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Sample records for economic development problems

  1. Long-term economic development problems

    The long-term economic development of New Mexico parallels the major energy issue of the nation - the impact of non-proliferation policy. The short lifespan and waste of energy resources in this country reflects a lack of foresight which can no longer be tolerated. The principal unknowns affecting uranium development in New Mexico are the extent and demand for uranium, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the lifespan of nuclear power plants, with or without reprocessing. Further areas of concern include the costs of reprocessing facilities, the evaluation of fuel cycles to minimize proliferation, and the impacts of waste disposal

  2. Early progress on the "problem of economic development"

    James A. Schmitz, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes recent attempts to solve what Lucas has called the "problem of economic development"—the problem of accounting for the great disparity in per-capita output across countries. The study examines a number of economic development theories, including the neoclassical theory of growth, which relies on cross-country differences in physical capital per person to explain the disparity, and newer theories, which stress cross-country differences in human capital, or education. It is...

  3. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  4. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between development type and entrepreneurship type within institutional environment.

  5. Sustaining Economic Development and the Value of Economic Production: Different Views and Difficult Problems

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Indicates some of the different concepts of sustainable economic development and raises queries about how much present generations are concerned with future generations. A variety of conditions (ranging from very weak to very strong) have been suggested for achieving sustainable development. These are outlined. The prospect that the accumulation of man-made capital may result in unsustainable economic development is discussed and the welfare consequences of the conversion of natural capital a...

  6. The selected problems of energy sector development in new economic conditions

    General problems of energy market development in Poland are addressed. The structure of Polish energy sector and conditions of its functioning are presented. The general concept of national and local energy market organisation is also discussed. This is particularly crucial in programming the processes of investments in the energy sector under new economic conditions in Poland. (author)

  7. Role of nuclear energy within the framework of a national energetic plan. Nuclear energy and developing countries. Economical problems

    Problems of competitivity of nuclear power plants in developing countries are examined. Investments, choice of reactor size, fossil fuel savings are studied. In addition to these economical and financial problems there are also technical and political problems

  8. Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems

    Abdul Ghafoor Awan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

  9. Development economics

    This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property

  10. Foreign aid, economic development and the indebtedness problem, with special reference to the Sudan

    Abuel Nour, Abuel Gasim Mohamed

    1981-01-01

    In the task of promoting both economic growth and development of the developing countries, both theory and development experience suggest that international co-operation in a broad sense has a vital role to play. For most developing countries, foreign trade is, and is likely to remain, the most important ingredient of such co-operation, although in the absence of a so-called new international economic order, its benefits may be smaller than most developing countries think...

  11. THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-01-01

    For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

  12. Nuclear power option for solving problems in connection with economic development, energy supply and environmental protection

    Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs

  13. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-01-01

    Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil,...

  14. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author)

  15. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.

  16. Governors as Economic Problem Solvers

    Charles D. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the important role governors have played in shaping states’ economic development strategies, existing quantitative studies of state economic development policymaking have paid only scant attention to the factors that influence governors’ decisions about economic development policy. This study investigates these factors using a unique data set of gubernatorial economic development proposals generated by content analyzing hundreds of major legislative addresses delivered by governor...

  17. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION - A Road map for the economic development

    Shivasharanappa Annappa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing countries like India. Despite large expenditures on transport system, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption. Therefore, developing countries like India have a major crisis on their hands. Transport problems in India are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated India cities.

  18. Special Economic Zones as a Nanoindustry Development Institute: Failures, Problems and Prospects

    Inshakov Oleg Vasilyevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the contradictions arising from the formation and operation of special economic zones (SEZ of Russia as the institutes of national nanoindustry (NNI in 2006-2013. The specific deficiencies in the management of SEZ JSC are identified. The author reveals uneven and delayed development, structural imbalances, decreased liability or destructive activities of stakeholders, insufficient activity of resident companies and related groups, the high degree of uncertainty in achieving profitability and efficiency of the SEZ. The drawbacks of state support for the development of SEZs in the NNI, braking and acceleration mechanisms of this process are shown. The necessity of introducing a more effective mechanism for the stimulation of the Russias NNI SEZ development with the use of not only preferences, guarantees and benefits, but also the sanctions to residents, their partners and contractors in the construction process and in the performance of tasks is argued. The idea of the feasibility of establishing SEZ on the initiative of regional authorities and entrepreneurs at the expense of private investment and development budgets of the Russian Federation for significant recovery of the accumulation process in the NNI and reducing the cost of public investment is put forward. The creation of the General Scheme of the NNI SEZ network in Russia in view of the allocation of resources, production and infrastructure dislocation, scope and vectors of firms, is justified. The conclusions are confirmed by the materials of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development monitoring and the audit of the Accounts Chamber.

  19. The Economics of Water Management in Developing Countries Problems, Principles and Policies

    Koundouri, Phoebe; Pashardes, Panos; Swanson, Timothy; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The increasing scarcity of water resources (in terms of quantity and quality) is one of the most pervasive natural resource allocation issues facing development planners throughout the world.This problem is especially prevalent in less developed countries where the management of this valuable resource has become a critical policy concern.This authoritative new volume outlines the fundamental principles and difficulties that characterise this challenging task. The authors begin ...

  20. Problems of economic introduction of large heat sources into developing heat-supply systems

    By contrast with conventional heating stations, nuclear heat sources will be characterized by a considerably greater economic unit power. However, the large capacity which at once becomes available through the introduction of a nuclear heat source will be confronted with a slowly growing heat demand, and with limited economic possibilities of replacing conventional stations in the connected heat-supply system. The paper considers the gradually increasing utilization of this capacity and gives, by simplified methods, an economic evaluation of the introduction of nuclear heating plants, and of nuclear power plants with heat extraction. Conclusions on the principles of introducing nuclear heat sources are given. (author)

  1. Regeneration: how should the problem be addressed? A discussion paper commissioned from the Regeneration and Economic Development Analysis Expert Panel for the Regeneration Futures Roundtable.

    Syrett, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    What is the ‘problem’? The problem to be addressed is rooted in the uneven spatial distribution of economic activity and how this is constantly shifting over time.1 Historically different phases of economic development produce particular spatial and temporal fixes with their own geographic patterns of growth and deprivation. Evolving patterns of uneven economic development result from the constant interaction between wider processes of economic change (e.g. globalisation, sectoral change, ...

  2. Developing a Problem-Based Learning Simulation: An Economics Unit on Trade

    Maxwell, Nan L.; Mergendoller, John R.; Bellisimo, Yolanda

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the merger of simulations and problem-based learning (PBL) can enhance both active-learning strategies. Simulations benefit by using a PBL framework to promote student-directed learning and problem-solving skills to explain a simulated dilemma with multiple solutions. PBL benefits because simulations structure the…

  3. Rethinking Community Economic Development

    Ron Shaffer; Steve Deller; Dave Marcouiller

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present arguments for a more interdisciplinary approach to community economic development. Building an alternative paradigm that includes six elements—resources, markets, institutions, society, decision making, and space—they rethink the framework that links economic theory to the practice of community economic development. Major attention is paid to the integration of economic and noneconomic factors in the practice of community economic development. In the e...

  4. Nuclear power engineering problems as the political and economical problems

    The political and economic aspects of nuclear power engineering status in the countries of the former USSR nowadays are considered. The factors, which lead to the nuclear power crisis, are analyzed. It is shown that the state monopoly for developing the problems of nuclear power engineering and NPP operation plays the main part. The ways for possible crisis overcoming are suggested

  5. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  6. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  7. Energy and economic development

    This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development

  8. Malaria and economic development

    Thuilliez, Josselin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on the endogenous relationship between the health status of a population and the economic development of a nation. We focus on a wide phenomenon touching many low-income countries: malaria. Firstly, we propose to rethink the economic analysis of malaria by combining economic epidemiology tools with the poverty trap literature. The endogeneity of malaria with respect to households and individuals socioeconomic characteristics and choices remains a part...

  9. Entrepreneurship in economic development

    Naudé, Wim

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

  10. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system

  11. Rethinking Development Economics

    Stiglitz, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    "Twelve years ago, when I was chief economist of the World Bank, I suggested that the major challenge to development economics was learning the lessons of the previous several decades: a small group of countries, mostly in Asia, but a few in other regions, had had phenomenal success, beyond anything that had been anticipated by economists; while many other countries had experienced slow growth, or even worse, stagnation and decline—inconsistent with the standard models in economics which pred...

  12. The problems of pricing and selling socio-economic grey literature in Africa : the case of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation (NIR), University of Botswana

    Kwafo-Akoto, Kate (NIR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    In Africa, socio-economic grey literature (GL) constitutes a substantialproportion of literature produced especially in the universities through their research activities. The paper analyses some of the key problems encountered in pricing and selling GL produced by universities in Africa such as their specialised subject content which fail to appeal to the general public. Discusses the role being played by the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation in building the resear...

  13. Analyses and problems of spatial development for planning networks of social and economic infrastructure on the national level

    Peter Gulič

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport networks are the most important programmes of the European Union, more precisely, the network of fast railroads and the reorganisation of air traffic. In the North European area we are thus witness to intensive planning, design and positioning corner stones, that connect relations of mobility between expansive territorial basins and international destinations, as well as directing transport between global economies. These starting points are the basis for analysing defined needs in directing strategic spatial development in Slovenia and understanding spatial development problems in establishing priorities.

  14. Economical problems of nuclear district heating

    Foreign papers dealing with technical and economical investigations of the problems of designing the nuclear power plants for district heating are reviewed. Results of investigations devoted to optimizing the profile, equipment set, technological arrangement and main parameters of the nuclear power plants for district heating (NPPDH) are considered as well as the results of studying the NPPDH and the thermal power plants (TPP) economic contestability. Results of determination of the rational scale of NDHP development are presented. The investigations carried out in the GDR show that the optimal power of the WWER type reactor unit for the single-purpose nuclear district heating plant is 100 MW(t). The FRG specialists maintain that expenses on heat generation at NPPDH and TPP.will be equal, if the cost of the organic fuel is 2 dollars/GJ (which corresponds to the world level of prices for oil and coal from Ruhr) with the reactor unit power of 1000-1200 MW(t) and heat supply of 500-600 MW(t). It is stressed that in the FRG the NPPDH with a reactor of 2000 MW thermal power and the distance of heat transportation more than 20 km and the NPPDH with the reactor of 3000 MW thermal power and transportation distance more than 30 km can contest with a thermal power plant. The economically reasonable level of the centralized heat supply system use for district heating is, as a rule, 40-60 % of the theoretically possible level

  15. Ecuador: Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Ecuador during the 1990s. Inflation fell from an average of about 50 percent in 1988–92 to 22 percent in April 1995. Economic activity rebounded, and international reserves were rebuilt. Relations with foreign creditors were normalized through an “exit†Paris Club rescheduling in mid-1994 and the completion of a debt- and debt-service-reduction operation with external commercial creditors in early 1995 that was expected to facilitate the retu...

  16. States and Economic Development

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  17. Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power

    Vodzinsk Vladimr

    2000-01-01

    In presented article Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical p...

  18. Economic issues in the legacy problem

    Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Economic Problems, and Delinquency

    Agnew, Robert; Matthews, Shelley Keith; Bucher, Jacob; Welcher, Adria N.; Keyes, Corey

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and delinquency is not as strong as suggested by the leading crime theories. This article argues that such theories do not predict that SES in and of itself causes delinquency but rather that the economic problems associated with SES cause delinquency. Such problems…

  20. Perspectives on Urban Economic Development.

    Ray, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the alternative meaning of economic development in an urban context and attempts to link the literature on community development in North America to concepts about economic development in developing countries. Looks at five strategies of community-based economic development, emphasizing internationalization of development policy. (Author)

  1. Dependent Data in Economic and Financial Problems

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Vol. 1. Praha : Professional Publishing, Mikulova 1572/13, 149 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic, 2011 - (Dlouhý, M.; Skočdopolová, V.), s. 327-332 ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [29th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Janská Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic programming * Wasserstein metric * L_1norm * Empirical estimates * One-stage problems * Multistage problems * Independent samples * m-dependent samples * Markov dependence * Phi-mixing random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/kankova-dependent data in economic and financial problems.pdf

  2. Economic Dispatch Problem using Bat Algorithm

    Yamina Ahlem GHERBI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A BAT algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is presented in this paper. The modern power system has become very complex in nature with consumption of the electric power which is in rise progression and this tendency increases with the industrialization and the growth of the population. Moreover, one loss of alimentation can cause the interruption of the various production processes, and in front of consumers who become increasingly demanding by wanting more energy and better quality, the companies of production of electrical energy must thus ensure the regular provisioning of this request, and without interruption, but these requirements compromise the cost of generation. Application of BAT algorithm in this paper is based on mathematical modeling to solve economic dispatch problems by a single equivalent objective function. The algorithm is tested on 6-unit system. BAT algorithm is easy to implement and better than other algorithms in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  4. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  5. On some problems of physical economics

    Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Economic Development and Institutions

    Vronique Dutraive

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une exploration et une analyse du nouveau programme de recherche institutionnaliste (appel NNIE appliqu la question du dveloppement. Les sources de ce programme sont attribues aux travaux de D.North et aux enseignements issus des expriences de transition. Inversement, larticle value linfluence de ce programme sur les politiques de dveloppement prconises par les organisations internationales.This paper offers an overview and an inquiry into what I will call the New New Institutional Economics (NNIE. D.Norths analysis and transition experiments are considered as major sources of this research program. The implications of this NNIE for the development policies recommended or requested by international organizations are also discussed.

  7. Estimating the Effects of Economic Problem Solving in Elementary Schools.

    Walstad, William B.

    This study evaluates the Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary School (USMES) curriculum developed by the Education Development Center in Massachusetts. Effects of using USMES materials on students' economic understanding, attitudes, and problem-solving ability were explored. The research also examined the simultaneous relationship…

  8. The population problem as economic disarticulation.

    Yapa, L S

    1985-01-01

    The author rejects neo-Malthusian concepts of population problems in developing countries and develops the hypothesis that overpopulation exists where people lack the basic means of subsistence or suffer massive unemployment, both symptoms of dependent capitalism according to the author. Population problems are analyzed in the context of divisions among social classes and resource utilization based on these divisions. The need for developing societies to gain independence from imported technology is stressed. PMID:12178552

  9. Editorial: Economic Development (November 2010)

    Saad Bashir; Chris McPhee

    2010-01-01

    Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local gov...

  10. NEW CONCEPT FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    HASAN, Sabri Hussein

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is the biggest challenge facing the international community because poverty is a threat to human life, rights, and dignity. So poverty is the most prolific resource feeding terrorism and Political and social disturbances. This research aims to provide a new concept for Economic development, including all Economic and social and political aspects, because Economic development is a comprehensive operation. we find that our definition of Economic Development is a comprehensive one, compr...

  11. Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Bazhenov Yu. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  12. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  13. Bangladesh : Development Forum Economic Update

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report reviews recent economic developments, showing economic growth continues to its path, and, aided by global economic recovery, export growth remains strong. The forex market has been stable since the national currency (taka) was floated in by the end-May 2003. The fiscal stance for FY04 remains expansionary, but within prudent limits, and without straining fiscal sustainability, w...

  14. Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In presented article „Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power“ I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical policy. After that I tried to define resulting facts from such process.When I wanted to achieve stated goal, I describe information process and integration problems of Slovac Republic, especially what is neccessary when we want to be ready to create assumptions for future development. I evaluate development in Slovac Republic as a period of the wasted occasions, that remove from society essential part of competitive advantages, that would enable society to integrate to the european structure from the economical, as well as from the social view as relatively equal society.Consequently I described globalisation process and trespassing of economical power, where first of all I mentioned signs of concrete social environment in present time. After such description I mentioned basic fact, that are forming global policy, goals and ways of tools applying of such policy.In last part I mentioned bearers of economical power in global economy. In conclusion I can state, that as concern to the transitive states of middle and eastern Europe, bearers of economical power have elaborated shocking scenario of its transmission to the market economy. In presented article I wanted to present process that would be basis, very important for realizastion of economies restructuralisation.Since till now mentioned fact was successfully achieved only in few cases, monopolisation of decision on the level of institutions, that manage forming of global economy as well as pressing of strongest economical subjects interests in world economical system are results of mentioned development.

  15. Economic Growth and Human Development

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Ranis, Gustav

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the links between economic growth and human development, identifying two chains, one from economic growth to human development, the other, from human development to economic growth. The importance of various links in each chain are explored empirically with the help of cross-country statistics for the period 1970-92. Public expenditures on health and education, notably female, represent especially important links determining the strength of the relationship between economi...

  16. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    Aseev, Sergei M; Besov, Konstantin O; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V

    2012-04-30

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  17. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  18. Evolutionary programming techniques for different kinds of economic dispatch problems

    Jayabarathi, T.; Jayaprakash, K.; Raghunathan, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 (India); Jeyakumar, D.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2005-02-01

    This paper is aimed at exploring the performance of the different evolutionary programming (EP) techniques for all kinds of economic dispatch (ED) problems. The three EP techniques considered here differ in the kind of mutation they use: Gaussian, Cauchy and combined Gaussian-Cauchy mutation. The kinds of problems tested are: ED of generators with prohibited operating zones (POZ), ED of generators with piecewise quadratic cost functions (PQCF), combined economic-environmental dispatch (CEED) and multi-area economic dispatch (MAED). The three EP techniques have been developed in Matlab 6.5 and numerical examples typical to each kind of ED have been tested. The simulation results are compared and discussed to show the relative performances of the different EP techniques.

  19. Regional and economic development

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. Entrepreneurship and economic development

    Jean Bonnet

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development and entrepreneurship. Given the neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on that relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanced in this ...

  1. Population, poverty and economic development

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on ...

  2. Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.

    Kale, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

  3. Differential evolution algorithm for emission constrained economic power dispatch problem

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; Spea, S.R. [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University (Egypt); Abido, M.A. [Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed to solve emission constrained economic power dispatch (ECEPD) problem. Traditionally electric power systems are operated in such a way that the total fuel cost is minimized regardless of emissions produced. With increased requirements for environmental protection, alternative strategies are required. The proposed algorithm attempts to reduce the production of atmospheric emissions such as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, caused by the operation of fossil-fueled thermal generation. Such reduction is achieved by including emissions as a constraint in the objective of the overall dispatching problem. A simple constraint approach to handle the system constraints is proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30-bus system and is compared with conventional methods. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the emission constrained economic power dispatch problem. (author)

  4. NON-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: METHODOLOGY AND INFLUENCE

    Barashov, N.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with research methodology of non-economic determinants of economic development. The author considers various theoretical approaches to definition of economic growth factors. Considerable attention is given to studying possible influence of non-economic determinants on quality of economic development.

  5. President's Role in Economic Development.

    Kopecek, Robert J.

    This document focuses on the role of community college presidents in the varied activities entailed by economic development. Specifically, the paper addresses those activities that involve the political, financial, and economic aspects of regional or county planning, marketing and financing. First, definitions are provided of two types of economic…

  6. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

  7. Institutions, Economic Development, and Deforestation

    Grimm, Michael; Klasen, Stephan; Schwarze, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a unified framework linking two important debates: First, the debate about the respective roles of geography and institutions on economic development; Second, the literature on the role of technological change and economic development on agricultural intensification and land use changes. We use this framework to study empirically deforestation patterns at the rainforest margin. To this end we specify an empirical model that can explore the causal chain ranging from geographi...

  8. Essays on Development Economics

    Islam, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies agricultural technology adoption, child labor and development. Although adoption of fertilizers has been high in South Asia, farmers may fail to use it efficiently. Besides higher costs incurred by households engaged in agriculture, inefficient use of fertilizers may also have negative consequences for the environment. The first chapter of this dissertation uses a field experiment in Bangladesh to study whether providing farmers access to a simple rule-of-thumb tool ...

  9. Essays on development economics

    Molina Campodonico, Oswaldo; Dercon, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of essays on the relevance of property right reforms on the wellbeing of poor households in developing countries; specifically titling programmes in urban Peru. The first essay assesses the effects of titling on housing investment. The availability of a unique dataset permits us to trace households' investment behaviour. This allows us to investigate if tenure security induces households to make sizeable investments, the evolution of this effect over ti...

  10. Economic Globalization, Marketization Reform and Economic Development in China

    Yuan, Yanhui; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01

    Economic globalization is one of the hottest topics among academics, government agencies and other concerned organizations. This paper investigates whether the overall benefits of economic globalization are greater than their costs, and discusses the interaction among economic globalization, economic development, and marketization reform in China, so as to present an answer to the question of how China should participate in economic globalization.

  11. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  12. Social Sectors in Economic Development

    K Seeta Prabhu

    1998-01-01

    The paper examines the role of social sectors in economic development from the point of view of two distinct approaches. viz.. human resource development arid human development. It advocates the adoption of the latter approach as it ensures not only equity but also sustained growth in the long run.

  13. STRATEGY OF TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL ASPECT

    V. Medvid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.

  14. Higher Education and Economic Development in India

    Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    It is essential for economic development with the physical objects-with the development of human capital is required. But of these who we need to be the first priority of the problem is old. Especially in the development of human capital is higher education, there happened an important place in this area is person?s aproductively ability. Higher education saw the economic scale is clearly evident in the market demand for services which have pace. Returns to scale cost-benefit analysis and eco...

  15. Economic Development: Threats and Opportunities

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2012-01-01

    Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology) known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by ec...

  16. Three essays on economic development

    Méndez Errico, Paula Luciana

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to study some of the mechanisms suggested by the economic literature as factors that could prevent individuals from attaining certain domains of well-being. This thesis is divided in three independent essays providing new evidence on three issues within the field of economic development: the effect of social networks on immigrants' labor market outcomes (first essay), the long-lasting impact of income inequality on entrepreneurial success and job cre...

  17. Culture, Diffusion, and Economic Development

    Harutyunyan, Ani; Özak, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the effects of culture on technological diffusion and economic development. It shows that culture's direct effects on development and barrier effects to technological diffusion are, in general, observationally equivalent. In particular, using a large set of cultural measures, it establishes empirically that pairwise differences in contemporary development are associated with pairwise cultural differences relative to the technological frontier, only in cases where obse...

  18. Community Economic Development in Utah

    William N. Wrigley; W. Cris Lewis

    2002-01-01

    The authors conducted a two-stage survey of community economic development professionals in Utah. Their objectives were to elicit information about three components of local development effort and to assess the success of differential strategies for development. Emphasis was given to the differential ratings of tools and programs by officials in large urban areas and those in smaller cities. The authors found that labor force quality, proximity to highways, the availability of other transport...

  19. Measuring the economic costs of discrimination experienced by people with mental health problems: development of the Costs of Discrimination Assessment (CODA)

    Wright, Steve; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham; Sharac, Jessica; McCrone, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Stigma and discrimination are faced by many with mental health problems and this may affect the uptake of services and engagement in leisure and recreational activities. The aims of this study were to develop a schedule to measure the impact of stigma and discrimination on service use, employment and leisure activities and to estimate the value of such reductions. Methods A questionnaire, the Cost of Discrimination Assessment, was developed and piloted in a sample people with mental h...

  20. Immune algorithm for solving the smooth economic dispatch problem

    Aragón, Victoria S.; Esquivel, Susana Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an algorithm inspired on the T-Cell model of the immune system is presented, it is used to solve Economic Dis- patch Problems with smooth objective function. The proposed approach is called IA EDP S, which stands for Immune Algorithm for Economic Dispatch Problem for smooth objective function, and it uses as differenti- ation process a redistribution power operator. The proposed approach is validated using five problems taken from the specialized literature. Our results are com...

  1. Facilitating economic development through the reform of economic instruction

    Osipian, Ararat

    2004-01-01

    Economic development in many ways depends on the level of human capital in the national economy, including that of economists. Market reforms in the former Soviet Bloc urged drastic changes in economic curriculum necessary to prepare the next generation of economic leaders. This paper states that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on ...

  2. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  3. SOME THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Abesadze, Ramaz

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some theoretical and applied issues of economic development with special emphasis on the relationship between economic development and economic growth, the factors and indicators of economic development, and its peculiarities in developed, developing and transition countries, including Georgia.

  4. Development Economics as Taught in Developing Countries

    McKenzie, David; Paffhausen, Anna Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a combination of survey questions to instructors and data collected from course syllabi and examinations to examine how the subject of development economics is taught at the undergraduate and masters levels in developing countries, and benchmark this against undergraduate classes in the United States. The study finds that there is considerable heterogeneity in what is consi...

  5. Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece

    Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The ...

  6. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.

    1979-04-01

    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  7. Sustainable Economic Development. A Paradigm Change

    Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

    1995-01-01

    At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept of "sustainable development" which has guided the discussion and policies regarding the environment, has implied the possibility of a...

  8. Social capital and economic development

    ????????, ?????? ??????????; ????????, ??????? ??????????; Mishenina, Natalia Viktorivna; Oliynik, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature on social capital and development and identifies key properties of this concept that are then used in a model illustrating the potential welfare effects from social capital, in terms of both wellbeing and economic benefits. The model focuses on access to inputs into the growth process and identifies necessary conditions for benefits from social capital in terms of the availability of the right kind of intermediary making access to capital resources possible, a...

  9. Three Essays In Development Economics

    Aggarwal, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained chapters on development economics. The dissertation is focused primarily on the effects of road provision on rural households' decisions to invest in physical and human capital, specifically agricultural technology, health, and education. As a separate project, I also look at the impact of microcredit and microsavings on business-financing in sub-Saharan Africa.In the first chapter, entitled "Do Rural Roads create Pathways out of Poverty? Evi...

  10. Introduction: Long term economic development

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  11. Introduction: Long term economic development

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  12. Population growth and economic development.

    Corbridge, S

    1989-01-01

    The Malthusian and neo-Malthusian approaches to the role of population growth in economic development and resource depletion are briefly outlined. Three arguments are then presented that emphasize demographic determinism, empirical evidence, and cause and effect. The author concludes that non-coercive family planning programs may have a role to play in countries that are unable to reduce inequalities, particularly for the poor and for women. PMID:12316895

  13. Topics in Local Economic Development

    Bubbico, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current debate in literature about local economic development by considering two different topics: quality of institutions, and the role of clusters in innovation and productivity growth. The research is built upon three papers. The first paper deals with the analysis of the effect of administrative continuity on administrative efficiency. The analysis underlines the importance of different typologies of social capital. Findings reveal a positive impact on ...

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA

    2013-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

  15. Rare-Earth Economics: The Balance Problem

    Binnemans, K.; Jones, P. T.; Van Acker, K.; Blanpain, B.; Mishra, B.; Apelian, D.

    2013-07-01

    TMS has forged cooperative agreements with several carefully selected organizations that actively work to benefit the materials science community. In this occasional series, JOM will provide an update on the activities of these organizations. This installment, by the Center for Resource Recovery & Recycling (CR3), focuses on the importance of recycling of rare earths to mitigate the so-called Balance Problem. The CR3 is a research center established by Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Colorado School of Mines, and KU Leuven. Twenty-eight corporations and national laboratories along with support from the U.S. National Science Foundation's Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) program are sponsors of the center.

  16. Teaching Economics to the Best Undergraduates: What Are the Problems?

    Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students with negative repercussions on their performance. The literature suggests that the students' problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the style and method of teaching together with the course content. Particularly attacked are the chalk and talk…

  17. ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  18. Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    Hardiansyah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD problem is a common task in the operational planning of a power system, which requires to be optimized. This paper presents an effective and reliable particle swarm optimization (PSO technique for the economic load dispatch problem. The results have been demonstrated for ELD of standard 3-generator and 6-generator systems with and without consideration of transmission losses. The final results obtained using PSO are compared with conventional quadratic programming and found to be encouraging.

  19. The economic crisis and the great problems of mankind

    C?t?lin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU; Alexandru C?t?lin POPA

    2014-01-01

    The economic crisis that humanity is currently facing proves to be the most severe one since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Poor financial system, unsustainable public debt and competitiveness inequalities in the world have greatly contributed to the crisis. Naturally, economic policy makers are concerned about problems related to the restoration of fiscal, trade and monetary balances and are trying to boost investment, employment and consumption. Solving these problems is difficult, but ...

  20. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Samir SAYAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  2. Satellite Television for Development: Problems and Prospects.

    Fisher, Hal

    1988-01-01

    Examines issues relating to the use of satellite television for development in advancing nations. Obstacles which impede effective use are discussed, including technological disparities, economic factors, regulatory problems, and fear of domination and control. Prospects which offer promise are also reviewed, including cooperative exchanges,…

  3. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  4. Problems of Ukraine trade potential development

    Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

  5. Nuclear power and economic development: India

    It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables

  6. Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand

    Anawat Bunnag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholders value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in 2007, his work has become worldwide recognized as an efficient means towards sustainable development with a focus on human development. The philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is basically a means to achieve happiness at the individual, community and country levels because the Sufficiency Economy Approach is applicable to the micro and macro levels. All the principles are much related to human development process toward right living, therefore right interaction and relation with other beings on this planet including natural resources. From this basis, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy provides a practical tool to cultivate necessary conditions and to alter human well-being through happiness development process.

  7. Problems of IT startups’ development in Ukraine

    Mrykhina, Oleksandra

    2013-01-01

    This article contains researched features of the formation and development of the IT startups in Ukraine; potential of the domestic Internet market from the standpoint of creating startups; problems and prospects of Ukrainian startups’ advancement in the transitional economics are analyzed and the main ways of stimulation of their development are proved. A special attention is paid to the article assessment of technology transfer of IT startups. The article includes a comparative analysis ...

  8. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

  9. Solution of Economic Dispatch Problem using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    C.Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED with transmission loss by satisfying the linear equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA.

  10. The Weak Link Theory of Economic Development

    Jones, Charles I

    2007-01-01

    Per capita income in the richest countries of the world exceeds that in the poorest countries by more than a factor of 50. What explains these enormous differences? This paper returns to an old idea in development economics and proposes that complementarity and linkages are at the heart of the explanation. Just as a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, problems at any point in a production chain can reduce output substantially if inputs enter production in a complementary fashion. Thi...

  11. Particle swarm optimization for various types of economic dispatch problems

    Jeyakumar, D.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu (India); Jayabarathi, T.; Raghunathan, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TamilNadu (India)

    2006-01-15

    This paper describes a successful adaptation of the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED) problems in power systems such as, multi-area ED with tie line limits, ED with multiple fuel options, combined environmental economic dispatch, and the ED of generators with prohibited operating zones. Numerical examples typical to each type are solved on Matlab 6.5 platform, using both the PSO method and the classical evolutionary programming (CEP) approach. The results obtained show that the proposed PSO based ED algorithm can provide comparable dispatch solutions with reduced computation time for all types of ED problems. (author)

  12. Resonances from Economic Development for current economic policymaking

    Ruane, Frances

    2008-01-01

    On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.

  13. How Economics Influences Students' Views about Development

    Cunningham, John

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed by some social scientists that studying economics and economic models has a narrowing effect on students’ views. This thesis discusses how economics may influence a student’s views about development. As part of the investigation into this issue, one hundred and sixty-six economics students completed questionnaires and thirty-seven of these students were also interviewed. The research has not uncovered much evidence to indicate that studying economic models has a narrowi...

  14. Short Communication: Global warming Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-01-01

    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is a...

  15. Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects

    Abubakar, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria. Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies ripe more benefits from globalization among others that they should provide economic environments that are conducive, capable of attracting foreign investors and strong enough to support the strength and capacity of the domestic industry, otherwise, the globalization opportunities could only be seen as a mirage.

  16. A Problem of Graphics: Economics and the Blind.

    O'Donnell, Margaret G.

    1991-01-01

    Recounts a college economics professor's attempts to explain macroeconomic concepts to a blind student. Considers how explanations of economics principles often rely on graphic presentations. Describes experimental tactile adaptation, using graphs made out of sandpaper, yarn, spaghetti, and other materials. Recommends developing prefabricated…

  17. Electricity use and economic development

    A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)

  18. Assets of Nation (Pyramid of Economic Development)

    Ahmed, Ovais; mashkoor, Aasim

    2015-01-01

    The theory of economic development have designed to explore the assets of nations which explain and analyzed the emphasize on Water crisis, deforestation, land of agriculture for yield and minerals. these are the main resources of improving and generating economic health. we analyzed further significant factors which help to designed the qualitative theory of economic development.

  19. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... development as well as public expenditures....

  20. Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City

    A. Berezhna; Yu. Popova

    2010-01-01

    The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural), generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of fu...

  1. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Dore MH; Burton I

    2003-07-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  2. Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City

    A. Berezhna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

  3. Innovation, economic diversification and human development

    Hartmann, Dominik; Pyka, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we bridge a gap between innovation economics and the human development approach by analyzing positive and negative effects of different types of economic diversification on social welfare. Economic variety is a driver and outcome of economic development. However, diversification leads to ambiguous effects on the well-being of human agents: on the one hand, increasing variety augments the freedom of human agents to choose. On the other hand, it can overburden their capabilities t...

  4. Problems and Prospects of Ensuring Economic Safety of the Construction Organizations ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????

    Achkasov Anatoliy Ye.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific-theoretical problems of construction branch of Ukraine in aspect of external financial and economic safety of the construction organizations are investigated. Financial and economic bases of functioning of a construction complex and investment dominants of its sustainable development are analysed. Deterrents of development of construction business are defined. It is system the perspective directions of development of construction branch and their coordination communications with environment are presented.??????????? ??????-????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????. ???????????????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?? ??????????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????.

  5. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Kristina A. Menshikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  6. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development

    Holger Strulik

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  7. Energy consumption and economic development

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  8. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: WHO CARES?

    J. McNeill

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author, an experienced anthropologist who worked in Central and Eastern Europe, has used his "outsider" professional perspective to look at questions of greed and need as they relate to matters of economics. The problems that arise due human fallibility in scientific knowledge application have been considered, specifically in the fields of anthropology and economics. Basing on the experience of anthropologists, whose scientific research has often been used in the past century to abuse vulnerable people groups, the author argues that the need for ethical standards and practices is even more urgent in the field of economics than it is in anthropology. The increased urgency results from the great influence that money has on human behavior. The development of standards and practices to check and balance human tendencies to exploit others will never be complete, he claims, but must be an ongoing priority. The process must also be creative to deal with the tendency to try to avoid or circumvent it. It has been concluded that we are professionally responsible to ensure that the results of our research and teaching help produce improving care for the needs of vulnerable people in the world around us.

  9. Essays in Behavioral and Development Economics

    Rao, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three essays in empirical economics. These essays are united by three clear intellectual and methodological themes. First, each essay attempts to bring theories and insights from psychology to bear on open questions in economics, with a focus on topics of importance to developing countries. Second, they use experiments - both randomized field experiments and natural experiments - to test economic theory. Finally, each paper attempts to measure economically im...

  10. The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?

    Stéphane J. Baele

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

  11. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more

  12. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  13. Economics of Software Product Development Collectives

    Michael Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Where software product development occurs is shifting from single companies to groups or collectives of companies. In this article, we retrace the evolution of how software product development is organized and then offer insights into the economic motivation for collectives, which will be relevant to companies considering joining a software product development collective. Building on the literature on software product line economics, we identify three factors affecting the economics of collec...

  14. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Problems via Heavy Tails

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Busines Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 396-401 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization problems * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tailed distributions * stable distribution * Pareto distribution * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Kankova-empirical estimates in economic and financial problems via heavy tails.pdf

  15. A distributed solution to the adjustable robust economic dispatch problem

    Lorenzen, Matthias; Bürger, Mathias; Giuseppe NOTARSTEFANO; Allgöwer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The problem of maintaining balance between consumption and production of electric energy in the presence of a high share of intermittent power sources in a transmission grid is addressed. A distributed, asynchronous optimization algorithm, based on the ideas of cutting-plane approximations and adjustable robust counterparts, is presented to compute economically optimal adjustable dispatch strategies. These strategies guarantee satisfaction of the power balancing constraint as well as of the o...

  16. Economic sense and problems of mineral raw economy

    This book consider the role of mineral raw recourses in the society life, historical development of rock-ore business, the areas of applying of mineral raw, economic aspects, tendencies and prospects of their development in our country and abroad. In this work also was paid attention to exhaustion of profitable mineral recourses and measures of their rational using

  17. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  18. Law, economic growth and human development

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law channels. As a policy implication results support benefits of the rule o...

  19. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete...

  20. Colonial Heritage and Economic Development

    Asoni, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    While the importance of institutions for explaining cross-country income differences is widely recognized, comparatively little is known about the origins of economic institutions. One strand of the literature emphasizes cultural differences while another points at exogenous environmental factors such as mortality and climate. Both are supported by some empirical evidence. I reconcile the two schools of institutional origins by proposing a theory of self-selection of colonists to different ge...

  1. Russian Federation Monthly Economic Developments

    Hansl, Birgit; Cosic, Damir; Emelyanova, Olga; Kida, Mizuho; Matytsin, Mikhail; Vashakmadze, Ekaterine

    2014-01-01

    Second quarter gross domestic product (GDP) estimates and high-frequency indicators suggest continued weakness in the economy even before the latest round of economic sanctions introduced by the European Union (EU), the United States (U.S.), and other countries in late July. The World Bank maintains its current 0.5 percent growth projection for 2014. Inflation slowed in July, but the wide-...

  2. ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY

    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.

  3. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

  4. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....

  5. Adventuresports and Economic Development Team Up.

    Baldwin, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Adventuresports Institute offers a two-year degree program at Garrett Community College (McHenry, Maryland) that combines courses in adventure sports with economics, marketing, environmental science, and events management. The goal is to develop an infrastructure for the adventure sport industry and promote economic development in Appalachia based…

  6. BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE REGION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Pshunetlev A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines

  7. TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Todt Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  8. Promiscuous elites and economic development

    Brezis, Elise S

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interconnection between elites and its effects on economic growth. For decades, the bureaucratic elite has been joining the business elite after leaving office, and this in growing numbers. This relationship has been termed “the revolving door” in English, “pantouflage” in French, and “amakudari” [descent from heaven] in Japanese. The purpose of this paper is to explain why this social behavior takes place, and why the political elite does not try to prevent it. Moreov...

  9. Economics of organisations and development

    Cusolito, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    La presente tesis contiene tres ensayos sobre la Econom??a de las Organizaciones y el Desarrollo Econ??mico. Cada cap??tulo se centra en un t??pico distinto, cuya relevancia ha sido destacada por la literatura sobre Desarrollo Econ??mico en la ??ltimas dos d??cadas.La motivaci??n del primer ensayo reside en el hecho de que el inapropiado funcionamiento de las instituciones pol??ticas y econ??micas constituye un obst??culo severo para el progreso econ??mico. El ensayo analiza el rol de la con...

  10. Organizational And Economic Resources Greening Regional Development

    Vladimir Prykhodko

    2012-01-01

    The paper paid attention to the basics of ecological regional development. The main approaches to environmental policy at the national and regional levels of government. Creation of organizational and economic instruments that provide environmentalizing regional development.

  11. Does Economic Crisis Affect Sustainable Development?

    Alina Cristina Nuţă; Anca Gabriela Turtureanu; Florian Marcel Nuţă

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of our work is to show how sustainable development is defined and measuredand to highlight the impact of economic crisis on social, environmental, economic and institutional of thisconcept. Our paper is focused on 3 dimensions regarding sustainable development: first section is oriented tocreate an theoretical approach of the sustainable development aspects that include an old and new literaturereview in this respect, the second part present the sustainable development indi...

  12. Financial Development, Human Capital and Economic Growth

    Wan, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Financial development and human capital are the important driving forces of economic and social development in Shandong Province, and the level of them as well as the degree of coordination between the two not only affects the transformation of economic development pattern in Shandong Province, but also affects the implementation of leapfrog development strategy in Shandong Province. Through the study, it is found that there is a long-term stable dynamic equilibrium relationship among economi...

  13. Demographic Trends and Economic Problems: A Challenge for Swedish Education.

    Dahllof, Urban

    1981-01-01

    Present economic difficulties in Sweden, it is suggested, pose a threat to educational policy for which demographic development could otherwise offer alternatives aimed primarily at promoting qualitative progress. The present demographic situation is dominated by changes in three dimensions: the size of its younger age groups, internal migration,…

  14. Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision

    Sergei Udin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.

  15. Financial Development, Financial Openness, and Economic Growth

    Estrada, Gemma; Park, Donghyun; Ramayandi, Arief

    2015-01-01

    A sound and efficient financial system is an indispensable ingredient of economic growth. It consists primarily of banks and capital markets, which channel savings into investments and other productive activities that contribute to economic growth and augment the economy's productive capacity. This paper explains the importance of financial development and openness. It sifts through the literature on the relationship between both variables and economic growth. It then reports the results and ...

  16. A Model of Quantum Economic Development

    Sobey, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Quantum Economic Development (or the QED MODEL) is an entirely new field of theoretical economic conceptualisation into the evolutionary end point of the New Global Economy. A full description of the process of forming a kernel of fundamental 'quantum like' logic of the architecture and mechanics of these totally new quantum economies is included, as well as some of the more urgent and suggested effects on Humanity. The interdisciplinary boundaries of Free Market Economics and Quant...

  17. Economic development in rural Canada

    Aris, S. [Canadian Wind Energy Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the impact that the wind power industry has had on the rural community of Pincher Creek, Alberta. Rural communities dominated by agriculture are facing threats to traditional agriculture by competing interests, climate change and economies of scale. The elements of success that the wind industry can bring to the agricultural community include land owner compensation, land tax assessment, property values, green energy and community pride. This presentation included slides of the construction and commissioning phases of the Pincher Creek wind turbine array. The beneficial economic outcomes per 100 MW in the short- and long-term periods were outlined. The wind energy project has brought millions of dollars into the local economy and there is strong public support for the wind industry in Pincher Creek. tabs., figs.

  18. Economism

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  19. THE ROLE OF ART AND CULTURE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    S.R. KESHAVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual

  20. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....

  1. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Optimization Problems

    Houda, Michal; Kaňková, Vlasta

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 50-69. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/houda-empirical estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf

  2. Academic Libraries and Regional Economic Development.

    Fiscella, Joan B.; Ringel, Joan D.

    Academic libraries should follow the practice adopted by some academic institutions during recent periods of economic scarcity and develop economic and political ties with the business community, a partnership that could provide genuine benefits for members of the business community, elected officials, and academia. An example of such cooperation…

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A HEALTH ECONOMICS APPROACH

    Marius Ioan Pantea; Delia Gligor

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the link between health economics and its determinants and sustainable development, emphasizing the significance that quality, equity and accessibility of health services have on the populations’ health, with implications upon the sustainable development of a society. The concept of sustainable development, although widely used, has different meanings, being  an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Since health effects are one of the drivi...

  4. Does Economic Growth Promote Financial Development?

    Michael Adusei

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010) from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM) estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financ...

  5. Design of the regions economic development strategy

    Olga Patsuk

    2010-01-01

    At present Russian economy is undergoing the same trends of the modern economic development, which take place in developed countries. These processes comprise globalization, advanced development of the service industries, post-industrial society formation, intellectual component expansion in the results of any industry, informatization of the society, running out of traditional sources of social and economic growth. In such conditions search for new ways and factors of the regional self-deve...

  6. Economic Growth and Stock Market Development

    Aurora Sanchez

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines Japan’s equity capital market to find out whether stock market development proceeds from, or precedes, economic growth. It first starts with a general description of the capital market, its principal players and the various methods of financing investment. It then explores the relationship of economic growth and capital market development, focusing on the Japanese experience. The empirical evidence illustrates the case of growth first before stock market development, a find...

  7. ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND THE LABOR POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Volodymyr Moroz; Mykhaylo Moroz

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the results of reasoning of the presence of connection between the level of economic freedom in the country and the level of development of labor potential of an individual. As an informational and analytical base for conducting the scientific research, there were used the results of study The Heritage Foundation & the Wall Street Journal (Index of Economic Freedom) and United Nations Development Programme (Human Development index) from 2005 to 2011. In addition, the ar...

  8. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  9. PUBLIC GOODS AND THE PROBLEM OF ECONOMIC CALCULUS

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be for the production of essential assets that are neglected by private investors. The problem is how to choose between public possibilities of spending the money after the application of the first criteria.

  10. An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems

    R.Subramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Dispatch(ED problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA, for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the FA to ED for different Test Case system. ED is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Simulated Annealing (SA, Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, and Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  11. Development of economical decontamination processes

    The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

  12. Development Economics: A Theoretical and Historical Perspective

    Davide Gualerzi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project aiming at revitalizing high development theory". It examines the roots of development economics, tracing it back to the seminal contributions of European émigrés to the UK and the US in the 1930s. Developed mainly by German speaking economists it became very influential in the 1950s and 1960. It was virtually pushed out of economic theory and research by the new course in economic analysis, relying more and more on a formalized approach. Discussing the r...

  13. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    O.V. Kornukh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative changes of an economic component of a corporation’s activities conditioned by the level of innovativeness of all kinds of activities for providing economic growth within the chosen mission, motivation and activity intellectualization. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The study made enables stating the fact that the category «corporation’s economic development» transforms into the category «corporation’s economic and innovative development» and from this perspective all components of the latter will be treated as «corporation’s operational and innovative development», «corporation’s financial and innovative development», «corporation’s investment and innovative development» and «corporation’s logistic and innovative development». Also working out a system of dynamic indicators for determining the level of innovativeness of a corporation’s economic development and a system of motivating and intellectualizing a corporation’s economic and innovative activities is a direction for further research.

  14. Research on Water Resource Problems of Capital Economic Circle Based on Circular Economy

    SHA, JingHua; Xiang, Nan; Guo, Lin; Gu, Runbo

    2010-01-01

    Capital Economic Circle that is located in north of China belongs to water resources shortage regions. The per capita water of it is only 1/7 of the per capita water of the whole country, and 1/30 of the per capita water of the whole world. Thus water resources problems become one of the key factors that restrict regional development. According to the analysis of water resources situation in Capital Economic Circle, in this paper we find out some main problems existing in regional water resou...

  15. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked as...... number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new...

  16. Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development

    The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)

  17. STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Vazakidis Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.

  18. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home

  19. How behavioral economics can help to avoid The last mile problem in whole genome sequencing

    Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S.; Amy L. McGuire; Green, Robert C.; Ubel, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Editorial summary Failure to consider lessons from behavioral economics in the case of whole genome sequencing may cause us to run into the last mile problem - the failure to integrate newly developed technology, on which billions of dollars have been invested, into society in a way that improves human behavior and decision-making.

  20. Stages of growth in economic development

    Kejak, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2003), s. 771-800. ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : growth * human capital * development Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2003

  1. Nuclear power for economic development

    Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

  2. Euroregion and Local Economic Development

    Roxana-Maria Toma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerns for regional development policies and strategies are included in the classification basedon NUTS I, II, III, the European Union as a priority aiming to overcome the gaps between countries, areas,regions, urban and rural non-discriminatory basis as balanced.

  3. Euroregion and Local Economic Development

    Roxana-Maria Toma

    2012-01-01

    Concerns for regional development policies and strategies are included in the classification basedon NUTS I, II, III, the European Union as a priority aiming to overcome the gaps between countries, areas,regions, urban and rural non-discriminatory basis as balanced.

  4. Essays in Development Economics and Trade

    Vivalt, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Economic development has the potential to improve lives. Three issues that directly affect economic development are conflict, trade, and innovation, the subjects of the three chapters in this dissertation.Conflict causes enormous suffering, but the study of peacekeeping is plagued by endogeneity issues. The first chapter in this dissertation uses an instrumental variables approach to estimate the effectiveness of U.N. peacekeepers at ending episodes of conflict, maintaining the peace once pea...

  5. Environment, human development and economic growth

    Costantini, Valeria; Monni, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic growth are mainly analyzed through the so-call...

  6. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2006-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

  7. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    R. Prathiba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

  8. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development

  9. DEVELOPING INDIA: INCLUSIVE POLICY AND ECONOMIC INCLUSION

    Suryawanshi S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on to study the overall socio-economic condition and the development process through the government as well banking services and achieving sustainable development through the fulfillment of all basic needs of weaker section of society and eradicate social exclusion in this agree-based, developing, mix-economy accepted democratic country to make positive changes

  10. Economic problems in the field of nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    Aimed at optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle some economic aspects of the spent fuel reprocessing in Western Europe and the USA are surveyed in terms of data published up to 1973. Given the projected demand for reprocessing capacities the total spent fuel reprocessing costs are summarized as well as their ingradients and contributions to nuclear electricity generating costs. Capital, operation and maintenance costs and their dependence on productivity and load factor of reprocessing plants are identified with a reference on different reprocessing technologies. Relative contributions of spent fuel storage and transportation, fuel losses, waste disposal and reprocessing plants location to the fuel reprocessing costs are discussed. Economic aspects of developing single- and multipurpose plants to reprocess spent fuels from different types of reactors are also considered

  11. VOICE PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATIONS OF ROMANIAN AND ENGLISH ECONOMIC TEXTS

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid repetition of the subject; c to put emphasis on the action or the process; d to convey objectivity; e to avoid a long active subject.

  12. THE PROBLEMS AND ECONOMIC REFLECTIONS OF ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Ileana (BĂDULESCU ANASTASE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the problems and reflections of Romania,in the period after the aderation to EU, this being a period when all the economic activities will be tested according to their level of efficiency and productivity of work. Maintining the traditional form of organization of work, of investments of structure of the finite products may transform the country into a colony, into an exporter of raw materials and workforce in the EU. We can notice the same thing, based on our research, in the case of the Moldavian Republic: the exports and investments influence very little the economic growth. This is due to the reduced performances of Moldavian exporters, and, even more, to the uncompetitive structure on groups of products. Half of the Moldavian exports is assured by the agro-alimentary market, without noticing some obvious trends of specialization in other new branches. The cause of this trend is the weak productive potential of national agriculture and industry (Anastase.I 2010.

  13. Economics, Area Studies and Human Development

    Ranis, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests that area studies and economics have a better chance to be married successfully if we shift our attention from the exclusive emphasis on economic growth towards improvements in human development, especially the much broadened version of that concept. Different areas are shown to differ substantially in terms of the choices they make among the various independent dimensions of well-being and the various indicators within each dimension. The particular characteristics of eac...

  14. The Development of Environmental Thinking in Economics

    Clive L. Spash

    1999-01-01

    There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ...

  15. YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS - PROMOTERS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Florentina-Georgiana, COJOCARU

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship in Romania is no longer an unfamiliar concept, but we can assert that it is a journey full of obstacles. Bureaucracy, the lack of fiscal predictability as well as the absence of an entrepreneurial culture often lead entrepreneurs to bankruptcy. A country develops itself with the help of strong economic policies dictated by the economic environment and not by the political one. The entrepreneur's policy is to make profit which has significant effects in all areas: social, educ...

  16. Home economics in development through action research

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next in...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  17. Economic growth through the development process

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss some recent research in the area of economic growth and development emphasizing the endogenous dynamics of policies and organizational forms in a world characterized by credit-market and labor-market imperfections. I present a simple model of technological convergence featuring an endogenous evolution of contractual arrangements. The key assumption is that economic growth is associated with investments as well as with the adoption and imitation of existing technologie...

  18. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  19. Product Development Corporations and State Economic Development

    Peter S. Fisher

    1988-01-01

    Product development corporations have been established by eight states for the purpose of promoting the development of innovative sectors of the economy by augmenting the supply of risk capital. They operate by providing a grant to a firm to finance the design, testing, and commercialization of a new product, in return for royalties on sales of the product. An evaluation of the oldest of these programs, the Connecticut Product Development Corporation (now in its twelfth year), reveals that th...

  20. Capital as a generic concept of economics and accounting: the content of category, the problems of formalization and management

    Yaremko, I. J.

    2014-01-01

    The content and essence of capital of modern economic agents, its role in their operating performance are considered. The problems of capital quantification and management in post-industrial economy are developed.

  1. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    Alexandra Berger Masson

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Lookin...

  2. Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties

    Dubinskaya O.Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

  3. Time-Inconsistent Planning: A Computational Problem in Behavioral Economics

    Kleinberg, Jon; Oren, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    In many settings, people exhibit behavior that is inconsistent across time --- we allocate a block of time to get work done and then procrastinate, or put effort into a project and then later fail to complete it. An active line of research in behavioral economics and related fields has developed and analyzed models for this type of time-inconsistent behavior. Here we propose a graph-theoretic model of tasks and goals, in which dependencies among actions are represented by a directed graph, an...

  4. Economics Imperialism under the Impact of Psychology: The Case of Behavioral Development Economics

    Davis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Economics imperialism is broadly explained as economics having an impact on other disciplines. But how should economics imperialism be understood when it is in some sense the product of other disciplines having an impact on economics? The paper examines psychology’s impact on economics in connection with the emergence of behavioral development economics, and then discusses the nature of behavioral development economics imperialism associated with development economists’ explanations of non-ma...

  5. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC GOODS DEPENDENCY

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Fan, Shenggen

    2003-01-01

    Few studies have systematically documented the interdependency among different types of public goods and their impact on economic development. This papers aims to develop a methodological framework to evaluate the degree of interdependency and identify the weakest link of public goods provisions and empirically applies it to Uganda.

  6. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  7. Essays on economic growth and development

    Nguyen Thang DAO

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes four essays to the theoretical literature of Economic Growth and Development covering issues of environment, optimal taxation, demography, gender inequality, endogenous technological progress, and comparative development in variations of overlapping generations modelling. The first essay addresses tax and transfer policies to conduct a Diamond (1965) overlapping generations economy with environmental externalities to the social optimum through Pareto-improving path. Th...

  8. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  9. NEW PARADIGM OF ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL AND EXPERT DATA IN PROBLEMS OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of analysis of statistical and expert data in problems of economics and management that are discussed in the framework of scientific specialization "Mathematical methods of economy", including organizational-economic and economic-mathematical modeling, econometrics and statistics, as well as economic aspects of decision theory, systems analysis, cybernetics, operations research. The main provisions of the new paradigm of this scientific and practical field are developed by the author of this article in the 1980s during the creation of the All-Union Statistical Association. The new paradigm is compared with the old (corresponding to the middle of XX century. Is summarized monographs, textbooks and manuals prepared under the leadership of the author of this paper in the XXI century according to the new paradigm

  10. Contribution of Services to Economic Development

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Service activities have become the main engine for sustainable development. The share of services in the global economic output is about 70% and their contribution to global employment is about 40%. There are substantial differences between countries and regions of the world in the development of services sector, the share of tertiary activities in both output and employment being higher in strong industrialized economies, but growing rapidly in developing and transition economies as well. As services tend to become essential inputs for every activity, service productivity is a key factor of economic performance not only directly, but also by its multiplier effects spread all over the economy, including manufacturing and agriculture. From a qualitative point of view, services are at the core of transformative processes toward more inclusive societies, reconciliation between economic growth and environment preservation, enhancing knowledge production and improving the exploitation of technological advances, and better governance.

  11. Problem-based Learning: Developing Information Literacy through Real Problems.

    Schroeder, Eileen E.; Zarinnia, E. Anne

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how problem-based learning can be a context for developing information problem-solving skills, from defining an information need to evaluating information to articulating ideas through argumentation. It supports critical thinking, teaching for understanding, and development of student information literacy skills. (AEF)

  12. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and possibly immune system damage, and temperature increases which will increase the levels of the seas. PMID:12285660

  13. Problems and prospects of Kumkol deposit development

    Kumkol deposit's petroleum balance supply situated in Southern-Turgaj depression makes up 153.2 million tones, extracted supply by C1 category includes 89.4 million tones. Petroleum of cretaceous and sediments by its physico-chemical content are light (density 0.835 g/sm3), high-paraffin (12-15 %), low-sulphur content one (0,5 %). Content of light fractions under temperature 300 deg C is up to 45 %, gasoline one is up to 25 %. Gas content of stratum petroleum and saturation pressure substantially is changing by productive horizons. Rational system of Kumkol deposit development with sustaining of reservoir pressure for increase of petroleum extraction rate from bed and increase its output is presented. Technological and economical parameters of the Yuzhneftgas Joint Stock Company operation in condition of market economy and urgent problems on increase of petroleum production are considered

  14. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  15. Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece

    Athanasios Vazakidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Approach: To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences according to Dickey-Fuller (1979. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. A vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. Finally, Granger causality test was applied in order to find the direction of causality between the examined variables of the estimated model. Results: A short-run increase of stock market index per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.06% in Greece, also an increase of bank lending per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.14% in Greece, while an increase of productivity per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.32% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term found statistically significant with a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that economic growth causes stock market development and industrial production index, while industrial production index causes credit market development for Greece. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development and credit market development through industrial production growth in Greece.

  16. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  17. Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects

    Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

  18. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  19. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  20. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.

  1. Poverty and economic development of Kenya

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    The economy of Kenya has been continued to be the largest in the East African region and third largest in Sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa and Nigeria respectively. At present Kenya is one of the most highly literate countries in sub-Saharan Africa. But more than 60% people of Kenya live below the poverty line. Rapid increases in inflation could reduce economic growth and worsen the poverty levels of the citizens of Kenya. In Kenya economic development is dependent on agricultural improv...

  2. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  3. Climate Policy and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Although developing countries face a drastic increase in their greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation actions against climate change do not rank high among their priorities. The obvious reason lies in the necessity for them to continue the development process, which is characterised by pressing needs other than emission control. For developing countries the real problem is thus not emissions but economic growth. Therefore the key question is whether or not the Kyoto Protocol provides an opportunity for growth and thus for their economic development. The only way to accelerate the participation of developing countries in climate agreements - and therefore to come closer to the goal of a global climate control - is to design strategies which enable their economic development. The dilemma of reducing emissions on a global scale while ensuring growth in the poorer regions can only be solved if there are possibilities embedded in the agreements which can contribute to the sustainable development of those regions. As a consequence, greater emphasis must be placed on the economic development dimension of the Kyoto Protocol as far as the impact on developing countries is concerned

  4. Global health funding and economic development

    Martin Greg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  5. Global health funding and economic development

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  6. Global health funding and economic development.

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  7. Problems in the design and development of 750 MW turbogenerators

    Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    1963-01-01

    Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un

  8. Economic activities of legal entities: problems of theory and practice

    Кочин, Володимир

    2016-01-01

    The article devoted to the theoretical definition of types of economic activity of legal entities, the relationship with their organizational and legal forms and types. It is proposed to move away from identifying the type of legal entity with its activities and stresses the need to define the principles of economic regulation.English abstractThe purpose of this article is to define the current view of the kinds of economic entities and their relationship with the types of legal entities and ...

  9. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  10. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  11. On the complexity of the economic lot-sizing problem with remanufacturing options

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the complexity of the economic lot-sizing problem with remanufacturing (ELSR) options. Whereas in the classical economic lot-sizing problem demand can only be satisfied by production, in the ELSR problem demand can also be satisfied by remanufacturing returned items. Although the ELSR problem can be solved efficiently for some special cases, we show that the problem is NP-hard in general, even under stationary cost parameters.

  12. ADULT EDUCATION TECHNIQUES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, A GREEK CASE STUDY. PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT SERIES.

    FOURRE, PIERRE; AND OTHERS

    AIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT AND THE ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION, GREECE HAS ESTABLISHED A NETWORK OF ADULT EDUCATION CENTERS OUTSIDE TOWNS, TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF ILLITERACY AND LOW EDUCATION LEVEL. THE CENTER PROVIDES FOR ACADEMIC AND LIBRARY PROGRAMS, SIX TO SEVEN MONTHS, AND RECREATION…

  13. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  14. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.

  15. Economic Recession, Teacher-Reported Cuts to School Resources, and Children's Economic and Psychiatric Problems in Young Adulthood

    Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…

  16. Energy needs for the economic development of developing countries: Present status and trends

    The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  17. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  18. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Ghassan F. Issa; Shaki M. Hussain; Hussein Al-Bahadili

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT) to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency A...

  19. Economic development and direct foreign investment in the transition economies

    Mrdaković-Cvetković Ružica

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP) and production in Serbia and other countries are currentl...

  20. Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development

    Xinguang Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

  1. YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS - PROMOTERS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Florentina-Georgiana, COJOCARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship in Romania is no longer an unfamiliar concept, but we can assert that it is a journey full of obstacles. Bureaucracy, the lack of fiscal predictability as well as the absence of an entrepreneurial culture often lead entrepreneurs to bankruptcy. A country develops itself with the help of strong economic policies dictated by the economic environment and not by the political one. The entrepreneur's policy is to make profit which has significant effects in all areas: social, educational, economic. Sustaining entrepreneurship is a solution to be taken into consideration for weighting youth unemployment, given the level reached in the second quarter of 2014 of 23.90%. This article aims to capture aspects of the current situation of entrepreneurship in Romania among young people. Based on data collected, we will analyze the unemployment rate among young people at education level and county-level compared to the number of companies founded by students, with the rate of workforce occupancy. The contribution of young entrepreneurs to economic growth can be achieved in two phases, as more companies are founded, number of employees increases, as a consequence, more young people will become entrepreneurs, so the unemployment rate among them will thus decrease.

  2. "Universities, Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development'

    Bazzazian, Navid; stebro, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increased trend in the number of spin-offs generated by universities in the past thirty years. Past research reveals that the majority of these start-ups are located in the same region as the university from which they originated. In this paper, we investigate critically what universities do to encourage entrepreneurship to increase regional economic development. We will also discuss whether maximizing local entrepreneurship necessarily maximizes total welfare. Unfortunately...

  3. Essays in International and Development Economics

    Li, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Standard analysis of consumer behavior uses theory and evidence on quantities and prices to measure consumer welfare, particularly through the use of price indexes that capture the cost-of-living. In three essays I go beyond this standard analysis to analyze the impact of household variety, store variety, and energy requirements on food demand, consumption patterns and consumer welfare, with implications for several important topics in development and international economics. In the first ess...

  4. Financial liberalisation, bureaucratic corruption and economic development

    Blackburn, Keith; Forgues-Puccio, Gonzalo F.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of international financial integration on economic development when the quality of governance may be compromised by corruption. Our analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model of a small economy in which growth is driven by capital accumulation and public policy is administered by government-appointed bureaucrats. Corruption may arise due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds, an opportunity that is made more attractive by financial liber...

  5. Essays On Corruption And Economic Development

    Freille, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses two central questions in the field of corruption: the relationship between corruption and some of its main determinants and the effect that these relationships have on economic development. The research presented in this thesis extends the literature on corruption in several directions. The third chapter studies the empirical relationship between press freedom and bureaucratic corruption. As one of the main democratic checks and balances, press freedom is thought to ...

  6. Stages of Growth in Economic Development

    Michal Kejak

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses a two-sector model of endogenous growth with two common features of economic development: stages of sustained growth and underdevelopment traps. The model also demonstrates the transitional issues of a temporary underdevelopment trap, seemingly sustainable growth, and a slowdown in productivity growth. The temporary underdevelopment trap occurs when the economy exhibits a regime of extensive growth (i.e. slowly declining growth in physical capital with no growth in human ca...

  7. Industrial pollution in economic development: Kuznets revisited

    Hettige, Hemamala; Mani, Muthukumara; Wheeler, David

    1998-01-01

    Using new international data, the authors test for an inverse U-shaped, or"Kuznets,"relationship between industrial water pollution and economic development. They measure the effect of income growth on three proximate determinants of pollution: the share of manufacturing in total output, the sectoral composition of manufacturing, and the intensity (per unit of output) of industrial pollution at the"end of pipe."They find that the manufacturing share of output follows a Kuznets-type trajectory...

  8. Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success

    Corry Bregendahl; Cornelia Flora; Milan Wall; Mary Emery

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Centr...

  9. Essays in Public Economics and Development

    Gerard, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis studies public economics questions in the context of developing countries. In particular, I investigate the impact and design of specific government policies in Brazil. Government interventions may be desirable when unregulated market economies deliver socially inefficient outcomes. Goods and services tend to be under-provided in the presence of imperfect or asymmetric information. Such market failures may be pervasive in the insurance market and prompt governments to provi...

  10. Childhood Obesity, Sustainable Development, and Behavioral Economics

    Lucia A. Reisch; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2011-01-01

    To understand the rising prevalence of obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This infrastructure is a direct reflection of the mainstream economic growth paradigm that the literature on consumer culture characterizes as chronic overconsumption. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a key contributory facto...

  11. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    Helmsing, Bert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the localized nature of economic development: externalities, learning and governance. Externalities play a central role in the new geographical economics of Krugman and in new economic geography of cluster...

  12. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  13. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  14. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  15. Role of oil imports in economic development

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  16. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Kelly CAREY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia’s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  17. THE CREATING OF CONDITIONS FOR TRANSITION OF RESOURCE TERRITORY TO SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Nagaeva Olga Sergeevna

    2012-01-01

    Presented article is devoted the problem of forming conditions for sustainable socio-economic development of resource territory after exhaustion of mineral-resource potential. The features of socio-economic development of the resource territories situated in the conditions of the Far North cause the necessity of transition of such territory to sustainable socio-economic development. The basic conditions of transition of resource territory to sustainable socioeconomic development are gaining b...

  18. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  19. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollin...

  20. Coal, economic development and the environment

    This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

  1. Obama’s Economic Policy: Achievements, Problems and Prospects

    Gerald Epstein

    2009-01-01

    1. IntroductionIn late November, 2008, just after President Barak Obama won the American election, a group of progressive economists met in New York city at the New School for Social Research, to discuss the ongoing economic crisis and to try to reach a consensus on financial and macroeconomic policies that the group should advise the Obama Administration to implement. Organized under the sponsorship of the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy (SCEPA) and the University of Massach...

  2. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more......" should start from a good understanding of the reasons for adherence to policy orthodoxy. We discuss underlying institutional and organizational reasons for policy rigidity and consider some suggested reforms.......In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...

  3. THE ESSENCE AND NEED TO MOVE TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    V. Zianko

    2014-01-01

    In the article has been investigated the essence of sustainable economic development. Differences of concepts of sustainable economic growth and sustainable economic development were analyzed. Necessity and feasibility of humanity's transition to a sustainable economic development model, the basis of which acts innovation activity were grounded.

  4. Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation

    Seyed Komail Tayebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

  5. Problems of Stable Development of the Odessa Region ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????

    Nitsenko Vitaliy S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of market-oriented socio-economic relations in Ukraine contribute to activation of processes of development of city and regional infrastructure. This results in increase of volume of production of various material benefits, directed at satisfaction of first priority needs of the population. This also results in the growth of social tension connected with pollution of environment caused by activity of industrial, processing, agricultural and other enterprises. In order to assess problems of stable development of the Odessa oblast, economic and social measuring instruments were used with a set of various indicators. Results of the studies testify to a low level of ecological management and high level of ecological danger in the region. That is why, solution of the issue of ecological component of stable development through development of economic and social components should become the first priority task at the level of the Odessa region.? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ? ???????, ??????????????? ?? ?????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????????????, ???????????????????? ? ?????? ???????????. ? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????.

  6. Problems of collection development in special libraries

    M S Sridhar

    1995-01-01

    Discusses factors affecting collection development, scope, definition and process of collection development, highlights importance of collection development policy manual, presents peculiar circumstances and background of document acquisition transaction in libraries, points out many problems relating to document selection and document procurement processes. Discusses various types of vendor-controlled order plans with their merits and demerits. In conclusion other problems concerned with te...

  7. Finance, growth and human development: An Islamic economic development perspective

    Uddin, Md Akther; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    In a growing body of literature, importance of financial sector development and growth on human development has been emphasized but so far little empirical evidence to support this. Islam is a progrowth religion but the concept of development in Islam is multidimensional, understanding the relationship between finance, growth and human development would help us better explain and develop a sustainable pro-Islamic economic growth model, which would help eradicate mass poverty, income inequalit...

  8. Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success

    Corry Bregendahl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.

  9. Time Allocation in Economics and the Implications for Economic Development

    Caragea, Nicoleta

    2009-01-01

    In a modern and more complex society, in which there are not borders between the professional family and social life of individuals, time should be viewed as an economic resource and it has to be optimized, rationalized and controlled.In this paper I will try to identify the main coordinates and the dominant points of view of economic thinking focused on time allocation, at both national and international level. The paper also presents an analysis of the correlation between time use and econo...

  10. Model developed for economic gas dispatch

    Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if? tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative 'what if?' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and off

  11. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 2004 : Accelerating Development

    Bourguignon, François; Pleskovic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Presenting the proceedings of the May 2003 World Bank Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), the volume imparts new research findings and discussions on key policy issues related to poverty reduction by eminent scholars and practitioners from around the world. Topics include Fostering Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Growth; Challenges of Development in Lagging Regions; P...

  12. Obama’s Economic Policy: Achievements, Problems and Prospects

    Gerald Epstein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. IntroductionIn late November, 2008, just after President Barak Obama won the American election, a group of progressive economists met in New York city at the New School for Social Research, to discuss the ongoing economic crisis and to try to reach a consensus on financial and macroeconomic policies that the group should advise the Obama Administration to implement. Organized under the sponsorship of the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy (SCEPA and the University of Massach...

  13. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    Anca Maria GHERMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

  14. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  15. Historical development of radon problems

    Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)

  16. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission dispatch problem using modified Ant colony optimization

    R Gopalakrishnan; A Krishnan

    2013-08-01

    Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the significant performance of the proposed MACO approach.

  17. Energy and economic development in Poland

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  18. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  19. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  20. ECONOMIC FREEDOM A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the architecture of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals life.

  1. Electric power, emissions and economic development

    Energy use in the developing world has been growing rapidly over recent decades, both absolutely and relative to the growth in industrialized countries albeit from a very low base. In the next century, developing country commercial energy consumption in general and electricity consumption in particular, is expected to continue to rise with striking rapidity because of population growth, income growth and substitution of modern commercial fuels for traditional biomass fuels. Because the power sector is one of the fastest-growing energy sectors, it raises significant domestic environmental issues, while the sector's role in global warming scenarios has made it a key feature of international environmental policy. This paper focuses on the relationships between economic development, electric power and polluting emissions. 10 refs

  2. A modularized framework for solving an economic-environmental power generation mix problem

    Haoxiang Xia [Dalian Univ. of Technology (China). Inst. of Systems Engineering; Koyama, Michihisa; Kraines, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Leyland, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a modularized simulation modelling framework for evaluating the impacts on economic cost and CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the introduction of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system into the existing mix of centralized power generation technologies in Japan. The framework is comprised of three parts: a dual-objective linear programming model that solves the generation best-mix problem for the existing power generation technologies; a nonlinear SOFC system model in which the economic cost and CO{sub 2} emissions by the SOFC system can be calculated; and the Queuing Multi-Objective Optimizer (QMOO), a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) developed at the EPFL in Switzerland as the overall optimizer of the combined power supply system. Thus, the framework integrates an evolutionary algorithm that is more suitable for handling nonlinearities with a calculus-based method that is more efficient in solving linear programming problems. Simulation experiments show that the framework is successful in solving the stated problem. Moreover, the three components of the modularized framework can be interconnected through a platform-independent model integration environment. As a result, the framework is flexible and scalable, and can potentially be modified and/or integrated with other models to study more complex problems. (Author)

  3. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  4. Quantum economics

    Vukoti? Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  5. Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics

    Hanson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

  6. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    Alexandra Berger Masson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Looking back on our experiences and outcomes since 2010, this article shows how the development and introduction of this new approach to local open innovation has changed the rules of the game in the region.

  7. Electrification and social and economic development

    Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Development of highly economical BWR core

    Hitachi has been developing BWR core for the purpose of achieving the requirements of improved reliability and economy of nuclear power generation. Recent noticeable tendencies show an increasing need for improvements in the economy by reducing the fuel cycle cost. In order to meet these needs, we have been developing and putting into practical use, highly economical boiling water reactor (BWR) core step-wise, while confirming their application results, by fully utilizing BWR core design techniques, fuel manufacturing techniques, and the related appraisal techniques which have been accumulated since the beginning of research in nuclear power. Highly economical STEP I fuel that attains a discharge exposure of 33 GWd/t began commercial use in 1987. The commercial use of STEP II fuel corresponding to a discharge exposure of about 39.5 GWd/t began in 1991, while the STEP III fuel, having an increased discharge exposure of 45 GWd/t, is now being prepared to be put to commercial use in order to improve the economy even more. (author)

  9. Finance and economic development : policy choices for developing countries

    Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı

    2006-01-01

    The empirical literature on finance and development suggests that countries with better developed financial systems experience faster economic growth. Financial development-as captured by size, depth, efficiency, and reach of financial systems-varies sharply around the world, with large differences among countries at similar levels of income. This paper argues that governments play an important role in building effective financial systems and discusses different policy options to make finance...

  10. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  11. Intelligent Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique to Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Vijay, R

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO) is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli) bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Ec...

  12. The Analysis of Inequality of Economic Development of Regions of Ukraine ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????

    Raevneva Elena V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problem of inequality of socio-economic development of administrative and territorial formations. Analyzing the statistical data it proves the hypothesis about the presence of inequality of economic development of the regions of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????????-??????????????? ???????????. ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????.

  13. Economic effects in radioisotope-utilizing instruments and their problems

    Economic effects at present have been investigated limiting to radioisotope-utilizing instruments for industrial application. These instruments have increased year by year since they were introduced into Japanese industry about a quarter century ago, and reached 6058 sets as of March, 1976, in all industrial fields. Most widely used instruments are thickness gauges, level gauges, densimeters, moisture gauges and sulphur analyzers in this order. Methods for analyzing the economic effects includes several systems, and here, the cost-benefit ratio (C/B) method, which is called IAEA system, was adopted. Investigation has been conducted only on thickness gauges for paper making, coating film thickness gauges, sulphur analyzers and moisture gauges. For the thickness gauges, which are used a lot in paper machines and now fully automated, C/B is 1/3.16. The coating film thickness gauges are being changed from β-gauges to fluorescent X-ray system, and its C/B is equal to 1/30 to 1/50, very economical. Though the sulphur analyzers for oil industry are used off-line, here the on-line analyzers were investigated. The result of C/B of 1/10 was obtained for the plant whose production is 2,000 kl/day. The neutron moisture gauges are employed a lot specifically in iron and steel industry. Its C/B is from 1/20 to 1/40 for an example used in a pig iron plant. As seen above, the radioisotope- utilizing instruments have very high economic effects, and can contribute to energy saving, labor saving and resource saving in process and quality controls. (Wakatsuki, Y

  14. Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems During Childhood

    Smith, James Patrick; Monica, Santa; Smith, Gillian C

    2010-01-01

    Childhood psychological conditions including depression and substance abuse are a growing concern among American children, but their long-term economic costs are unknown. This paper uses unique data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) following groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years prospectively collecting information on education, income, work, and marriage. Following siblings offers an opportunity to control for unobserved family and neighborhood effects. A r...

  15. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  16. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  17. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  18. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

  19. Problems of modern urban drainage in developing countries.

    Silveira, A L L

    2002-01-01

    Socio-economic factors in developing countries make it more difficult to solve problems of urban drainage than in countries that are more advanced. Factors inhibiting the adoption of modern solutions include: (1) in matters of urban drainage, 19th-century sanitary philosophy still dominates; (2) both legal and clandestine land settlement limits the space that modern solutions require; (3) contamination of storm runoff by foul sewage, sediment and garbage prevents adoption of developed-country practices; (4) climatic and socio-economic factors favour the growth of epidemics where runoff is retained for flood-avoidance and to increase infiltration; (5) lack of a technological basis for adequate drainage management and design; (6) lack of the interaction between community and city administration that is needed to obtain modern solutions to urban drainage problems. Awareness of these difficulties is fundamental to the search for modern and viable solutions appropriate for developing countries. PMID:11989890

  20. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    Fumitaka FURUOKA

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  1. Reading Economics: The Role of Mainstream Economics in International Development Studies Today (SWP 24)

    Jerven, Morten

    2013-01-01

    What is the role of the economics discipline in teaching and studying international development today? This paper draws upon experiences of teaching and reading economics with students in interdisciplinary international development studies. The main conclusion is that economic literacy is a key ingredient in development studies. This paper discusses different interpretations of what economic literacy may entail and why this literacy is important. It concludes by suggesting a number of paths t...

  2. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

  3. Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context

    To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Economic thinking of post-industrial society: formation and development

    Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.

  5. THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?

    Huru Dragos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  6. THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?

    Huru Dragos; Hrebrenciuc Andrei

    2008-01-01

    In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze) can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  7. Evaluating the Economic Impact of International Remittances on Developing Countries Using Household Surveys: A Literature Review

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This literature review covers 50 recent empirical studies of the economic impact of international remittances on the developing world that are based on household survey data. It begins by reviewing the considerable methodological problems confronting economic work on international remittances, and then examines the strengths and weaknesses of various economic studies of the impact of remittances in the developing world on such outcomes as: poverty and inequality, health and education, investm...

  8. Environmental and health problems of developing countries.

    Bradley, D J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental variables largely determine the disease pattern in developing countries. Infections and malnutrition predominate, due to the effects of both poverty (a summary of many aspects of material deprivation) and a high ambient temperature. Environmental changes may be intended to improve health--examples include improved domestic water supplies and sanitation--or they may be due to socio-economic developments, which often have favourable or unfavourable health consequences. These are explored for water resource developments, where the health effects are complex, and for deforestation and urbanization. Although environmental impact assessment has been of value in reducing the adverse health impacts of socio-economic development projects, the use of health opportunity assessment is proposed as a more positive approach to optimizing the consequences of development to human health. PMID:8222995

  9. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Hafas Furqani; Ratna Mulyany

    2008-01-01

    Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM) to see whether the Islamic financi...

  10. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    Balcha, Berhanu

    they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do...

  11. On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life II: Evolutionary Stable Economic Development Strategy in Brief

    Funk, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a solution to 'The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development' on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models 'The Problem of Sustainabl...

  12. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  13. Economics.

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2015-10-01

    A review of literature during calendar year 2014 focused on environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:26420109

  14. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy; real problems of the long term development

    Whilst general public accepts the operation of western designed nuclear power stations as safe, waste management and decommission still figure as open problems, although such views are not in agreement with technical and economic status of these operations. A concern with imagined problems can have the effect of neglecting the real ones. In considering the long term development of nuclear energy the real problems can be associated with the wide use of plutonium and multiplication of national reprocessing and enrichment installations. Nuclear proliferation safety could be retained and developed through establishment of international nuclear fuel centres. Their operation would be particularly beneficial for small or medium nuclear countries. Several arguments are given why it is not premature to initiate a study which would identify and analyze the problems of establishing an international nuclear fuel centre. Central Europe could be a region which could be served by one of such nuclear fuel centres. (author)

  16. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Shahibul Ahyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  17. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in levels as well as paths of psychosocial development on problem behaviour. The study uses data from the School project, a longitudinal research project on adolescents that examined (problem) behaviour ...

  18. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  19. The Problem of Modelling of Economic Dynamics in Differential Form

    Chernyshov, S I; Voronin, A V

    2008-01-01

    Traditional models of macroeconomic dynamics are fundamentally incorrect. The reason lies in a misunderstanding of peculiarities of the analysis of infinitesimal quantities. However, even those types of solutions that are envisaged by the above-mentioned models are nonrepresentative in the sense of the reflection of realities. It became obvious that the techniques of the theory of linear differential equations were insufficient here. Accordingly, the scientists' attention switched to the theory of nonlinear differential equations. At the same time, balance and, accordingly, the model with matrix properties are objectively inherent in the economic system. For the reduction of this model to a differential form, there exist rather elementary means that proved to be unclaimed. Macroeconomic rhetoric - the power of the accelerator, a lag on the part of demand, etc. - accompanied by the use of a lot of abstract coefficients prevailed. However, there is no organic interrelation between matrix and nonlinear different...

  20. Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem

    Swift-Hook, D.T. (King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK).

  1. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.

  2. Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem?

    The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK)

  3. Economism

    Simons, P.

    2010-01-01

    Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

  4. A Radical Economic Revision of the Transformation Problem

    Michele I. Naples

    1989-01-01

    The transformation problem results from extending Marxs analysis to include reproduction. Existing resolutions assume equilibrium and accept Ricardo's conclusion that production conditions in basics determine the profit rate. But capitalism cannot be shown to reach a Neo-Ricardian equilibrium. And the Ricardian basics theory of the profit rate is either a physical-standard theory of the profit rate or a capital-productivity theory. Without equilibrium, Marns exploitation theory of the profit ...

  5. The Common Property Problem and Pastoral Economic Behaviour

    Livingstone, Ian

    1987-01-01

    Widely accepted views among technical personnel and particularly developmnent programme administrators are that the explanation of widespread range of degradation in pastoral areas lies in the problem of common property (whereby private benefits from putting additional livestock on the range exceed social benefits), and that, more generally, pastoralists have an "irrational" propensity to accumulate stock. The policy conclusions drawn int his paper relate to the appropriate level of water inv...

  6. DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF THE SOUTHEAST ASIAN ECONOMIES

    Oziewicz, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian economies have already gone a long way of development. Firstly, they have survived a period of economic miracle, which de facto was not a miracle, but based on good macroeconomic policy and strong foundations, such as high interest rate and macroeconomic stability. Secondly, the economies have experienced deep crisis, which has proven that good policies are not sufficient condition for development. Apart of them economy needs good, mature institutions and management. Reforming...

  7. Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry

    Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

  8. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  9. Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower

    Fazil Yozgat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shaping the regions countries. Industrial Revolution in Europe and made major investments in the first half of the 19th century particularly central Europe and Balkan region. Balkan regions represent complex and diverse reality. These regions are from Old Continent to Central Europe, South East Europe and Mediterranean. From Adriatic to Black Sea and Mediterranean also. In these regions there are some different economic, social and political events. I.e. Croatia moves to final round member of European Union some countries face to particular problems of political subjects.I offer framework analysis of the regional country by country based on the existing set of criteria, which are variables of social and economic development. Those variables are including (cluster industry, expenditure R&D od GDP, variations of capitals, population and market, some trade block which are impact of economic and social developmentProposed key pillars to support sustainable competitiveness in the Western Balkans. Sustaining competitiveness =Human capital development==Regional Cluster==SectorPolicy reforms.(OECD,2008Key words. Balkan region, Social development, Globalisation, Sustainable development

  10. Reframing place-based economic development in South Africa: the example of local economic development

    Rogerson Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Local Economic Development (LED) planning is a place-based approach to development planning and increasingly significant across much of the global South. One of the key challenges facing LED planning is the necessity to adjust planning in relation to the dynamic nature of both international and national framework conditions. The purpose of this article is to show this challenge by examining the dynamic nature of the national policy environment impacting upon LED planning in South Africa, a co...

  11. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  12. Economic development and logistics performance : a probabilistic approach

    Sánchez, Ricardo J.; Cipoletta Tomassián, Georgina; Perrotti, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    There is not a consensus about a complete set of explanatory variables that could ultimately explain the linkages behind achieving economic development. In spite of this, determinants of economic development and especially the linkages between economic development and logistics performance are topics of growing interest within the recent literature, both in economic growth theory and maritime studies. In this paper our attention is focused on the importance of logistics perform...

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    Rafik Labdani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

  14. Estimating the economic impacts of geothermal resource development

    Development of geothermal plants, as all other energy facilities, may have significant economic impacts on local and regional economies. Often the magnitudes of these impacts will be of great interest to both environmental and economic development planners. Because of their availability and relative ease of use, input-output models are often used to estimate selected economic impacts arising from resource development. This paper demonstrates the methodology for two case studies of potential development of geothermal facilities of 100 MW average capacity in the US Pacific Northwest, in order to highlight the effects of different local economic structures. Results indicate that geothermal development can lead to significant economic impacts at the local level

  15. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs. PMID:11913904

  16. Multiobjective fuzzy dominance based bacterial foraging algorithm to solve economic emission dispatch problem

    Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)

  17. Economic and energy environmental systems in Mediterranean basin, problems and perspectives

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse problems and perspectives of economic systems of Mediterranean basin in the process of energetic and environmental integration fixed in the 1995 Barcelona declaration

  18. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO2. To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  19. Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with Bounded Inventory and Lost-Sales

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider an economic lot-sizing problem with bounded inventory and lost-sales. Different structural properties are characterized based on the system parameters such as production and inventory costs, selling prices, and storage capacities. Using these properties and the results on the lot-sizing problems with bounded inventory, we present improved and new algorithms for the problem. Specifically, we provide algorithms for the general lot-sizing problem with bounded inventory ...

  20. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  1. FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRO-ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Kalyagina, L.; Pyzhikova, N.

    2009-01-01

    Reserves and factors which ensure stabilization and subsequent sustainable development of agro economic system are analyzed. The priority direction of sustainable development policy of agro-economic system, which is based on five interconnected components, based on the use of economic tools of nature-conservation activity of agricultural tenant farmer stimulation is emphasized.

  2. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of...

  3. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the analysis shows that the propagation of error method introduces essentially negligible error, especially when compared to the uncertainty associated with some of the estimates themselves. The results of these uncertainty analyses generally quantify and identify the sources of uncertainty in the overall cost estimation. The obvious generalization—that capital cost uncertainty is the main driver—can be shown to be an accurate generalization for the current state of reactor cost analysis. However, the detailed analysis on a component-by-component basis helps to demonstrate which components would benefit most from research and development to decrease the uncertainty, as well as which components would benefit from research and development to decrease the absolute cost.

  4. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-01-01

    Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may b...

  5. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.

  6. Financial development and economic growth: An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economic growth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study w...

  7. What Lies beyond the Romanias Economic Development

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
    slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romanias economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
    Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

  8. Is Economic Growth Criminogenic for Firms In Developing Economies?

    Islam , Asif

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between economy level crime rates or individual level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms which is an important issue especially for developing economies. Using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries we find that economic growth has a negative effect on crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the rela...

  9. Developing Metaphor Interpretation Strategies for Students of Economics: A Case Study

    Littlemore, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    Much of the language used in economic writing depends heavily on the metaphoric extension of word meanings. In light of this fact, this article attempts to answer two research questions that may be of interest to teachers of English to students of economics. Do students of economics actually find such metaphoric language problematic? And if so, can they be helped to develop strategies to overcome these problems? An in-depth, qualitative study was carried out with an intermediate student follo...

  10. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  11. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  12. On the Essential Multidimensionality of an Economic Problem: Towards Tradeoffs-Free Economics

    Zeleny, Milan

    2009-01-01

    The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeo...

  13. The University and Local Economic Development

    John MULLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These town-gown relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for service learning where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the us and them mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a Design Center, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  14. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  15. Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Socio-Economic Impact Statement

    The Socio-Economic Impact Statement contained in this volume is part of the overall application for approval of the the development of the Terra Nova Field, prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada on behalf and in cooperation with its co-proponents. It describes the baseline conditions for, and the effects of the Terra Nova Development on the fishery, industry, employment, demography, housing, social infrastructure and services, public infrastructure, and municipal government. A description of the scope of the assessment and the methodology employed is complemented by a 10-page glossary and a 36-item bibliography

  16. On the Essential Multidimensionality of an Economic Problem: Towards Tradeoffs-Free Economics

    Milan Zelen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeoffs are not attributes of objectives, criteria or dimensions, as it is habitually assumed, but are the properties of the very sets of possibilities, alternatives or options they purport to value and measure. We use De novo programming, through which the so called feasible set of opportunities can be redefined towards optimal, tradeoffs-free configuration. The implications of tradeoff-free economics are too vast to foresee and elaborate in a single paper; they do touch the very foundations of economic thought. So me numerical examples are given in order to illustrate system-design calculations in linear systems.

  17. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS THE BASE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    Z. I. Nalgiev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In article transition problems to the stable, socially focused growth, maintenance of competitiveness of social and economicsubsystems of national economy, formation of bases of a postindustrial society in the conditions of globalization of world space, tocreation of the is innovative-focused economic system are considered. The specified problems dictate necessity of formation of strategyof development of the Russian economy on accurately certain conceptual basis in which quality, in view of necessity of socialization, it isexpedient to use a sustainable development paradigm.

  18. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Ioan Beudean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  19. Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added

    Nipinth Suwanrong; Khaentaphon Samdaengdech; Thaksina Krairach

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1) the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2) the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3) the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-Sa-ket Province...

  20. Mineral development prospects of the Indochina area: Potential exceeds problems

    Reform is under way in several nations within the Indochina area to stimulate economic growth and foreign investment. Though once forbidden, participation by foreign companies in mining exploration and development activities in Myanmar, Kampuchea, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam is now being solicited by the respective governments. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of mineral and energy resources in the region and outlines possible development scenarios based on economic policies, financial and infrastructural constraints and industry interest. The investment climates for resource-related projects are assessed qualitatively by country. Clearly, the long-term development potential of mineral and energy resources in the Indochina area is large, and the potential gains outweigh any of today's problems. (author). 34 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ECONOMIC SECTOR IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    GAL ALIN-MIHAI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available the economic sector plays an important role in the development of the local economy. Local economic development is also a continuous and complex process of planning and implementing strategic programmes and sustainable development policies for the purpose of improving the quality of life of the entire local community by diligently using local resources, may they be human or financial. Also, this article contains a description of the principles of local development, of the actors, factors and sources of local economic development and of their role in the process of planning, elaborating and implementing the strategies for local economic development, as well as a description of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

  2. 77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration (EDA), Department of Commerce... Development Strategy. A Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (CEDS) is required to qualify for...

  3. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  4. [Demo-economic models of development: evolution and recent trends].

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1983-01-01

    Among the recommendations of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest was the elaboration of empirical and inductive demographic-economic models to assist in planning. 1 of the disadvantages of existing models and systems of national income accounting was that income distribution was ignored in favor of the total value of production. Demographic variables were not regarded as endogenous. By the early 1970s, the societal changes attendant on rural exodus and urban unemployment, the increasing absorption of traditional structures into the modern sector, and changes in the roles of women and young people had become obvious, and the need for new models that would reflect such changes was clear. Some macromodels designed to assist medium and long range planning were 1st elaborated in the mid 1970s; the Bachue development models were particularly promising because of their improved database. New models were developed which incorporated consumption problems based on basic needs. An increased focus on the interaction of macroeconomic variables with microsociological and demographic variables, the household and family, and employment and the labor market became necessary. The Bachue models, which had been the most successful of recent models in integrating economic and sociodemographic structures and variables, usually include 4 principal modules which cover demography and the educational system, the economy, employment, and income distribution; basic needs models include a 5th module. The Bachue models are based on a general equilibrium model subject to certain constraints, while the basic needs models are based on dynamic disequilibrium models. A major problem of the models is that technological progress is fundamentally exogenous; there is no intimate link between productivity and elevation of the educational level of the labor force. To avoid unmanageable complexity, households are reconstructed for each period on the basis of the demographic and economic data in the model. PMID:12312449

  5. Patent Protection, Financial Development and Economic Growth

    Shiyuan Pan; Mengbo Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically investigates the effects of patent protection on innovation and economic growth by looking at the interaction between patent system and financial system. On the one hand, patent protection accelerates economic growth through enhancing the value of innovation. On the other hand, it lowers the demand for capital by increasing the price, thereby weakening the learning-by-doing effect and raising the cost of production. It follows, in turn, patent protecti...

  6. Economic and Financial Developments in Goa

    Deepak Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Goa is celebrating the Golden Jubilee Year of its Liberation. The recent economic achievements of the state are highlighted. The economic and financial structure of the state as well as the various financial inclusion initiatives taken by the Reserve Bank are outlined. Policy challenges ahead are presented. [Speech delivered at Goa Chamber of Commerce and Industry]. URL:[http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Speeches/PDFs/GCS311011FL.pdf].

  7. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  8. Socio-economic developmental agenda- A study of developing nations

    Miley, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Various developmental agendas as adopted and worked-upon by developing countries towards achieving socio-economic development are key instruments for the balanced growth rate. The study paper reviews the relationship between socio and economic factors of development at the same time studies the connections between sociology, civilizations and economies as to their state of affairs thereby evaluates the socio-economic developmental agendas of the developing nations.

  9. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    Kurt Mantonya; Milan Wall

    2008-01-01

    Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC) and suppor...

  10. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  11. An O(T³) Algorithm for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with Constant Capacities

    Hoesel, C.P.M.; Wagelmans, Albert

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPresents an algorithm that solves the constant capacities economic lot-sizing problem, with concave production costs and linear holdings cost in O(T3) time. Notations used; Results of a greedy algorithm; Global algorithm for solving lot-sizing problems.

  12. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  14. Decentralization, economic development, and growth in Turkish provinces

    Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    There have been important developments in the decentralization of the government structure in Turkey since the early 1980s. This paper examines economic development and growth in Turkish provinces. Although there is a rich literature on the economic effects of government decentralization from both developed and developing countries, these effects have not been examined widely in the contex...

  15. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  16. Economical Distinctions and Social Problems of Iran: Rates of Unemployment and Suicide

    Mohhamad ali Feizpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Human resources as one of the important indexes of production and development have always suffered from social problems including committing suicide. Committing suicide is amongst the first ten causes of mortality. In some countries, it is among the first three causes of the death of young people who are the main capital of the society. Although an economic view to social problems especially committing suicide has just come to the forefront during the past decade, focusing on this view has been so widespread that the relationships between social and economic problems at the international, national, local, family, and individual levels has been the concern of economists and social scientists alike. Having this view in mind, it is illogical to ignore the role of economy in social problems; therefore, there have been many studies aimed at investigating this relationship. On the one hand, the rate of unemployment is one of the economic variables that has resulted in a remarkable discrimination in different areas. On the other hand, committing suicide is one of the social problems that has caught the attention of experts and communities alike. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the relationships of the two variables – society and economy – in different parts of Iran base on the province.     Materials & Methods   In terms of the aim, this study is practical and it employed a descriptive-analytical approach. Library research was employed to collect the necessary data. The number of those committed suicide and the rate of unemployment from 1386 to 1389 were the major and most important sources of data for the present study. These data were extracted from the annual report declared by the Statistics Center of Iran. The independent variable of the model was the number of those who had committed suicide per 10000 people and the rate of unemployment defined as the ratio of the unemployed population to the active population (the employed and unemployed, which was considered as the explanatory variable. It is necessary to mention that since the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between unemployment and committing suicide and due to the lack of continuous access to the data on committing suicide, the data were limited to a range of four years. Therefore, because of time and budget restrictions, measurement method used in this study, the regression estimate method, was a mixture of the time-series and sequential data, in which the time-series data were mixed with the sequential data and resulted in a set of data which had the characteristics of both the time-series and sequential data.       Discussion of Results & Conclusions   In the studies which use mixed data, it is necessary for them to be studied before the estimation of the model and to be studied in terms of the assumptions that the mixed data of some tests have about the data. One of the most important tests is the lamer test used for selecting the methods of panel regression and pulling regression. This test reveals that whether the coefficients of determining the regression using the permanent effects are meaningfully bigger than the coefficients of determining the model of pulling regression or not. The results of the present study indicated that since the possibility of the obtained F lamer (0.0021 is lesser than 0.05, therefore the null hypothesis of being a pulling model was rejected, and the hypothesis of being panel was accepted. After identifying the estimated model, in order to compare the permanent effect methods and the incidental effect methods in terms of the explanatory strength of the comparing dependent variable, Heisman test was used. The result of this test also showed that since the amount of the attained possibility (0.0183 was lesser than 0.05, the model’s estimate with permanent effects was accepted. Before estimating the model, it is necessary to investigate the permanency of all the utilized variables. However, in this study due to time limitations it was not possible to have a single root test so the results of the single root tests are not valid. Therefore, there was no need for the single root table test, consequently the need for the panel overlap tests was canceled too. On the other hand, after studying the permanency of the data due to the mixed data it is possible for the studies on this sort of data to show differences in the variances. Taking into the consideration the important effects of differences in variances on estimation, standard deviation, and inferential statistics, differences or similarities in the variances need to be identified before the estimation. To test the equality of variances in the table data, the test of LR was utilized. Since the estimated Prob is lesser than 0.05, the null hypothesis on the variance of the paradoxical sentences was rejected. Therefore the model has inequality and differences in the variances. Thus, the model should be estimated so that the problem of differences in the variances is alleviated. One of the methods of alleviating the problems of differences in variances is the Generalized Square Model. In this model, this problem is alleviated if there will be a self-independence in the model. Testing the data of the model, the estimation of the model and the results will be dealt with.   The results showed that since the total statistical probability (Prob= 0.013 in the model is lesser than 0.05, the general meaningfulness of the model was accepted. Studying the estimation results in the model in this study, we realized that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between unemployment and committing suicide since the estimated coefficient was 0.363693 and the probability for unemployment as a variable was 0.004. Thus it can be said that in Iran and consequently in different provinces, the rate of committing suicide increases to 0.36 with each 0.01 increase in the unemployment rate. So, the results indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between committing suicide and the rate of unemployment.   Although different aspects of committing suicide such as sociological and psychological aspects are important, the economic aspect plays an important role as well. The economic factors affect the social factors, the individuals, and the society at large. Thus the relationship is quite clear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between economic problems – here unemployment as a representative of it – and the social problems – here suicide as a representative of it. In the present study, after studying the sociological view and the Durkheim’s theory, the Hammer’s view, the first pure economic view on suicide, was reviewed. Comparing the results of the present study with the experimental bulks of research on the topic and the theoretical literature of the field of crime economy, it is apparent that the results are in line with most studies on crime economy (Balky et al., 2003; Lin, 2006; Rodriguez, 2006; Suzuki, 2008; Sadeghi et al., 2004; Mehregan et al. 2010. Unemployment decreases self-confidence. Every one of these factors increases the possibility of committing suicide. Thus, although the economic problems and unemployment should not be considered as the only contributors to suicide, the positive relationships between unemployment and suicide should not be taken for granted. So, determining the role of unemployment and economic problems is the case that is crucially important in terms of the security affairs.     Keywords : Social Problems, Economic Factors, Committing Suicide, Unemployment Rate, Mixed Data, Provinces of Iran

  17. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  18. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to

  19. SUSTAINABILITY OF THE DUBAI MODEL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Al Shama, Nada

    2014-01-01

    Dubai’s rapid double-digit economic growth was severely challenged by the global financial crisis of 2007, which raised many concerns questioning the sustainability of the Dubai model of economic development and the viability of the emirate’s economic managerial practices. Although the economic landscape of Dubai has experienced a significant transformation over the last two decades, from a basic traditional economy of US $ 17.9 billion in 2001 to a diversified non-oil dependent economy of US...

  20. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Elena, RUSU (CIGU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development became a goal for knowledge society, but one of the main question in literature remains as how close is the relationship between economic dvelopment, knowledge society and local governments' level. Given the great diversity of situations and frameworks both across countries and within them in the European Union, I consider that each country must have own policies designed to implement process of decentralization with the commitment of "healthy" economy in a society dominated by the technology and innovation. In this context, the problem occurs in decentralization should be managed on two levels: on the one hand in terms of central-local budgets relations, and on the other hand, in the local public finance structural plan. The paper will try to emphasize the connection between decentralization, local economic sustainable development and knowledge society, taking into account an overview of this three aspects and empirical evidences. In this regard, I will use the background offered by literature and the official statiscal data for analysis to identify the variables which explain decentralization and local economic development in the knowledge society. I estimate the analysis to confirm the hypothesis that there are good aspects, but also deficiencies that require solutions and budgetary policy options as part undisputed positioning local government finance as an engine of development of the whole nation. I consider that the paper can be a useful viewpoint in understanding local public finances in decentralization, which allows researchers to include other sources of information for researching an in a much more complex approach.

  1. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  2. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW)

  3. Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East

    The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

  4. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Muhammad SHAHBAZ; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  5. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    Neil Reid; Smith, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these cha...

  6. A Typology of Suburban Economic Development Policy Orientations

    John P. Pelissero; David Fasenfest

    1989-01-01

    This article explores variations in economic development goals and orientations among suburban governments and the impact of these on economic development programs. The research was conducted among suburban officials in the Chicago Metropolitan area who responded to a survey in 1987. The results of the survey show that suburbs can be divided into five types based upon their economic development policies: aggressive, regulatory, cooperative, retentive, and reactive. These general policy orient...

  7. The Relationship between LGBT Inclusion and Economic Development

    Badgett, M.V.L.; Nezhad, S.; Waaldijk, C.; Meulen, van der, SH Stan

    2016-01-01

    Greater inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in emerging economies is positively associated with a countrys economic development, according to this study. The findings suggest that LGBT equality should be part of economic development programs and policies. The study analyzes the impact of the treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people on economic development in 39 emerging economies and other selected countries, and presents findings that demons...

  8. Optimal Power Flow Solution for Combined Economic Emission dispatch Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    P. Ajay - D - Vimal Raj

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF in Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED environment of thermal units while satisfying the constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance and line flow limits. Particle Swarm Optimization is a population based stochastic optimization, developed by Kennedy and Eberhart [12], in which members within a group share the information among them to achieve the global best position. This method is dynamic in nature and it overcomes the shortcomings of other evolutionary computation techniques such as premature convergence and provides high quality solutions. The performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated on IEEE 30 bus system with six generating units. The problem has been formulated as a single optimization problem to obtain the solution for optimal power flow problem with combined fuel cost and environment impact as objectives. The results obtained by the proposed method are better than any other evolutionary computation techniques proposed so far.

  9. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  10. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food aid to vulnerable groups of population.

  11. The Scenary Forecasting of Regions Social and Economic Development Dynamics ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????

    Guryanova Lidiya S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The scenarios of regions social and economic development by various tax and budgetary policy versions realization are considered in the article.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????-????????? ????????.

  12. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. 32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.

    2010-07-01

    .../operational plan for the EDC parcel, including such elements as: (A) A development timetable, phasing schedule... Economic development conveyances. (a) The Secretary concerned may transfer real property and personal... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174.9...

  14. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

  15. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  16. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  17. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-01-01

    Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic overheating and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  18. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  19. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY

    I. Parshyn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.

  20. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  1. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Global 2009 : People, Politics, and Globalization

    Lin, Justin Yifu; Pleskovic, Boris

    2010-01-01

    The Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) brings fresh, innovative perspectives to key problems of development. By providing a forum in which policy makers, academics and leading researchers focus on a common theme, ABCDE plays an important role in advancing debate and shaping the international development agenda. The 2009 ABCDE held June 9-11, 2008, in Cape Town, South A...

  2. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  3. Does Economic Diversification Lead to Financial Development? Evidence From topography

    Rodney Ramcharan

    2006-01-01

    An influential theoretical literature has observed that economic diversification can reduce risk and increase financial development. But causality operates in both directions, as a well functioning financial system can enable a society to invest in more productive but risky projects, thereby determining the degree of economic diversification. Thus, ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates of the impact of economic diversification on financial development are likely to be biased. Motivated by th...

  4. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  5. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN INDIA

    V. R. Palanivelu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the main priority for any country. Economic development means a process of upward change that is whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a period of time. Entrepreneurial talent existed in every country, the handicraft Entrepreneurial in India as old as human civilization itself. The village community was the centre of economic activity in India before it came into contact with the west. The village community consisted of farmers, artisans and priests.

  6. History, expectations, and public policy: Economic development in Eastern Germany

    Schäfer, Andreas; Steger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the process of economic development in Eastern Germany since the German reunification we set up a dynamic macroeconomic model of a small open economy where both capital and labor are mobile and there are increasing returns to scale at the aggregate level. The model features multiple equilibria as well as (local and global) indeterminacy. Expectations matter for resulting equilibrium dynamics, implying that economic confidence may be crucial for the process of economic development...

  7. The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia

    Nazura Abdul Manap; Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of societi...

  8. Three essays on peripherality and economic development

    Montes-Solla, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract] Chapter 1 derives a panel data econometric specification which relates the different factors that explain the pattern of economic growth in Spain along the 1989-2010 period. The growth of GDP per capita (GDPpc) in Spain up until the crisis of 2008 was characterised by strong job creation and productivity stagnation. Unlike other European countries, Spain did not experience the phenomenon of capital deepening with increasing productivity, as the GDPpc intense growth in Spain was ...

  9. Frac Sand Mining and Community Economic Development

    STEVEN C. DELLER; Schreiber, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    As the national economy struggles to recover from the "Great Recession" of 2008-2009 the high price of oil, and to a lesser extent natural gas, has created economic opportunities for many rural communities. The process of hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", to remove oil and gas from rock formations has created "mining booms" in large parts of the western Appalachian Mountains (the Marcellus fields in the Appalachian Basin) and western North Dakota and eastern Montana (the Bakken fields in t...

  10. THE ECONOMICS OF NATURAL RESOURCE SCARCITY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Edgar L. Feige; Blau, David M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the problem of natural resource scarcity and its implications for economic development and international cooperation. We examine the meaning and measurement of resource “scarcity” and its implications for economic growth and development. The paper describes the conditions required for the efficient use of exhaustible natural resources and for optimal inter-temporal efficient paths and considers the consequences of uncertainty, risk, externalities, disequilibria and institu...

  11. Economic and social development, energy and environment in Latin America and the West Indies - an ovierview

    After giving a short overview of the economic and social development of Latin America since 1980 the present article deals with the various problems relating to the energy supply of that region, namely economic growth, diversification, inefficiency, and environmental effects. If discusses the relationships that exist in Latin America between energy, environment, and the social situation and endeavours to outline possible approaches towards a socially and environmentally sustainable development. (UA)

  12. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  13. Legacy Information System Development: Problems and Issues

    Muheet Ahmed Butt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Information Communication Technology has improved the quality of services being provided by organizations beyond proportions. Another most distinguishing characteristic of ICT is the storage, retrieval, processing as well as the communication of Data. However development of Information System is always associated with many problems and issues. In fact resistance to change is a universally acknowledged fact but since the influence of ICT is felt at all levels therefore automation mostly meets multifold problems. It is because of this fact that despite distinct superiority of ICT still it is implemented in phased manner. Similarly the available technology also limits the working of the Information System. Other issues related with the development of the information are the developmental, operational besides security.

  14. Role Of FDI In Economic Development Of India

    Adgaonkar Ganesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FDI plays an important role in the development process of a country. It has potential for making a contribution to the development through the transfer of financial resources, technology and innovative and improved management techniques along with raising productivity. Developing countries like India need substantial foreign inflows to achieve the required investment to accelerate economic growth and development. It can act as a catalyst for domestic industrial development. Further, it helps in speeding up economic activity and brings with it other scarce productive factors such as technical knowhow and managerial experience, which are equally essential or economic development.

  15. Problem Based Learning and Education for Sustainable Development

    Guerra, Aida

    An engineering education that integrates education for sustainable development (ESD) perspectives claims for a learning approach centred on students, interdisciplinary and problem oriented, and this cannot be achieve through an “add on” strategy. Example of such active learning approaches are...... problem based learning (PBL), project based learning (PjBL), case study, role play, group discussion, field work, etc. These learning approaches are capable of integrating education for sustainable development (ESD) in engineering education at different levels, and do not aim to substitute the core...... scientific and technological knowledge but instead align it with the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the professional practice. It is agreed among ESD experts that PBL is a suitable learning approach to integrate ESD in the engineering curricula. This paper provides an overview of the...

  16. Technical and economical problems of decommissioning nuclear power plants (NPP) in Russia

    The introduction per new century has brought to atomic Engineering many new problems. One of them, which has got a serious urgency, we now shall consider. It is a problem of decommissioning NPP in Russia. By 2014 all maintained nowadays NPP in Russian Federation will develop the regular service life. And all of them on idea should be removed from operation. But, as we understand, in today's difficult economic conditions, to it NPP the procedure of prolongation of service life will be applied, and where it is impossible by virtue of the various reasons, the procedure of translation NPP in nuclear - safe condition and in a mode of a long storage under supervision, before acceptance of the decision about a method and way of financing of a decommissioning will be applied. Possible the following variants will be: use platforms of the old NPP for construction new NPP, or using as burial place NPP. The variant of a decommissioning up to a condition 'green grass' is represented unprofitable because of its dearness. The similar decommissioning was carried out in Japan. Was removed from operation research reactor of a type WWR. The expenses for this method of a decommissioning considerably surpass expenses for a method of a burial place NPP basically because of high cost of dismantle and transportation in long-term storehouses of the 1 contour equipment. The most urgent problem of decommissioning NPP, which developed their regular service life - is financing this final stage of a exploitation cycle of the block. I shall remind, that the financing is carried out from uniform fund of decommissioning. The formation of this fund occurs by deduction 1.3 % of cost of the put electric power to the consumers by all maintained NPP of Russia. The expenditure of this fund is carried on time on some tens years. They are spent for 3 basic stages: preparation to decommissioning NPP, long endurance under supervision, dismantle and burial the NPP equipment. Nowadays on faculty NPP MPEI under the direction of the senior lecturer Mikhail A. Skachek was estimated the basic economic parameters of decommissioning process NPP with the various types of reactors (WWR-440, WWR-1000, RBMK-1000) Now we are researching the subscription of disposal the nuclear waste in a total cost of decommissioning NPP. The estimation of expenses for decommissioning NPP was carried out with the helps of the program DECOST - adapted on faculty NPP MPEI to a Russian economy conditions of the transition period. Program 'DECOST' is developed for an estimation of expenses and payments for removal from operation of nuclear power installations in different conditions. (author)

  17. ARTICLE REVIEW THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  18. ARTICLE REVIEW THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  19. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Hafas Furqani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM to see whether the Islamic financial system contributes to the economic development and economic development that contribute to the transformation of the operation of the Islamic financial system in the longrun. We use time series data of total Islamic bank financing (IB financing and real GDP per capita (RGDP, fixed investment (GFCF, and trade activities (TRADE to represent real economic sectors. We found that in the short-run only fixed investment that granger cause Islamic bank to develop for 1997:1-2005:4. Where as in the long-run, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between Islamic bank and fixed investment and there is evidence to support demand following hypothesis of GDP and Islamic bank, where increase in GDP causes Islamic banking to develop and not vice versa. Islamic banking is also found to have less contribution to the international trade in the form of export and import of goods and services.Keywords: Islamic banking, economic growth, Malaysia, VECM

  20. Economic Impact Analysis of Kecamatan Development Program Infrastructure Projects

    Torrens, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The Government of Indonesia and the World Bank commissioned this independent study to conduct a post-construction economic impact analysis on 113 Kecamatan Development Program (KDP) rural infrastructure projects to determine the overall economic benefits that have accrued to the villages that planned and built infrastructure facilities according to the KDP Community Driven Development appr...

  1. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    Barry, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within

  2. Environmental Economics in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards Sustainable Development

    Convery, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental concerns must be integrated into the development process, but African countries still face many challenges as they work to achieve development that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Many countries have already launched National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPs) and National Conservation Strategies; however, in preparing and implementing them, econom...

  3. Afghanistan : Economic Incentives and Development Initiatives to Reduce Opium Production

    Ward, Christopher; Mansfield, David; Oldham, Peter; Byrd, William

    2008-01-01

    This report is about how to progressively reduce over time Afghanistan's dependence on opium - currently the country's leading economic activity - by development initiatives and shifting economic incentives toward sustainable legal livelihoods. Specifically, the report identifies additional investments and policy and institutional measures to support development responses that can counterb...

  4. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  5. Cumulative Estimate of the Ukrainian Regional Economical Development Level

    R. Atamaniuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels. The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH;• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH;• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH.The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.

  6. Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)

    The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

  7. An Effective Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm to Slove Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    K. Thanushkodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

  8. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    Kurt Mantonya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC and support from the Economic Development Administration (EDA, Denver Region, conducted a series of case studies focusing on promising programs in Indian Country that were meeting with success. These case studies reflect the positive economic conditions in order to build on them and provide a framework for other communities to follow.

  9. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  10. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  11. Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance

    Ali R?za Erdem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work....

  12. Mathematical programming based approaches for classes of complex network problems : economical and sociological applications

    Nasini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...

  13. The economic impact of diseases and parasitic problems in freshwater fish production

    Okaeme, A.N.; Obiekezie, A.I.; Ogbondeminu, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases and parasitic problems could constitute significant economic losses in fish production if not controlled, thus the need to continue monitoring its prevalence. Based on field studies on feral and intensively raised fish at the Kainji Lake Research Institute Nigeria, some diseases and parasitic problems have been identified. These include; helminthiasis; fungal disease; protozoa which include Myxosoma sp., Myxobolus spp., Henneguya sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthopthrius sp. bacterial mainl...

  14. EXPOSURE OF PRIORITIES OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGION

    Dikan, V.

    2009-01-01

    The given article examines the questions of socio-economic development of region, the necessity of exposure of priorities of development for providing of strategic management on the basis of integral indicator of quality of life of population is grounded.

  15. Problems and perspectives of nuclear energetics development

    Critical situation in developing nuclear power engineering, conditioned by application of uranium-plutonium fuel cycle is state. It is shown that the fuel cycle doesn't close and there exists no satisfactory solution of the problem on the acculating transplutonium elements. Creation of safe nuclear power engineering on the basis of homogenous cascade molten salt reactors on thorium and uranium molten fluoride salts is substantiated. By sustaining thermal neutrons flow there exists no essential accumulation of transplutonium elements in the reactor in the whole course of its lifetime. The safety problems are considered and recommendations relative to exclusion of precedents of global ecological accidents are given. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  17. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications of factors of economic development an improved classification of the driving forces of advancing national economic development was offered, the basis of which systemically factors amount. It was proved that the optimistic scenario of socio-economic development of Ukraine can be based only on the economic model of advancing development, which should take into account the non renewable resources, based on the rapid establishment of mechanisms for high-tech export-oriented economy, which is the driving force of intellectual resources, cultural values, and creative energy. Guenon-factor of advancing economic development is defined. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Guenon-factor concentrates the cause of changes in the system state and can be represented by two levels depending on the degree of objectivity and distance from the system itself. The studies presented an opportunity to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. Each factor of the formed registry was described by a brief characteristic or feature showing its impact on economic development. Likely Guenon-factor is characterized by variability, however, still forms the initial system-factors in the study of which are seen as the prospect for further research.

  18. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  19. Infrastructure Development and Economic growth: Prospects and Perspective

    Rao, P. Srinivasa; Srinivasu, Dr. B

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure is the prerequisite for the development of any economy. Transport, telecommunications, energy, water, health, housing, and educational facilities have become part and parcel of human existence. It is difficult to imagine a modern world without these facilities. These are vital to the household life as well as to the economic activity. Infrastructure plays a crucial role in promoting economic growth and thereby contributes to the reduction of economic disparity, poverty and depr...

  20. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Qiang He; Bertness, Mark D.; John F. Bruno; Bo Li; Guoqian Chen; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Junhong Bai; Tao Sun; Steven C. Pennings; Jianguo Liu; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Baoshan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impact...

  1. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    McBride, John Edward

    2004-01-01

    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  2. Regional service scheme: New tools in economic development

    Eeva-Liisa Koivumäki

    2011-01-01

    Economic developers are facing a continuously changing business environment. It is even more difficult than previously to predict the economic conditions which regions and companies located within them will face. Industries are undergoing some radical changes. As a result of the recession, regional economic patterns have to be changed and modernized in a timely fashion. In common with many other regions in the European Union, the need for action arose in Jyväskylä wheneconomic turbulence in t...

  3. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Europe 2004 : Economic Integration and Social Responsibility

    Bourguignon, Francois; Jacquet, Pierre; Pleskovic, Boris

    2007-01-01

    To address these broad questions: How to analyze the impact of globalization? What is the effect of rich countries' policies on developing ones? How to redefine the development agenda and scale-up the aid effort? The European Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE-Europe) focused on some of the problematic features of globalization and discussed the global impact of developed countries...

  4. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  5. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Amirreza Nickkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  6. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    Ercan EKMEKÇİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

  7. Nuclear power development, safety and environmental problems

    The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)

  8. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    Doroshenko, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-eco...

  9. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    Neil Reid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.

  10. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

  11. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Elena Botezat

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial management performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  12. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Marcel Bolos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial management performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  13. Tax Reforms in the Context of Socio-Economic Development ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????

    Gurnak Olexandr V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the existing approaches to the study and the justification of tax reforms in the context of their impact on socio-economic development. The needs of the tax reform study on the basis of evolutionary economics are shown.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.

  14. International economic problems in the mid-eighties: Energy - technology - environment

    The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn (FRG), in 1984 invited to an international meeting of experts for discussing ''International economic problems in the mid-eighties''. The meeting took place from November 19 to 20, and gathered about 700 experts from 40 countries. The topics on the agenda were those problems which in the industrialized societies throughout the world are of prime interest: Energy forms the basis of industrial production. Modern technologies have changed the countries' economic structures, and their social life, considerably. The natural environment is exposed to impacts induced by industry, or traffic and transport, which have reached a level causing anxiety and alarm, especially in areas of agglomeration. Remedial action taken so far still is patchwork, optimum solutions still are out of range. The problems resulting from this situation were discussed during the meeting by politicians, members of the business community, and scientists from various countries. (orig./HP)

  15. ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY

    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

    2012-01-01

    Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of seve...

  16. Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: The Nigeria Experience

    God’stime Osekhebhen Eigbiremolen; Uchechi Shirley Anaduaka

    2014-01-01

    This study employs the augmented Solow human-capital-growth model to investigate the impact of human capital development on national output, a proxy for economic growth, using quarterly time-series data from 1999-2012. Empirical results show that human capita development, in line with theory, exhibits significant positive impact on output level. This implies that human capital development is indispensable in the achievement of sustainable economic growth in Nigeria, as there is an increase in...

  17. Geo-economic development scenarios for the republic of Azerbaijan

    Cheshmi Hajiyeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides systematic analysis of Azerbaijan’s geo-economic development potential scenarios in the context of multivariation and multi-vector nature of the existing economic development paradigm. Methodological framework of the research was formed based on ‘intersection points’ of the pair ‘post-positivism → post-structuralism’. The author first provided scientific substantiation of the key mono- and multi-factor scenarios of Azerbaijan development based on technogenic and evolutionar...

  18. REMMITTANCES, BANKING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN FIJI

    Janesh Sami

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of remittances and economic growth in banking sector development in Fiji using annual data from 1980-2010. This study finds evidence of long run relationship between banking sector development, remittances and economic growth using bounds testing procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001). In addition, our causality analysis based on vector error correction model (VECM) and Toda Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test (1995) suggest that there is causality from econ...

  19. Economics, Environment, and Equity: Policy Integration During Development in Vietnam

    O'Rourke, Dara

    1995-01-01

    Conflicts between economic development, environmental protection and social equity underlie efforts to promote sustainable development. The author proposes a simplified framework for integrating economic, environmental, and social policies in order to foster development that is ecologically and socially more sustainable. The paper analyzes the specific forms these policy areas are assuming in Vietnam, and the underlying political forces (both internal and external) driving policy implementati...

  20. SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION - NEW ECONOMIC CONCEPT REQUIRED BY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    VIOREL CORNESCU; CECILIA-ROXANA ADAM

    2013-01-01

    Following the concept of sustainable development and standard economics, we find innovation presented as one of the most important factors of world economic growth. Although most authors focus their research on sustainable development, this paper will instead focus on sustainable innovation. The paper converges on studying innovation from the perspective of sustainable development and sustains several theoretical results in order to show the importance of adopting innovation process which res...

  1. Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe

    Tichaona Zivengwa; Joseph Mashika; Fanwell K Bokosi; Tendai Makova

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the v...

  2. Review of principles of economic development - will this be enough to reverse the enviromental loss?

    Vyniarchuk, N.

    2012-01-01

    All in all, we expect integration of sustainable development principles into state policies to force governments be more accurate in their prediction of adverse effects the further progress may possibly bring. At the same time we believe that ecology alone, deprived from economic research and analysis, is unlikely to cope with environmental problems on its own the same as international economics without environmental restriction and limitations will probably lead to complete devastation and d...

  3. A new model based analysis method for regional economic development effects

    Haag, Gnter; Binder, Jan

    2002-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to provide a new method for the estimation and evaluation of long time ago implemented transport infrastructure and policy measures. This requires before and after data on a small spatial aggregation level. The main problem consists in the separation of the overall economic development, from the spatial impact of the implemented measures. Therefore, timeseries data of economic growth seem to be necessary, at least for some selected variables. However, longterm data...

  4. The Study of Poverty as a Deterrent to Economic Development of Russia

    Sergey A. Surkov

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to an actual problem of poverty in Russia. Availability of poverty constrains economic development of Russia, because reduces economic activity of its inhabitants. Poverty separation by types is given. Based on surveys of different kinds dependencies poverty poverty equation built. The difference between the right and left parts of this equation shows the degree of social tension. Dependence of this tension on the time was obtained, and a comparison with significant event...

  5. The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Md. Anowar H. Bhuiyan; C. Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Islam, R.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the...

  6. Organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social development of Donetsk city

    Anisimov, A.; Dorofeyeva, A.

    2014-01-01

    Article analyzes the organizational structure and the interaction between the participants of the formation of the program of socio-economic development of Donetsk city, systematizes their functions, identifies problems and to substantiates directions of organizational interaction of responsible executives and program coordinators. The main result is the set of regulations and recommendations for the creation of organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social de...

  7. Economic Growth, Financial Development, and Income Inequality

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho

    2015-01-01

    The central objective of our paper is to empirically examine the relationship between financial development and income inequality. Theoretically, there are grounds for both a positive and negative relationship between the two variables. Our main finding is that financial development contributes to reducing inequality up to a point, but as financial development proceeds further, it contributes to greater inequality. We also find that when the ratio of primary schooling to total schooling incre...

  8. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  9. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  10. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    O.L. Kanishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all directions. Recently improvement of commercial and economic relations between states is in the heart of diplomatic dialogue. Main reasons of interest in economic diplomacy are based on the following: globalization of trade and business, implementation of economic reforms in processes of orientation to a market economy, which shrinks area of non-market economy in the world and leads to reduction of characteristic of its closeness and self-sufficiency. Tasks which are the basis of interests of economic diplomacy also include: amplifying struggle between individual links of the global economic system, growth of number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment, expansion of regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investment processes which determine at a considerable extent the leading role of the EU, MERCOSUR, NAFTA, FTAA and others. Modern trends in development of economic diplomacy in the context of globalization are based on management decisions on different levels of structure of the world market – on mega, macro, meso and micro levels. Deep analysis of current geo-economic trends is an important step in understanding the nature and features of effective use of tools of economic diplomacy in international economic relations. The current situation of economic diplomacy is characterized by next trends: activation of multilateral regular relations between countries, that consequences in integration processes in trade and business; providing economic reforms, aimed on creation market economy, which constricts the area of non-market economy; the increasing of the number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment in trade balance of countries; expand regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investments; increased state involvement in promotion and protection of national interests on the world market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The economic diplomacy influences on the overall trends of world market trade, investment, innovation and socio-cultural spheres of life. On the other hand, new challenges of internationalization and globalization give a qualitatively new dimension in economic diplomacy, which is focused on achieving positive result of foreign economic activity of countries.

  11. Problems in software development for nuclear robotics

    Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

  12. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  13. Benefits for Women in Nile Economic Development

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Women and girls often risk being left behind in development, not being fully informed or involved in decision making about issues that can have a real impact on their lives. Sometimes, they are already disadvantaged by cultural and legal norms that affect their rights to resources. Working together to develop the Nile resource, the 10 countries involved in the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) a...

  14. Are smartphones smart for economic development?

    Hartje, Rebecca; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the worldwide spread of smartphones continues, developing countries have become important markets for these devices. Smartphones´ independence of landline networks qualifies them for communication and Internet access in rural areas of developing countries. Drawing upon rural Southeast Asian survey data, this paper provides probably the first empirical evidence for smartphones´ contribution to households´ income.

  15. Training: The Competitive Advantage to Economic Development.

    Lemke, Gary Kai; Wismer, Jack N.

    1989-01-01

    Identifies socioeconomic trends affecting education and training, arguing that community colleges should be more involved in developing human resources. Discusses five phases in establishing customized training programs for industry: needs assessment, coalition building, model building/development, implementation, and evaluation. (DMM)

  16. Private Enterprise-led Economic Development in Africa

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    the world’s ten fastest-growing economies in 2010 were from there. But their growth has failed to translate into job creation and inclusive development. This experience has encouraged a renewed search for a sustainable economic development model for the sub-continent. The present dissertation...... emphasis on soft economics (i.e. the human side of economic activities) as a new theoretical platform for understanding economic growth and development. Furthermore, it introduces human capability development and the enabling factors as a framework for studying entrepreneurship and enterprise growth......As a continent, Africa occupies nearly a quarter of the World’s land area and home for one-seventh of its population. But a large proportion of the people, especially those living in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) are mired in abject poverty. Recent years have witnessed some positive developments. Six of...

  17. REMMITTANCES, BANKING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN FIJI

    Janesh Sami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of remittances and economic growth in banking sector development in Fiji using annual data from 1980-2010. This study finds evidence of long run relationship between banking sector development, remittances and economic growth using bounds testing procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001. In addition, our causality analysis based on vector error correction model (VECM and Toda Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test (1995 suggest that there is causality from economic growth and remittances to banking sector development. The study indicates that remittances inflows may not be only important for economic growth but also for development of banking sector. It is thus, important for policymakers to ensure that remittances flow through formal channels.

  18. A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics

    Mehta, Dhagash

    2015-01-01

    Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...

  19. Application of Krill Herd and Water Cycle Algorithms on Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Mani Ashouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch (DED is a complicated nonlinear constrained optimization problem and one of the most important problems in operation of power systems. In this paper two novel optimization algorithms have been proposed to be applied on DED problem. The first method, Krill herd (KHA is a novel meta heuristic algorithm for solving optimization problems which is based on the simulation of the herding of the krill swarms as a biological and environmental inspired method and is applied on DED problem with two configurations named KHA1 and KHA2. The second algorithm is based on how the streams and rivers flow downhill toward the sea and change back in nature, named Water Cycle (WCA method. Two common case studies considering various constraints have been used to show the effectiveness of these methods. The results and convergence characteristics show that the proposed methods are capable of giving high quality results which are better than many other previously applied algorithms.

  20. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful drinking. Such a different net impact between men and women could potentially contribute to growing gender-related health inequalities during a crisis. PMID:25771482

  1. DISPUTES OVER THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF VOJVODINA (1964-1968

    Слободан Бјелица

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the economic and political crises which started to spread in the socialist Yugoslavia,at the beginning of the sixties, disputes occurred between the communist leaderships of the Republicof Serbia and Autonomous province of Vojvodina. The reason for this was the state ofeconomy of Vojvodina. In 1965, great economic reform was introduced in Yugoslavija, whichcreated economic wholes by merging several municipalities. This caused several problems, suchas jealousy between economic centres, particulary in Vojvodina. As the result of the well-organizedaction taken by the highest party forums in the province, Novi Sad prospered as the capital ofVojvodina – as it could be seen from the minutes of the party meetings. According to the so farunpublished archive documentation, those events remained hidden from the public eye.

  2. Housing and Economic Development Payment Receipts

    US Agency for International Development To fulfill international aid reporting requirements, USAID built a data repository for tracking all foreign assistance activities funded by the U.S. Government....

  3. Local governance, decentralization and local economic development

    Nasser, Wafaa; Donsimoni, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    When studying local development, we find that decentralization and local governance are inseparable factors that contribute strongly into the efficiency of local development attempts. Decentralization gives local authorities more responsibilities and freedom of action without having to refer to central institutions. Enhanced local governance allows the establishment of strategies that better cope with local needs, reduces opposition and corruption, and increases cooperation between local acto...

  4. Three Essays in Health and Development Economics

    Xue, Yuhan

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is on social issues affecting people's health and welfare, within both the developed world and developing world. Particularly, policy changes are employed as natural experiments, to identify the health and social impacts of policies and welfare. This dissertation consists of three chapters.Chapter 1 analyzes the health effects of China's centralized home heating infrastructure. The primary health mechanism is that recipients of centralized heating do not ne...

  5. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-01-01

    Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

  6. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective

  7. Degree of Economic Freedom and Relationship to Economic Growth and Human Development

    Chodak, Grzegorz; Kowal, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Presented in this article is an analysis of the relationship between the Index of Economic Freedom and indices of economic growth, i.e. GDP per capita and the Human Development Index. The McPherson coefficient of correlation was calculated from several different perspectives. Described in the final part of the article is the testing of the hypotheses, while a short commentary on the results obtained is also presented.

  8. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    P.I. OTIMAN

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense) to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian) economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the ...

  9. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  10. Organizational and Economic Support for Small Business Development in Ukraine ??????????????-????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????

    Prokhorova Victoria Volodymyrivna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of competitiveness of potential of small enterprises are certain. The economic mechanism of renewal and development of small enterprise of Ukraine is resulted. Tasks which are decided by a small enterprise are certain.?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ???????. ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????????????.

  11. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    Haldrup, Karin

    screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the...... data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning...... screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between...

  12. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    Brink, Tove

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how...... to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant...... impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their...

  13. Social-Economic Development of Region: Institutional Aspect ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????: ????????????????? ??????

    Zhavoronkov Vladimir A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The institutional aspects of social-economic development of region are considered where the special role is played by regional authorities and civil society institutions that serve as institutional basis for the formation of the social economy.??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.

  14. Triple Play: Three Educators Explore Education and Economic Development.

    O'Neil, Robert M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the ways in which the University of Wisconsin system, the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education, and the Department of Public Instruction contribute to the economic development of the state. (JOW)

  15. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper...

  16. Financial Liberalisation, Stockmarkets and Economic Development.

    Ajit Singh1

    1997-01-01

    Abstract During the 1980s and 1990s, many developing countries (DCs) have been engaged in far-reaching reforms of their financial systems, liberalising them and making them more market-oriented. This liberalisation, involving inter alia ‘financial de-repression’ has been inspired partly by the work of the McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973) [M-S] school. This paper suggests that, in addition to financial de-repression, there has been a major new element in the development of DC financial...

  17. EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

  18. International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

    Özden, Çağlar; SCHIFF, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and th...

  19. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    Sderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Hkan; Olsson, Bjrn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  20. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    Ercan EKMEKÇİOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The m...