Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.
General problems of energy market development in Poland are addressed. The structure of Polish energy sector and conditions of its functioning are presented. The general concept of national and local energy market organisation is also discussed. This is particularly crucial in programming the processes of investments in the energy sector under new economic conditions in Poland. (author)
General problems of energy market development in Poland are addressed. The structure of Polish energy sector and conditions of its functioning are presented. The general concept of national and local energy market organisation is also discussed. This is particularly crucial in programming the processes of investments in the energy sector under new economic conditions in Poland. (author)
Kamrat, W. [Technical University of Gdansk (Poland). Power Plants and Energy Department, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering
This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property.
Full Text Available ????2010?1~7??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The survey on industrial economic of Ji’nan city from January to July in 2010 showed remarkable achievements: industrial production and efficiency improved steadily, key industries and enterprises run well, upgrade of transformation and energy conservation promoted solidly, industrial investment and exports in-creased steadily, yet many problems are appearing. Therefore, we should take the following measures: the mode transferred and the structure adjusted be speed up, and the modern industrial system be built actively; increase industrial investment, focus on strengthening the potential of industrial development; strengthen the construction of the park, and greatly enhance the level of industrial concentration; promote the independent innovation, and strive to improve sustainable development, further develop the functions of government ser-vices, and actively promote enterprises bigger and stronger.
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[en] The paper gives a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the factors and problems associated with the continued practice of conventional scattered location of nuclear power plants and external fuel cycle facilities. These problems are connected with the substantial increase in the flow of spent fuel shipments, alienation of valuable land and water resources, delays in site development and in the commissioning of nuclear power plants, increased expenditure of labour and other economic and ecological constraints of nuclear power plant siting in the European part of the USSR. The authors also consider one way of overcoming or reducing the difficulties by establishing large nuclear energy centres (including a group of nuclear power plants with condensers and external fuel cycle facilities) in areas with low population density where land and water resources are less valuable and not in short supply and by transmitting the electric power to the areas of consumption. A comparative evaluation has been made of two methods of future siting of nuclear power systems. (author)
The paper examines the impact of the energy crisis on the world economy, particularly the less-developed countries (LDCs). To clearly and fully understand the economic problems confronting LDCs in the era of energy shortages, it is necessary to formulate a general structural theory of economic development. A more-comprehensive multidimensional indicator of economic development should also be constructed to measure the industrialization of the LDCs under study. 23 refs.
Full Text Available The paper clarifies the conceptual apparatus of subjects of small farms in agriculture, sup-plemented theory of the balance development of the market products, systematized the in-struments of state control of the development process of SFB in AIC subject to the condi-tions of economic space WTO
Tubalets A. A.; Lisovskaya R. N.; Tolmachev A. V.
The research in this project was devoted to developing a methodology having utility for an ultimate purpose of identifying potential future toxic substance pollution problems. An approach was desired that would be systematic, comprehensive, and futuristic. The methodology that ha...
Bioenergy, a promising alternative for developing countries, is already a key resource (in the form of fuelwood, for example) in millions of households around the world. In this book, William Ramsay details the characteristics of a wide variety of bioenergy crops and discusses planning for bioenergy development, emphasising its economic, social, and political aspects. He also analyses how general cost trends, credit problems, and the pricing of alternative fuels affect the viability of various bioenergy options. Concluding with a discussion of how energy and national economic development planning can be coordinated, he argues that some kind of durable national or regional commitment to bioenergy programs is vital if bioenergy is to become a successful modern alternative to fuel and play a key role in the economic development process.
[en] By contrast with conventional heating stations, nuclear heat sources will be characterized by a considerably greater economic unit power. However, the large capacity which at once becomes available through the introduction of a nuclear heat source will be confronted with a slowly growing heat demand, and with limited economic possibilities of replacing conventional stations in the connected heat-supply system. The paper considers the gradually increasing utilization of this capacity and gives, by simplified methods, an economic evaluation of the introduction of nuclear heating plants, and of nuclear power plants with heat extraction. Conclusions on the principles of introducing nuclear heat sources are given. (author)
Environment and Development Economics Environment and Development Economics is positioned at the intersection of environmental, resource and development economics. The Editor and Associate Editors, supported by a distinguished panel of advisors from around the world, aim to encourage submissi...
Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1) The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2) The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3) The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1) the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2) the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.
JOSÉ LUIS RETOLAZA
Economical calculations concerning long term investment are performed mostly by applying tables containing the figures required. Such tables are becoming very large if annual price increases (or rarely decreases) are assumed instead of constant prices. Such tables may be dispensed with, when a small electronic computer is used containing the four basic calculations plus exponential functions and natural and decimal logarithms. Even simpler are those calculations when a programmable small computer is being used. The necessary calculation procedures are presented in this paper.
Full Text Available Economic growth is tied with planning in the modern world. It is widely believed that if a country seeks to uplift its economy it must adopt the path of planning. The word “Planning” itself is, however, ambiguous. It is used with many meanings. It has been known to cover the shooting of those who disagree, or it may mean nothing more than consultation, making sure that all interested parties are properly informed about each other’s and the government’s intentions. It may involve the setting of targets with no compulsion to achieve them, but with certain inducements to try, setting up of targets with a larger number of physical controls to back them up. And it can mean no more than the attempt to work out what needs to be done if a given objective is to be achieved. In reality, planning has become a part of human life in every civilized society. Plans are the outcome of necessity. It is always wise to plan than to do and undertake any work without planning. Planning paves the direction and procedure to attain any goal or objectives. Planning now touches the lives of all of us at numerous points and no one, can afford to be ignorant about its principle and practice. Planning is a part of life and relevant to all of us. The house wife plans her budget and allocates her time and the businessman similarly budgets his time and resources.
Kailash Pati; Navin Kumar Jha
PROCEEDINGS FROM A 1966 CONFERENCE OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE USE OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN EDUCATION ARE REPORTED. PARTICIPANTS FROM EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES CONSIDERED THE APPLICATION OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS TO EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS. THEY AGREED--(1) THAT THE TECHNIQUES HAVE…
STOLLER, DAVID S.
The report stresses intensive economic development in limited rural areas of California. The study reviews its housing assistance through technical research and planning and seed money and such aid as helping local communities and their local development ...
|The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…
Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas
Highlights of the major Arab economic developments in the 1970s, as reported to the Council for Arab Economic Unity, cite nine indicators of economic performance. The gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate increased as did the GDP and trade balance disparity between oil-producing and nonoil-producing countries. A low volume of trade within the Arab world indicates weak interaction between the economies. Low agricultural and manufacturing output are reflected in a high rate of inflation. (DCK)
The emergence of large surpluses in the oil countries of the near-east has not only led to considerable financial problems, but also thrown up important questions with regard to the economic development of these countries. This article examines the problems which have arisen in six of these countries since 1973 with respect of their efforts to advance their economic development by diversification.
Much of the literature, regardless of academic discipline, presents the publication of Economic Development in 1958 as analogous to a “big bang” event in the creation of modern Ireland. However, such a “big bang” perspective misrepresents the sophistication of economic debates prior to Whitaker’s re...
Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.
[en] The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system
Problem set for a PhD level economics class at MIT covering game theory. The questions are purely theoretical and do not deal substantially with economic applications. Solutions are available here: http://web.mit.edu/14.126/www/ps3sol.pdf.
Ew Fudenberg, Sergei I.
Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP) growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.
I must, at the outset, congratulate Mr. Whitaker on succeeding, where others have failed, in arousing the authorities, both Governmental and Departmental, to the urgent necessity for a systematic programme of economic development and the importance of forward thinking in the formulation of financial...
Ó Nuallain, Labhrás; Black, R. D. Collison; Thompson, S. F.; Nevin, Donal; O'Keefe, P.
Full Text Available The role of science or technology in economic development is discussed inthe context of the world economy. Two myths that have dominated thinking about technology in Latin America are examined. The role of the firm in the formulation of strategies for technological change and the requisite of macroeconomic stability to achieve competitiveness are emphasized.
Full Text Available Abstract in english Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (more) (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."
Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."
The development of specific fuel cycle costs since 1970 has been characterized by rises above the general rate of price increases. Developments in this respect differend greatly in the different components of the fuel cycle. The contribution by natural uranium costs has changed very little since 1976 and is likely to remain stable also in the years to come. This applies also to the conversion of natural uranium and to uranium enrichment, both sectors showing considerable excess capacities. A relatively steady development of prices has been observed also in the fabrication of fuel assemblies for light water reactors. Improved fabrication techniques and higher throughputs contributed to major price drops from the midseventies on. In the meantime, prices have started to go up again, roughly in line with the general rate of price increases, mainly as a consequence of numerous improvements in fuel assembly design. Considerable increases have been experienced in the cost of waste management, which used to be greatly underrated in former times on the grounds of presumed excess capacities and depreciated military installations. Present waste management costs on the basis of commercial reprocessing conditions can be estimated with relatively good accuracy in the light of practical experience, e.g., in the French reprocessing plants. (orig.)
Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics
Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância para os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários.
A. P. Thirlwall
The history and status of works dealing with design of wind power plants (WPP) in our country are considered. The principle approaches to development of the method for NPP efficiency estimation are formulated. It is shown that the development of objective technical-economical substantiations for the schemes of WPP development and location is a very complicated problem, which requires complex attitude
Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region
Full Text Available The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to attribute environmental problems to the economic activities that generate them. In particular, a complex procedure of explanatory analysis carried out on a regional scale is suggested. Based on environmental measurements already performed all over the national territory, the procedure identifies territorial and environmental characteristics and latent variables, as well as the variety of the intricate phenomena in a way that is compatible with the requirements of the national schemes for economic an environmental accounting. References are given to environmental variables on a regional scale that have not been previously considered in ISTAT’s current NAMEA projects and that can be obtained faster.
Full Text Available Cet article propose une exploration et une analyse du nouveau programme de recherche institutionnaliste (appelé NNIE) appliqué à la question du développement. Les sources de ce programme sont attribuées aux travaux de D. North et aux enseignements issus des expériences de transition. Inversement, l’article évalue l’influence de ce programme sur les politiques de développement préconisées par les organisations internationales.This paper offers an overview and an inquiry into what I will call the New New Institutional Economics (NNIE). D. North’s analysis and transition experiments are considered as major sources of this research program. The implications of this NNIE for the development policies recommended or requested by international organizations are also discussed.
FRB San Francisco's bi-monthly publication Western Economic Developments summarizes economic growth and development in the Twelfth District. The economy remained strong throughout the first quarter of 2000, with an employment growth rate of 2.5 percent annually. California's economic growth rate was especially high, due to "usually rapid growth of income and consumer spending."
Full Text Available The paper discusses the problems of water economic northeastern Montenegro municipalities Berane, Andrijevica and Plav. It points to the problem of exploitation of water, protection of water and water protection. Within exploit water resources, the possibilities of water supply of population and industry, water supply, agriculture, hydropower exploitation, tourism and recreational use. Current and future use of water resources considered GeoScape, requires a new approach, which should be in accordance with the concept of active protection of the environment.
Goran Rajovic; Jelisavka Bulatovic
Full Text Available The first problem in the economics of natural resources is to find the rate at which to extract the resource in order to optimize its value when there are no extraction costs. It is shown that the existence of an optimal extraction path is not guaranteed by a utility function that is merely (strictly) concave, but that the additional requirement of Ã‚Â“asymptotic nonlinearityÃ‚Â” will assure the existence of the desired optimum.
Jannett Highfill; Michael McAsey
This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)
Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states). Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.
Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)
Contents: Technical - operating aspects of air transport; The role of air transport in a single transportation network of the USSR: Passenger service, mail and freight hauls; Problems of air transport development in the USSR: The development of air hauls,...
B. M. Parakhonskii
Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.
GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC
Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.
Bazhenov Yu. N.; Podshuvejt O. V.
Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)
Yapa, Lakshman S.
The development of a modern economy is dependent on three propositions, energy resources, transportation and information. Energy resource industries play a leading role, manufacturing industries become basic industries, and both these industries afford a common basis for economic development. This paper explores the relationship between energy use and economic development as well as proposing some views on the proper utilization and exploitation of energy resources. The energy sources of the earth come from the planet itself, from the sun and other celestial bodies. While the earth exists, its energy resources will never become exhausted. The change in the form of energy used by man, from firewood to coal, oil and atomic energy, in its turn, leads to changes in modes of production and in ways of life. There are examples of low efficiency, waste, ecological imbalance and malpractice harmful to the overall and long-term interests of the earth as a result of energy utilization. These problems should be resolved through international cooperation. (author). 2 tabs.
Zhang, L.; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Zhong, Y. [Guangdong Provincial Institute for Technical Personnel, Wushan, Guangzjpi (China)
The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.
Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)
Full Text Available In presented article ?Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power? I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical policy. After that I tried to define resulting facts from such process.When I wanted to achieve stated goal, I describe information process and integration problems of Slovac Republic, especially what is neccessary when we want to be ready to create assumptions for future development. I evaluate development in Slovac Republic as a period of the wasted occasions, that remove from society essential part of competitive advantages, that would enable society to integrate to the european structure from the economical, as well as from the social view as relatively equal society.Consequently I described globalisation process and trespassing of economical power, where first of all I mentioned signs of concrete social environment in present time. After such description I mentioned basic fact, that are forming global policy, goals and ways of tools applying of such policy.In last part I mentioned bearers of economical power in global economy. In conclusion I can state, that as concern to the transitive states of middle and eastern Europe, bearers of economical power have elaborated shocking scenario of its transmission to the market economy. In presented article I wanted to present process that would be basis, very important for realizastion of economies restructuralisation.Since till now mentioned fact was successfully achieved only in few cases, monopolisation of decision on the level of institutions, that manage forming of global economy as well as pressing of strongest economical subjects interests in world economical system are results of mentioned development.
Full Text Available Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local government towards smart decisions around long-term investments such as infrastructure. Achieving sustainable economic development for Ottawa means investment in the creation of a toolkit that consists of tourism development, community and social economic development, transportation access, entrepreneurship support, investment attraction, workforce development and academia, export development, and performance measurement. Such a toolkit is what encourages partnerships between stakeholders and facilitates the environment for healthy economic development conditions. This last element, performance measurement, deserves honest attention but is often found missing in an economic development plan. Just like a private sector firm that must always have its eyes on its bottom line and profitability, a city must constantly measure its economic development execution and adapt to changing circumstances. This can be achieved through a comprehensive scorecard or dashboard that analyzes trends over time, as well as compares Ottawa's performance versus its competitors. Economic development is no different than the business development unit of a firm that not only has the responsibility of creating market opportunities for its company's products, but also the crucial task of conveying back-market intelligence. From the City of Ottawa's perspective, the product we should be selling to both local residents and international community is the city brand, including business, tourism, and academia, as well as gathering competitive intelligence to continuously tweak our offering. Similar to cities whose future is dependent and linked to natural resources, Ottawa's economic future is tied to a rare resource as well. However, it is not found under the earth but between the ears of the knowledge-based workers that drive innovation in Ottawa. In today's environment, where both the knowledge-based work force and investment capital are highly fluid, the economic development challenge is to relentlessly retain and grow this knowledge resource. Economic development is the type of investment that will help Ottawa earn its way to be one of the world's leading centres for business, tourism, and academia. Conversely, lack of economic development vision and investment will undoubtedly leave the city's fortunes to luck. In this issue, the authors provide diverse perspectives and insights that will help all of us address the challenges of economic development and the knowledge-based economy.
Chris McPhee; Saad Bashir
Full Text Available This literature review focuses on research studies that correlate the effects of aid on the macroeconomic development of countries in the third world. I undertake the review to assess whether researchers have strongly established, based on empirical evidence, that there is any link, whether positive or negative, between aid and economic growth. The Introduction section provides a more detailed rationale for this review. In the subsequent sections, I provide a short description of the econometric models commonly used by researchers in establishing the relationship between aid and growth. I also discuss the body of research that I have looked into, their basic features, general conclusions and some key criticisms against them. I devote a separate section identifying the gaps I observed in the current research and finally conclude that although there is a wealth of research done on the impact of foreign aid on growth, these appear to be inconclusive due to methodological problems.
Full Text Available Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology) known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by economic development on the environment. Straddling legality and illegality, harmful economic conduct is then equated to a specific form of white collar crime, while an attempt is made to trace in the history of economic thought itself the embryo of a destructive rationale. After considering how harm to individuals and the environment is hidden through ideological strategies, the paper looks at some refreshing proposals to turn the threats of economic development into human opportunities.
Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.
Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.
A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs.
The economy and the environment are inextricably linked. Neither one can be concentrated on to the total exclusion of the other. When the economy declines, so does public and private support for aggressive clean air measures. So a healthy economy is a necessary partner for a healthful environment. California is going through tough economic times and, in the future, when things have improved, the South Coast Air Quality Management District wants to be able to look back and say it pitched in and did its share to help in the recovery. The author gives a few examples of what it has done and what it is doing.
Full Text Available Economic development is a complex phenomenon, at least when speaking about understanding its real sources, despite the simplifying tendencies of economic growth neoclassical theories. These orthodox theories limit themselves to identifying the necessary conditions - such as capital accumulation and technological progress - for production increasing. But, in order to explain "why" people are saving, investing, learning and looking for knowledge, we must take into consideration the institutions that define any economic system. Within society, people are perceptive to a system of general rules that provides incentives and constraints for human behavior. Institutions' and human action's mutuality, and also its economic and political implications, explain the essential importance of institutions in economic science and the institutional approach viability.
The document contains a paper submitted for consideration by the House of Commons Select Committee on International Development in the course of the inquiry into Migration and Development. It is largely a product of the author's longstanding interest in migratory flows from the Punjab region of Nort...
Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative) planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization).The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory) in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development).It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures) but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial) development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions) of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.
The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)
Birk Mortensen, J. [Copenhagen Univ., Inst. of Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)
With a field having been discovered and a general method of reservoir exploitation selected, ways are described to attain the reservoir management goal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of in-depth, overview development planning and to suggest the timing of such reviews. 2 refs.
This paper is one of several prepared in support of the Yukon Economic Forums. It discusses aspects of introducing renewable energy technologies into the Yukon's economy, their resource potential in the Yukon, and the economic, social and environmental benefits that use of renewable energy would confer on the Territory. To illustrate these benefits, various case studies that could be implemented in the Yukon, are described, stressing the variety of choices, job creation and skills development opportunities, financial savings, economic diversification, investment and trade potentials, environmental and social benefits, and ways to overcome energy market barriers. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.
Campbell, B.; Pape, A. [Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)
Explores game theoretic modeling and mechanism design for problem solving in Internet and network economics. This monograph contains an exposition of representative game theoretic problems in three different network economics situations and a systematic exploration of mechanism design solutions to these problems.
Narahari, Y; Narayanam, Ramasuri; Prakash, Hastagiri
As knowledge-based techniques are introduced insupervision and control applications, the need for a structured,methodological approach in the development of these systems increases.Current knowledge-based systems development methodologiesare founded on individualistic models of expertise, andcannot face the challenge of interacting with humans or other systemsin dynamic application environments. This article introducesa development method that combines models of expertise withinteraction-based distributed artificial intelligence. The applica-bility of the method is demonstrated on an example of supervisionof a power transmission network. The analysis of the proposedsystem is based on the KADS methodology. The design phaseis structured in a series of steps: first, the domain descriptionis used to select a model of distributed problem solving. Then,problem constraints and a set of design rules guide the mappingof the analysis' entities to a design solution. Design decisionsare justified at every step. Alternative design proposals areexperimentally compared with the aid of a multi-agent platformand a simulator. The experimental results indicate possible designrefinements. Finally, the generality of the approach is discussedand future research directions are indicated.
George P. Lekkas; Nicholas M. Avouris; George K. Papakonstantinou
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of economic development in various countries and the prospects for borrowing from the process of formation and implementation of economic and social policies as an example consider the strategy of Europe 2020 and the socio-economic development strategy of Russia until 2020
Pasko S. N.
There are no easy solutions to the abject poverty and hunger of the world's people. Rather than give answers, the authors provide a background for understanding the nature of the barriers to economic development in the poorer regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America as a first step for approaching the problem. Believing that previous theories about Third World development are too general or too broad in scope, they begin with an overview of the problem before moving on to discuss economic and demographic aspects. They describe socio-cultural traits of Third World countries to illustrate their theory that many noneconomic traits, such as religious tradition and social structure, frequently tie into the forces that inhibit a country's economic development. The same socio-cultural traits that set Third World countries apart from developed nations may prevent underdeveloped countries from achieving higher economic status. 207 references, 9 figures, 18 tables.
Stockwell, E.G.; Laidlaw, K.A.
Full Text Available Financial Structures and Economic Development This paper examines the relationship between the evolution of financial services and long-run economic growth. Liquidity risk, productivity risk, transactions costs. and information gathering and resource coordination costs create incentives for the emergence of financial contracts and institutions. The level of income per capital public policies, and legal codes determine the provision of financial services aid the types of financial structures that provide these services. The resultant financial structures can alter investment incentives, such that the steady state growth rate of per capita output increases.
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for France for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. Stock market development is estimated by the general stock market index. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Approach: To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. A vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Finally, Granger causality test was applied in order to find the direction of causality between the examined variables of the estimated model. Results: A short-run increase economic growth of per 1% leaded to an increase of stock market index per 0.24% in France, while an increase of interest rate per 1% leaded to a decrease of stock market index per 0.64% in France. The estimated coefficient of error correction term found statistically significant with a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that economic growth causes stock market development in France. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development, while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development in France.
Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos
Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the following questions: where were we in a systemic and development sense in October 2000? What changes have occurred in the last three years? What are the main problems regarding economic development and, opposed to them, the created stereotypes? What are the key mistakes from economic aspect? What should be done in the short run and in the medium run? In addition to providing the necessary level of investment as the most important tool of sustainable development and growth in gross domestic product, it is also necessary to ensure: conditions for efficient market functioning, firm and uncompromising legal protection of businesses innovative management, modern technological base. If such conditions are fulfilled, it will be possible to transform the economy, to ensure sustainable economic growth and to regularly service foreign debts. The alternative is a populist scenario, with a short-run rise in living standards and its fall in the medium and long run.
Stamenkovi? Stojan; Kova?evi? Miladin; Savin Davor; Nikoli? Ivan; Vu?kovi? Vladimir 1
Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.
The authors examine the economic impact for developed and developing countries of energy price increases since the 1970s. They evaluate the conservation response, the supply response, particular impacts on developing countries, and energy imports in relation to gross domestic product (GDP). The effect has been one of diverting a proportion of GDP in oil importing countries to oil exporters and a redistribution of world income. A series of severn tables illustrates the trends in these areas.
Pierce, D.; Westoby, R.
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Italy for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. The purpose of this study was to investigated the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: For this purpose unit root tests were carried out according to Dickey-Fuller (1979. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.4% in Italy, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.5% in Italy. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The results suggested that economic growth has a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate had a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.
Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos
Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view
Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.
Oana Camelia Iacob; Ana-Maria VOlintiru; Andrei Mihai Cristea
Sanjaya Lall saw economic development as an evolutionary process, with technological learning at its heart. This essay lays out the key differences between an evolutionary theory of economic activity and change, and the neoclassical theory as articulated in economic text books. It argues that only a...
Nelson, Richard R.
Problem set for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. This set of questions focuses on Bayesian Games and mechanism design, specifically, sequentiality, signaling, the Beer-Quiche game, the Hold Up Problem, the Revelation Principle and the Principle-Agent Problem.
Homopolar welding (HPW) is a single-shot solid-state resistance forge welding process that is under development as a single-station pipe welding method. Weld quality issues have been addressed by a Joint Industry Program and the process economics favor commercial use. Fielding of a HPW system is dependent on process tooling design, the speed of the process, and the economics of the process. The HPW weld speed of three seconds makes weld advance times of 12 to 20 minutes possible and will result in a large reduction in overall pipeline construction costs. In addition, HPW is an inherently controllable process, so the weld power pulse will be tailorable to meet a variety of weld and material requirements.
Pappas, J.A.; Harville, M.W.; Weldon, J.M. [Parker Kinetic Designs, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Carnes, R.W.; Hudson, R.S.; Nichols, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Electromechanics
Lipschitz propertyKód oboru RIV: BB - Aplikovaná statistika, opera?ní výzkum http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-economic and financial problems via multiobjective stochastic optimization.pdf
Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...
Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.
Samir SAYAH; Khaled ZEHAR
NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.
Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.
Dificultades de la gobernanza del desarrollo económico en el entorno regional de Medellín/ Governance Problems Related to Economic Development in Medellín's Periphery/ Les difficultés de la gouvernance du développement économique dans la région nord de la ville de Medellín
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La perennidad del páramo del entorno regional de Medellín es un problema de gobernanza del desarrollo económico. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar las dificultades de esta gobernanza. Las primeras conciernen a la relación entre desarrollo económico y protección ambiental. Las segundas, tienen que ver con la institucionalización de reglas de juego entre actores gubernamentales. Se consideran elementos teóricos de la nueva geografía económica y del neoi (more) nstitucionalismo, partiendo de los resultados de un análisis espacial multiobjetivo. Se observa que la gobernanza es sensible al efecto de aglomeración económica, pues presenta mayores dificultades técnicas conforme se está más cerca de la ciudad. Finalmente, las dificultades políticas radican en reglas de juego excluyentes, como consecuencia de una lógica de proyecto burocrática. Abstract in english Conservation efforts aimed at preserving forest resources in the Páramo (moor) System of the northern periphery of Medellín is a territorial governance problem related to economic development. The scope of this article is to identify technical and political difficulties of governance. Technical difficulties concern the relationship between economic development and environmental preservation. Political difficulties have to do with the institutionalization of rules betwee (more) n government actors. This study uses a New Economic Geography and Neoinstitutionalism approach and applies a Multi-objective Spatial Analysis. Results suggest that technical difficulties of governance are affected by economic agglomeration effects, increasing as territories get closer to the city. Finally, the tenets of the bureaucratic project promote non-inclusive political rules.
Full Text Available Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in 2007, his work has become worldwide recognized as an efficient means towards sustainable development with a focus on human development. The philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is basically a means to achieve happiness at the individual, community and country levels because the Sufficiency Economy Approach is applicable to the micro and macro levels. All the principles are much related to human development process toward right living, therefore right interaction and relation with other beings on this planet including natural resources. From this basis, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy provides a practical tool to cultivate necessary conditions and to alter human well-being through happiness development process.
On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of...
This paper highlights the major drilling problems encountered in the field development programmes offshore Malaysia from 1978 to mid-1983. The major problems identified were pipe sticking which was common in all the areas and top hole drilling problems encountered in a few fields offshore Sabah and Sarawak. Generally, the problems were related to drilling deviated wells through the soft and unconsolidated formations common in this region. Preventive measures employed by the Contractors have been effective in overcoming these problems in the later years of the period under consideration.
Osman, M.N.; Maung, M.
Full Text Available This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.
Petr S. Andreev; Galina I. Novolodskaya
|The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
Full Text Available For the development stage, the actuality of China economy is very similar to the initial stage of 1970s in Japan, so we can use some feasible experiences to solve economic problems by Japan at the beginning of 1970s. The research to the foam economy in the middle and late stage of 1980s in Japan induces the consideration whether China would follow the same old disastrous road of Japan in 1980s. After that, from the long term depression of Japan in 1990s, we should exactly treat the China depression theory which has been occurred. Reviewing the course from the boom at the beginning of 1970s to the formation and break of foam in the middle and late of 1980s and to the long term depression in 1990s of economic development experienced by Japan, we can get some revelations about many aspects such as macro-economic control and financial security.
Shijie Ma; Jian Li
Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural), generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.
A. Berezhna; Yu. Popova
Full Text Available The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria). Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies ripe more benefits from globalization among others that they should provide economic environments that are conducive, capable of attracting foreign investors and strong enough to support the strength and capacity of the domestic industry, otherwise, the globalization opportunities could only be seen as a mirage.
Abubakar, M. B.
Argentine economic development from 1864 to 1983 can be roughly devided into a period of economic progress (1864 - 1930) and into one of economic decline (1930 - 1983). Of the many issues that could potentially explain such an unprecedented development of a basically resource-rich country, this pape...
Foders, Federico; Glismann, Hans H.
Full Text Available This research analyzes the link between health economics and its determinants and sustainable development, emphasizing the significance that quality, equity and accessibility of health services have on the populations’ health, with implications upon the sustainable development of a society. The concept of sustainable development, although widely used, has different meanings, being an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Since health effects are one of the driving factors of a society’s economic and sustainable development, this paper discusses current trends in healthcare economics and argues the need and usefulness of economic evaluation in health.
Marius Ioan Pantea; Delia Gligor
The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.
A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)
Ferguson, R. [Solar Network Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, W. [Energy Audit Company, Chathill, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Hill, R. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre
Two genetic algorithm (GA) solutions to the economic dispatch problem are presented. An advantage of the GA solutions is that they do not impose any convexity restrictions on the generator cost functions. Another advantage is that GAs can be very effectively coded to work on parallel machines. Test results with systems of up to 72 generating units with nonconvex cost functions show that both GAs outperform the dynamic programming solution to the economic dispatch problem. Furthermore, the execution time of the second GA solution increases almost linearly with the number of generators. (author)
Bakirtzis, A.; Petridis, V.; Kazarlis, S. (Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Faculty of Electrical Engineering)
Many of the basic assumptions underlying macro-economic and financial theory are so simplistic that the models upon which they are built cannot be used to predict or explain economic events. The concept of homo economicus assumes that individuals make rat...
D. Evans M. Moten
Full Text Available The social and economical development must be approached in such a way that it minimizes the effects of the economic activity over the deterioration of resources and to discourage waste. The pollution control depends on humans’ ability to understand the seriousness of the ecological lack of balance.The sustainable lasting development, being a long term economical development, is possible by efficiently using the economical instruments (cost, profit); the political, juridical and social ones, which utter signals for the economic agents, so that they can become aware of the limited character of natural resources and of the damage caused to the environment.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider a dynamic competitive economic equilibrium problem in terms of maximization of utility functions and of excess demand functions. This equilibrium problem is studied by means of a time-dependent quasivariational inequality which is set in the Lebesgue space L2([0,T],?). This approach allows us to obtain an existence result of time-dependent equilibrium solutions.
Maria Bernadette Donato; Monica Milasi; Carmela Vitanza
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider a dynamic competitive economic equilibrium problem in terms of maximization of utility functions and of excess demand functions. This equilibrium problem is studied by means of a time-dependent quasivariational inequality which is set in the Lebesgue space . This approach allows us to obtain an existence result of time-dependent equilibrium solutions.
Donato MariaBernadette; Milasi Monica; Vitanza Carmela
Full Text Available For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009) addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in choosing the economic valuation method best suited to the aspect of biodiversity addressed, to put difficulties into perspective and possibly find solutions for them.
Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux
[en] Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation
Full Text Available In the article the author, an experienced anthropologist who worked in Central and Eastern Europe, has used his "outsider" professional perspective to look at questions of greed and need as they relate to matters of economics. The problems that arise due human fallibility in scientific knowledge application have been considered, specifically in the fields of anthropology and economics. Basing on the experience of anthropologists, whose scientific research has often been used in the past century to abuse vulnerable people groups, the author argues that the need for ethical standards and practices is even more urgent in the field of economics than it is in anthropology. The increased urgency results from the great influence that money has on human behavior. The development of standards and practices to check and balance human tendencies to exploit others will never be complete, he claims, but must be an ongoing priority. The process must also be creative to deal with the tendency to try to avoid or circumvent it. It has been concluded that we are professionally responsible to ensure that the results of our research and teaching help produce improving care for the needs of vulnerable people in the world around us.
Full Text Available The recent period in the growth of economics has witnessed a surprising revival of interest in the problems of development. Many of the profession’s “big names”—Stiglitz, Sachs, Barro, Krugman, Helpman, and North, to mention only a few—have lent their names to the rediscovery of a field whose independent existence was denied not too long ago in many teaching departments. With this recently gained respectability, the current professional mainstream seems almost to be saying, “We are all development economists now.”
Emmanuel S. De Dios
Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.
Kristina A. Menshikova; Lyubov E. Malyuta
The purpose of this thesis is to find the general problems in information systems development. In the thesis, the author will first introduce the research approach of analysis needs, and then talk about the basic idea of an information system and information system development as well as the process...
The paper documents the economic development strategies pursued by the Dominican Republic. The study argues that the country's success results from the implementation of a three-pronged economic development strategy. The first prong relates to diversifying production and the second to developing spe...
Pozo, Susan; Sánchez-Fung, José R.; Santos-Paulino, Amelia U.
Full Text Available The agricultural and rural sector is connected with great hopes in the economic recovery not only in our country, but world-wide. Rural firms and business should do their best to respond to the challenges of the changes and this way, to bring an improvement to the markets and to the whole economic and social environment. If the advanced, more opened economies are more competitive, this is due to their capacity of change, by raising the quality of the offer (merchandise) they sell.
MARINA LUMINI?A SÂRBOVAN
Full Text Available The economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) is a challenge between sequencing and lot sizing. In this problem, several products must be produced on a single machine in a cyclical production pattern and the primary goal is to minimize the total setup and holding expenditures. Since time affects the value of money, it is necessary to take into account the time value of money when gradual payment is the case. In this paper, a new ELSP model with the consideration of the time value of money is considered. The proposed model of this paper is formulated as a nonlinear mixed integer model and a hybrid GA is presented to solve the resulted model for large-scale problems. The proposed method is solved for some benchmark problems for large-scale problems.
Maryam Mokhlesian; Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Fatemi Ghomi; Fariborz Jolai
Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.
Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.
[en] This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations
Full Text Available The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side, it is an impediment to economic development of most nations. This paper correlates urbanization with economic development indicators of developing countries and concludes that there is weak relationship between urban growth and economic development in developing countries. To further the understanding of this relationship, the study also compares the economic situation of urban and rural areas which shows that, it was better in the cities.
The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential...Documents Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum...achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a key role...
The dependence of power engineering on imported fuel in Italy is noted. A significant portion of it is expended for heating urban and rural homes. The demand for heating fuel in 1980 was 30.9 percent of the total energy demand. The national plan for developing power engineering in Italy provides for a reduction in the demand for imported petroleum products, in particular, through using native energy sources in those cases when it is technically and economicable feasible. In this regard, plans for the systematic and rational use of reserves of geothermal energy (GE) with high, medium and low enthalpy are being financed. Geothermal energy sources with high enthalpy are designed for the production of electric power. Reserves of geothermal energy with low enthalpy, which are present in many countries, may be indirectly used as sources of heat for domestic needs. The creation of pilot plants in the countries of the European Economic Community (EES) in the near future will make it possible to save 2 million tons of oil equivalent fuel. The practical capabilities of using geothermal energy in the United States, France and Italy for heating are examined. Realization of the current projects for using geothermal energy demands relatively large capital expenditures, whose buyback terms are high, which is especially related to difficulties in financing. Establishment of a close tie between government bodies and heat producers and consumers may facilitate solution of all the problems.
Berry, P.; Bianchi, M.
Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992)The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children's internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.
Rijlaarsdam J; Stevens GW; van der Ende J; Hofman A; Jaddoe VW; Mackenbach JP; Verhulst FC; Tiemeier H
Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)
Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.
Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN; Costel NISTOR; Rozalia NISTOR; Ludmila Daniela MANEA
This book focuses on the development of the Libyan economy over the last decade. The book surveys both the structural developments in the Libyan economy and the experience of the individual sectors. It considers the potential for industrial development and the prospects for agriculture both in terms of natural resources and political commitments. The book also examines developments in the service sector especially banking.
Khader, B.; El-Wifati, B.
Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism) by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
Full Text Available The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation, this still has the dispute. In this essay I will analyze the conflict between the developing economic and protecting environment. Through the analysis cause where can get a balance between them.
Longlong Guo; Hongbo Ma
This fact sheet summarizes a recent report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Economic Development Benefits from Wind Power in Nebraska: A Report for the Nebraska Energy Office, which focuses on the estimated economic development impacts in Nebraska from development and operation of wind power in the state as envisioned in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) report, 20% Wind Energy by 2030.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs) reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural region by improving the infrastructure and information network. Moreover, the new policy to open the country leads to increase in the international cooperation and attractive foreign direct investment (FDI). Laos has successfully developed amicable relations with regional states, being a members of many international organization, particularly, a member of ASEAN is necessary for Laos in respect of its economic progress both regional and global procedure.
Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.
SHIVANI M. RAI
Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO) is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli) bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems. The results are obtained for a test system with three and thirteen generating units. In this paper the performance of the BFO is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results clearly show that the proposed method gives better optimal solution as compared to the other methods.
Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.
Vazakidis Athanasios; Adamopoulos Antonios
[en] The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)
Full Text Available Starting from the drawbacks of traditional economic growth, the article highlights the current problems of sustainable development in the European area. The author considers that EU environmental requirements must be balanced against our country’s potential to apply the principle of ecological responsibility. Furthermore, the European character of sustainable development does not cancel out the national dimensions of this process. In this context, we identify the main economic requirements for Romania’s sustainable development, and we analyse the possibility of meeting the objectives assumed through the National Strategy for Sustainable Development
The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor.
Full Text Available Where software product development occurs is shifting from single companies to groups or collectives of companies. In this article, we retrace the evolution of how software product development is organized and then offer insights into the economic motivation for collectives, which will be relevant to companies considering joining a software product development collective. Building on the literature on software product line economics, we identify three factors affecting the economics of collectives (level of contribution, number of members, and diversity of use), and develop a model that links those factors to three economic outcomes (time, quality, and cost). This model can be used by potential members when deciding whether or not to join a collective.
Full Text Available The authors outline economic and ecological aspects of a sustainable development paradigm. They call for active methods of nature preservation, including introducing environment-friendly innovations.
Erlan Aryn; Tahir Ernazarov
This paper briefly reviews the main features of the recent Mexican experience in demographic and economic development matters. It assesses the development pattern that prevailed between 1940 and 1970 and the ways and policies that were instrumental in accommodating the rapid population growth of the period. The author considers that by 1970 the relatively acceptable demo-economic system in place since 1940 entered a period of emerging tensions, and examines the responses to those difficulties, among them the change in population policy. It closes with a brief review of the tasks ahead considering future demographic and economic tendencies in Mexico.
More than half of the world`s coal production is used to generate electricity, and more than 40% of the world`s electricity capacity is coal-fired. Coal is also the major fuel source used in the manufacture of steel and cement. Coal offers a safe, secure and widespread source of relatively inexpensive energy. Modern mining methods mean that it can be produced with minimal impact on the environment, and clean coal technologies result in reduced emissions of particulates and sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The evidence for global warming due to carbon dioxide is inconclusive. It is important to use finite resources efficiently, but carbon taxes should not be applied to solve the global warming problem.
Toohey, A.C. [World Coal Institute (United Kingdom)
Full Text Available Economic development generally speaking should enable sustained economic growth. When we talk about the steady growth it is necessary to mention that he cannot be based on excessive use or abuse the use of natural resources. In this paper the author wants to emphasize the importance of economic development, long-term stable and sustainable growth is a priority of every company that goes through a transition period. The Great Depression was in the thirties of the 20th century and during that time the world faced a major financial problem, today the world is going through a similar period. The basis of sustainable development is in the basic economic principles, that is. Principle of simple and expanded reproduction and all that is spent must be reimbursed and that is to provide new value.
A comparison of systems of the different modular concepts was introduced for collector development work. The HELIOMAN-3-32/A collector module was used as the basis of comparison. Because of the results of this comparison, the single axis/horizontal north-south variant was given preference for development work. Activities for the design and development of the following components for the single axis horizontal trough following the sun took place: Parabolic mirror (1.5 m long, 1.1 m wide, thickness of glass 5 mm), absorber (38 mm diameter), trough structure (combination of several rows of mirrors), trough drive with 4 joint drive. Apart from this development work for a cylindrical paraboloid collector, the complete unit of a collector area was also considered (reducing the price).
|This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for solving economic load dispatch (ELD) problems in electrical power system. The objectives of ELD problems in electric power generation is to programmed the devoted generating unit outputs so as to meet the mandatory load demand at lowest amount operating cost while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraints. Global optimization approaches is inspired by annealing process of thermodynamics. The SA algorithm presented here is applied to two case studies, which analyze power systems having three, and six generating units. The results determined by SA algorithm are compared to those found by conventional quadratic programming (QP) and genetic algorithm (GA).
Hardiansyah Hardiansyah; Junaidi Junaidi; Yohannes MS
Full Text Available Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be for the production of essential assets that are neglected by private investors. The problem is how to choose between public possibilities of spending the money after the application of the first criteria.
Gabriel-Andrei Donici; Cristian Încal??r?u
Development of condensate gas fields requires an understanding of economics and engineering. Prices of oil and gas play a very important role in the economic recovery of any reservoir. The heuristic suggest that the probability of finding oil fields decreases while that of gas fields increases. This research integrates a venture economics model with a reservoir production model for the evaluation of condensate gas fields. The developed model consists of: (1) a venture economics model for the field based on the Monte Carlo Method using Capital Asset Pricing Model incorporated with the certainty equivalent concept; (2) risk-sharing risk of the prospect based on its probability and (3) a methodology to estimate interwell rock and fluid properties in order to guide management for better investment decisions by minimizing risk and uncertainty. The research presents an improved methodology for the evaluation and optimized development of often neglected reservoirs. In the past, most simulation studies have emphasized optimization of engineering parameters. Lower energy prices have made it imperative that optimization should be based on both economic and engineering parameters. This research may provide industry with a vital link between reservoir simulation and economic evaluation, specifically for condensate gas field development.
Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.
Adamovi? Jelka M.
Full Text Available The propose of the paper is to analyze the relation between economic development and FDI flows. FDI should have a positive effect on economic growth as a result of positive externalities generated for host countries by multinational companies (MNCs). There are several studies on this issue, some of them pointing out that FDI has a considerable positive effect on host country economic growth but the magnitude depends on host country conditions, while other works indicate that there is no powerful interdependence between inward FDI to host country economic growth. However, it is generally accepted that there is a functional link between the degree of openness of trade and foreign direct investment, especially in developing countries.
Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.
The paper considers actual situation in the economy of Baltic countries, especially in the energetic sector. It shows tendencies observed for main economical and energetic parameters. It also discusses the latest development of legislation concerning the energy sector and actual situation in privatisation of the energy enterprises. The paper presents the privatisation and ownership structure of the energy sector and provides the current data on energy supply and consumption in the Baltic countries (author)
[en] In a study previously presented at the European Nuclear Conference on the Maturity of Nuclear Energy (Paris-1975), an overall balance of the world energy needs had been drawn and the part played by nuclear energy had been underlined. A model is presented here, which, on the basis of the present situation in each country (i.e. its population, level of development, and level of power consumption), of selected outlines of foreseeable growth, and the possible mechanics of introduction and penetration of nuclear power, offers the possibility of simulating the evolution of nuclear capacity in that country[fr] Dans une etude presentee a la conference mondiale sur la maturite de l'energie nucleaire (Paris - 1975) on avait dresse le bilan des besoins energetiques mondiaux et la part de l'energie nucleaire dans ce bilan. On presente ici un modele qui a partir de la situation actuelle de chacun des pays du monde (caracterisee par une population, un niveau de developpement et de consommation energetique), des scenarios de croissance choisis, et des mecanismes d'introduction et de penetration de l'electronucleaire, permette de simuler l'evolution des parcs de centrales nucleaires dans chacun de ces pays
Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".
Ali R?za Erdem
|This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…
Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.
Many development policies and programmes are premised on a traditional economic model of rationality to predict how individuals will respond to changes in incentives. Despite the emphasis of these programmes on poverty reduction, economists and the development community in general are still unable t...
Anderson, C. Leigh; Stamoulis, Kostas
This paper proposed a neural method to solve economic load dispatch problems in power systems. Economic Dispatch (ED) is defined as the process of allocating generation levels to the generating units so that the system load is supplied entirely and most economically. Systems based on artificial neural networks have high computational rates due to the use of a massive number of simple processing elements and the high degree of connectivity between these elements. The ability of neural networks to realize some complex nonlinear function makes them attractive for system optimization. Unlike other neural approaches that sometimes fail to converge towards feasible equilibrium points, the modified Hopfield network presented in this paper has been globally stable and it does not require any special treatment for initialization. The internal parameters of the modified Hopfield network developed in this study were computed using the valid-subspace technique. These parameters guarantee the network convergence to feasible equilibrium points. Simulated results have confirmed the validity of the proposed approach. In addition to providing a new approach for economic load dispatch problems, the proposed algorithm has the advantages of improved accuracy of equilibrium points; inclusion of constraint terms in single energy term, represented by Econf(t); simplicity of implementation of economic load dispatch problem in digital computers; and eliminating the need to adjust weighting constants for initialization. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.
Spatti, D.H.; Da Silva, I.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Kumkol deposit's petroleum balance supply situated in Southern-Turgaj depression makes up 153.2 million tones, extracted supply by C1 category includes 89.4 million tones. Petroleum of cretaceous and sediments by its physico-chemical content are light (density 0.835 g/sm3), high-paraffin (12-15 %), low-sulphur content one (0,5 %). Content of light fractions under temperature 300 deg C is up to 45 %, gasoline one is up to 25 %. Gas content of stratum petroleum and saturation pressure substantially is changing by productive horizons. Rational system of Kumkol deposit development with sustaining of reservoir pressure for increase of petroleum extraction rate from bed and increase its output is presented. Technological and economical parameters of the Yuzhneftgas Joint Stock Company operation in condition of market economy and urgent problems on increase of petroleum production are considered
The report analyzes the strategies used for successful rural economic development in twelve counties around the U.S. These counties had strong employment growth relative to other rural counties in the 1980s. The report is intended for the use of officials...
S. H. Leaman T. J. Cook L. S. Stewart A. B. Spruyt
Full Text Available The article describes the main theoretical and methodological approaches to the definition and evaluation of the banking system economic security of Ukraine. The problems of its ensuring, and factors of types depending on the nature of banking are researched. The analysis of the key indicators of banking activities that reflect its development in Ukraine is implemented; the safety of the banking system for each indicator by comparing the actual values with the limit values according to the method of economic security level estimation of Ukraine is evaluated.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????.
Anisimova Anna V.; Golenitskaya Natalya V.
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial market development and economic growth for United Kingdom for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. A vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between financial market development and economic growth. Finally, Granger causality test was applied in order to find the direction of causality between the examined variables of the estimated model. Results: A short-run increase economic growth of per 1% leaded to an increase of stock market index per 0.6% in United Kingdom, while an increase of interest rate per 1% leaded to a decrease of stock market index per 1.59% in United Kingdom. The estimated coefficient of error correction term found statistically significant with a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a bilateral causal relationship between economic growth and financial market development. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on financial market development, while interest rate has a negative effect on it in United Kingdom.
Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos
Full Text Available As our global economy shifts from one dominated by production to one based on knowledge, governments are looking for new ways to add value to the people they serve. Open Government initiatives have emerged as one response to these new economic realities. In this article, we discuss how the theory of a multi-sided stakeholder platform can be applied to create an innovative engine of regional economic development. We describe that engine, its parts, and the value that the participants realize from it.
PURPOSE: To describe elements of an economic intelligence quotient (IQ) that can be used to enhance the nurse practitioner's (NP) fiscal viability in a primary care setting. DATA SOURCES: Anecdotal data from providers and administrators; clinical experiences of the authors; scientific and government publications and guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, managed care cost-containment initiatives have led to competition among physicians and NPs for patients and jobs. An understanding of the economic base of a practice is essential to fiscal viability in this market. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: When turf and job competition are the norm, it is essential that the NP develop an economic IQ. Knowledge of coding, billing, reimbursement, and documentation are critical to identifying the NP's value to the practice and promoting job retention. The challenge is for the NP to give high-quality, cost-effective, and safe patient care and to be a productive provider.
Abel E; Longworth JC
Overall development of New Sunshine Project. ; Innovative technology development for simultaneous solution to sustained economic growth and energy and environmental problems. New sunshine keikaku no sogo tenkai. ; Jizokuteki seicho to energy kankyo mondai no doji kaiketsu no tame no kakushinteki gijutsu kaihatsu
The Agency of Industrial Science and Technology has decided to inaugurate in 1993 the 'New Sunshine Project' (a project to promote development of comprehensive technologies in the area of energy and environment) to integrate the Sunshine Project, the Moonlight Project and systems for research and development of global environmental technologies that have been implemented so far. The Agency intends to launch innovative technology development aimed at simultaneous solution to sustained economic growth and energy and environmental problems. This paper explains backgrounds of the Project, new systems, the budget size, and new problems and roles. The problems that have been worked on in three areas of developing clean and alternative energies to substitute petroleum, developing new energies, and global environmental technologies relate closely with each other and include some parts overlapping. Therefore, integrating them into one system would promote the research and development acceleratively under organically coordinated execution. Such new problems as wide-area energy and hydrogen utilizing international systems and denitrifying catalysts in lean fuel combustion will be started on as well. 4 figs., 1 tab.
Nakamura, K. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.
Martin G; Grant A; D'Agostino M
Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.
Martin Greg; Grant Alexandra; D'Agostino Mark
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207
Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark
Full Text Available The dispatch of electric load is one of the key functions in electrical power system operation, management and planning. The key intention of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. In the present time, energy resources to generate mechanical power supplied to the rotor shaft of generating units are of fossil fuels. This leads to the emission of huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that results in atmospheric pollution. Reducing those pollutions resulted by usage of fossil-fired generating units has received great consideration. This provides wide field for the researchers to develop a better system to handle those needs. This leads to the development of Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch (CEED) techniques. There are various technique proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. The efficient optimization technique among the proposed work is Genetic Algorithm (GA). But still some problems like slower convergence and higher computational complexity exists in using GA for solving CEED problem. To overcome those difficulties, this paper uses Non- Dominated Ranked Genetic Algorithm (NRGA) which uses rank based Roulette Wheel selection algorithm with Pareto-based population ranking Algorithm. The simulation result shows that the proposed technique for solving combined economic and emission dispatch problem results in better convergence rate when compared to the existing techniques.
Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity) may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.
Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?; Marilena PAPUC
This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment).
|Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…
Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.
Dorel AILENEI; Liviu-Cosmin MOSORA
An economic development program, which focuses on industrial development, of the Loup River Public Power District is outlined in the paper. Addition of constant industrial load and electric heat promotion have balanced the districts seasonal demands. The annual load factor has increased from 44% to 63% over the past 20 years; during the same period, annual energy sales averaged 4.4% per year and peak annual demand increased 2.6% per year. The paper describes the development organization, industrial recruitment program, and success factors.
White, R.E. [Loup River Public Power District, Columbus, NE (United States)
Full Text Available Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence The paper usses Granger causality tests on economic development and population growth for 44 countries to discriminate among several alternative hypotheses. The time series evidence does not provide an unambiguous picture as to the exact nature of the relationship. Therefore, previous attempts to generalize such relationship based on simple cross-section data are strongly suspect.
Woo S. Jung; Munir Quddus
India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.
Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)
Full Text Available In spite of the experience of industrial countries, information and communication technology (ICT) in developing countries can be a major important factor for fast and quick access of these countries to the higher levels of development. For the reason that developing economies do not act at optimized and effective conditions, so the introduction of ICT in such economies provides potential in grant authority to these economies to go through the steps of development more quickly. In present article, the internal use strategy of ICT is compared with export of productions and services of technology (as a resource of exchange-bringing to the countries) that which one of these technologies has the more importance in economical development of countries specially developing countries and Iran
Morteza Jamali Paghaleh; Ali Reza Shahraki; mozhgan mohammadi
This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order
Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia?s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.
Kelly CAREY; Stanko BLATNIK
Full Text Available This paper provides a broad overview of the relationship between infrastructure and growth, focusing on the Togolese case. The paper develops an intuitive theoretical framework in which to analyse this relationship, identifying channels through which infrastructure may effect growth: as a factor of production, a complement to other factors of production, a stimulus to factor accumulation, a stimulus to aggregate demand and a tool of industrial policy. A framework is developed for evaluating theory analyses of this relationship, which explores the implications of different definitions and measures of infrastructure on economics growth. The empirical literature on Togo is then assessed against this framework.
Aboudou Maman Tachiwou; Ousseini Hamadou
Reconciling and operationalizing the three main concepts of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, and sociocultural - poses formidable problems. Environmental economics and valuation can play a key role in helping to incorporate concerns about biodiversity loss into the traditional decision-making framework. A case study from Madagascar examines the impact of a new national park on tropical forests by using both conventional and newer techniques to economically value damage to forests and watersheds, timber and nontimber forest products, other impacts on local inhabitants, impacts on biodiversity, and ecotourism benefits. In the Sri Lanka case study, an integrated energy-environmental analysis was developed, which helps to eliminate projects with unacceptable impacts, and redesign others. Where economic valuation of environmental impacts was not possible, multiple attribute evaluation techniques were used. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities, especially poor ones, while simultaneously preserving physical and biological systems, offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all three goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. (14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.).
Munasinghe, M. (Policy and Research Div., Environment Dept., World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))
An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment.
Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.
Mary Emery; Milan Wall; Corry Bregendahl; Cornelia Flora
Full Text Available The article substantiates a necessity of accounting and modelling co-ordination of interests at different levels of economic activity for development of programmes on planning and regulating processes of regional development. It considers problems of formation of economic security of a region through realisation of regional economic interests. It justifies importance of effective realisation of economic interests for the process of regional development. It determines factors of realisation of economic interests of a region in the context of ensuring economic security of a region. It proves an inseparable link between realisation of economic interests of a region and formation of economic security of a region in the process of regional development.? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????. ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ????????. ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
Bogdan Nataliya N.
Full Text Available Presently the economic studies in China rely mainly on western theories, which, however, prove to be far from enough for research and study of Chinese issues. If the same mode is used for the modernization of different nations and different regions, then why should the different nations and national economies exist at all? And what consequences would be caused? How to build the socialism with Chinese characteristics? All of these issues cannot be explained by simply using general economic theories, requirements and goals. The approach of development through a pure pursuit of economic growth and using it as a criterion to judge social development is highly limited. The limitation of “economic imperialism” is becoming increasingly highlighted. What is the core theory of the “Chinese economics”? What is the development trend of the “Chinese economics”? Total Westernization is not a solution and digitalization will not solve the problem, either. Undoubtedly, any Chinese economics without considering exiting conditions in China and its national economy can hardly be reasonable. A study of China’s national economics is a development of its nationality research and also an extension of China’s economics and cultural studies. Therefore the national economics can be viewed as an integration of all the three key factors, ie. nationality, economy and culture. The national economics is a brand-new field of learning. It occupies a special place in the national studies and has also developed as the main contents of national studies. Besides, it is becoming increasingly important in economic studies and has become a special field for present economic studies. The study and research of national economics is very important and significant. Keywords: National Economics, Disciplinary Construction, Theoretical Innovation Résumé En ce qui concerne la recherche actuelle de l’économie, la théorie fondamentale de la science économique de notre pays reste encore la théorie économique occidentale. Néanmoins, il ne suffit pas de recourir seulement à la théorie occidentale pour étudier les problèmes chinois. Si on procède à la modernisation des nations et des régions différentes par le même modèle, la nation et l’économie nationale ont encore des raisons d’être ? Quelles sont les conséquences ? Comment développer un socialisme à la chinoise ? Ces questions ne peuvent par s’expliquer par la théorie, la demande et l’objectif de la science économique générale. La conception de developpement qui vise uniquement à la croissance économique et la considère comme l’indice du développement social présente des inconvénients, les limites de « l’impérialisme économique » s’accentuent davantage. En quoi réside le noyau théorique de « l’économie chinoise » ? Quel est l’avenir de « l’économie chinoise » ? L’occidentalisation intégrale n’a pas d’issue, la numérisation ne résout pas non plus les problèmes. Sans aucun doute, la science économique chinoise détachée de la réalité de la Chine et de l’économie nationale est inimaginable. Alors l’étude de la science économique nationale ne constitue pas seulement le développement de la recherche de la nation, mais aussi l’enrichissement de la recherche de l’économie chinoise, et également l’approfondissement de la recherche culturelle de notre pays. On peur dire que la science économique nationale est une synthèse de la nation, l’économie et la culture au niveau plus haut. En tant que pays en développemen
Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006). These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration) members (like the EU) and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth) and a treatment variable (financial integration) experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.
Seyed Komail Tayebi; Ahmad Googerdchian
Full Text Available This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Looking back on our experiences and outcomes since 2010, this article shows how the development and introduction of this new approach to local open innovation has changed the rules of the game in the region.
Alexandra Berger Masson
Full Text Available One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM). The result showed that there is a substantial positive effect of financial development on economic growth in Nigeria. The Granger causality test showed that financial development promotes economic growth, but there is evidence of causality from economic growth to the development of financial intermediaries. Thus, advancement of the financial sector development, including diversification of financial instruments should be pursued to facilitate economic development in Nigeria.
Adelakun, O. J.
Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.
Minh Quang Dao
Full Text Available The management was established in Bauman Mos-cow State Technical University. The core of the economic theory is engineering economics, above all - product lifecycle management, controlling and organizational-economic modelling. The article illustrates how economists and managers can help teams to achieve innovation
Orlov A. I.
Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.
D?r?ban? Simina; Stef?nescu Patrick; Crisan Radu
In general, the developing countries due to changes in supply and demand for energy in the world, are facing several problems, such as: 1. Energy growth. 2.Energy consumption 3.Environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to study the problems caused by the increase in the energy consumption of the developing countries. also several guideline and solution schemes are recommended for these problems.
Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.
Hitachi has been developing BWR core for the purpose of achieving the requirements of improved reliability and economy of nuclear power generation. Recent noticeable tendencies show an increasing need for improvements in the economy by reducing the fuel cycle cost. In order to meet these needs, we have been developing and putting into practical use, highly economical boiling water reactor (BWR) core step-wise, while confirming their application results, by fully utilizing BWR core design techniques, fuel manufacturing techniques, and the related appraisal techniques which have been accumulated since the beginning of research in nuclear power. Highly economical STEP I fuel that attains a discharge exposure of 33 GWd/t began commercial use in 1987. The commercial use of STEP II fuel corresponding to a discharge exposure of about 39.5 GWd/t began in 1991, while the STEP III fuel, having an increased discharge exposure of 45 GWd/t, is now being prepared to be put to commercial use in order to improve the economy even more. (author).
Shimoshige, Takanori; Umehara, Hajime (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works); Aoyama, Motoo
Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze) can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.
Huru Dragos; Hrebrenciuc Andrei
Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author).
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Role of Electricity Sector in MP's Economic Infrastructural Development. The study is primarily based on secondary sources and data. The present paper articulates the current problems of electricity with analyze the process and consequences of decline such sector in M.P. on an Empirical basis. To capture the different aspects of MPEB, the study has carried out the new horizon in M.P.'s development particularly its rural areas as well as empowerment of weaker sector of the society. The major finding may reflect a role of govt. in infrastructural development of the state so for as the present status of MBEB is concerned. Issues like development through electricity sector, long term vision its importance for socioeconomic growth and to invest more in order to overcome the perennial problem of electricity sector that has emerged in the study area. Further, the paper highlights the loopholes of electricity distribution system. The paper concludes with some suggestive measures in combating the Role of Electricity (energy) in the economic development of the state in particular and country as a whole
KAVITAAGARAWAL; DINESH K. AGRAWAL
Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services), while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.
Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU
This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…
Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam
The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.
Cain, M. (U.C.W., Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)); Yousif, M.A.R. (General Petroleum Corp., Khartoum (Sudan))
Full Text Available 1. IntroductionIn late November, 2008, just after President Barak Obama won the American election, a group of progressive economists met in New York city at the New School for Social Research, to discuss the ongoing economic crisis and to try to reach a consensus on financial and macroeconomic policies that the group should advise the Obama Administration to implement. Organized under the sponsorship of the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy (SCEPA) and the University of Massach...
The wind industry contributes to the economies of 46 states, and the outlook for regional economic growth from wind energy is heartening. Wind energy projects provide new jobs, a new source of revenue to farmers and ranchers, and an increased local tax base for rural communities. And wind energy is homegrown energy that helps secure our energy future during uncertain times while reducing pollution emissions and preserving our precious water resources. In fact, achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative during the next 20 years will create$60 billion in capital investment in rural America, provide$1.2 billion in new income for farmers and rural landowners, and create 80,000 new jobs. Wind energy is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, and rural communities are poised to reap the benefits. This brochure provides rural stakeholders with information about wind energy projects and rural economic development, including case studies an d resources for those interested in bringing wind energy to their communities.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP) and production in Serbia and other countries are currently lower than in 1989, the year generally taken as the beginning of the process of transition from centrally planned to market economies. .
Environmental variables largely determine the disease pattern in developing countries. Infections and malnutrition predominate, due to the effects of both poverty (a summary of many aspects of material deprivation) and a high ambient temperature. Environmental changes may be intended to improve health--examples include improved domestic water supplies and sanitation--or they may be due to socio-economic developments, which often have favourable or unfavourable health consequences. These are explored for water resource developments, where the health effects are complex, and for deforestation and urbanization. Although environmental impact assessment has been of value in reducing the adverse health impacts of socio-economic development projects, the use of health opportunity assessment is proposed as a more positive approach to optimizing the consequences of development to human health.
[en] Areva, the world leader firm in nuclear power has industrial activities in 43 countries and a staff of 65.583 persons. In 2007 Areva had a turnover of 11923 106 euros and a net profit of 743 106 euros. For about 10 years Areva has been deploying a policy of supporting local economic development that relies on 2 tools: first, investment in viable small and mean-scale firms and secondly, the reconversion of industrial sites into firm parks in which new companies settle to share common services. The investment can be either a loan or the purchase of capital shares. Since 1998, more than 120 investment operations have been carried out representing a total investment of 10 million euros and the creation of 2500 jobs, moreover 6 firm parks have been created. (A.C.)
Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo/ METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación d (more) esarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, atten (more) tion focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding
Lira-Olivares, Joaquín; González Rodulfo, Sara; De Abreu De Abreu, Jessica
Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Full Text Available El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficiesThe Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding
Joaquín Lira-Olivares; Sara González Rodulfo; Jessica De Abreu De Abreu
Full Text Available There exists an interdependence between scientific and technological progress and economic development. The development of science and technology brings along economic development, meanwhile economic development offers powerful support for it. Based on statistical analysis of the relationship between Sci-Tech investment and economic growth in recent decade, this article explores the dependencies between them, and gives us a measurement model. The result suggests that local Sci-Tech investment is more effectively for GDP growth. Furthermore, a win-win proposal of seeking for Sci-Tech progress and economic growth is given.Key words: Science and technology development; Independent innovation; National innovation system; Measurement model
Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.
Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.
Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s , the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities . In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig.
Young adults observe the current interest rate, wage rate, and child mortality and decideabout savings and the quantity and quality of their children. Human capital is produced asan external effect of expenditure on child quality and its production is subject to decreasingreturns. Depending on the economic environment individuals decide on one of three differentlifestyles. The first one generates stabilization at a low income level and high populationgrowth, the second one generates the demographic transition and the third one perpetualgrowth of a modern economy. If the switch from Malthusian expansion in size towardsdemographic transition is not generated endogenously, a properly timed development programon education can manage the escape from the low--income equilibrium.Keywords: Demographic Transition, Economic Growth, Stages of DevelopmentJEL: J10, J13, 011, O12I would like to thank Martin Brunner, Sean Holly, Andreas Pick, and participants of the Workshopfor Demogra...
Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP) literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.
Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras; Jose P. Garcia-Sabater
Full Text Available This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.
Nigeria's economy experienced stunted growth in 1973-84 period in spite of the huge inflow of oil revenues. This dissertation addresses the issue of optimal utilization of oil revenues to promote Nigeria's economic growth. The study begins by reviewing the behavior of the oil market and the experiences of some industrialized oil-exporting countries (Netherlands, Britain and Norway), focusing on the general problems of managing oil income. Drawing from above experiences, it examines the general performance of Nigeria's economy in 1973-84 period. Evidences of retarded economic growth, rising inflation, unemployment, and massive imports, all suggest Nigeria's inability to expand its productive capacity, and inefficient utilization of oil income. To address the above problem, a dynamic optimization model is developed showing the optimal conditions for allocating oil revenues to different uses. Most of the findings are consistent with stylized facts about the economony, but specifically raise issues about the tight structure of production and its consequences, rising unemployment, low marginal propensity to save from non-oil income and dependence on oil revenues.
The annual volume of recovery of individual mines, in addition to the nature of coal formations and the recovery systems in them also depends on the number of recovery sites. Operation of one or several work sites with different technology and volume of recovery represent different levels of production, results, need for capital investments and number of workers. Change in the number of working days per year, introduction of a five day work week also will change these indicators. These changes caused extremely more production alternatives at the 12 mines of the association of the Borshodskiy coal mines. Possibilities are examined for determining the economic coal composition of production among the alternative variants.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT) to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA) of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA) was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach). The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV), even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.
Ghassan F. Issa; Shaki M. Hussain; Hussein Al-Bahadili
This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939
The Report to the Moscow International Energy Club `Energy and Society: New Challenges for Mankind`, and this presentation aim to invite the world community to debate the current social development problems through a system investigation of the processes going on in one of the crucial areas, supporting humanity`s existence - i.e. the energy sector of economy - with regard to the intimate inter-relationship and interdependence between energy and society. Special emphasis is placed on the inter-related development of society and energy systems with a specific focus on global and universal socio-economic problems such as: uneven socio-economic growth in different countries; substantial differences in availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; aggravating ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weaponry (including nuclear weapons), their proliferation across the world and a market contribution to the ever greater tensions in a number of regions; alterations in morality, ethics and value systems. The aggravation of these problems, the frequently menacing metamorphoses thereof can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and non-trivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. Whilst being commonplace, the problems listed must be treated somewhat differently at present due to the essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The principal parts of this paper describes the concept of energy-society relationship analysis and its applications in investigating the cross-impact loops: society-energy and energy-society. (author) 15 refs.
Gvishiani, J.M.; Livchits, V.N.; Orlova, E.R.; Smetanina, M.I.; Zimin, I.N. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)
Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.
Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.
Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna
[en] In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)
Full Text Available Virtually all aspects of human endeavor entail the use of money either self-generated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which could be raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulations carefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators. Economic development is a process by which a high degree of self reliant economic growth in a given society is sustained over a given time. It is associated with substantial reduction on poverty and unemployment levels, and income inequality. This paper examines the concept of capital market, the concept of economic growth and economic development, relationship between economic growth and development, factors that determines economic growth and development, framework of regulating the capital market, highlight of recent reforms in the capital market, the contributions of capital market to economic development in Nigeria.
Adewuyi, I. D.; Olowookere, J. K.
Economic development has become a commonly used phrase frequently abused when used as a metaphor describing changing conditions in Indian country. This phrase became part of the political rhetoric along with the change of Administrations in 1981. Unfortunately, many Indian tribes have interpreted the phrase as a means of getting more federal grants rather than a means to economic freedom for Indians. They have failed to understand that economic development was intended to mean less money from Washington, D.C. and more money from local economic growth generated by income from jobs created by the private sector. This article discusses the dependency of Indian tribes on federal assistance for economic development; defines the concept of economic development of Indian reservations; and finally, determines what role tribal governments and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) should play in economic development in Indian country.
This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs.
This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)
Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)
Traditional models of macroeconomic dynamics are fundamentally incorrect. The reason lies in a misunderstanding of peculiarities of the analysis of infinitesimal quantities. However, even those types of solutions that are envisaged by the above-mentioned models are nonrepresentative in the sense of the reflection of realities. It became obvious that the techniques of the theory of linear differential equations were insufficient here. Accordingly, the scientists' attention switched to the theory of nonlinear differential equations. At the same time, balance and, accordingly, the model with matrix properties are objectively inherent in the economic system. For the reduction of this model to a differential form, there exist rather elementary means that proved to be unclaimed. Macroeconomic rhetoric - the power of the accelerator, a lag on the part of demand, etc. - accompanied by the use of a lot of abstract coefficients prevailed. However, there is no organic interrelation between matrix and nonlinear different...
Chernyshov, S I; Voronin, A V
People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.
The present report gives an overview of the attempts of Estonia to improve the management of environmental protection with the help of market forces. Economic tools designed for the more efficient use of natural resources and reduction of emissions have recently been introduced in Estonia as complementary means to direct regulation, in particular emission charges for the control of water, air pollution and solid waste disposal. Also geological extraction fees have been set for the use of natural resources such as oil shale, peat, mineral building materials and water resources. It was a political decision by Estonian government not to increase the pollution charge rates according to overall inflation. The major concern was that the charges would have increased the danger of bankruptcy of many lively important enterprises. The another concern was that the monopoly position of producers. The revenue raising character of economic control measures is still dominating since tax rates are set relatively too low to provide a real economic incentive to big consumers of resources or to polluters. A stepwise revision of the pollution charges have been the approach used in Estonia. The tax rates have been increased three times since their implementation, i.e. in four years period. The last revision of the order of taxation of environment and the tax rates belongs to February 1994. The major current problem with the system of charges has been the effect of the hyper inflation which, during the first years of implementation, has almost completely wiped out the real revenues derived from taxation of environment. An essentially important result expected from the further development of economic instruments for pollution control is the gradual shift in the production and consumption to a more efficient and environmentally friendly direction, which will form a basis for sustainable development in Estonia. (au) 11 refs.
Kallaste, T. [Stockholm Environment Institute-Tallinn, Tallinn (Estonia)
Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones), which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.
Full Text Available The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rural emancipation. The paper adopted the exploratory research approach involving the use of secondary source with minimal primary source to generate data through questionnaire and interview guide. The paper observes that the problem is not the lack of effective policy/programme initiation and formulation but the dearth of the political will to implement; high incidence of corruption; complete absence of purposive leadership; misguided and misdirected priority; placing the wrong person at the strategic position; inconsistency and absent of continuity in policy/programmes implementation in government affairs. For a way out amongst others, involvement of the benefiting rural/urban communities in monitoring the implementation of programmes or project execution in their domain is important while avoiding the pitfall of role conflict in policies and programmes formulation cum implementation.
Ja’afaru Garba Sule; Francis C. Alinno; Dan Ikwegbe
[en] Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)
Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone.
Hofmann A; Nell M
We study the existence of optimal solutions for a class of infinite horizon nonconvex autonomous discrete-time optimal control problems. This class contains optimal control problems without discounting arising in economic dynamics which describe a model with a nonconcave utility function.
Zaslavski, Alexander J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics (Israel)
Full Text Available The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeoffs are not attributes of objectives, criteria or dimensions, as it is habitually assumed, but are the properties of the very sets of possibilities, alternatives or options they purport to value and measure. We use De novo programming, through which the so called feasible set of opportunities can be redefined towards optimal, tradeoffs-free configuration. The implications of tradeoff-free economics are too vast to foresee and elaborate in a single paper; they do touch the very foundations of economic thought. So me numerical examples are given in order to illustrate system-design calculations in linear systems.
Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i) in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995), and Blundell and Bond (1998), controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii) we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii) in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv) to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market development, a similar finding with that of Huang and Temple (2005). As for financial openness, equity-related assets and liabilities have a more robust impact on financial development. Finally, government policy in terms of less government enterprises / government investment and interest rate liberalization have a significant effect on the banking sector rather on the stock market sector.
Nuclear power as a base for the world economic development has, unfortunately, been posing some potential risks including excessive radiation and radioactivity releases from the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl-4 as well as the future risks of nuclear waste management. On the other hand, it is a fact that nuclear power is already being used substantially as an economical energy option throughout the world. Therefore, the ISER-PIUS is now envissaged to be used eventually as safe and economical power source to be employed widely in the world. The present economic conditions and future economic development in Indonesia, taken as an example of less developed country, are described briefly. It is insisted that the policy of nuclear power introduction into a less developed country is neither economical nor realistic. More feasible seems a system of domestically designed and developed inherently safe reactor like ISER-PIUS. An analysis is also made of the future potential of such reactors in advanced countries in terms of the future of ISER-PIUS. It is concluded that cheap electricity and heat are needed for the economic development in less developed nations and for the maintenance of the economy level now attained by developed countries as well. International collaboration for the ISER-PIUS development will be a vehecle for the world-wide economic development in the next century. (Nogami, K.).
On 24 September 1929, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, NY, Jimmy Doolittle performed the first so-called "blind flight." He executed a flight plan and landed using only cockpit instruments, a feat that culminated a research program supported by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics. Contemporary aviation medicine, with its understanding of the challenges of spatial (dis)orientation, has a special understanding and appreciation of the complex human performance, medical and technical problems that had to be overcome to make instrument flight possible. It is likely that the problems would not have been solved unless a socioeconomic context provoked a sufficient motivation to address them. This paper outlines some of the economic factors that motivated the research and development necessary for instrument flight. These factors were the direct consequence of the sudden, huge explosion of the aviation industry caused by World War I, and with the Armistice, the equally sudden loss of the industry's primary customer, the military. Finding a civilian role for aviation awaited the development of air mail, which, in turn, depended on the ability to fly according to a reliable schedule. The need to reliably adhere to a schedule forced the scientific and technological research needed to develop all-weather, blind flight.
Temme LA; Rupert A
On 24 September 1929, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, NY, Jimmy Doolittle performed the first so-called "blind flight." He executed a flight plan and landed using only cockpit instruments, a feat that culminated a research program supported by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics. Contemporary aviation medicine, with its understanding of the challenges of spatial (dis)orientation, has a special understanding and appreciation of the complex human performance, medical and technical problems that had to be overcome to make instrument flight possible. It is likely that the problems would not have been solved unless a socioeconomic context provoked a sufficient motivation to address them. This paper outlines some of the economic factors that motivated the research and development necessary for instrument flight. These factors were the direct consequence of the sudden, huge explosion of the aviation industry caused by World War I, and with the Armistice, the equally sudden loss of the industry's primary customer, the military. Finding a civilian role for aviation awaited the development of air mail, which, in turn, depended on the ability to fly according to a reliable schedule. The need to reliably adhere to a schedule forced the scientific and technological research needed to develop all-weather, blind flight. PMID:12862335
Temme, Leonard A; Rupert, Angus
Full Text Available This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED) environment of thermal units while satisfying the constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance and line flow limits. Particle Swarm Optimization is a population based stochastic optimization, developed by Kennedy and Eberhart , in which members within a group share the information among them to achieve the global best position. This method is dynamic in nature and it overcomes the shortcomings of other evolutionary computation techniques such as premature convergence and provides high quality solutions. The performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated on IEEE 30 bus system with six generating units. The problem has been formulated as a single optimization problem to obtain the solution for optimal power flow problem with combined fuel cost and environment impact as objectives. The results obtained by the proposed method are better than any other evolutionary computation techniques proposed so far.
P. Ajay - D - Vimal Raj; T. G. Palanivelu; R. Gnanadass
Language-based learning problems affect approximately one person in twelve with no other obvious signs of disorder. Many of these individuals have accompanying deficits in nonlinguistic perception. To determine whether age influences the magnitude of these deficits, thresholds on a set of auditory masking tasks were measured in individuals with learning problems and controls ranging in age from 6 years to adult. Performance improved with increasing age in both groups. However, the thresholds of the individuals with learning problems were most similar to those of controls approximately 2-4 years younger on every task, suggesting that the perceptual development of the affected individuals was delayed by a constant amount. Further, on the subset of conditions on which controls reached adult levels of performance after 10 years of age, the improvement of affected individuals halted at 10 years of age, suggesting that puberty may play a critical role in human perceptual development. Taken together, these data support the idea that some learning problems result from a neuromaturational delay, of unknown breadth, and indicate that neurological changes associated with puberty prevent the complete resolution of delayed perceptual development. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.
Wright, Beverly A.; Zecker, Steven G.; Reid, Miriam D.
Abstract Contemporary literature on local and regional economic development (LRED) in the United States is predominantly empirical and pragmatic, focusing on the conduct and efficacy of economic development policy. While this work is valuable in evaluating the detailed operation of LRED acti...
This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…
Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II
What is the impact of financial development on economic growth and how institutional quality affects the role of financial development on economic growth? This thesis attempts to answer to these questions using a fixed effects estimation and two-step GMM estimator on a panel dataset of 93 countries ...
Full Text Available Sustainable development of resource orientated city is a highly regarded problem in China and in the world. By analyzing the status quo of resource orientated city, this paper puts forward the problems in the development of resource orientated city, such as economic structure, spatial structure, environmental pollution, capital and technology, and puts forward countermeasures for these problems. It is concluded that cities should insist on sustainable development in the future.
Zhen Wang; Yuanyuan Liu; Yan Xu
Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels). The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology) in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH);• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH);• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH).The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.
[en] Status and prospects of wind power engineering development in different countries are considered. Basic parameters of wind power plants developed in Russia and abroad are presented. The conclusion is made that wind power engineering in our country constitutes independent trend of scientific-technical progress. Scientific and production potential enabling solution of the whole complex of engineering problems related to development and design of wind power plants, tests of facilities and their systems, construction and operation of wind power plants and evaluation of wind potential is created
To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in le...
Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan
Introduction of new economic principles in the activities of medical research institutions helps extend the rights and responsibilities of the institutes' stuff and make them economically interested in the results of their activity; these principles provide high quality of treatment and prophylaxis work and permit concentrating all the resources on the priority trends in medical research. The authors discuss the pressing problems in introducing the cost accounting system in the activity of a research institute in ophthalmology.
Travkin AG; Zolotova OA; Kiseleva OA; Ter-Grigorian MG; Megreladze TS; Mazurova LM
This investigation is divided into 3 main parts, one dealing with the history of the dogma, one with structures and comparisons and one with theories. The chapter on the role of nature in the economic history of dogma describes first of all the historical-theoretical basis of the modern environmental economy and follows the emergence of its understanding of nature out of the paradigm of scarcity. The section on structures and comparisons gives a description oriented towards the beginning of the system, of the interdependence of nature and the economy. Models of systems of nature in the form of eco-systems and system models of the economy in the form of material balances are explained and their most important elements described. The section with the widest range of topics concerns the treatment of economic theories of environmental pollution. Of significance is the question of what assumptions they make about economic-ecological cause-and-effect relationships. A function-chain produced from the model of the emergence of environmental pollution serves here as an orientation structure. The beginnings of welfare-theory optimization are discussed, first, the simple basic model of the theory of external effects, then a more complex model in its static and dynamic version. (orig./UA).
Full Text Available To measure capacity building, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment among youths involved in vocational skills development some scales were designed by the researcher while other scales were used either in their original or modified versions. The paper presents the scales developed by the researcher to measure these variables. Scales measuring the participants’ skills acquisition, economic empowerment, and barriers to economic empowerment were designed by the researcher. Training satisfaction scale was modified to measure the participants’ perception of training received. Self-esteem, perceived control, and personal growth initiative scales were used in their original versions. Using a factorial analysis, the cronbach’s alpha of the developed instruments achieved a reliability level at or above .70. The developed scales have contributed to knowledge as they can be used to measure future research questions. It is hoped that several research directions could be pursued using the developed scales.
Bede Obinna Amadi
Full Text Available The Information Communication Technology has improved the quality of services being provided by organizations beyond proportions. Another most distinguishing characteristic of ICT is the storage, retrieval, processing as well as the communication of Data. However development of Information System is always associated with many problems and issues. In fact resistance to change is a universally acknowledged fact but since the influence of ICT is felt at all levels therefore automation mostly meets multifold problems. It is because of this fact that despite distinct superiority of ICT still it is implemented in phased manner. Similarly the available technology also limits the working of the Information System. Other issues related with the development of the information are the developmental, operational besides security.
Muheet Ahmed Butt
Full Text Available This paper uses measurement methods and selects relevant indicators from both quantitative and structural aspects, empirically analyses the relationship between financial development and economic development of 2000-2008 in more than 18 coal-resourced cities in China. The results show that financial development takes a significant role in the economic development of coal-resourced cities. However, the high industry concentration of financial resource allocation efficiency.
Zuhuai Yuan; Li Yang; Jing Han; Keliang Wang
A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)
Full Text Available The authors of the article "Theoretical and Methodical Bases of the Ecologically Balanced Management of Region Social and Economic Development" approach to providing the regional ecologically balanced management of social and economic development. This is an especially actual topic for Ukraine.Some basic approaches to a regional management issue were analyzed by the authors of the article. It is offered to understand the way a regional management is carried out, realization and regulation of a complex of purposes, approaches and actions connected with the balanced management of region social and economic development based on the mutual consistency of both national and regional interests.The article considers the ways of solving the basic management problems of region social and economic development. The authors of the article assert that a part of these problems can be solved on a regional level, while some scientists insist on state intervention.The article presents the regional management structure scheme, where the authors suggest distinguishing between the regional management controlled by the state structures and the regional management controlled by the local authority.The authors believe the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development to be effective only if there is an accurate definition between its purposes. The most significant purposes presented in the article separate social and economic development management into economic, social and ecological components.The authors affirm that the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development should provide the achievement of all purposes because the realization of some of them does not improve the entire social and economic system and does not balance its management development.
V. Lukyanykhyn; A. Bezuska
The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)
Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik
This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…
Kim, Ki Su
Changing to a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum represents a substantial challenge because many faculty members are unfamiliar with the process. Faculty development is a crucial component of successful curriculum change to PBL. This paper describes a logical process for designing and implementing a comprehensive faculty development programme at three main stages of change: curriculum transition, curriculum implementation and curriculum advancement. The components of each stage are discussed with reference to the literature and practice. Future advances in faculty development include harnessing the potential of complex adaptive systems theory in understanding and facilitating the change process, and incorporating the results of research, which illuminates the relationships of the PBL tutorial process to student achievement. There is a continuing need for rigorous outcome-based research and programme evaluation to define the best components and strategies for faculty development. PMID:15059081
Farmer, Elizabeth A
Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.
Neil Reid; Bruce W. Smith
The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development. Connections are revealed to have no significant influence on the internal control of resources but a significant direct influence on economic development through value chain activities. Through the analyses in this paper the notion of ‘boundary utility’ is elaborated as the crossing and transformation of the dynamic composite underlying boundaries to enable innovation for positive impact on economic development.
How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.
De Bruyn, S.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO) for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.
M. Vanitha; K. Thanushkodi
Full Text Available The article describes the methodological approaches to screenwriting predicting complex economic processes based on the systemic nature of the study. This article presents some of the approaches to the construction of scenarios, such as the imitation modeling of economic processes and expert approach allowing obtaining long term scenarios based on global patterns of development
Nazarenko A. V.; Zvyagintseva O. S.
Full Text Available In a society the attention is preponderantly attracted by the economic growth (an essential fact when we have in view the economic development) and by the resources that lies at the basis of the economy, but the standard of living, the quality of life of the population during that process should not be overviewed.
Characterizes the Kuzbass coal basin with its 78 underground mines, 25 surface mines, 16 coal preparation plants and 150.4 Mt coal production in 1990. Amount of pollutants emitted is given. Economic production indices are provided. Effect of the coal industry on the hydrosphere, atmosphere and land is analyzed. Completeness of coal extraction is considered. The following problems are dealt with: occupational injuries and accidents, working conditions and health and social problems.
Zhdamirov, V.M.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Mikhal' chenko, B.B. (Ministerstvo Ugol' noi Promyshlennosti (USSR))
Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.
Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean
The objective of this project was to demonstrate a two-pronged program for educating economic development and recycling officials about recycling business development opportunities. The project consisted of conducting a stat recycling finance workshop in each of three Northeastern states, as well as recycling economic development finance training program for the region`s economic development and recycling officials. The goal of the project is to facilitate the expansion of recycling businesses in the Northeast. The guide details seven steps to conducting a recycling economic development finance workshop: (1) establish a workshop planning committee, (2) select the target audience, (3) develop the workshop message, (4) identify the message deliverer, (5) choose workshop topics and structure the workshop, (6) attract the audience, and (7) Conduct follow-up. In the process of planning and conducting the three state workshops for this project, NERC learned several important lessons: (1) Conduct workshops that are specific to the recycling and economic development programs in the state. (2) Include recycling business case studies on the workshop agenda. (3) Enhance the workshop with recycling economic development finance training. Develop a comprehensive marketing strategy.
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the possibilities of the accumulation and mobilization of savings and their role in the economic development of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Currently, the national economic growth is mostly based on the resource components; crude oil, natural gas and oil products. For the development of the non-oil sector the mobilization of domestic savings into investments would prove very useful. Savings of people should be the most important investment resource for the development of the non-oil sector, as the foreign capital is mostly involved in production of natural resources like oil and gas. The mobilization of domestic savings is crucial for raising the economic growth and promoting development, as it is the private savings that affect the domestic investments significantly. The most of the savings are made when they are fully channeled into the productive investments. As a result, this will lead to the solution of problems of employment and economic growth.
Nagi Bairamli; Vassilis Kostoglou
Full Text Available The paper aims to evaluate the main features of the creation and development of the integral cultural and economic space in Europe and the main development problems in the context of the transition processes in the Central and Eastern Europe and in the “enlarged” European Union.The paper has used the outcomes of the research done over the recent several years, dedicated to the diag-nostics of the problems of transformations as well as economic and social development in Central and Eastern Europe with a special reference to the development of the integral cultural and economic space.Major findings show that the creation and develop-ment of the integral cultural and economic space in Europe is a very complex and controversial process and in this course various problems and conflicts arise. Therefore, to encourage the creation of the integral cul-tural and economic space in Europe appropriate policies are necessary to be implemented in Europe. These poli-cies may embrace many priorities including• creation of knowledge based society and knowl-edge economy in the European Union;• adaptation and dissemination of integrated Euro-pean dimensions;• elimination of inappropriate factors within human-ism and democracy of all European countries;• provision of equal rights in all groups of modern society.For implementation of key priorities of cultural and economic policies the use of a number of pan-European scale special programmes is suggested.This publication analyzes the long term development processes in the East – and Central European countries, typicalities of the enlargement of the European Union and a new approach towards the way how long term strategies designed to create knowledge based society and knowledge economy in the European Union should be prepared.The new non-traditional ideas of possible economic and social development in Central and Eastern Europe are discussed.
The introduction of guidelines for diagnosis and therapy involves consequences for medical care which have to be considered both from the perspective of health economics and ethics. Four competing goals of guidelines can be distinguished which are discussed in this paper regarding their economic and ethical plausibility. Guidelines illustrate the fundamental potential and problems of microeconomic evaluations. The strength of these methods is to pursue well defined goals in health economics reliably and efficiently. Problems usually arise if there is no agreement on accepting these goals. The paper intends to show that important theories of a just distribution of health care resources arrive at different goals for guidelines, and recommendations are given to deal with this disagreement.
Full Text Available This paper deals with a decision problem for final purchase quantity needed for the appropriate support of service parts for S Electronics which is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. The cost elements of the final purchase quantity, the economic models, the optimal solution methods, and the expected effect are presented.
Wan Seon Shin; Han Sang Lee; Heungsoon Felix Lee
Full Text Available The essay argues that the influential neoliberal economic philosophers assume that market and price mechanisms should be promoted to achieve economic development and calls for economic liberalization undermining the role of policy instruments. The essay challenges the presuppositions of these arguments. It maintains that Selective liberalization should be pursued by governments after development of regulatory and institutional frameworks that enable governmentsto monitor market operation and intervene if need arises. EconomicLiberalization must be interpreted in the historical and social context of the society. It then contends that economic liberalization is neither essentially evil nor good. Liberalization is better seen as following from recognitions of its deontological processes and teleological perspectives than as an ideal limit on government intervention.
Dejene Mamo Bekana
The energy-systems language method of modelling and simulation, because of its energy constrained rules, is a means for transferring homologous concepts between levels of the hierarchies of nature. Mathematics of self-organization may justify emulation as the simulation of systems overview without details. Here, these methods are applied to the new fields of ecological economics and ecological engineering . Since the vitality of national economics depends on the symbiotic coupling of environmental resources and human economic behavior, the energy language is adapted to develop overview models of nations relevant to public policies. An overview model of a developing nation is given as an example with simulations for alternative policies. Maximum economic vitality was obtained with trade for external resources, but ultimate economic carrying capacity and standard of living was determined by indigenous resources, optimum utilization and absence of foreign debt.
Odum, H.T. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences)
The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)
Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals).
Full Text Available Priorities of strategy of economic development of Ukraine in the context of credible desires of its people are examined. The most acceptable strategy must not be oriented both to the European union and on Russia. ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????. ????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????? ?? ?? ??????????? ????, ?? ?? ??????. ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????. ???? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?? ???????????? ????, ?? ?? ?????.
The bulletin explores the effects of local tax policy on urban economic development. The paper is practitioner-oriented and addresses the question of how local officials might best think through the advisability of adjusting local taxes to stimulate commu...
The report reviews the status of women in Burundi, with particular focus on rural women, and proposes a three-point strategy to incorporate women into the economic development process. The strategy involves: (1) legislative reform, including liberalizing ...
M. Fikry M. Ward
Full Text Available Endeavors have been made in this paper to discern the long-run relations between FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) and economic development in China in the comprehensive framework, which incorporates determinants as output, FDI, capital formation, employment, human capital and international openness. VAR (vector autoregressive models)Impulse Response, Variance Decomposition, Johansen Co-integration and VECM (vector error correction) have been estimated, focusing on the long-run structural relations; findings indicate that in the long run, FDI tends to decrease economic growth; economic development in China seems to be fueled by domestic capital accumulation and employment growth; FDI inflows do crowd out domestic capitals, and reduce employment growth.
Full Text Available The Peace Agreement between the Philippine government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) signed in 1996 after the four years of negotiations under then President Fidel V. Ramos, was met with much publicity and opposition from, certain sectors of the Mindanao population. Implementing its promise of development was also not spared from criticism. But the weakness may be inherent to the terms of the agreement. For one, the powers and function of the Southern Philippines Council for Peace and Development (SPCPD) and the Consultative Assembly (CA) as mechanisms for the implementation of the Peace Agreement were limited by law. The SPCPD was not mandated to implement development projects but to coordinate and monitor projects being undertaken by line agencies that were reluctant to cooperate and credit their projects as part of the peace project. The CA was equally toothless as a forum to discuss and air problems in the SZOPAD areas. Budgetary and time constraints likewise hampered the efforts of the SPCPD and CA. Without sufficient funding support from the national government the project had to rely on supplementary donations from international organizations for the intensive development of SZOPAD areas. Three years were clearly not enough to turn Mindanao into an economic miracle or its leaders into development managers. The entry of government officials whose commitment to the Peace Agreement was not strong did not improve the situation either. However, the unrealized dreams of development cannot negate one accomplishment of the government - a moment of peace between two longtime enemies. The landmark peace treaty did bring peace, albeit, briefly to the war-torn region of Mindanao.
Carmen A. Abubakar
Full Text Available Sharp reducing of the government cutting of the university funding and simultaneously increasing the requirements for the efficiency, particularly in teaching and education, research and financial economic areas posed a serious problem of complex analysis of aggregate performance indicators of the universities and reforming organizational and economic relations between the departments.Scientific researches of the leading national economists were devoted to the the issue of organizational-economic mechanism of higher education but in these works not enough attention has been paid to theoretical premises of theoretical organizational-economic mechanism of the universities towards the strategy of innovative development, and that led to the topicality of these investigations.General analysis of the approaches to solving the problems of university management underlines that scientists (especially foreign) focus on the study of the factors of macro- and micropositions of the universities, leading to organizational changes in the structure of universities, that led to the increase of the competition between them for receiving orders and financing.The search for new organizational and economic forms is carried out in the direction of greater decentralization and autonomy of the university system and transferring the functional load on the subsystems.The application of the above-mentioned approaches will create an effective organizational and economic mechanism of universities in the direction of the strategic focus.Further the proposed organizational economic mechanism will provide innovative development of the universities in a competitive market providing educational services.
E. Loktev; V. Smaznuy
Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)
Nuclear power plays a very important role in the long-term energy policy of Czechoslovakia. Its development is directly linked to the development of a nuclear power complex which includes, in addition to nuclear power itself, a series of new special nuclear production processes. The nuclear power complex is a large and highly complex technological and socio-economic scheme whose establishment requires substantial structural changes in the national economy. Accordingly, it is important to consider the economics of nuclear power development and management in relation to the development of the nuclear complex as a whole. Such an approach helps to reveal the interrelationship between the development of nuclear power and the development of the national economy as a whole, and makes it possible to determine the factors limiting development and also to establish the general economic necessity of introducing nuclear power production and ways of actively affecting it. (author)
A potentially serious environmental threat facing humanity is the possibility of a collapse of the thermohaline circulation. Resulting climate changes, including absolute cooling near Greenland and northwest Europe, could be abrupt. Collapse of the thermohaline circulation may be triggered if the temperature or the rate of temperature change exceeds certain thresholds. The locations of these thresholds are unknown. Economic regulation of this problem requires solution methods for a class of dynamic optimization problems with multiple thresholds located in n-dimensional space. This class of problems has hitherto not been discussed in the literature. We present a model for the economic regulation of CO2 emissions in the presence of threshold-triggered risk of a collapsing thermohaline circulation and derive optimality conditions for regulation. (author)
The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn (FRG), in 1984 invited to an international meeting of experts for discussing ''International economic problems in the mid-eighties''. The meeting took place from November 19 to 20, and gathered about 700 experts from 40 countries. The topics on the agenda were those problems which in the industrialized societies throughout the world are of prime interest: Energy forms the basis of industrial production. Modern technologies have changed the countries' economic structures, and their social life, considerably. The natural environment is exposed to impacts induced by industry, or traffic and transport, which have reached a level causing anxiety and alarm, especially in areas of agglomeration. Remedial action taken so far still is patchwork, optimum solutions still are out of range. The problems resulting from this situation were discussed during the meeting by politicians, members of the business community, and scientists from various countries. (orig./HP).
Professor Armin Gutowski, president of the HWWA-Institute for Economic Research in Hamburg and Wolfgang Roth, member of the Bundestag, Chairman of the Development Policy Board of the SPD presented on July 1980 an agreement concept for a new world economy order that meets the demands of the OPEC-countries of safe, value-protected investment facilities and the demands of developed countries and of non-oil-extracting developing countries of a sufficient oil supply and reasonable oil prices. This agreement concept is meant as a proposal for consideration. The authors consider new ideas in relation to the energy and economy problems as necessary, which can only be carried out if all interests of all the participants are protected. They recommend making their concept a subject for the negotiations of the leaders of the concerned states. Further on, the most important specifications of this agreement concept are presented and, as a complementation, the long term strategy of the OPEC is dealt with as some basic ideas of the OPEC-programme are very similar to the proposals of A. Gutowski and W. Roth. Finally, the agreement concept of A. Gutowski and W. Roth is critically evaluated.
The problem of increasing the economic effectiveness of geological exploration operations is one of the most important economic questions. An increasing portion of COMECON members' national income is directed at financing the intensive development of geological exploration operations with the aim of satisfying the growing requirements on the mineral industry. The countries' practical requirements for an analytical methodology of evaluating the economic effectiveness of geological exploratin operations which make it possible to detect untapped reserves and to increase their economic effectiveness.
Within the broad Chenery-Kuznets framework, using structural change as a major indicator of economic development, this study investigates the direction and magnitude and broad features of structural change in Iran, and the role of oil production and exports in that change. Although the study covers a larger horizon, the analysis is focused on the period 1955 through 1977. A similar but less-detailed investigation is conducted for Algeria, Indonesia, and Venezuela also, and a cross-country, comparative perspective is generated. The study shows that, in general, the structural changes in Iran have either been weak (for example, in production and employment), or they are contrary to what the model would predict (for instance in trade). The pattern of structural change observed in Iran, therefore, does not indicate any significant economic development even though per capita income increased five-fold over the period 1955 through 1977. In short, oil does not appear to have been an engine of economic development in Iran. The situation appears broadly similar for the other three countries. Based on these findings, the study offers some suggestions concerning the future economic strategies that should enhance very considerably the contribution that oil industry can make toward Iran's economic development, and should thus accelerate the pace of economic development. These suggestions may be useful to other oil-exporting countries as well.
This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.
Full Text Available Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.
Burcu Ozcan,; Ayse Ari
Full Text Available In order to have long-lasting economic and social development in any field, the economic and the other socio-human, cultural, ecologic, technological aspects must be compatible. Any economic and social development must take into account the complex nature of the system as well as its interdependency and correlation with other systems.
Sorin Adrian Ciupitu
Full Text Available This paper covers theoretical, methodological and practical discoveries and evaluation of the economic aspects of development and planning of the mountain tourist regions. The basic aspects of economic-spatial theories, analysis and methods are presented for research of development effects in the mountain regions. It is also pointed to the basic terms of the mountain tourist regions development in the countries of the European Union which realize respective development results The work analyses significance of tourism in development of the mountain regions characterized by the capability for innovative activities, i.e. starting the whole range of complementary activities which reversibly influence the forming of growth and development poles. Especially are analyzed commercial and non-commercial effects of realization of the mountain tourist centers in ecologically saved, but as a rule, economically not enough developed mountain regions. The approach in the strategic evaluation of the economic feasibility of development of the tourist region is considered in accordance with the experience of the countries with higher degree of mountain region development, on example of Stara Planina. The analysis of economic feasibility of mountain region development Stara Planina covered the following segments: market, consumption, number of employed, investment means and economic effects of exploitation. Considering the fact that Stara planina is region covered by the Park of Nature and Tourist region for which the Spatial plan is done, a special problem was harmonization of development and protection functions, i.e. evaluation of economic and ecological acceptability for development implementation. The Spatial plan foreseen rational model of sustainable regional development of the Stara planina region based on integration of urban and rural economies on one side and development of tourism and protection of nature, on the other.
Miliji? Saša; Bani?evi? Dušan; Kruni? Nikola
Many of the input parameters in an evaluation of the economy of an offshore oil and gas field development project are random or uncertain. Randomness and uncertainty are present for cost variables related to cost of design, construction, installation, and operation, as well as income variables related to reservoir size and characteristics, oil and gas prices, currency fluctuations, inflation, and interest rates, and taxation rules, etc. Uncertainty modeling is facilitated by existing tools for cost-variable uncertainty assessment, and by various available models for fluctuations in currency rates, inflation and interest rates, and oil and gas prices. This paper describes the probabilistic analysis method, with the main emphasis on the required input to the analysis and the interpretation of the results of the analysis. An example study involving a decision of developing an offshore oil field is presented and some general conclusions are offered. 5 references, 8 figures, 9 tables.
Skjong, R.; Lereim, J.
Full Text Available Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I also characterized the respondents with respect to their preferred type of advertisement. The results of the latter showed that the number of clickers on banner advertisement is higher than that of pop-up advertisement, and that its efficiency rates are higher as well. In addition, the characterization of advertisers gave that the probability to advertise a banner advertisement is higher if the manager is either a female, married, older than 40 and employed in the construction, Car Dealership or wedding industry.
...Business Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic Development Plans; Comment Request AGENCIES...SUMMARY: The Division of Economic Development (DED), Office of...
[en] This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program's sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends
This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program`s sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends.
Brown, R.; O`Sullivan, J.; Bayazitoglu, Y.O. [Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Marine Engineering
Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to examine the causality relations between financial development, trade openness and economic growth (GDP) for the Turkish economy. Approach: In time series context, recently developed econometric techniques were used: namely the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) for unit root, Johansen and Juselius (JJ) for cointegration and Granger causality test for causal relationships. Results: The findings of the study showed that while trade openness has a positive effect, financial development has a negative effect on growth. Conclusion: Moreover, the Granger causality test results revealed the presence of bicausal relationship between financial development, trade openness and growth indicating that economic policies aimed at financial development and trade openness have a statistically significant impact on economic growth.
This paper identifies a number of developments which are prominent during the urbanization of a country and which have particularly strong implications for energy use. Concomitant with urbanization, the industrial composition of the economy's production shifts, with reductions in agriculture and increases in the importance of primary metals, chemicals, and cement, all of which are relatively energy-intensive sectors. Evidence from India indicates that the movement of a worker from agriculture to the least energy-intensive urban activity other than services will quadruple per worker production energy requirements. Next, population concentration associated with urbanization facilitates increases in the scale of production which in turn encourages the substitution of modern energy for traditional fuels and requires energy for longer deliveries. Also, concentrated, off-farm populations require processing and delivery of food, which are not required for largely agricultural countries. Domestic activity changes send activities which were formerly conducted in the household with little or no energy use, outside, usually into firms, where fuels are used. Urban households also use considerably more transportation than do rural households. Evidence from Hong Kong indicates that pure urban density increases encourage substitutions of modern energy for traditional fuels. Finally, increased real incomes associated with urbanization increase energy consumption, with an elasticity of roughly unity. Aggregate cross-sectional data evidence from sixty developing countries was used to examine the overall magnitude of the effects of urbanization and associated developmental changes on per capita energy use. Controlling for industrial structure, per capita income (per capita gross domestic product), and several other variables, a one-percent increase in urbanization will cause a one-half percent increase in per capita energy use. 81 refs., 5 figs., 63 tabs.
Australia has vast coalbed methane resources, but its successful commercialisation faces difficult technical hurdles. Domestic and export gas market opportunities have been identified which provide outlets for coalbed methane production from the Bowen Basin, and also provide an opportunity for the construction of a methane processing plant with the resultant methanol being exported to Japan. Government assistance will be required, however, in order to bridge the gap between sub-economic and economic returns on coalbed methane development. 2 figs.
Barker, B.J.; Heron, D.H. (North Queensland Energy Pty Ltd, Qld (Australia))
Background In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), “Identity” is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. Results In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. Conclusion Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems.
BACKGROUND: In the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), "Identity" is an essential diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning) in the alternative approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders in Section III of DSM-5. Integrating a broad range of established identity concepts, AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) is a new questionnaire to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Aim of the present study is to investigate differences in identity development between adolescents with different psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Participants were 86 adolescent psychiatric in- and outpatients aged 12 to 18 years. The test set includes the questionnaire AIDA and two semi-structured psychiatric interviews (SCID-II, K-DIPS). The patients were assigned to three diagnostic groups (personality disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders). Differences were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA. RESULTS: In line with our hypotheses, patients with personality disorders showed the highest scores in all AIDA scales with T>70. Patients with externalizing disorders showed scores in an average range compared to population norms, while patients with internalizing disorders lay in between with scores around T=60. The AIDA total score was highly significant between the groups with a remarkable effect size of f= 0.44. CONCLUSION: Impairment of identity development differs between adolescent patients with different forms of mental disorders. The AIDA questionnaire is able to discriminate between these groups. This may help to improve assessment and treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems.
Jung E; Pick O; Schlüter-Müller S; Schmeck K; Goth K
Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.
Full Text Available The study examined the contribution of different measures of human capital development to economic growth in Nigeria. It used data from Nigeria and adopted the growth account model which specifies the growth of GDP as a function of labour and capital. The model also included a measure of policy reforms. Based on the estimated regression and a descriptive statistical analysis of trends of government commitment to human capital development, it was found that though little commitment had been accorded health compare to education, empirical analysis showed that both education and health components of human capital development are crucial to economic growth in Nigeria.
Wakeel A. Isola; R. A Alani
Based on the characteristics of coalbed methane development project and current status of this project in China, the existed evaluation method in USA, and experiences of the authors, a set of complete economic evaluation method and predication models for coalbed methane development project are proposed. Four aspects such as project investment prediction, calculation of gas production cost, output predication, and financial evaluation are presented. The results show that the economic evaluation method and prediction models for coalbed methane development project are quite useful in project decision-making. 6 refs., 2 tabs.
Zhang, S.; Wang, Z.; Li, Y. [China United Coalbed Methane Corp. Ltd., Beijing (China)
Full Text Available The application of optimization techniques to power system planning and operation problems has been an area of active research in the recent past. Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS) are widely used to combinatorial optimization in recent years. Combining the advantages of individual algorithms, a hybrid TS/GA algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is proposed in this paper, using the method of penalty to transform the problem ED with constraints in a simple problem without constraints. An IEEE 57-bus power system has been used to test the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of the proposed algorithm with GA, TS and proposed TS/GA hybrid method has the strongest capability of finding global optimal solution within reasonable computing time. We then give a comparison between two algorithms hybrids (Tabu Search / Genetic Algorithm) TS/GA and (Tabu Search/ quasi-Newton method) TS/QN.
Bakhta NAAMA; Hamid BOUZEBOUDJA; Mohamed LAHDEB; Youcef RAMDANI
Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.
P.A. Fisunenko; G.V. Douginets
Sustainable agriculture is a long-term goal that seeks to overcome some of problems and constraints that confront the economic viability, environmental soundness and social acceptance of agricultural production systems. In this context, bio-fertilizers assume special significance particularly because they are 'eco-friendly', but also since their alternative, chemical fertilizers are expensive. Undoubtedly, the most commonly used bio-fertilizers are soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, but others like Azolla, Azospirillum, various cyanobacteria also contribute significant amounts of N to e.g. rice. Other bacteria like Frankia and Acetobacter contribute N to trees of the genus Casuarina and sugarcane, respectively. Furthermore, although they are rarely used as inoculants, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphobacteria help countless plants solubilise and assimilate soil phosphorus. Despite these advantages, bio-fertilizers could be more widely used in developing countries. Contingent upon greater use is improved quality of the inoculants, and all aspects of their production are discussed here. (author)
Based upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regressing GEM’s 2...
Wennekers, A.R.M.; Stel, A.J. van; Thurik, A.R.; Reynolds, P.
Based upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country's rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regressing GEM's 2...
Wennekers, Sander; van Stel, André J.; Thurik, A. Roy; Reynolds, Paul
Major works in the field of public finance in developing countries are discussed in the annotated bibliography, which was prepared to support A.I.D.'s efforts to use public finance as a tool for economic development. The bibliography is organized into fou...
R. L. Curry
...N) Directly involves the economic development or redevelopment...section. (c) Amendments to economic development projects after...would include, for example, situations where the business requests...completion of the CDBG-assisted economic development...
...be the result of a continuing economic development planning process... (1) A background of the economic development situation of the Region with a discussion...An in-depth analysis of economic and community development...
This working paper addresses the socio-economic implications of lignite development in the rural areas of Arkansas and Louisiana. It draws upon the experience with lignite development in Texas as well as the coal and lignite development in the West. The general implications of lignite development are identified and discussed and are illustrated with a case study of Mt. Pleasant, Texas. Requirements for future research relevant to Arkansas and Louisiana are identified
Full Text Available This paper describes the problem facing the Nigerian agricultural production, the basic and fundamental reasons why the government has failed to realize and address the failure in the sector. Though agricultural program was finalized in 1988 and new policy was released in 2001 but still accommodates the policies of the old one. Which means the policies was on the right direction. Still little or no effect has been made in the sector. Currently, however, many important questions about the goals, objectives, reforms, and ways to achieve them, tactics and strategies of development of agribusiness, the location of bodies, state powerand administration in place of socio- economic processes and others are debatable. Agribusiness development is a large constrained combination of factors: unfavorable to microeconomic conditions, inadequate legal basis of functioning on enterprises and their relationships with each other and the state, lack of comprehensive scientific research in this field of knowledge that are acceptable in a transition economy. This paper will serve as the brain and evaluation of the problems and the strategies required to revive the sector. Agriculture is vast and the most important sector of the Nigeria economy engaging about 70% of the labor force, the sector has not been exploited to the fullness and that is why the country cannot compete with other countries in the world even with 95% of the land cultivable. As economic activity, agriculture can be the source of growth for national economy provider of investment opportunities for private sector and a prime diver of agriculture related industries and the rural nonfarm economy.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the cause and effect relationship between economic growth and savings in advanced economies and in emerging and developing countries2. In this work we used the method based on studies in macroeconomics and international finance as well as econometric methods (co-i...
Cluster Approach to Managing Regional Economic Development and Prospects of its Introduction in Ukraine ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????
Full Text Available The article considers problems of formation and functioning with consideration of foreign experience, clusters and cluster networks in the national economy of Ukraine. It shows shortcomings of domestic state cluster policy and its legislative-normative non-determinancy. And it substantiates the ways and directions of more active use of the cluster approach for managing regional economic development and degree of participation of the state in support and assistance to development of clusters and cluster initiatives.??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????????????, ? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?? ??????????????-??????????? ???????????????????. ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.
Tishchenko Aleksandr P.
Full Text Available In this paper we propose using the discriminant analysis for the identification of a typology for the Romanian counties by the economic development level. In this purpose, we used a set of variables that characterize the economic and social development. The treatment of the data is done with the SPSS software. The results obtained in this paper can be used as arguments in making decisions regarding the harmonization of the Romanian regions and the allocation of the investments in appropriate counties and regions.
ELISABETA JABA; D?NU? VASILE JEMNA; DANIELA VIORIC?; CHRISTIANA BRIGITTE BALAN
Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.
Batool Rafat; Mostafa Emadzadeh; Khadijeh Ahmadi
This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.
This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant
Full Text Available The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense) to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian) economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the crisis’ context can be thus formulated: rural development and agriculture are factors of accentuating the crisis or (potential) solutions of mitigating the crisis and re-launch economic growth? Starting from today’s state of the Romanian rural setting (precarious infrastructure, insufficient technical endowment of the rural territory, villages and households; preponderantly agricultural rural economy; low absorption of agricultural workforce in non agricultural rural economy etc.) and agriculture (all levels of agricultural activity are unbalanced; very slow economic growth with a high degree of weather dependency (from simple to double); technical and structural obsolescence of the capital; reduced investment and as an effect, insignificant growth and modernising of assets; low absorption of European funding; low productivity and output; still high presence of sustenance agricultural economy; major unbalance in food supply safety; low importance of commercial agriculture; markets contraction; increasing transformation of Romanian agricultural goods in a market for imported goods; price distortion; profoundly negative trade balance for agricultural goods; unbalanced participation of farms in the distribution of the profit from agricultural activities, considering the smallest portion of the Gross Added Value returns to the farmers and most of it to the traders, all these leading to a reduced degree of compatibility and competitiveness of Romanian agriculture on the European market and in a broader sense the world market), accepting from the economic practice and doctrine the fact that agriculture is a vital economic activity for society, and it represents a sector that contributes to maintaining the stability, continuity and growth of economy, and, in the current situation, in mitigating, to a great extent, the economic crisis. But, this contribution can manifest itself only in the presence of massive investments in productivity increasing infrastructure (watering systems, farms consolidation) and in the technical and technological endowment of the rural setting and villages, in rural non agricultural economy, agriculture and rural development as a whole, as factors of economical growth.
P. I. OTIMAN
Full Text Available Banking system occupies a unique position in every economy and that is why it often attracts more than a casual regulatory attention. The banks act as catalyst to economic development. This review examined the contributions of banks to the economic development in Nigeria. The study highlighted banks as efficient mechanism for mobilizing financial resources and allocating same for productive investment. Given the key roles that banks play in facilitating economic growth and financing developmental projects, particularly key infrastructure, agriculture and industry, most emerging market economies have been known to use the domestic financial institutions to execute real sector big ticket projects. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigerian banks to compete favourably in the competitive global financial system, the current reforms in Nigeria banking system must be sustained and strengthened.
Adewuyi, I. D.
This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.
Full Text Available Cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for researchers and economic development professionals.Clusters are groups of companies and institutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and/or services. Given changes in the global environment, businesses and countries are changing the way they compete. These changes are characterised by the ability of multinational corporations to locate their investment – production plants, R&D facilities, service centres, etc., – in any location in the world where they find an adequate business environment.The increasing interest in clusters is only one aspect of a broader re-orientation of research and economic policy towards the microeconomic foundations of prosperity and growth.
Full Text Available In this research, the management activities of Edirne Village Development Cooperatives’ Union were evaluated and revenues and costs required for economic analysis were calculated and profit and loss income statement was estimated for the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. Data for Gross Margin Analysis were supplied from income and loss statement and thus Table comprising gross margins was formed covering all the activities of The Union.Gross Margin Analysis was made in order to determine economic performance of The Union by means of the data obtained from economic results of the operational activities in the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. The Union should develop its present activities so as to survive in the future. Therefore, suggestions were made for the expansion of the profitable activities and to improve nonprofitable activities in order to make them profitable.
N. Serinikli; I. H. Inan
Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.
Kihiyo, V.B.M.S. [Sokoine Univ. of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of)
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the empirical analysis of the relationship between financial development and economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe. Financial development is measured by broad money growth (annual%), domestic credit to private sector (% GDP), domestic credit to private sector (% GDP) annual growth, interest rate spread (lending rate minus deposit rate,%) and nonperforming loans (% total loans) and annual growth in GDP growth rates. Methodologically, we used a panel model for eight countries in Central and Eastern Europe for the period 1996 - 2011 (the date panel approach). The main conclusions of the paper are: (1) increase nonperforming loans and interest rate spreads negatively affect economic growth, (2) increase in domestic credit to private sector negatively affect GDP growth, but increase its growth rate positively affects GDP (3) broad money growth is less relevant for economic growth.
Monica DUDIAN; Raluca Andreea POPA
Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with valve-point effect using a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm. Artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent population-based optimization method which has been successfully used in many complex problems. This paper proposes a novel best mechanism algorithm based on a modified ABC algorithm, in which a new mutation strategy inspired from the differential evolution (DE) is introduced in order to improve the exploitation process. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the numerical studies have been performed for two different sample systems. The results of the proposed method are compared with other techniques reported in recent literature. The results clearly show that the proposed MABC algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms in solving ED problem with the valve-point effect.
This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance
Full Text Available The level of logistic customer service is the main advantage in competitive activity of the modern market enterprises. Taking into account that changes in enterprises working modes and in environment take place quickly enough, it is possible to talk about the necessity in further development of the systems of such phenomena monitoring. The analysis of literary sources allows to say that the issue of development of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic systems hasn’t be Literary sources today do not provide precise classifications of methods of economic monitoring. However, taking into account that economic monitoring overlaps with controlling, diagnostics etc we should use the experience of these subjects.Summarizing the review of the existing methods, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that there are no materials considering the methods and models of monitoring the objects of research. Most of the works basically deal with analysis.Relying on the determination of control methods, and also the concept of monitoring, it is possible to give the determination of the method of economic monitoring – it is the sum total of ways and methods which help to achieve the goals of monitoring.It is suggested to distinguish (to classify) monitoring methods into such groups: supervision, evaluation, forecasting. When systematizing this information and also taking into account the elements of logistic service, the approach to forming the groups of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic system is offered.As the methods of supervision in the systems of economic monitoring it is suggested to take the methods of collection of information as a basis, that is used in marketing. en studied thoroughly enough. There is a small number of works, which purposefully consider the questions of economic monitoring. They mainly focus on financial matters.
A. Abukhamedekh; D. Besarab
Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.
Full Text Available Abstract in english A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T) = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T). This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle wi (more) th the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T) yields a necessary boundary condition p(T) = 0, where p(t) is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T), the new necessary condition is that y(T) should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T). We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP). The minimising free value y(T) is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP) discrete-time results are also presented.
Zinober, Alan; Sufahani, Suliadi
Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T) = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T). This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T) yields a necessary boundary condition p(T) = 0, where p(t) is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T), the new necessary condition is that y(T) should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T). We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP). The minimising free value y(T) is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP) discrete-time results are also presented.
Alan Zinober; Suliadi Sufahani
In the course of long and intense research the Hoelter ABT developed systems for the treatment of coal tailings and sludge from coal settling ponds. Whereas in earlier times the carbonized residue strewn over such areas was considered an environmental hazard and dead capital, this new process has made possible its conversion into a valuable, readily salable economic good. What is more, it has opened the way to an ecological restoration of these sites. At the end of January 1994, the world's most modern coal sludge treatment plant, situated in Poland, was turned over to the operator with great ceremony. (orig./HS)
The socio-economic development of Sri Lanka is outlined, followed by a discussion of energy supply and demand; energy consumption by sector; the existing generating systems; alternative energy sources; ways to improve efficiency; and energy and the environment including estimated GHG emissions. 7 refs., 9 tabs.
Madurapperumn, W.S. [Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka)
This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…
World Bank, Washington, DC.
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries are among the world's top emitters of CO2 and SO2 in per capita terms. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether investing in the democratic development of these countries is an effective tool to make the economic growth in this region more e...
Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Markwardt, Gunther
The study is an empirical test of the effects of different categories of government expenditure, revenue and deficits on economic growth in developing countries. It is based on panel data of annual series over the last three decades for 103 countries, which are further classified into low-income, hi...
Odedokun, Matthew O.
In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political ...
In this article, the authors attempt to build a bridge between economic theory and medical ethics to offer a new perspective to tackle ethical challenges in the physician-patient encounter. They apply elements of new institutional economics to the ethically relevant dimensions of the physician-patient relationship in a descriptive heuristic sense. The principal-agent theory can be used to analytically grasp existing action problems in the physician-patient relationship and as a basis for shaping recommendations at the institutional level. Furthermore, the patients' increased self-determination and modern opportunities for the medical laity to inform themselves lead to a less asymmetrical distribution of information between physician and patient and therefore require new interaction models. Based on the analysis presented here, the authors recommend that, apart from the physician's necessary individual ethics, greater consideration should be given to approaches of institutional ethics and hence to incentive systems within medical ethics.
Langer A; Schröder-Bäck P; Brink A; Eurich J
Full Text Available India is primarily an Agricultural based country. Agriculture is the back bone of Indian Economy. It is contributed nearly 17.5% gross domestic product with labour force of 52% that means 52% of population depend upon directly on agriculture. It has play vital role in Indian economy. Agricultural is a way of life, a tradition, which for centuries, has shaped the thought the outlook, the culture and the economic life of the people of India. It will be continue to central of all strategies for plan socio-economic development of the country.
Pawar Vikas J.
A higher level of industrialization distinguishes Norway and Mexico from the OPEC exporters. Increased petroleum output has had a different impact on their economic development because high-absorber countries, which could adjust their expenditures to match revenues, have generally failed to do so. They have experienced increasing economic instability, followed by political instability, as a result. The two case studies examine each country's overall economy and the constraints on their absorptive capacity. Stability for both will be a diversification to reduce dependence on oil revenues. 185 references, 11 figures, 44 tables. (DCK)
El Mallakh, R.; Noreng, O.; Poulson, B.W.
OBJECTIVE: Toward explicating relations between economic adversity and children's sleep, we examined associations between multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)/adversity and children's objectively and subjectively derived sleep parameters; ethnicity was examined as potential moderator. METHODS: Participants were 276 third- and fourth-grade children and their families (133 girls; M age = 9.44 years; SD = .71): 66% European American (EA) and 34% African American (AA). Four SES indicators were used: income-to-needs ratio, perceived economic well-being, maternal education, and community poverty. Children wore actigraphs for 7 nights and completed a self-report measure to assess sleep problems. RESULTS: Objectively and subjectively assessed sleep parameters were related to different SES indicators, and overall worse sleep was evident for children from lower SES homes. Specifically, children from homes with lower income-to-needs ratios had higher levels of reported sleep/wake problems. Parental perceived economic well-being was associated with shorter sleep minutes and greater variability in sleep onset for children. Lower mother's education was associated with lower sleep efficiency. Children who attended Title 1 schools had shorter sleep minutes. Ethnicity was a significant moderator of effects in the link between some SES indicators and children's sleep. AA children's sleep was more negatively affected by income-to-needs ratio and mother's education than was the sleep of EA children. CONCLUSIONS: The results advocate for the importance of specifying particular SES and sleep variables used because they may affect the ability to detect associations between sleep and economic adversity.
El-Sheikh M; Bagley EJ; Keiley M; Elmore-Staton L; Chen E; Buckhalt JA
The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.
The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy.
Gadelha CA; Costa LS; Maldonado J
The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy. PMID:23250391
Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José
To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480
Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E
Full Text Available This paper examines whether the current political arrangements framing the Mexican politics help in consolidating and advancing those economic reforms that have been implemented in Mexico since the 1982 severe economic crises. I will argue that these arrangements create impediments to the co-ordination required to sustain and advance those policy changes that are needed under the new economic model. Formal and informal institutional environments that do not provide for the adequate enforcement of political exchanges also generate high transaction costs. Politicians will have to design complex mechanisms to protect their rent allocation. Many political transactions will not be implemented, and those that may be so will tend to generate relatively inefficient public policies. The capability of the political system to enforce the new economic rules as well as property and other legal rights is also weak. As these factors play a key role for the allocative efficiency of markets and, consequently, for growth and development, the paper concludes that formal macroeconomic and structural reforms in economic sectors may not be enough.
[en] A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs
Examples are showing the great periphery of apparatus development in biotechnology on the sector of bioreactors. It is shown up that today development of bioreactors is as fast as development of biotechnology.
This paper presents a multi-objective differential evolution (MODE) algorithm for environmental/economic power dispatch (EED) problem. The EED problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained multi-objective problem with competing and non-commensurable objectives of fuel cost, emission and system loss. The proposed MODE approach adopts an external elitist archive to retain non-dominated solutions found during the evolutionary process. In order to preserve the diversity of Pareto optimality, a crowding entropy diversity measure tactic is proposed. The crowding entropy strategy is able to measure the crowding degree of the solutions more accurately. In addition, fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise solution. Several optimization runs of the proposed approach have been carried out on the IEEE 30- and 118-bus test system. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed MODE approach to generate well-distributed Pareto optimal non-dominated solutions of multi-objective EED problem. The comparison with reported results of other MOEAs reveals the superiority of the proposed MODE approach and confirms its potential for solving other power systems multi-objective optimization problems. (author)
Wu, L.H.; Wang, Y.N.; Yuan, X.F. [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, South of Lushan Road, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Zhou, S.W. [College of Information and Electrical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China)
Agenda 21 is the voluminous policy document that emanated from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Using a brief case study of China's energy use - specifically its use of coal - this article illustrates the degree to which objectives of Agenda 21 are reflected in China's economic development policies and practices. China has started to shift its economic development toward a more environmentally sustainable trajectory, as reflected in its changing policies on energy derived from coal burning. We conclude that while China's environmental policies have been stimulated in part by Agenda 21 and other international environmental undertakings, such 'soft' international agreements are far from the only important determinants and variables. Many factors, such a bureaucratic infighting, disagreements between central and provincial governments, as well as corruption, severely delimit the extent and efficacy of energy policies and other environmental regulations. Because economic growth remains central to development goals, existing environmental policies are only a start toward environmentally sustainable development. Environmental decline still outpaces sustainable development in China, and this will continue for many years to come.
Harris, P.G.; Udagawa, C. [Lingnan University, Hong Kong (China)
Develops a realistic group problem-solving exercise to analyze information, make deductions from presented facts, draw conclusions, and communicate these processes to others. Describes the national education system of New Guinea, the exercise, and some comments. Provides a technical and economic report and a worksheet for the exercise.
Marshall, Stewart; Gilmour, Marion
Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For some time now it has been suggested that technology, in its many forms, is to a large extent responsible for enhancing and driving the process of economic development. The question therefore arises as to whether it is possible to establish a correlation between the level oftechnological expertise ofa nation and its economic development. On the strength of the research results contained in this article, there does appear to be a definite correlation between technology and economic development. Having established the validity of this relationship, the question of whether South Africa is positioned to take advantage of such knowledge is investigated . It is found that economic success in South Africa is to a large degree dependent on the ability of the government and other relevant bodies to establish and sustain a comprehensive, coherent and practical program of technologically driven economic development./P>AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit word reeds 'n geruime tyd voorgestel dat tegnologie in sy verskeie vorms grootliks verantwoordelik is vir die uitbou en dryfkrag in die ekonomiese ontwikkelingsproses . 'n Vraag wat dus ontstaan is of dit moontlik is om 'n korrelasie te vind tussen die tegnologiese kundigheid van 'n nasie en sy ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Die navorsingsresultate vervat in hierdie artikel toon 'n besliste korrelasie tussen tegnologie en ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Met die bestaan van so 'n verwantskap bevestig is die vraag of Suid-Afrika geposisioneer is om voordeel te trek uit sodanige kennis. Dit word bevind dat die ekonomiese sukses, in SuidAfrika grootliks afhanklik is van die verrnoe van die regering en ander relevante instansies om 'n omvattende, koherente en praktiese program van tegnologies gedrewe ekonomiese ontwikke~ing daar te stel en te onderhou.
Nicholas Piquito; Leon Pretorius
The economic problems in the USA, Japan, Canada and Australia are the result of four imbalances: dependence on imported non-renewable energy, large government deficits, trade imbalances and protectionism, and high unemployment. Markets and governments are the factors that will act through rising oil prices, high interest rates, restrictive fiscal policy, and a declining U.S. dollar exchange rate to correct these imbalances over the next ten years. There is a long-term opportunity for nuclear power to take over from oil as an energy source, although the high cost of capital will increase the price of nuclear electricity.
Full Text Available The study reviews foreign and Ukrainian theory and practice in terms of business infrastructure. The infrastructure is one of the key factors to success of small and medium-sized enterprises which ensures their efficient operation. This paper defines small business infrastructure as a set of state and public institutions (organizations, entities) which provide support services to enterprises, facilitate their economic activity and enhance its efficiency.The article concludes that organizational and informational infrastructure of small business support should be identified as an array of business support services (informational, consulting and legal) offered by authorized institutions to facilitate small businesses. This study takes a look at the system of small business infrastructure in the country, its state, development and government support. Currently business incubators in the form of technology parks are the type of business assistance programs which prevail in regions and help startup and early-stage companies with technical advice during their first, the most difficult, year in the marketplace. Business incubators are nonprofit organizations financed by communities or sponsors. They can only recover 10 – 60 % of their cost. That is why the government, that declares state support to small business, should share the cost of business incubator programs and encourage sponsors and venture capitalists to give financial support. The dissertation studies the mechanisms of business incubator operation and the stages of its development. It analyzes the development of small business infrastructure elements in Ukrainian over the past 10 years. The analysis of regional business support programs implementation shows that no more than 5.2% of local budgets are allocated to develop the infrastructure. As a result, the majority of regions do not have an established network of financial credit or advisory infrastructure of business assistance, or it develops spontaneously, uncoordinated by local authorities which reduces the efficiency of infrastructure as a driving force of local small business development. The research uncovers the problems and offers ways to improve the infrastructure development
The Danish mortgage finance system is attracting much international attention due to its simple, robust and efficient securitization principle, the balance principle. Housing finance experts consider how the model can be introduced in other countries to overcome shortcomings in previous mortgage systems (e.g., in the US) or to alleviate the gigantic unmet needs for housing finance around the world. In support of such efforts the research challenge was the development of a methodology for screening of readiness for transplanting this financing system to other countries. However, the development of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the requirements of infrastructure in respect to protecting ‘security of collateral’, and on international monitoring systems providing information on the status of what cadaster, real property registration and other functions of importance for securing collateral and for valuation of properties. In the absence of data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between formal property rights regimes and real credit with implications for development strategies. The PhD was co-sponsored by VP Securities A/S, www.vp.dk
Full Text Available This case study makes an attempt to identify the adequate position of tourism within the global development strategy of Macedonia. The paper discusses two, extremely opposite attitudes. The first, argues that necessary preconditions must be established in order tourism to have intensive development, thus clearly stating in the development strategy the priority orientation of tourism industry. The second underlines the fake image of tourism and its economic contributions.The paper brings out results of a comprehensive analysis of direct economic tourism effects, hence making clarification whether tourism sector has significant contribution within the entire economy, its influence on the employment, as well as its effects on the balance of payments.
Full Text Available The article „Migration and development. Comparative Study: Romania-Italy” is part of the doctoral thesis entitled Religion and migration in contemporary Romania. Case study: Romanian citizens from Italy and represents in fact the second perspective approached by the thesis, namely migration and development, the first perspective being migration and religion. Migration is the social process with increasingly high influence on the Romanian society of these days. It is selective and dynamic and therefore it requires a complex approach. Over the past years, the remittances of Romanian citizens from other countries have represented the safest external deficit financing source. After several years of constant growth and in the current context marked by social and political changes, the remittance flows decreased significantly. This evolution is based on the background of international economic and financial crisis and of the deteriorating economies of countries all over the world.The topic of this paper is the interaction between migration and development, having as starting point the information provided by various authors in the field of migration and economy, as well as statistical data, slowly progressing towards the various facets of development and migration from a wide conceptual viewpoint and the specific theory of current development and migration. The entire study is focused on the neoclassical economic theory with both macro and micro applications as well as on the current variant of international migration – transnational migration.The general premise is that the external migration of Romanian population is mainly determined by economic differences.
Petronela Daniela FERARU
International inflation has brought about especially adverse consequences on the economic development process of the oil-deficit developing countries in the 1970s. These nations experienced exceptionally high inflation rates. The inflation therein was mainly of an import-cost push type and was fueled by excessive monetary expansions, economic stagnation, and inflationary expectations. Increasing oil prices, in particular, contributed to import-cost push inflation. The terms of trade tended to deteriorate as a result of the rising import prices relative to export prices. Deterioration in the terms of trade caused financial resources to flow out from these nations to the oil-exporting developing countries. Consequently, their balance of payments deficits grew and their external debt began to accumulate. The rising prices of fuel and energy-capital intensive inputs undermined the ability of the oil-deficit developing countries to promote agricultural development. This inability is likely to increase their dependence on imported food in the immediate decades. The energy crisis thus brought about an economic disequilibrium in the world economy. The income gap between the oil-deficit developing countries and the oil-exporting developing nations has substantially increased since 1973. A theoretical analysis in this thesis is supported by empirical studies.
A technique is presented for selecting the optimal variant for development of oil deposits and for separating the oil reserves into balanced reserves and outof-balance reserves. The basis of the technique is the use of indicators of the closing expenditures and the discount factor. Attention is focused on identifying the essence of the indicator (the closing expenditures) and on methods for identifying it and using it in solving branch economic problems.
Ryzhenkov, I.I.; Gorshenina, A.I.; Rokhlin, S.M.; Sattarov, M.M.; Umanskiy, M.M.
Benchmark problems and their solutions are presented. The problems consist in calculating the static and dynamic response of selected piping structures subjected to a variety of loading conditions. The structures range from simple pipe geometries to a representative full scale primary nuclear piping system, which includes the various components and their supports. These structures are assumed to behave in a linear elastic fashion only, i.e., they experience small deformations and small displacements with no existing gaps, and remain elastic through their entire response. The solutions were obtained by using the program EPIPE, which is a modification of the widely available program SAP IV. A brief outline of the theoretical background of this program and its verification is also included.
Current problems in the mining industry can be categorised into operational problems, reliability and safety. These are outlined in this paper and new developments in remote control and equipment monitoring and certification examined. 7 references.
Full Text Available Many concrete real life problems ranging from economic and business to industrial and engineering may be cast into a multi-objective optimisation framework. The redundancy of existing methods for solving this kind of problems susceptible to inconsistencies, coupled with the necessity for checking inherent assumptions before using a given method, make it hard for a nonspecialist to choose a method that fits well the situation at hand. Moreover, using blindly a method as proponents of the hammer principle (when you only have a hammer, you want everything in your hand to be a nail) is an awkward approach at best and a caricatural one at worst. This brings challenges to the design of a tool able to help a Decision Maker faced with these kinds of problems. The help should be at two levels. First the tool should be able to choose an appropriate multi-objective programming technique and second it should single out a satisfying solution using the chosen technique. The choice of a method should be made according to the structure of the problem and to the Decision Maker’s judgment value. This paper is an attempt to satisfy that need. We present a Decision Aid Approach that embeds a sample of good multi-objective programming techniques. The system is able to assist the Decision Maker in the above mentioned two tasks.
Moeti Joseph Rangoaga; Monga Kalonda Luhandjula; Stanislas Sakera Ruzibiza
Full Text Available In the recent years, many studies have showed that weak institutions and the extent of economic crimes in developing countries are one of the deep causes of their poor economic performances. Debt crises which are among other consequences of a low of public levies are accentuated in developing countries, in particular with the development of what is generally known as shadow economy. This research aims to study the potential link existing between economic crimes and the financing of development in developing countries. The economic crimes sector, which is an essential component of the underground economy has a negative effect on the tax mobilization, by cons, the quality of governance is a positive factor in favor of state budgets. This sector is an important fiscal centre which unfortunately for both social and political reasons, sometimes bears fiscal charges beyond its real contributory capacities. This study aims in particularly to investigate the impact of economic crimes on Financing for Development in approximately one hundred developing countries through the channel of public resource mobilization. The main results of empirical analyses using data covering the period 1996-2012 confirm that, it is better for developing countries to fight against economic crimes playing on improving the quality of institutional governance to ensure economic growth sustainability.
The most common methods of developing a gas condensate reservoir are dry gas recycling for improvement of liquid recovery, or pressure depletion (blowdown) for immediate gas and liquid revenues. A compositional, PVT material balance model, designed to represent a condensate reservoir during full or partial dry gas recycling and subsequent blowdown is presented. This model is used with typical data to generate production profiles corresponding to a medium sized North Sea development, for a range of gas recycling options. These results are used as input to a Cash Flow model to carry out pre and post-tax economic evaluations of the alternative depletion schemes. Based on a real discount rate of 10%, gas recycling is seen to improve the project economics, with 75% recycling as the optimum. The importance of shared pipelines between fields, in order to optimise recycling schemes, is emphasised.
Ormerod, L.; Todd, A.C.; Tweedie, J.A.; Ashcroft, I.L.
[en] Piping analysis is one of the most extensive engineering efforts required for the design of nuclear reactors. Such analysis is normally carried out by use of computer programs which can handle complex piping geometries and various loading conditions, (static or dynamic). A brief outline is presented of the theoretical background for the EPIPE program, together with four benchmark problems: two for the static case and two for the dynamic case. The results obtained from EPIPE runs compare well with those available from known analytical solutions or from other independent computer programs
The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable. PMID:12340524
Economic consideration are an important complement to financial project appraisal in developing countries. This is due to disortion of market prices. The need for foreign exchange is an important factor in project selection. Some basic theory of shadow prizing, as a means for estimating the economic value of a project, is presented. Shadow pricing methodology has been adopted from the UNIDO report: Guide to practical project appraisal. The computer model presented provides a tool for calculating electricity demand characteristics, production capacity requirements, investments, financing, and financial and economic profitability of a rural electrification project. The model is built up in the spreadsheet program EXCEL. It is a calculation chain, beginning with data about the number of consumers and their characteristic power demand and ending with financial and economic net present values of a project. The model can in principle be used for all kinds of separate grid electrification calculations. Power supply facilities can consist of any combination of units of different type and size. The period for which calculations are done is 15 years. The model is applied to a district in northern Tanzania. The results show that a main grid connection is the most viable alternative for that district. (au) (8 refs., 11 figs.).
Full Text Available Le patriotisme économique est généralement perçu comme une invitation faite aux acteurs économiques tels que l’État, les consommateurs ou les entreprises, à favoriser les activités nationales. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que le patriotisme économique n’est pas seulement un instrument au service de la puissance industrielle et commerciale d’un État ou un vecteur de sa puissance financière, mais qu’il est aussi parfaitement compatible avec les dimensions sociale et environnementale du développement durable. Le concept de patriotisme économique, à cet égard, a été examiné dans ses logiques traditionnelles d’inspiration mercantiliste, listienne et keynésienne et revisité dans l’optique de la théorie du don, initiée par Marcel Mauss et dans celle de Durkheim.Economic patriotism is generally perceived as an invitation given to economic actors such as the State, consumers or companies, to facilitate national activities. The objective of this article is to show that economic patriotism is not only an instrument in the service of the industrial and commercial power of a State or a vector of its financial power, but that it is also perfectly compatible with the social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The concept of economic patriotism, in this respect, was examined in its traditional logics (Mercantilism, List and Keynes) and revisited in the optics of the theory of gift, introduced by Marcel Mauss and in the optics of Durkheim.
Marie-Françoise Delaite; Jacques Poirot
This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development as well as public expenditures.
Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede
Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes.
Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes. PMID:11402837
This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.
This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.
Lesser, Jonathan A.
Full Text Available Microcredit - the extension of small loans - gives people who would otherwise not have access to credit the opportunity to begin or expand businesses or to pursue job-specific training. These borrowers lack the income, credit history, assets, or security to borrow from other sources. Although the popularity and success of microcredit in developing countries has been trumpeted in the media, microcredit is established and growing in the United States and Canada as well. Its appeal comes from its capacity to provide the means for those who have the ability, drive, and commitment to overcome the hurdles to self-sufficiency. In this article, the role of microcredit as a stimulant for economic development is examined. First, its importance for the establishment of small businesss is described. Second, the article provides an overview of the general microcredit climate in the United states and the local situation in the Ottawa area. Third, brief stories about individuals who have received this type of loan reveal the human impact behind the economic benefits. Finally, the role of microcredit in funding startups is analyzed in comparison to other sources of available funding. The article concludes with a summary of the benefits of microcredit as a win-win proposition for economic development.
[en] This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system
Full Text Available In an attempt to accelerate the process of reforming the economy, the central institutions focus on supporting the use of technology to modernize the industry that would lead to the diversification of activities and the achievement of sustainable industrial development. The imperfections of the market and of the institutional system hampers companies' access to information, knowledge, new technology and financing resulting in increased business risk and directly affecting the progress towards achieving development goals. Industrial parks may be considered as a solution to overcome these flaws in the attempt to accelerate the economic development by attracting innovative businesses that can generate jobs, higher incomes and therefore more resources to institutions. They can exploit the local potential in supporting knowledge-based business development and outline an environment where companies can interact with other supporting knowledge suppliers thus facilitating business and local development. The approach of the subject is theoretical starting from the need to support the economic activities by local social institutions fostering the access to information and technology and identifying some solutions that meet these needs - industrial parks. Even if industrial parks in Romania are still considered in draft form, some examples can be identified as functional and supporting the local development. Their functionality is given by the involvement of local authorities and the interest of the business environment in exploiting the economic potential of the region. The role of industrial parks in supporting the local development is measured in the number of new jobs created, the income received by local institutions by paying taxes and duties from firms benefiting from the infrastructure made available through their involvement in attracting investors; the more productive the industry and more efficient the production, the higher the company's results and therefore the benefits of local institutions.
MEÈ˜TER Liana-Eugenia; BUGNAR Nicoleta-Georgeta
While studies of the past indicated a tight coupling of energy consumption and GNP, longer range indications are that they can be mutually decoupled. Developing nations can move forward towards achieving significant energy savings in their economics without fear of economic stagnation. Conservation policies at the national level are difficult to enunciate and the implementation mechanisms have to be strengthened. Macro-level economics may not be easily apparent as unit level economics. If energy conservation is not practiced, we would require the development of additional energy supply capacity with all of its economic implications. The role of science and technology inputs in industrial processes for minimizing energy consumption is significant. Sufficient funds should be allocated for pursuance of R and D activities in energy conservation and in developing alternative energy resources to supplement and later replace the existing costly transient fuels. A climate to promote conservation of energy should formulate policies which lays emphasis on energy conservation strategies rather than soley on energy growth issues. The effort should be directed towards energy programs that are a judicious mix up of energy and energy conservation strategies for achieving economic growth and a reasonable standard of living commensurate with the aspirations of the people. In capital-scarce economies, an account of the fact that energy conservation requires far less investment than energy capital supplies, conservation policies must play a central role in the overall framework of developing nation's national energy policies.
Srinivasan, P.R. (National Productivity Council, New Delhi, India); Padrmanabhan, S.
An overview of published information on occupational cancer and recorded ongoing occupational cancer research in developing countries is presented. The main cancers reported, of possible occupational origin, are skin carcinoma, leukemia due to exposure to benzene, asbestos-caused mesothelioma, vinyl chloride-induced hepatic angiosarcoma, carcinoma of bilharzial urinary bladder, stomach cancer reportedly associated with nitrogen fertilizers, lung cancer of nickel smelters, and nasopharyngeal and pulmonary carcinoma in workers exposed to the dust of hard wood. The difficulties of developing efficient occupational cancer prevention are discussed. Some options are analyzed regarding legislative, technological, environmental, medical, administrative, and educational cancer control applicable under conditions of developing countries.
The heat resistance, high thermal shock resistance, chemical inertness, structure, and lubricating ability of boron nitride ceramics are discussed along with its uses in high temperature and abrasive applications. Problems are reviewed in sintering, hardening, and impurity control procedures. The most effective strengthening agents for boron nitride ceramics were determined to be organosilicon compounds. A method using molecular thermal cross-linking to incorporate these agents into the ceramic is outlined. The method consists of applying thin layers to powder particles, performing heat treatment until these layers break down and impregnate the pore structure and then cross-link with active pyrolysis products. Comparative data are tabulated for pyrolytic, hot pressed, and sintered boron nitrides with several strengthening agents.
Rusanova, L.N.; Romashin, A.G.; Kulikova, G.I.; Golubeva, O.P.
The experience in developments of large superconducting magnetic systems (SMS) for investigations into controlled fusion, accumulated in the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, is analyzed. The early operating SMS of the immersion and circulation type a...
D. P. Ivanov V. E. Keilin E. Y. Klimenko A. D. Nikulin D. A. Panov
Full Text Available Rural labor market of the country requires further development of infrastructure that would contribute tobalancing labor demand and supply. Particular challenge for the reforms in rural labor market is the qualification leveland structure of the local workers.
[en] The experience in developments of large superconducting magnetic systems (SMS) for investigations into controlled fusion, accumulated in the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, is analyzed. The early operating SMS of the immersion and circulation type are described. The specifications of SMS being developed are presented. The advantages of circulation-type devices over the immersion-type ones are demostrated. The prospects for use of SMS on multistrand intermetallic materials are briefly outlined
Full Text Available Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework for business development, collaboration between companies, universities, research institutions, suppliers, customers and competitors located in the same geographical area. Clusters of small and medium sized firms in developing economies are coming under increased pressure from competition as products mature, technology becomes widely available, and companies seek lower cost locations for production. In this paper, we consider that the cluster is an engine for economic development in our region and we need to have a regional strategy for clusters in Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Plan for 2014-2020.
Ana Cristina Adumitroaei; Claudia Ionescu; Simona Curpan
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O autor se refere a dimensão socioeconômica, individual e coletiva do fenômeno saúde-doença. Refere-se também ao fato das populações estarem sobre a influência desigual de fatores de risco e de proteção à saúde. Discute as desigualdades no desenvolvimento e a relação entre desenvolvimento, riqueza, saúde e justiça social. Questiona as teorias de desenvolvimento econômico, diferenciando desenvolvimento de crescimento. Cunha os conceitos de armadilha do de (more) senvolvimento e refugiados sociais. Define uma comunidade saudável. Propõe a necessidade de mudança no modelo de desenvolvimento. Baliza o papel e as limitações do setor saúde no que diz respeito a iniqüidade social. Abstract in english The author refers to the social, economic, individual, and collective dimensions of the relationship between health and disease. He considers that individuals and populations are not equally exposed to protective and risk factors. He highlights the uneven development between nations and Brazilian regions, and communities, as well as discussing the relationship between development, wealth, health, and social justice. The article analyzes development theories and makes a di (more) stinction between economic development and growth. The concepts of development trap and social refugees are coined. The author defines a healthy community, points to the need for a shift in the current development model, and delineates the health sector's role and limitations in dealing with social inequality.
Prata, Pedro Reginaldo
Natural resources are distributed very unevenly among the countries of the world, and there is often little relationship between the location of strategic resources and population densities or between resources and developmental aspirations and current levels of living and consumption patterns. Consequently, substantial quantities of most natural resources or their immediate products move in international trade. There is a renewed and growing concern over the terms on which these natural resources and resource commodities are traded for other goods, such as manufactures, capital goods and equipment, technical skills and services, etc. Although the problems of resources and development have become increasingly interrelated and global in scope, most past studies have confined their analyses to particular aspects of these issues. This seminar attempted to treat these problems within a comprehensive, multidisciplinary framework. Part I, Natural Resources, Chaps. 1-7, focuses on the physical and economic dimensions of natural resources. Part II, Economic Development, Chaps. 8-10, is devoted to aspects of history, theory, and current performance of economic development in relation to natural resource issues and policies. Part III, International Cooperation, Chaps. 11-13, considers relations among nation-states and the ways in which these relations or modifications in them may either intensify conflict or provide for greater international cooperation. Part IV, Analytical and Policy Redirections, Chaps. 14-15, examines mathematical modeling of socioeconomic-resource systems and views resource and development policies in a pragmatic sense.
Dorner, P.; El-Shafie, M.A.
Although profitable development and exploitation of natural resources has been, and still remains, the goal of many individuals and firms within the extractive industries, several new goals must also be considered, the foremost of which is the wise management of the already discovered stocks of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. This aspect has become of vital importance for society as a whole.It is this dual objective - the economic feasibility on behalf of private interests, and the efficient development and utilization of natural resources as viewed from the societal poi
Full Text Available The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT) development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. The formulation of the progress’ general rules and its prediction was done. It was monitored the dynamics of ICT sales, depending on its form and the influence of global economy.
Full Text Available Polimlje is situated in the south-western part of Serbia, in the Raska region. In the morphological and spatial functional view this is a heterogeneous area which spreads over the Lim river basin in Serbia and Montenegro. The area of the Lim river basin is 5 784 km2, whereof 1 541.3 km2 belong to the Uvac river basin. The territories of the following municipalities belong to Polimlje in Serbia: Priboj, Prijepolje, Nova Varos and Sjenica. Natural resources of the region are explored insufficiently, whereof waters, ores, pastures, meadows and forests are significant in the economic sense. The prevalence and distribution of the natural resources have been pointed out in the paper, with an emphasis on the explanation of the quality of reserves and economic justification of exploitation. The hydro energetic potential of the Uvac, the largest tributary of the Lim, is significant. The priorities and directions of the regional development have been emphasized on the basis of uneven natural resources distribution. Taking into consideration the natural potentials, agriculture (cattle breeding) and energetic should be the main stakeholders of the economic development in the region.
Pavlovi? Mila; Šabi? Dejan; Vujadinovi? Snežana
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effects the transfer of ownership from a state-owned Paper Mill Company to a corporate private ownership has had on environmental and economic shrinkage in Atenquique. This transfer was the result of the ongoing economic process of globalization, after the industrial boom of the paper mills during the second half of the last century. The paper also focuses on how the employees of this Paper Mill Company live and how they have been affected by globalization and how they feel about their paper mill's new corporate owners. The methodology used was descriptive and exploratory. A sample of ten workers at the company who lived in Atenquique was chosen for an interview. After being inhabited the town of Atenquique developed in terms of population, society and economy. On the other hand the Industrial Company of Atenquique grew during the period when it was a property of the Mexican State. After the company's privatization, the town started to decline and shrink in three above-mentioned variables. The impact on the environmental and economic development has initiated the shrinking and declining of Atenquique and the surrounding cities and towns.
José G. Vargas-Hernández; Mohammad Reza Noruzi
Wood pellets became into Austrian markets in 1994. Up to then the Austrian industry had manufactured pellet fireplaces for export, but none was sold into Austria, because there were not pellets available in the Austrian markets. In spite of significant problems in the beginning and unfavourable economic conditions (decrease of oil prices) the pellet markets in Austria have increased since 1996 dynamically. Annual pellet deliveries have increased from 15 000 t/a to present 45 000 t/a. Customers and Austrian industry are interested in pellets and they believe in the future. The pellet manufacturing capacity increases continuously. In 1999 the capacity of 12 companies was 120 000 t. In 2003 the annual pellet consumption is estimated to over 100 000 tons and in 2010 about 200 000 tons. Main portion of the pellet manufactures in Austria is also used in the country by detached houses and small real estate houses. The pellet markets for large real estates are developing after the boiler manufacturers have started to produce pellet-fired equipment. The number of pellet-fired devices in 1997, sold to detached houses was 425, and in 2000 the number was 3500.
BACKGROUND: The management of Hirschsprung's disease remains a problem in developing countries. Our aim is to identify the main epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of Hirschsprung's disease at the University Child Hospital Charles De Gaulle of Ouagadougou (CHUP-CDG). PATIENTS AND METHOD: It is a retrospective study carried out in the period from January 2001 to December 2007 in the Surgery Unit at CHUP-CDG, which is a reference centre for Paediatric Surgery in Burkina Faso. RESULTS: There were 52 patients (M: F=3.3:1). The annual incidence was seven cases. Age at presentation and diagnosis ranged from two days 10 years (median 20 months). Twenty five patients were from poor socio-economic conditions. Presentations were mainly intestinal obstruction, chronic constipation and enterocolitis. There were two cases of associated trisomy 21. Average age at operative intervention was 3.17 months. The rectosigmoidal form was the most frequently encountered. Over two-thirds (67.31%), with no complications at presentation, had benefited from nursing before their final treatment. A temporary colostomy was requested in case of complication. Swenson's technique was practiced for all the patients who underwent surgery operation. The assessment of functional results in eight patients after an average decrease of 3.5 years gave excellent results. Post-surgery complications were mainly enterocolitis in 12% of patients. Mortality rate was 16%. CONCLUSION: Management of Hirschsprung's disease is a problem in Burkina Faso. It is characterised by its late presentation and difficult diagnosis due to inaccessibility and the non-availability of some investigation services (barium enema, histochemistry, and histology), resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates. Effective technical capacities, adequate staff training, and public education will be necessary to improve care quality.
Bandré E; Kaboré RA; Ouedraogo I; Soré O; Tapsoba T; Bambara C; Wandaogo A
Full Text Available Background: The management of Hirschsprung?s disease remains a problem in developing countries. Our aim is to identify the main epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of Hirschsprung?s disease at the University Child Hospital Charles De Gaulle of Ouagadougou (CHUP-CDG). Patients and Method: It is a retrospective study carried out in the period from January 2001 to December 2007 in the Surgery Unit at CHUP-CDG, which is a reference centre for Paediatric Surgery in Burkina Faso. Results: There were 52 patients (M: F=3.3:1). The annual incidence was seven cases. Age at presentation and diagnosis ranged from two days 10 years (median 20 months). Twenty five patients were from poor socio-economic conditions. Presentations were mainly intestinal obstruction, chronic constipation and enterocolitis. There were two cases of associated trisomy 21. Average age at operative intervention was 3.17 months. The rectosigmoidal form was the most frequently encountered. Over two-thirds (67.31%), with no complications at presentation, had benefited from nursing before their final treatment. A temporary colostomy was requested in case of complication. Swenson?s technique was practiced for all the patients who underwent surgery operation. The assessment of functional results in eight patients after an average decrease of 3.5 years gave excellent results. Post-surgery complications were mainly enterocolitis in 12% of patients. Mortality rate was 16%. Conclusion: Management of Hirschsprung?s disease is a problem in Burkina Faso. It is characterised by its late presentation and difficult diagnosis due to inaccessibility and the non-availability of some investigation services (barium enema, histochemistry, and histology), resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates. Effective technical capacities, adequate staff training, and public education will be necessary to improve care quality.
Bandré E; Kaboré R.A.F; Ouedraogo I; Soré O; Tapsoba T; Bambara C; Wandaogo A
China has enormous primary energy resources yet the country`s current economic boom is threatened by energy shortages. In the ninth five-year plan (1996-2000), energy market restructure to encourage energy resource development is seen to be a key policy in supporting economic growth. Reform of the large state-owned energy companies is now a high priority though privatisation has been limited so far. The limited moves that have been made to encourage foreign investors, particularly in the petroleum industry, and the restrictions that remain, are reviewed. Though China is potentially attractive to foreign investment, it is hampered by uncertainty over government policies, bureaucratic inertia and the lack of a clearly defined legal framework, especially where properties rights are involved. (UK)
Jones, Alan; D`Andrea, G.; Rodriguez, G. [LeBoeuf Lamb Greene and Macrae, London (United Kingdom)
The application of benefit-cost analysis, especially the valuation of environmental quality effects, comes only after one has obtained a good knowledge of the basic theories, management contexts, and natural systems analyses. This guide can help decision makers by presenting already existing analytical approaches and techniques that can be used to incorporate environmental quality concerns into the economic analyses of projects, programs, and development strategies. The chapters are organized to cover an introduction, institutional and planning processes, basic principles of benefit-cost analysis, measurement of a specific activity, the effects of residuals on natural systems, the market and survey techniques for evaluating environmental quality and natural-systems effects, economic valuation from the cost side, and techniques of input-output analysis. 15 references, 92 figures, 88 tables.
Hufschmidt, M.M.; James, D.E.; Meister, A.D.; Bower, B.T.; Dixon, J.A.
Full Text Available Energy intensity represents one of the main indicators for economic development and is expressed as the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and gross domestic product (GDP). The least energy-intensive economies in the EU are Denmark, Ireland and the UK. Among the most energy-intensive economies are Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In socialist times, eastern European Member States had economies with high shares of energy-intensive industries as well as an energy-inefficient infrastructure serving these industries. In this paper we will perform an analyze at Romanian level by comparing the obtained results with the one’s at Europe 27 level and we will determine the decouple degree between energy consumption and economic growth.
FELIX-CONSTANTIN BURCEA; EMILIA UNGUREANU; CRISTINA FLORENTINA BÂLDAN
Full Text Available This paper proposes that a virtuous circle for the sustainable developmentof a city or region is achieved through a process whereby proactive and strongleadership and effective institutions enhance the capacity and capability of a place tobetter use its resource endowments and gain an improved market fit in becomingcompetitive and being entrepreneurial. It is proposed that the performance of a city orregion at a point in time and the path of its economic development over time may berepresented by its position in a Regional Competitiveness Performance Cube. Thepaper proposes a new model framework whereby a city or region’s economic developmentand performance is an outcome dependent on how its resource endowmentsand market fit as quasi-independent variables are mediated by the interaction betweenleadership, institutions, and entrepreneurship as intervening variables. The experiencesof a number of case study cities from a variety of settings in the US, Europe,Asia and Australia are explored within that framework.
Robert J. Stimson; Roger R. Stough; María Salazar
Without oil industry modernisation, production will begin to decline. But Kazakhstan`s lack of an export route to foreign markets means producers are unable to acquire hard currency to aid development. The upstream and downstream sectors are in trouble. (author)
Belousov, V.; Gorst, I.
Full Text Available Under the present conditions of Ukraine integration into the European and world community and participation of the domestic system of higher education in the Bologna process the issue of updating the economic education becomes topical and that will bring the training of specialists closer to the requirements of the market economy. The processes of economic and the world’s labor market globalization expect a modern economist to have a fundamental economic education, developed economic thinking, independence, self-efficiency, ability to adapt to the changes in the market through the willingness to constantly upgrade his or her knowledge.Solving those problems requires using the technological approach in education. Despite the high interest and a wide development of the issue of implementing the technological approach into the sphere of the higher education of Ukraine, the issue of providing a methodical teaching disciplines on the basis of technological approach.The aim of the research is providing theoretical grounds and development of methodical recommendations on using technological approach in developing distance learning course of Regional Economics.Technological approach to education sets as a goal the designing of the educational process relying on the specified guidelines: social order, educational orientation point, goals of education, content of education. The specific character of the pedagogical technology is that the educational process within it has to guarantee the achievement of the goals set.The designed distance learning course of Regional Economics represents a pedagogical technology, totally based on the usage of information and communication technologies, which enables to change the paradigm of education itself and most effectively realize those possibilities, set in the new pedagogical technologies in order to make the specialists training more efficient.
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. AIMS: This paper aims to describe the development and content of clinical guidelines for the management of problem alcohol use among this population. METHODS: The guidelines were developed in three stages: (1) identification of key stakeholders, (2) development of evidence-based draft guidelines, and (3) determination of a modified 'Delphi-facilitated' consensus among the group members. RESULTS: The guidelines incorporate advice for physicians on all aspects of care, including (1) definition of problem alcohol use among problem drug users, (2) alcohol screening, (3) brief intervention, and (4) subsequent management of patients with alcohol dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care has an important role to play in the care of problem alcohol use among problem drug users, especially opiate substitution patients. Further research on strategies to inform the implementation of these guidelines is a priority.
Klimas J; Cullen W; Field CA
Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of the development of the Chinese Studies ofComparative Literature. After having delineated a short history of the discipline in China, the authordiscusses a series of fundamental theoretical nodes in order to characterize appropriately the wide fieldof action of the comparatist research. According to the author, in the period of transition withoutprecedence that we all have been living, the Comparative Literature is called to play a fundamentalrole in the construction of an ideal world, in which the various cultures can coexist and become rich bymeans of mutual exchange. The single national cultures, in fact, are destined unavoidably to open theirown borders and to develop, thanks to the encounter and interaction with the other cultures.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel and efficient hybrid algorithm based on combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) techniques, called PSO-GSA. The core of this algorithm is to combine the ability of social thinking in PSO with the local search capability of GSA. Many practical constraints of generators, such as power loss, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones and valve point effect, are considered. The new algorithm is implemented to the non-convex economic dispatch (ED) problem so as to minimize the total generation cost when considering the linear and non linear constraints. In order to validate of the proposed algorithm, it is applied to two cases with six and thirteen generators, respectively. The results show that the proposed algorithms indeed produce more optimal solution in both cases when compared results of other optimization algorithms reported in literature.
Full Text Available The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems in powergeneration systems is to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the totalcost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents anefficient Novel TANAN’s Algorithm (NTA), for solving ELDProblem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost ofthe generating units having quadratic cost characteristicssubjected to limits on generator true power output andtransmission losses and including valve point loading effects. TheNTA is a simple numerical approach based on a parabolicTANAN function. This paper presents an application of NTA toELD for different IEEE standard test systems. ELD is applied andcompared with various optimization techniques. The simulationresults show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previousoptimization methods.
This paper proposes a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy namely, anti-predatory particle swarm optimization (APSO) to solve nonconvex economic dispatch problems. In the classical PSO, the movement of a particle (bird) is governed by three behaviors: inertial, cognitive and social. The cognitive and social behaviors are the components of the foraging activity, which help the swarm of birds to locate food. Another activity that is observed in birds is the anti-predatory nature, which helps the swarm to escape from the predators. In this work, the anti-predatory activity is modeled and embedded in the classical PSO to form APSO. This inclusion enhances the exploration capability of the swarm. To validate the proposed APSO model, it is applied to two test systems having nonconvex solution spaces. Satisfactory results are obtained when compared with previous approaches. (author)
Selvakumar, A. Immanuel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore 641114, Tamilnadu (India); Thanushkodi, K. [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore 641013, Tamilnadu (India)
Full Text Available This Study presents a new approach for Economic Dispatch (ED) problems incorporating wind power plants using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. As the wind power plant is renewable and clean, widely distributed, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land, its effect to conventional units that should be analyzed. Also the total cost is dependent on wind speed in specific period of time. Therefore, the mathematical techniques are not appropriate to find the global optimum ED. In this study, PSO is proposed to deal with wind power plants in ED. The system employed to apply the PSO in ED is three generators power system. Finally, to show the good performance of wind power plants to decreasing the total cost of production, two different scenarios with and without wind power plants are simulated and the results are compared to each other.
Javad Ansari; Siamak Bandari; Mehdi Ghazavi Dozein; Mohsen Kalantar
Full Text Available This paper presents a weight improved particle swarm optimization (WIPSO) strategy for solving the combined economic and emission ispatch (CEED) problems. From point of view of the safety of the environment, it has become necessary to reduce the emission of harmful pollutants from power plants. This leads to an increasedoperating cost of the plant. So a compromise has to be made between the emission and the cost. In this paper, the presented WIPSO strategy has been applied to two generating systems, one comprising a three generator system and the other being IEEE 30-bus six generator system and its performance has been compared to the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy. The results show that the WIPSO strategy provides better solution as compared to the PSO in terms of reduced fuel cost and reduced emission
BHUVNESH KHOKHAR; K. P. SINGH PARMAR
The water resources of the Aral Sea basin are under increasing pressure, particularly from the conflict over whether hydropower or irrigation water use should take priority. The purpose of the BEAM model is to explore the impact of changes to water allocation and investments in water management infrastructure on the overall welfare of the Aral Sea basin. The BEAM model estimates welfare changes associated with changes to how water is allocated between the five countries in the basin (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; water use in Afghanistan is assumed to be fixed). Water is allocated according to economic optimization criteria; in other words, the BEAM model allocates water across time and space so that the economic welfare associated with water use is maximized. The model is programmed in GAMS. The model addresses the Aral Sea Basin as a whole - that is, the rivers Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Kashkadarya, and Zarafshan, as well as the Aral Sea. The model representation includes water resources, including 14 river sections, 6 terminal lakes, 28 reservoirs and 19 catchment runoff nodes, as well as land resources (i.e., irrigated croplands). The model covers 5 sectors: agriculture (crops: wheat, cotton, alfalfa, rice, fruit, vegetables and others), hydropower, nature, households and industry. The focus of the model is on welfare impacts associated with changes to water use in the agriculture and hydropower sectors. The model aims at addressing the following issues of relevance for economic management of water resources: • Physical efficiency (estimating how investments in irrigation efficiency affect economic welfare). • Economic efficiency (estimating how changes in how water is allocated affect welfare). • Equity (who will gain from changes in allocation of water from one sector to another and who will lose?). Stakeholders in the region have been involved in the development of the model, and about 10 national experts, including staff from the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS), have been trained in using the model. The model is publicly accessible through a web-based user interface that allows users to investigate scenarios and perform sensitivity analyses. Preliminary results suggest that: 1. At the margin, hydropower water use increases basin-wide welfare more than irrigation water use. 2. Under normal or average hydrological conditions, water scarcity is not a significant problem in the basin. 3. Under dry hydrological conditions, water scarcity is significant. Under these conditions, preliminary results suggest that cotton irrigation is less effective than other uses, particularly in Turkmenistan. 4. Investments in irrigation efficiency can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of water use for irrigation, thereby increasing the welfare of irrigation regions during dry periods.
Riegels, Niels; Kromann, Mikkel; Karup Pedersen, Jesper; Lindgaard-Jørgensen, Palle; Sokolov, Vadim; Sorokin, Anatoly
Full Text Available This paper examines and compares institutional arrangements addressing market failures endemic to rural areas. It argues that rural market failures cannot be satisfactorily addressed by for-profit firms and thus require the operation of third sector organizations, such as NGOs, cooperatives, and associations. The important role of these organizations in rural development is explained by the particular severity of rural market failures that inhibit the development of rural markets and thus constrain the operation of rural for-profit firms. This argument is applied to the development of rural tourism in Central and Eastern Europe. The rural tourist markets in this region are shown to fail in a number of ways that require recourse to tourism associations and other relevant third sector organizations. The paper concludes with calling for further research on developing the institutional economic theory of the rural third sector.
Vladislav VALENTINOV; Sabine BAUM
This paper examines the implications of the demand for ethno-cultural vegetables (ECV) by South-Asians, the largest cultural group in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), on their potential for Ontario agricultural economic development and significant consumer health benefits. A conceptual framework is presented to explain the relationship among factors such as change in demographics, demand for locally produced ECV and both the potential agricultural and health benefits. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2009 also indicates that the respondents have certain characteristics that are pertinent to understanding why they shop in particular stores and their perceptions about what constitutes quality. In sum, household size and percentage spent on vegetables predict their expenditure on ECV, an indication that South-Asians resident in the GTA will continue to demand their ECV. It is thus a niche market that farmers can explore if its potential economic value to them is clarified and the government can provide sufficient support by increasing awareness and creating appropriate economic incentives for farmers willing to grow these vegetables.
Adekunle B; Filson G; Sethuratnam S
This paper examines the implications of the demand for ethno-cultural vegetables (ECV) by South-Asians, the largest cultural group in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), on their potential for Ontario agricultural economic development and significant consumer health benefits. A conceptual framework is presented to explain the relationship among factors such as change in demographics, demand for locally produced ECV and both the potential agricultural and health benefits. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2009 also indicates that the respondents have certain characteristics that are pertinent to understanding why they shop in particular stores and their perceptions about what constitutes quality. In sum, household size and percentage spent on vegetables predict their expenditure on ECV, an indication that South-Asians resident in the GTA will continue to demand their ECV. It is thus a niche market that farmers can explore if its potential economic value to them is clarified and the government can provide sufficient support by increasing awareness and creating appropriate economic incentives for farmers willing to grow these vegetables. PMID:22516843
Adekunle, Bamidele; Filson, Glen; Sethuratnam, Sridharan
Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.
Vittorio Valli; Donatella Saccone
[en] This paper presents the development of SHP in China since 1949, experiences with SHP systems including benefits and problems, solutions to those problems that are being implemented, and the prospects for the future development of SHP. 2 figs, 10 bibliographies, 4 photos
Full Text Available The increasing productivity of production factors, due to progresses in science and technology is today the engine of economic growth. The economic theory managed to endogenize the technical progress, first as a result of the unintended activities of firms, then as the result of profit driven behaviour of economic agents. In globalization the stock of knowledge becomes available also to developing countries and the production technologies and their employment are more democratic regarding the availability. For the developing countries it still remains the problem of financial resources and availability. Developing new technologies has a prohibitive costs, at least until the moment in which large scale production allows for the reduction of costs. Long term economic growth will depend on the creation of global technology stock, including the leverage effect of sustained RxD. In this paper we will approach the progress of Romania in the area of knowledge base economy, especially regarding the policies in the RxD sector.
Dragomir Laurentiu; Barbu Mihail Catalin; email@example.com
Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit proble