized that growth and the accompanying structural changes in the distr...

Benkovic?, Andreja; Meji?a, Juan Felipe

2008-01-01

369

Monetary systems, sustainable growth and inclusive economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this study is to review the literature on monetary issues and discuss how money and monetary systems contribute to the achievement of sustainable growth and inclusive economic development. The paper is based on an extensive review of literature that deals with monetary issues with the objective of building a case that the achievement of sustainable growth and inclusive economic development requires the right monetary system to be put in place which supports those objecti...

Omerc?evic?, Edo

2013-01-01

370

Innovative clusters: a solution for the economic development of Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Europe 2020 Strategy emphasizes the importance of the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The flagships of the strategy (digital agenda for the EU, innovation union, resource efficient Europe, industrial policy for the globalization agenda) are setting the frame for economic development. Innovative clusters are seen as a solution to the crisis, a tool for competitiveness and regional development. Given the economic situation of Romania we bring in discussion the potential of clusters...

Dan, Mihaela-cornelia

2012-01-01

371

FDI and Economic Development: Evidence from Mainland China  

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Full Text Available Endeavors have been made in this paper to discern the long-run relations between FDI (Foreign Direct Investment and economic development in China in the comprehensive framework, which incorporates determinants as output, FDI, capital formation, employment, human capital and international openness. VAR (vector autoregressive modelsImpulse Response, Variance Decomposition, Johansen Co-integration and VECM (vector error correction have been estimated, focusing on the long-run structural relations; findings indicate that in the long run, FDI tends to decrease economic growth; economic development in China seems to be fueled by domestic capital accumulation and employment growth; FDI inflows do crowd out domestic capitals, and reduce employment growth.

Liyan Liu

2011-12-01

372

Stock Exchange Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Jordan  

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Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between Amman stock exchange development measured by MarketCapitalization Ratio (MCR and Value Traded Ratio (VTR and Jordan economic growth measured by GrossDomestic Product Growth (GDPG for the period 1978–2012. The study used Vector Error Correction Model(VECM to examine the hypotheses. The study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationshipbetween Amman stock exchange development and Jordan economic growth. In addition, the pairwise Grangercausality test shows that there is a unidirectional causality running from market capitalization ratio and valuetraded ratio to economic growth.

Ali Mustafa Al-Qudah

2014-10-01

373

Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

374

The Innovative Approach to Developing the Methodology of the Description Models of Modern Economic Systems Development  

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Full Text Available In modern conditions of functioning and development of economic systems it is expedient to specify the term „new economy” in the aspect of economic systems. In the given aspect „new economy” may be examined from positions of "modern economic system”.The modern economic system is a set of economic systems of a different level: the state, regions, areas, the enterprises etc.

G. M. Zabolotnyy

2011-12-01

375

Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system  

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Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.

Doroshenko, Valentina

2012-05-01

376

RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense) to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian) economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within ...

Otiman, P. I.

2009-01-01

377

Development of the Knowledge Economy in Russia and Ukraine: Problems and Factors of Development ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????: ???????? ? ??????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses reasons and factors of development of the knowledge economy in Russia and Ukraine. It justifies urgency of development of the knowledge economy, for which the following is typical: high index of economic freedom, the developed civil society and democracy, and knowledge economy. It considers problems of development of education, information and communication technologies, national innovation system, in particular, technology parks and increase of their efficiency. It analyses practical experience in this problem in the developed countries. It underlines the necessity of increase of the role of business in financing fundamental and applied research, and also activation of their activity with participation of the state academies of sciences. The education system should be directed not only at satisfaction of primary needs, but at provision of the socio-economic development of society. In order to create favourable conditions of development of the human capital it is required to: ensure innovation character of development of the higher education; create an optimal structure of training and re-training personnel for the needs of innovation economy; expand accessibility of higher education.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????????: ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ???????? ??????. ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????-???????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ????????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????. ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ? ?? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????: ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????; ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????; ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????.

Zolotykh Irina B.

2013-08-01

378

Nature's role in sustaining economic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970-2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations. PMID:20008380

Dasgupta, Partha

2010-01-12

379

LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) - OECD  

...Capacity building seminar: New strategies for tourism and local development in the Mediterranean region (Trento, Italy) - 1st Edition The seminar ...know-how of participants on how to develop integrated strategies based on sustainable tourism and build new and innovative tourism policies, which reflect local ... tourism,growth,LEED,TRENTO,meditteranean region LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts Blogs ...Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development) › Capacity building seminar: New strategies for tourism and local development in the Mediterranean region (Trento, Italy)...

380

Inverse problems in geographical economics: parameter identification in the spatial Solow model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of production functions from data is an important task in the modelling of economic growth. In this paper, we consider a non-parametric approach to this identification problem in the context of the spatial Solow model which allows for rather general production functions, in particular convex-concave ones that have recently been proposed as reasonable shapes. We formulate the inverse problem and apply Tikhonov regularization. The inverse problem is discretized by finite elements and solved iteratively via a preconditioned gradient descent approach. Numerical results for the reconstruction of the production function are given and analysed at the end of this paper. PMID:25288819

Engbers, Ralf; Burger, Martin; Capasso, Vincenzo

2014-11-13

 
 
 
 
381

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY WOMEN IN GULBARGA CITY  

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Full Text Available The problem of elderly is a major social problem across the world. Many of the studies were already made onthe elderly, but only a few such studies throws light on the problems of the elderly women. Hence, the present study ismade on the elderly women in Gulbarga city. About 150 elderly women were surveyed in Gulbarga city throughInterview Schedule to collect the information on socio-economic and health conditions of the elderly women. Thestudy revealed that majority of the respondents are satisfied with the basic needs, but are not satisfied with their life,as they are not getting adequate care and respect from the younger.

K.S Malipatil

2012-06-01

382

Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

383

The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of societies in general. This paper evaluates the policies of cooperatives and their programs and performances in boosting the economy of Malaysia as well as investigates the function of cooperative societies in the growth of economic development. It concludes by stating that to be effective and successful, cooperative institutions must adhere to the principles and precepts provided for by the government as in the Cooperatives Societies Act 1993.

Nazura Abdul Manap

2014-07-01

384

Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child's other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

Conger, Rand D; Schofield, Thomas K; Conger, Katherine J; Neppl, Tricia K

2010-01-01

385

International economic problems in the mid-eighties: Energy - technology - environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn (FRG), in 1984 invited to an international meeting of experts for discussing ''International economic problems in the mid-eighties''. The meeting took place from November 19 to 20, and gathered about 700 experts from 40 countries. The topics on the agenda were those problems which in the industrialized societies throughout the world are of prime interest: Energy forms the basis of industrial production. Modern technologies have changed the countries' economic structures, and their social life, considerably. The natural environment is exposed to impacts induced by industry, or traffic and transport, which have reached a level causing anxiety and alarm, especially in areas of agglomeration. Remedial action taken so far still is patchwork, optimum solutions still are out of range. The problems resulting from this situation were discussed during the meeting by politicians, members of the business community, and scientists from various countries. (orig./HP)

386

The strategic economic plan and the role of independent power in economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Independent power production (IPP) in Newfoundland was examined within the context of the province's Strategic Economic Plan. Provisions of the Plan were summarized, with special reference to the promotion of alternative energy technologies and government efforts to amend regulations to facilitate development of alternative energy sources by independent producers. IPP was considered to be an ideal tool for regional economic development and diversification, assuming that environmental concerns were carefully considered and addressed. Some of the benefits ascribed to IPP included strengthening the private sector, creating new small business opportunities, improving competitiveness, promoting regional development, contributing to import substitution and enhance the province's technology and knowledge base

387

Long-Lasting Development – Basic Principle of Economic Development of Romania  

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Full Text Available In order to have long-lasting economic and social development in any field, the economic and the other socio-human, cultural, ecologic, technological aspects must be compatible. Any economic and social development must take into account the complex nature of the system as well as its interdependency and correlation with other systems.

Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

2013-01-01

388

Long-Lasting Development – Basic Principle of Economic Development of Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to have long-lasting economic and social development in any field, the economic and the other socio-human, cultural, ecologic, technological aspects must be compatible. Any economic and social development must take into account the complex nature of the system as well as its interdependency and correlation with other systems.

Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

2013-01-01

389

Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

2009-06-01

390

FINANCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM ZIMBABWE  

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Full Text Available The relationship between financial system development and economic development has attracted interest of a number of researchers all over the world, however institutional differences and capital allocation variations between and within economies, make it very difficult to generalize findings and thus increasing the need for country-specific studies. This study examines the causal relation between financial system development and economic growth from a Zimbabwean perspective, based on two inter-related broad aims, the first being the established of cointegration relationship between the two and the ultimate direction of the causal relationship. Using multivariate Granger causality test the study finds existence of demand following financial development in Zimbabwe, there is unidirectional causality from economic growth to financial development. Financial system development is therefore an outcome of the pressure for institutional development in capital markets and introduction of modernized financial instruments. As such policy concern should focus on trade liberalization and other related activities in order to spur economic growth, since financial system development is a passive reaction to economic growth. Such policies might include investment promotion and removal of barriers for foreign investments.

Godfrey Ndlovu

2013-04-01

391

Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and bulk buying. PMID:12870505

Resnik, D B

2001-05-01

392

ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I also characterized the respondents with respect to their preferred type of advertisement. The results of the latter showed that the number of clickers on banner advertisement is higher than that of pop-up advertisement, and that its efficiency rates are higher as well. In addition, the characterization of advertisers gave that the probability to advertise a banner advertisement is higher if the manager is either a female, married, older than 40 and employed in the construction, Car Dealership or wedding industry.

Tchai Tavor

2011-09-01

393

An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Turkish Case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.

Burcu Ozcan,

2011-01-01

394

Local Economic Development. New generation of actors, policies and instruments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a summary report prepared for the UNCDF symposium on Decentralized Local Governance in Africa. The author explains how conditions for local economic development has changed, by distinguishing two sets of forces of change. The first refers to fundamental changes in development policy, while the second in the context of local development refers to what Dicken (1998) called the new 'geo-economy'.

Helmsing, A. H. J.

2001-01-01

395

Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

Akubue, Anthony I.

2001-01-01

396

Strategic evaluation of economic feasibility of mountain tourist region development: Case study of Stara Planina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper covers theoretical, methodological and practical discoveries and evaluation of the economic aspects of development and planning of the mountain tourist regions. The basic aspects of economic-spatial theories, analysis and methods are presented for research of development effects in the mountain regions. It is also pointed to the basic terms of the mountain tourist regions development in the countries of the European Union which realize respective development results The work analyses significance of tourism in development of the mountain regions characterized by the capability for innovative activities, i.e. starting the whole range of complementary activities which reversibly influence the forming of growth and development poles. Especially are analyzed commercial and non-commercial effects of realization of the mountain tourist centers in ecologically saved, but as a rule, economically not enough developed mountain regions. The approach in the strategic evaluation of the economic feasibility of development of the tourist region is considered in accordance with the experience of the countries with higher degree of mountain region development, on example of Stara Planina. The analysis of economic feasibility of mountain region development Stara Planina covered the following segments: market, consumption, number of employed, investment means and economic effects of exploitation. Considering the fact that Stara planina is region covered by the Park of Nature and Tourist region for which the Spatial plan is done, a special problem was harmonization of development and protection functions, i.e. evaluation of economic and ecological acceptability for development implementation. The Spatial plan foreseen rational model of sustainable regional development of the Stara planina region based on integration of urban and rural economies on one side and development of tourism and protection of nature, on the other.

Miliji? Saša

2009-01-01

397

Status, problems and projects for development of district, urban planning and architecture in bulgaria in early 21st century (against the background of the market economy and the upcoming financial and economic crisis part 2 ?????????, ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ??i ?. (? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ????? 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Part 2 of the article has a brief overview of the real estate market in Bulgaria and projections concerning future investments into urban development projects. The author considers design and development of business centres, business parks, multi-purpose centres, high-rise buildings and residential housing. In 2000 - late 2008, the pace of construction was very fast, and it caused negative compromises in the construction industry. Due to the hotel boom, the Black Sea coast now accommodates numerous high-density hotel buildings. At the same time, residential housing build in the early 20th century needs urgent restructuring. The construction sector experiences enormous pressure, as major projects initiated in 2007 and 2008 are now suspended as a consequence of the fi nancial crisis. The author believes that recovery actions shall include tax holidays for purchasers of fl ats, extended loan reimbursement periods, and reduction of state and municipal tax rates payable by construction companies.???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????. ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????, ??????-??????, ??????????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????????, ???????? ????????? ?????????????.

Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

2012-11-01

398

Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

Athanasios Vazakidis

2011-01-01

399

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A NEW APPROACH TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT  

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Full Text Available t The pointing start for the concept of sustainable was the global ecological crisis and it has developed later by incorporating economic, social and human spheres, so that in recent years, sustainable development represents the new theory of development and a new way for humanity. The idea underlying this concept is to ensure a better quality of life for all inhabitants of the planet, both for the present generation and for future generations. Sustainable development brings a new set of values that will guide future model of economic and social progress; these values are represented by man and by natural environment

PATRICHI IOANA CRISTIANA

2014-05-01

400

75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term...Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic Development Plans; Comment Request AGENCIES...SUMMARY: The Division of Economic Development (DED), Office of...

2010-11-30

 
 
 
 
401

Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

1997-01-01

402

Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the value of stocks traded as a ratio of stock market capitalisation. The study utilised advanced econometric techniques of Unit Root Tests, Vector Autoregressive (VAR and Granger Causality Tests to explore the relationships. The empirical results showed a uni-directional causal link that runs from stock market development to economic growth and there is evidence of an indirect transmission mechanism through the effect of stock market development on investment.

Tichaona Zivengwa

2011-09-01

403

Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

404

Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and involving the people at the grass roots level. PMID:12340768

Khan, M R

1984-09-01

405

Urbanization and energy use in economic development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper identifies a number of developments which are prominent during the urbanization of a country and which have particularly strong implications for energy use. Concomitant with urbanization, the industrial composition of the economy's production shifts, with reductions in agriculture and increases in the importance of primary metals, chemicals, and cement, all of which are relatively energy-intensive sectors. Evidence from India indicates that the movement of a worker from agriculture to the least energy-intensive urban activity other than services will quadruple per worker production energy requirements. Next, population concentration associated with urbanization facilitates increases in the scale of production which in turn encourages the substitution of modern energy for traditional fuels and requires energy for longer deliveries. Also, concentrated, off-farm populations require processing and delivery of food, which are not required for largely agricultural countries. Domestic activity changes send activities which were formerly conducted in the household with little or no energy use, outside, usually into firms, where fuels are used. Urban households also use considerably more transportation than do rural households. Evidence from Hong Kong indicates that pure urban density increases encourage substitutions of modern energy for traditional fuels. Finally, increased real incomes associated with urbanization increase energy consumption, with an elasticity of roughly unity. Aggregate cross-sectional data evidence from sixty developing countries was used to examine the overall magnitude of the effects of urbanization and associated developmental changes on per capita energy use. Controlling for industrial structure, per capita income (per capita gross domestic product), and several other variables, a one-percent increase in urbanization will cause a one-half percent increase in per capita energy use. 81 refs., 5 figs., 63 tabs.

Jones, D.W.

1989-03-01

406

Inoculant production in developing countries - Problems, potentials and success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable agriculture is a long-term goal that seeks to overcome some of problems and constraints that confront the economic viability, environmental soundness and social acceptance of agricultural production systems. In this context, bio-fertilizers assume special significance particularly because they are 'eco-friendly', but also since their alternative, chemical fertilizers are expensive. Undoubtedly, the most commonly used bio-fertilizers are soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, but others like Azolla, Azospirillum, various cyanobacteria also contribute significant amounts of N to e.g. rice. Other bacteria like Frankia and Acetobacter contribute N to trees of the genus Casuarina and sugarcane, respectively. Furthermore, although they are rarely used as inoculants, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphobacteria help countless plants solubilise and assimilate soil phosphorus. Despite these advantages, bio-fertilizers could be more widely used in developing countries. Contingent upon greater use is improved quality of the inoculants, and all aspects of their production are discussed here. (author)

407

[Development of the Bandama Valley. Sanitary and social problems].  

Science.gov (United States)

As with all water resources development projects in countries with hot climate, the man-made lake of Kossou in Ivory Coast presents social and sanitary problems. Although the resettlement and the economic recuperation of the inhabitants are well on the way, the health hazards and especially that of the generalization of schistosomiasis calls for an urgent solution. Though well planed in advance, the creation of this man-made lake, illustrates the necessity at the very beginning of a project that will distrub all the ecology of a region, to establish the total disadvantages and health hazards incurved by the people who live there. To the cost of a project should be added that of measures that would contribute to the reduction of these risks before it is too late. PMID:189949

Picot, H

1976-01-01

408

Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Theory, Evidence and Policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

Naude?, Wim A.

2013-01-01

409

Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1979-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 2.2%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 5.6% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development for Greece.

A. Vazakidis

2011-01-01

410

Problems and prospects of post-crisis development of entrepreneurship: a regional aspect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.

P.A. Fisunenko

2012-06-01

411

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

HA Qazi

2009-09-01

412

Choosing the Direction: Investment, the Environment and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is technological change good for the environment in a globalized world, or does it rather lead to more pollution? Do climate policies represent worthy attempts to preserve the environment for future generations, or are they just pointless burdens on economic systems? Do efforts to increase the level of education in developing countries lead to faster economic growth, or are they just a waste of already scarce resources? These are some of the themes investigated in this dissertation: the aim o...

Di Maria, C.

2006-01-01

413

Investments – Fundamental Element for Economic Development of Republic of Moldova  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capital market represents a important element of the financialconomic system of any modern economy and they play an important role in the allocation of capital within the economy. The development of the capital market represents the essential component of the restructuring process of the economic system. The analysis of environmental, economic, political and legal factors represents a strategic step for the opportunity to invest in a particular country.

Svetlana Bîrlea

2013-01-01

414

Investments – Fundamental Element for Economic Development of Republic of Moldova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital market represents a important element of the financialconomic system of any modern economy and they play an important role in the allocation of capital within the economy. The development of the capital market represents the essential component of the restructuring process of the economic system. The analysis of environmental, economic, political and legal factors represents a strategic step for the opportunity to invest in a particular country.

Svetlana Bîrlea

2013-08-01

415

Economic development and fishing activity in south Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article sets out the results of research that aims to determine the characteristics of fishing development in the province of Tarragona not only from the social, territorial, and economic point of view, but also from the perspective of the public policies implemented in this sector. It discusses the role played by the various social, economic and institutional agents, and the importance of the sustainable and  responsible management of fishing.

Rafael Böcker Zavaro

2011-11-01

416

The role of science, technology and research in economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Starting with the premise that technological innovation and economic growth are interactive and mutually reinforcing, this paper argues that in order to have a fighting chance in the Asean Economic Community (AEC), let alone global, competition, the Philippines (PH) needs to appreciably ramp up investment spending in science, engineering, and research and development. To the extent that this is achieved - along with the other ongoing policy and institutional reforms - the economy could in tim...

Clarete, Ramon L.; Pernia, Ernesto M.; Gaduena, Ammielou; Mendoza, Adrian

2014-01-01

417

THE PROBLEM ENHANCING STRATEGIC COMPETITIVENESS OF DEVELOPING AGRIBUSINESS IN NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the problem facing the Nigerian agricultural production, the basic and fundamental reasons why the government has failed to realize and address the failure in the sector. Though agricultural program was finalized in 1988 and new policy was released in 2001 but still accommodates the policies of the old one. Which means the policies was on the right direction. Still little or no effect has been made in the sector. Currently, however, many important questions about the goals, objectives, reforms, and ways to achieve them, tactics and strategies of development of agribusiness, the location of bodies, state powerand administration in place of socio- economic processes and others are debatable. Agribusiness development is a large constrained combination of factors: unfavorable to microeconomic conditions, inadequate legal basis of functioning on enterprises and their relationships with each other and the state, lack of comprehensive scientific research in this field of knowledge that are acceptable in a transition economy. This paper will serve as the brain and evaluation of the problems and the strategies required to revive the sector. Agriculture is vast and the most important sector of the Nigeria economy engaging about 70% of the labor force, the sector has not been exploited to the fullness and that is why the country cannot compete with other countries in the world even with 95% of the land cultivable. As economic activity, agriculture can be the source of growth for national economy provider of investment opportunities for private sector and a prime diver of agriculture related industries and the rural nonfarm economy.

Kenneth Baba

2012-02-01

418

The Nigerian Capital Market and Economic Development: A Critical Appraisal  

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Full Text Available This article is centered on the role of the Nigeria capital and economic development. The capital market is primarily established to boast the industrial growth and economic development of Nigeria economy by mobilizing long-term funds and capital formation for investment and productive purposes. Using time series data from 1971-2010 and applying the Engle-Granger and Johansen method of co-integration in a VECM setting estimation technique. The results revealed that in the long run, the Nigerian capital market positively and significantly influence economic development. We therefore recommend that government should put more effort in developing an active new issues market by encouraging more floatation of new issues and create stable environment for business.

Samson Ogege

2012-06-01

419

STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  It is formulated organizationally instituciyniy mechanism and it is schematically interpreted objective-factor algorithm of lining up economic strategy of the Ukrainian government in relation to implementation of tasks development of national economy. Generalized and the present is systematized scientifically "programmatic creation" on lifted issue: the main factors of global environment and factors which can determine strategy of national economy of Ukraine are formulated; the main strategic factors of development of national economy of Ukraine are selected taking into account their effective adaptation to the global economic environment. On this basis the category list of key strategic tasks development of national economy is resulted in a global environment. 

?.?. ??????

2011-09-01

420

Innovative clusters: a solution for the economic development of Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Europe 2020 Strategy emphasizes the importance of the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The flagships of the strategy (digital agenda for the EU, innovation union, resource efficient Europe, industrial policy for the globalization agenda are setting the frame for economic development. Innovative clusters are seen as a solution to the crisis, a tool for competitiveness and regional development. Given the economic situation of Romania we bring in discussion the potential of clusters in our country and the arguments and critics regarding their development.

Mihaela-Cornelia DAN

2012-09-01