Sample records for economic development problems

  1. Early progress on the "problem of economic development"

    James A. Schmitz


    This study describes recent attempts to solve what Lucas has called the "problem of economic development"—the problem of accounting for the great disparity in per-capita output across countries. The study examines a number of economic development theories, including the neoclassical theory of growth, which relies on cross-country differences in physical capital per person to explain the disparity, and newer theories, which stress cross-country differences in human capital, or education. It is...

  2. Environmental problems and economic development in an endogenous fertility model

    Joest, Frank; Quaas, Martin; Schiller, Johannes


    Population growth is often viewed as a most oppressive global problem with respect to environmental deterioration, but the relationships between population development, economic dynamics and environmental pollution are complex due to various feedback mechanisms. We analyze society’s economic decisions on birth rates, investment into human and physical capital, and polluting emissions within an optimal control model of the coupled demographic-economic-environmental system. We show that a long-...

  3. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Marta Gotz


    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  4. The Least Developed Countries of Africa - the problems of the economic development and the resolution.

    Smékalová, Lucie


    The region of Subsaharan Africa is the most underdeveloped area in the world. There is the highest number of the Least Developed Countries of the world. The backwardness of the African countries takes effect by the poverty and heavy political, economical and social problems. The local governments, foreign investors and international organizations can improve the situation in African The Least Developed Countries.

  5. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.


    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  6. Sustaining Economic Development and the Value of Economic Production: Different Views and Difficult Problems

    Tisdell, Clement A.


    Indicates some of the different concepts of sustainable economic development and raises queries about how much present generations are concerned with future generations. A variety of conditions (ranging from very weak to very strong) have been suggested for achieving sustainable development. These are outlined. The prospect that the accumulation of man-made capital may result in unsustainable economic development is discussed and the welfare consequences of the conversion of natural capital a...

  7. International Trade in Used Cars and Problems of Economic Development

    Grubel, Herbert


    This paper provides a price-theoretic explanation of the well-known phenomenon that automobiles in developing countries depreciate less rapidly and are scrapped at a greater age than they are in industrial countries. This paper then argues that the renewal of barriers to free trade in used cars would lead to substantial welfare gains for developing countries through both capital gains implicit in the arbitrage and positive externalities from car repair industries. Negative externalities from ...


    Orlov A. I.


    For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology


    Orlov A. I.


    Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

  10. Nuclear power option for solving problems in connection with economic development, energy supply and environmental protection

    Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs

  11. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author)

  12. Lithuania - Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Lithuania during 1993–96. Economic growth resumed in 1994 and gained further momentum in 1995; real GDP increased by an estimated 3 percent in 1995. Growth in 1995 was driven by the industrial sector, while agriculture performed poorly. The immediate effects of the banking problems on economic activity, and on other macroeconomic developments, have been limited. Data on industrial production and retail trade indicate continued growth in the first ...

  13. Komi Republic at the border of the XX and XXI centuries (the problems of socio-economic development

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev


    Full Text Available The first decade of the twenty-first century from a historical point of view is interesting, first of all, because of the fact that social development receives priority over the economic in public opinion and public policy of many countries. Attempts to adhere to this rule were also made in Russia. The paper analyzes the problems of socio-economic development of the Komi Republic in the first decade of the XXI century. The pass through problems (demographic crisis, aging of the fixed assets, disproportions of reproduction and new problems related to the reorganization of the property management systems and the production, differentiation of people’s incomes and expenditures, violation of the principles of economic federalism and financial crisis are highlighted. Solving of these problems is linked to the innovative development of the productive forces of the republic and the strengthening of interregional economic integration. The scientifically arranged directions of innovational economy in the Komi Republic (fuel, mining and metallurgical complexes, forest and agricultural sector of the economy are reviewed.

  14. Governors as Economic Problem Solvers

    Charles D. Taylor


    Despite the important role governors have played in shaping states’ economic development strategies, existing quantitative studies of state economic development policymaking have paid only scant attention to the factors that influence governors’ decisions about economic development policy. This study investigates these factors using a unique data set of gubernatorial economic development proposals generated by content analyzing hundreds of major legislative addresses delivered by governor...

  15. The Economics of Water Management in Developing Countries Problems, Principles and Policies

    Koundouri, Phoebe; PASHARDES, Panos; Swanson, Timothy; Xepapadeas, Anastasios


    The increasing scarcity of water resources (in terms of quantity and quality) is one of the most pervasive natural resource allocation issues facing development planners throughout the world.This problem is especially prevalent in less developed countries where the management of this valuable resource has become a critical policy concern.This authoritative new volume outlines the fundamental principles and difficulties that characterise this challenging task. The authors begin by detailing th...


    Nidziy Elena Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the key fund-creating industries, the formation of the Russian economy greatly depends on it. The construction sector is cyclic, that’s why it has always been sensitive to the tendencies of the national economy. In the contemporary conditions of weak economical climate the construction industry is in a state of sluggish recession. The key indicators exercising restraining influence on the construction complex are analyzed. The author carried out calculations of the prices for residential real estate in the past years. The author’s view on the near-term prospects on the exit from recession state is formulated. From the view of the today’s state and the nearest development prospects, it can be stated that the construction industry is one of the most problematic among the basic economic sectors. Retrieval of the expansion rate of the construction industry is possible in case of the positive changes of general economic state.


    Janno Reiljan; Ele Reiljan


    The objective of this working paper is to point out major ways of regulating the global economy in order to increase impact of foreign trade, credits and (foreign) investments on economic growth and welfare. Some basic problems that occur in the process of balancing economic development are studied. The nature of economic globalization is determined at the beginning of the article. After this, the role of international trade, foreign direct investments and development assistance is studied. F...

  18. Causality problem in Economic Science



    Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.


    Nidziy Elena Nikolaevna


    The construction industry is one of the key fund-creating industries, the formation of the Russian economy greatly depends on it. The construction sector is cyclic, that’s why it has always been sensitive to the tendencies of the national economy. In the contemporary conditions of weak economical climate the construction industry is in a state of sluggish recession. The key indicators exercising restraining influence on the construction complex are analyzed. The author carried out calculation...

  20. The nuclear electric option in developing countries: Technical, economic, and political problems

    During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned

  1. Nuclear power engineering problems as the political and economical problems

    The political and economic aspects of nuclear power engineering status in the countries of the former USSR nowadays are considered. The factors, which lead to the nuclear power crisis, are analyzed. It is shown that the state monopoly for developing the problems of nuclear power engineering and NPP operation plays the main part. The ways for possible crisis overcoming are suggested

  2. Rethinking Community Economic Development

    Ron Shaffer; Steve Deller; Dave Marcouiller


    In this article, the authors present arguments for a more interdisciplinary approach to community economic development. Building an alternative paradigm that includes six elements—resources, markets, institutions, society, decision making, and space—they rethink the framework that links economic theory to the practice of community economic development. Major attention is paid to the integration of economic and noneconomic factors in the practice of community economic development. In the e...

  3. The state of scientific development and source base of problem high school reforming in Ukraine in conditions of social-economical transformations (1996-2007)

    Левчишина, Оксана Михайлівна


    In the article, consisting of scientific development of research of problem of reformation of higher school is analysed of in Ukraine in the conditions of socio-economic changes (1996-2007). Investigational a spring base of this problem on the basis of the documentary and scientific materials archived.

  4. Economic development and civil development



    It is commonly held that economic development automatically brings civil development with it, as if between the two there were a cause-effect relationship. While economic development is obviously a necessary condition for civil development, it is not a sufficient one. On the other hand, without certain fundamental pre-requisites in the civil development field, such as a minimum level of education, economic development is impossible. Thus, the two phenomena are best conceived of in terms of in...

  5. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...


    Liliana Scutaru


    The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited numb...

  7. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas


    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  8. Energy and economic development

    This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development

  9. Social development is economic development

    Birdsall, Nancy


    The author makes four main points in this paper: (1) social development, in addition to improving human welfare directly, is an excellent investment. The hard-nosed economic fact is that it contributes to economic growth. Even a narrow interest in growth for growth's sake dictates putting your money into social development programs; (2) however, investing in social development does not guarantee growth all by itself, so those concerned with social progress cannot absent themselves from the la...

  10. Palau; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper provides a review of recent economic developments in Palau, covering the first five years of the Compact of Free Association (Compact) with the United States. The paper analyzes the economic growth, prices, wages, and employment. The study assesses the public finances and overall developments, which include revenues and grants, expenditure, local governments, trust funds, and nonfinancial public enterprises. The paper provides a detailed study of the financial and external sectors,...

  11. Indonesia; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Indonesia during 1994–96. Following the easing of domestic demand pressures, the focus of monetary policy shifted in early 1993/94 to supporting economic growth, as concerns developed over an incipient weakening of export performance and output. At the same time, the fiscal position was strengthened. Reflecting the strong growth in non-oil/gas revenue, the overall central government deficit, excluding oil/gas revenue, declined by 2 percentage poin...

  12. Entrepreneurship in economic development

    Naudé, Wim


    What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

  13. The problems of pricing and selling socio-economic grey literature in Africa : the case of the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation (NIR), University of Botswana

    Kwafo-Akoto, Kate (NIR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    In Africa, socio-economic grey literature (GL) constitutes a substantialproportion of literature produced especially in the universities through their research activities. The paper analyses some of the key problems encountered in pricing and selling GL produced by universities in Africa such as their specialised subject content which fail to appeal to the general public. Discusses the role being played by the National Institute of Development Research and Documentation in building the resear...

  14. Economic Creativity Development

    Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi; Ahmad Reza Kazemi Haghighi


    As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC). The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007) for Economic Creativity Development (ECD). This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitabi” (in Persian...

  15. Rethinking Development Economics

    Stiglitz, Joseph E


    "Twelve years ago, when I was chief economist of the World Bank, I suggested that the major challenge to development economics was learning the lessons of the previous several decades: a small group of countries, mostly in Asia, but a few in other regions, had had phenomenal success, beyond anything that had been anticipated by economists; while many other countries had experienced slow growth, or even worse, stagnation and decline—inconsistent with the standard models in economics which pred...

  16. Ecuador: Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper describes economic developments in Ecuador during the 1990s. Inflation fell from an average of about 50 percent in 1988–92 to 22 percent in April 1995. Economic activity rebounded, and international reserves were rebuilt. Relations with foreign creditors were normalized through an “exit†Paris Club rescheduling in mid-1994 and the completion of a debt- and debt-service-reduction operation with external commercial creditors in early 1995 that was expected to facilitate the retu...

  17. Essays in Development Economics

    Lee, Diana Kim


    Poverty and health are two topics in the field of development economics that are of critical importance to both researchers and policy-makers. Despite advances in poverty alleviation and gains in health outcomes in many developing countries, many challenges remain. Two of these challenges include accurately measuring poverty and improving the quality of health care delivery systems. In this dissertation, I present three essays with theoretical, empirical, and policy-relevant insights into the...

  18. States and Economic Development

    Atul Kohli


    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  19. The Problems and Strategies of Real Estate Economic Development%房地产经济发展的问题及策略



    With the continuous development of Chinese eco-nomy, the real estate gets more and more at ention. This article elaborates the significance of the real estate industry develo-pment, and combines with the current situation of real estate economic development in China, points out the existing prob-lems in the real estate development, and puts forward some str-ategies to strengthen the development of the real estate market.%随着中国经济的不断发展,房地产受到了越来越多的关注。本文阐述了房地产业发展的意义,并结合我国房地产经济发展现状,指出了房地产发展中存在的问题,提出了加强房地产市场发展的策略。

  20. Economic issues in the legacy problem

    Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

  1. Finland; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Finland during 1990–95. The paper discusses the domestic economy, public finances, money and credit, and the balance of payments. It reports on the robustness of various inflation indicators, providing background to the process of establishing a monetary policy framework under a floating exchange rate. The paper also reviews possible structural causes for high unemployment and discusses reform proposals. Macroeconomic shocks that triggered the rec...

  2. Essays in development economics



    Gaps in financial access remain stark in the largest part of developing countries and have relevant consequences on poor households’ economic decisions, such as credit, saving and risk management. Lack of availability of formal financial services provided by either the market or public authorities (e.g in case of health insurance) have been compensated by the activity of informal groups, associations and arrangements. Old and new forms of community-based groups have been largely documented in...

  3. Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Economic Development)

    mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais


    The theory we have designed the idea of economic development which remain associated with main elements that consists of two main development area, firstly is Health and secondly, Education development. The main factor of this idea to provide Human development that enormously influence on economic development which resulted from different perspectives. Many researches explained by analysis of focus variables of economic growth which have relationship to lead the economic development. In addit...

  4. Dependent Data in Economic and Financial Problems

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Vol. 1. Praha : Professional Publishing, Mikulova 1572/13, 149 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic, 2011 - (Dlouhý, M.; Skočdopolová, V.), s. 327-332 ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [29th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Janská Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic programming * Wasserstein metric * L_1norm * Empirical estimates * One-stage problems * Multistage problems * Independent samples * m-dependent samples * Markov dependence * Phi-mixing random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research data in economic and financial problems.pdf

  5. Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Development


    Discusses fiscal decentralization and economic development in developed and developing countries. Explores historical trends in fiscal centralization and puts them in context of the developing countries.

  6. Kenya; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Kenya during 1990–95. Real GDP growth decelerated from 4.3 percent in 1990 to close to zero in 1992/93. Inflation accelerated from 12 percent in the 12-month period ended December 1989 to 34 percent in March 1993. The central government’s budget deficit increased from 6.7 percent in 1989/90 to 11.4 percent of GDP in 1992/93. Broad money growth (M2) accelerated from 21 percent in the 12-month period ended December 1991 to 36 percent in March 1993...

  7. Peru; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper describes economic developments in Peru during the 1990s. During 1990–92, real GDP growth was negative by 0.9 percent a year on average, reflecting in part deterioration in the terms of trade and adverse weather conditions. During that period, growth in the construction, manufacturing, and fishing sectors was more than offset by a contraction in the agricultural and mining sectors. Gross domestic investment rose from about 15½ percent of GDP in 1990 to 16½ percent in 1992 mainl...

  8. Economic Dispatch Problem using Bat Algorithm

    Yamina Ahlem GHERBI


    Full Text Available A BAT algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is presented in this paper. The modern power system has become very complex in nature with consumption of the electric power which is in rise progression and this tendency increases with the industrialization and the growth of the population. Moreover, one loss of alimentation can cause the interruption of the various production processes, and in front of consumers who become increasingly demanding by wanting more energy and better quality, the companies of production of electrical energy must thus ensure the regular provisioning of this request, and without interruption, but these requirements compromise the cost of generation. Application of BAT algorithm in this paper is based on mathematical modeling to solve economic dispatch problems by a single equivalent objective function. The algorithm is tested on 6-unit system. BAT algorithm is easy to implement and better than other algorithms in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  9. Ill-posed inverse problems in economics

    Horowitz, Joel


    A parameter of an econometric model is identified if there is a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping from the population distribution of the available data to the parameter. Often, this mapping is obtained by inverting a mapping from the parameter to the population distribution. If the inverse mapping is discontinuous, then estimation of the parameter usually presents an ill-posed inverse problem. Such problems arise in many settings in economics and other fields in which the parameter of intere...

  10. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail:; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails:,,


    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  11. On some problems of physical economics

    Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. The New Institutional Economics and Development

    North, Douglass C.


    In this essay I intend to briefly summarize the essential characteristics of the new institutional economics, to describe how it differs from neo- classical theory, and then to apply its analytical framework (as I see it) to problems of development.

  13. Economic Development and "Indian Model"


    @@ Dao: Early this year, there are many relevant reports on India's catching up from behind in economic development. It is reported that India and China will be the two engines to drive world economic development.

  14. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  15. Economic Analysis and Countermeasures of Migrant Workers’ Problems


    Generation and development of migrant workers’ problems are analyzed from the perspective of economics. There are economic factors causing migrant workers’ problems: imbalance in the industrial structure brings farmers living pressure; urban modern civilization is attractive to farmers; urban economic development needs a large number of agricultural laborers engaged in manual labor. Moreover, relevant countermeasures are proposed. The dual economic structure is to be broken to gradually eliminate the barrier between urban and rural areas; an unified and standard labor market is to be established to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas; overall considerations should be taken and the reform of matching system should be quickened; the construction of urbanization is to be duly promoted to improve the level of modernization in the countryside.

  16. Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Bazhenov Yu. N.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  17. The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.

    Yapa, Lakshman S.


    Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)


    HASAN, Sabri Hussein


    Poverty is the biggest challenge facing the international community because poverty is a threat to human life, rights, and dignity. So poverty is the most prolific resource feeding terrorism and Political and social disturbances. This research aims to provide a new concept for Economic development, including all Economic and social and political aspects, because Economic development is a comprehensive operation. we find that our definition of Economic Development is a comprehensive one, compr...

  19. Keynes and economic development

    A. P. Thirlwall


    Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância para os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários.


    Kulikova S. Y.


    Full Text Available At the Department of "Economics and organization of production" at the end of XX - beginning of XXI centuries created the scientific school in the field of organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. The same name section of the department oversees the teaching of the relevant disciplines. The Laboratory of economic and mathematical methods in controlling of the Research and Education Center "Controlling and innovation in management" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University conducts research in this domain. This article is devoted to the activities of the scientific school, conducting research, and some of the results. We start with a discussion of the definitions of terms, which we use. Organizationaleconomic modeling - scientific, practical and academic discipline which devoted to the development, research and application of mathematical and statistical methods and models in economics and management of the national economy, especially in economics and management of industrial enterprises and their associations. The term "economic-mathematical methods and models" has close content. Statistical methods in economics - the subject of econometrics, the base of which is applied statistics. Organizational-economic modeling and econometrics are discussed as a theoretical and practical trainings and discipline. We developed textbooks and manuals on the organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. We have conducted theoretical research and development of applications in the field of organizational and economic modeling. In particular, the prediction is regarded as one of the management functions in industry. We study the problem of stability in the models and methods of development of strategy of the enterprise. For prospective organizational and economic mechanisms of management of industrial and economic activities, we proposed design based on solidary information economy

  1. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)


    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  2. Doctrines and Contemporary Economic Theories in the Economic Development

    Gheorghe Stefan


    Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states. Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.

  3. Bangladesh : Development Forum Economic Update

    World Bank, (WB)


    The report reviews recent economic developments, showing economic growth continues to its path, and, aided by global economic recovery, export growth remains strong. The forex market has been stable since the national currency (taka) was floated in by the end-May 2003. The fiscal stance for FY04 remains expansionary, but within prudent limits, and without straining fiscal sustainability, w...

  4. The role of the economic potential of the region to ensure sustainable economic development

    Kvasniy, L.; Paslavska, V.


    The role of economic potential in the sustainable development of regional economy. The characteristic of the basic principles that contribute to solving these problems at different levels of economic development of Ukraine. A conceptual model of the region with the definition of major and minor connections between the various links in the economic system and individual economic subjects of management and senior management.

  5. Regional and economic development

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Knowledge-Driven Economic Development

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra


    This paper examines the impact of mass media and information and communications technologies (ICT) as knowledge-based infrastructures on economic development. The results strongly suggest that both mass media and ICT penetration are negatively associated with corruption. This result holds across both the entire sample (of both developed and developing countries), and only for developing countries. The same result is also obtained for the effects of ICT and mass media on economic inequality. H...

  7. Roundtable on territorial economic development

    Boisier, S.; Vázquez Barquero, A.; Arocena, J.; Cotorruelo Menta, R.; Canzanelli, G.


    In this virtual roundtable, five experts – academics and development practitioners – discuss the importance of territorial economic development in times of globalization and financial crisis. The “local factor” can be considered a crucial differentiating element, that favours the emergence of alternative development strategies, and one of the most convincing approaches to addressing the current crisis. The five experts share their ideas on the role of territorial economic development in addre...

  8. Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.

    Kale, Steven R.


    Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

  9. Economic aspects of the CO2 problem

    After a more global look at the CO2 problem, the situation in Germany and Great Britain is compared. The different trends in CO2 emission in industrialized and developing countries are explained and analyzed. Future trends are indicated, and long-term strategies are developed. A reduction of CO2 emissions is considered to be feasible only by methods based on the free market economy, not by applying the principles of order policy. Finally, the author raises the question of how the ''Toronto goal'' can be achieved. (UA)

  10. The Economic Problem of Happiness. Keynes on Happiness and Economics

    Anna M. Carabelli; Mario A. Cedrini


    In their latest book (2008), Bruno Frey and the members of the research group he chairs at the University of Zurich announce that happiness research is leading a revolution in economics. More precisely, the revolutionary character of happiness economics would draw on measurement, on how people value goods and social conditions, as well as on policies. This paper aims to discuss critically this claim and what we identified as five crucial issues of mainstream happiness economics, i.e.: 1. the ...


    Barashov, N.


    The paper deals with research methodology of non-economic determinants of economic development. The author considers various theoretical approaches to definition of economic growth factors. Considerable attention is given to studying possible influence of non-economic determinants on quality of economic development.

  12. President's Role in Economic Development.

    Kopecek, Robert J.

    This document focuses on the role of community college presidents in the varied activities entailed by economic development. Specifically, the paper addresses those activities that involve the political, financial, and economic aspects of regional or county planning, marketing and financing. First, definitions are provided of two types of economic…

  13. Developing States: Politics and Economics.

    Howard, Michael C.


    Identifies the developing nations of the Pacific Rim to be the Philippines, Indonesia, and 21 small states such as Fiji and Papua, New Guinea. Discusses the political and economic factors which both hinder and aid the governments of these nations. Contends that the region's tremendous potential is unrealized because of economic underdevelopment…

  14. Thailand : Northeast Economic Development Report

    World Bank


    This report is about balanced economic development in the Northeast of Thailand. It is about growth and poverty reduction, cities and villages, enterprises and workers, skills and education, infrastructure and trade, and rice and silk. Northeast economic development is only part of Thailand's development challenge, but it is among the most important. We look back at how the Northeast has fared in terms of growth, poverty reduction and social capital over the last decades relative to other reg...


    马辉民; 张子刚; 周少甫; 黄卫来


    The paper develops an algorithm that solves economic lot size problem in O(n2) time in the Wagner-Whitin case. The algorithm is based on the standard dynamic programming approach which requires the computation of the maximal relative benefit for some possible subplans of the production plan. In this algorithm the authors have studied the forward property and decomposition properties which can make computation easy. The proposed algorithm appears to perform quite reasonably for practical application.

  16. Essays in Economic Development.

    MOTT, Graham


    The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, this thesis is neither wholly empirical or theoretical, macro or micro and instead may be viewed as an eclectic mix of approaches and ideas that go some way toinvestigating the challenges faced by the world's least developed economies. The first chapter...

  17. Development Economics without Growth Theory

    Velupillai Kumaraswamy Vela


    The theories of economic development pioneered by Schumpeter and Rosenstein-Rodan can only be encapsulated within a framework of complex nonlinear dynamical systems. The attractors of the dynamics of orthodox growth theory, even at the frontiers, are simple to characterise. Thus, adherence to a theory of economic development along the lines suggested by Schumpeter and Rosenstein-Rodan implies a dynamical formalism independent of orthodox growth theory52. Formal growth theory - whatever its or...

  18. Development Economics and Economic Development: Why do Institution Matter?

    Cosmin Marinescu


    Economic development is a complex phenomenon, at least when speaking about understanding its real sources, despite the simplifying tendencies of economic growth neoclassical theories. These orthodox theories limit themselves to identifying the necessary conditions - such as capital accumulation and technological progress - for production increasing. But, in order to explain "why" people are saving, investing, learning and looking for knowledge, we must take into consideration the institutions...

  19. Essays in Development Economics

    Poppe, Robert


    In Chapter 1, the first essay explores a school meals program in Ethiopia. In food-insecure parts of poor countries school meals can provide a strong incentive to poor households to send their children to school. School meals appear to be attractive as they may not only increase school participation but may also improve learning and cognitive development. Chapter 2 investigates the role of poor eyesight on educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia. Chapter 3 uses data on four financial literacy ...

  20. Essays in Economic Development.

    MOTT, Graham


    Examining Board: Prof Rick van der Ploeg, supervisor, University of Oxford Prof. Russell Cooper, EUI Prof. David Levine, Washington University in St. Louis Prof. Massimo Morelli, Columbia University and EUI Defense date: 29/11/2010 The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, thi...

  1. Essays on Development Economics

    Islam, Mahnaz


    This dissertation studies agricultural technology adoption, child labor and development. Although adoption of fertilizers has been high in South Asia, farmers may fail to use it efficiently. Besides higher costs incurred by households engaged in agriculture, inefficient use of fertilizers may also have negative consequences for the environment. The first chapter of this dissertation uses a field experiment in Bangladesh to study whether providing farmers access to a simple rule-of-thumb tool ...

  2. Essays in Development Economics

    Bai, Liang


    This dissertation consists of three chapters, which study issues of development within the context of China and India. The first two study the causes and consequences of one of the most important historical events in 20-th century Chinese history, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. The third chapter reports findings from a field experiment focused on studying the role of self control in chronic illness management. In Chapter 1, I investigate the determinants of political violence duri...

  3. Economic Globalization, Marketization Reform and Economic Development in China

    Yuan, Yanhui; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guoqiang


    Economic globalization is one of the hottest topics among academics, government agencies and other concerned organizations. This paper investigates whether the overall benefits of economic globalization are greater than their costs, and discusses the interaction among economic globalization, economic development, and marketization reform in China, so as to present an answer to the question of how China should participate in economic globalization.

  4. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    Mohajan, Haradhan


    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  5. Public finance and economic development

    Balassa, Bela


    This paper reports on tests of alternative hypotheses as to the effects of a budget deficit, examines the influence of the size of the government on economic growth, and investigates the impact of public investment on private investment, total investment, and economic growth. The findings have important implications for the developing countries. They show that budget deficits have adverse effects on the balance of payments as well as on domestic investment. It further appears that increases i...

  6. Sri Lanka; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Sri Lanka during 1995–97. After slowing to 4 percent in 1996, economic growth recovered to 6½ percent in 1997. The slowdown in 1996 had been mainly owing to a severe drought that affected the agricultural sector and disrupted the power supply. The recovery in 1997 was strongest in agriculture and manufacturing, supplemented by continued good performance in the services sector, including a rebound in tourism. In addition, significant accomplishmen...

  7. The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics

    Erber, Georg


    Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

  8. Financial Structures and Economic Development Financial Structures and Economic Development

    Ross Levine


    Full Text Available Financial Structures and Economic Development This paper examines the relationship between the evolution of financial services and long-run economic growth. Liquidity risk, productivity risk, transactions costs. and information gathering and resource coordination costs create incentives for the emergence of financial contracts and institutions. The level of income per capital public policies, and legal codes determine the provision of financial services aid the types of financial structures that provide these services. The resultant financial structures can alter investment incentives, such that the steady state growth rate of per capita output increases.

  9. Community Economic Development in Utah

    William N. Wrigley; W. Cris Lewis


    The authors conducted a two-stage survey of community economic development professionals in Utah. Their objectives were to elicit information about three components of local development effort and to assess the success of differential strategies for development. Emphasis was given to the differential ratings of tools and programs by officials in large urban areas and those in smaller cities. The authors found that labor force quality, proximity to highways, the availability of other transport...

  10. Culture, Diffusion, and Economic Development

    Harutyunyan, Ani; Özak, Ömer


    This research explores the effects of culture on technological diffusion and economic development. It shows that culture's direct effects on development and barrier effects to technological diffusion are, in general, observationally equivalent. In particular, using a large set of cultural measures, it establishes empirically that pairwise differences in contemporary development are associated with pairwise cultural differences relative to the technological frontier, only in cases where obse...

  11. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Donald M. Seekins


    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  12. Economic development and natural disasters

    Klomp, Jeroen


    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th


    Abesadze, Ramaz


    This article examines some theoretical and applied issues of economic development with special emphasis on the relationship between economic development and economic growth, the factors and indicators of economic development, and its peculiarities in developed, developing and transition countries, including Georgia.

  14. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.


    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  15. Sustainable Economic Development. A Paradigm Change

    Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl


    At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept of "sustainable development" which has guided the discussion and policies regarding the environment, has implied the possibility of a...


    Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA


    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...


    Camelia-Cristina DRAGOMIR; Eduard IONESCU; PÂNZARU, Stelian


    The paper highlights the main connections between eco-development and the sustainable development in an economic environment that is rapidly changing. It discusses the concepts, features and principles of the ecodevelopment and the sustainable development. Also, i analyzed aspects regarding the involvement of business environment in a sustainable economy in harmony with the environment. The study is based on the theoretical and applied research of the authors. The results of this study may be...

  18. Introduction: Long term economic development

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth


    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  19. Three Essays In Development Economics

    Aggarwal, Shilpa


    This dissertation consists of three self-contained chapters on development economics. The dissertation is focused primarily on the effects of road provision on rural households' decisions to invest in physical and human capital, specifically agricultural technology, health, and education. As a separate project, I also look at the impact of microcredit and microsavings on business-financing in sub-Saharan Africa.In the first chapter, entitled "Do Rural Roads create Pathways out of Poverty? Evi...


    Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

  1. Teaching Economics to the Best Undergraduates: What Are the Problems?

    Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros


    Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students with negative repercussions on their performance. The literature suggests that the students' problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the style and method of teaching together with the course content. Particularly attacked are the chalk and talk…


    Vergina CHIRITESCU


    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  3. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  4. Issues and barriers in economic development (Last stage of economic development)

    mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais


    The research study is to determine the barriers within overall economic development which diversify the issues and problems in growth. Pakistan is a well-sustainable economy in current world. This research investigated the factor affecting issues which are unrealistic. The most common issues are financial issues, negative human resource policies, micro inflation and corruption in public and private projects.

  5. 2005 China's Economic Development Trend


    @@ The fruitful 2004 almost passed and the promising 2005 is coming.Through arduous practice of macro control for more than one year,people now are full of confidence about the development of China's economy and have a clear understanding of those problems existing.


    I. I. Rekun


    Full Text Available Purpose. Security is an important component of economic security and the guaranteeing of appropriate national interests in the state. All these things are closely related to the economic efficiency of operations of economic entities, with economic independence, stability and security of a society. In addition, economic security is a part of national security, its foundation and material basis. The problem of economic security in modern conditions at the micro and macro levels requires determining the main directions of its formation. Methodology. To achieve this goal, basic directions of a security mechanism of the economic system, in particular on the macro level were grounded. Findings. Economic security is such state of the state economy operation in which the order of equilibrium occurred in certain organizational and legal norms on the basis of social life. These regulations are created be the state, principles of coexistence, which are transmitted from generation to generation. The current state of economic security guaranteeing at the macro and micro levels was analyzed. The system of indicators that can be used in the assessment of the security system was determined. Originality. Propositions concerning necessary changes in the policy of economic security in a state were formulated. The system of indicators which can be used in the assessment of the security system was offered. Practical value. Using of the proposed system of economic security indicators will expand the list of important factors affecting on its status and allow us determining the main directions of its formation.

  7. A Study of Education Investment and Xinjiang Economic Development

    Jinbo Wang


    As a main form for human capital investment, education has irreplaceable effect on national or regional economic development. This paper, based on the relationship between Xinjiang regional economic development and education, analyzes the present conditions of Xinjiang educational investment, the scale and problems of Xinjiang education, the contribution of education to Xinjiang economy, and how to drive Xinjiang regional economic development. Finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy ...


    Elena-Raluca, MOISESCU (DUICAN)


    This paper presents the economic connection between nominal convergence, real convergence and economic development in Romania. It is shown that fulfilling the nominal criteria is not enough to enter the Economic Monetary Union. It needs to be accompanied by a sustainable economic development and an increasing labour productivity.

  9. Nuclear power and economic development: India

    It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables

  10. Financial Structure and Economic Development : A Reassessment

    Cull, Robert; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Lin, Justin Yifu


    In this article the authors use quantile regressions to assess the relationship between economic and financial development at each percentile of the distribution of economic development. Thus; the quantile regressions provide information on how the associations between economic development and both bank and securities market development change as countries grow richer.

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

  12. Environmental Economics, Ecological Economics, and the Concept of Sustainable Development

    Giuseppe Munda


    This paper presents a systematic discussion, mainly for non-economists, on economic approaches to the concept of sustainable development. As a first step, the concept of sustainability is extensively discussed. As a second step, the argument that it is not possible to consider sustainability only from an economic or ecological point of view is defended; issues such as economic-ecological integration, inter-generational and intra-generational equity are considered of fundamental importance. Tw...

  13. Economic and Financial Problems via Multiobjective Stochastic Optimization

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Jihlava: College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojáčková, H.) ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic multiobjective optimization problems * efficient solution * Wasserstein metric * L_1 norm * empirical estimates * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research and financial problems via multiobjective stochastic optimization.pdf

  14. Economic theory and social change: problems and revisions

    Fusari, Angelo


    Although many economists do a serious and respectable work, main stream economic theory contains an almost complete disregard for the importance of social, cultural and political structures which are the very foundation of the society. Worse than that, such disregard is developed into arrogance when representatives and textbook maintain the illusions of economic main stream science as value free, and sometimes it is even asserted that only if the economic system could be free from disturbing ...

  15. The Weak Link Theory of Economic Development

    Jones, Charles I


    Per capita income in the richest countries of the world exceeds that in the poorest countries by more than a factor of 50. What explains these enormous differences? This paper returns to an old idea in development economics and proposes that complementarity and linkages are at the heart of the explanation. Just as a chain is only as strong as its weakest link, problems at any point in a production chain can reduce output substantially if inputs enter production in a complementary fashion. Thi...

  16. [Incontinence in old age: a social and economic problem].

    Welz-Barth, A


    Being afflicted with urinary incontinence in old age represents manifold medical, social, and economic problems and restrictions. The objective loss of control and decreased self-confidence result in reduced social interactions and lead to isolation and ostracism accompanied by withdrawal and depression. Giving up leisure time activities, losing social contacts, and the increasing need for long-term care often lead inevitably to a higher degree of dependency and institutionalization. In addition, the taboo still placed on this problem by those affected as well as by the attending physicians has resulted in too few patients receiving adequate diagnosis and being offered sensible treatment options. These problems can only be solved by an interdisciplinary approach. Further information, continuing education, and sensitivity toward these aspects are needed. Only then can incontinence in old age as a social and economic problem exacerbated by the demographic changes be improved. PMID:17310392

  17. Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation

    Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux


    For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009) addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in ...

  18. Resonances from Economic Development for current economic policymaking



    On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.

  19. Economics at Work in an Economic Development Organization

    Patrick Jankowski


    This article describes the role of economics at the Greater Houston Partnership, a member-funded development organization serving the 9-county Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. The partnership’s history, the organization’s mission, the role that research economic data plays in the relocation process, and reasons why corporations relocate are discussed in the article.

  20. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Anthony Fabio


    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  1. Economic deprivation and early childhood development.

    Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K


    We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849

  2. Psychological problems with learning mathematical disciplines at the economics faculties

    Mardanov Rustam Sh.; Khasanova Asiya Yu.; Kalganova Gulnara F.


    The paper analyzes some of the psychological problems of the economic faculties’ students arising in the course of study of mathematical disciplines. These problems are primarily related with the lack of students’ awareness, misconception about the calculation methods in their future profession, low motivation and performance, math anxiety, etc. They makeadditional difficulties which impede successful mastering of sophisticated material. Based on the experience of mathematical disciplines tea...

  3. Understanding Islam: Development, Economics and Finance

    Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; KRICHENE, NOUREDDINE; Mirakhor, Abbas


    In this paper, the foundational rules governing human, economic and financial development in Islam, as understood from the Quran and from the life and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), are summarized. These rules pave the path to development as the basis of institutional structure, which in turn, underpin the path of economic and social progress. The essential elements in the life of a Muslim—the unity of creation, freedom and freedom of choice, economic and human development, econom...

  4. Overview: Economic Crises and Human Development


    In order to better understand the potential impact of the current global economic crisis on human development, we explore how human development indicators have been affected in past economic shocks. The literature on the human development impacts of short-term economic fluctuations suggest some stylized facts. First, there exists an asymmetry between rich and poor countries in terms of the magnitude of impacts of economic crises: Health and education outcomes in rich countries often improve d...

  5. Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation

    Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux


    Full Text Available For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009 addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in choosing the economic valuation method best suited to the aspect of biodiversity addressed, to put difficulties into perspective and possibly find solutions for them.

  6. Revelation of Three Periods of Japan Economic Development on the Economic Development of China

    Shijie Ma


    Full Text Available For the development stage, the actuality of China economy is very similar to the initial stage of 1970s in Japan, so we can use some feasible experiences to solve economic problems by Japan at the beginning of 1970s. The research to the foam economy in the middle and late stage of 1980s in Japan induces the consideration whether China would follow the same old disastrous road of Japan in 1980s. After that, from the long term depression of Japan in 1990s, we should exactly treat the China depression theory which has been occurred. Reviewing the course from the boom at the beginning of 1970s to the formation and break of foam in the middle and late of 1980s and to the long term depression in 1990s of economic development experienced by Japan, we can get some revelations about many aspects such as macro-economic control and financial security.

  7. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.


    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…


    Oliychenko, Ihor; Ditkovska, Maryna


    The article focuses on the analysis of the problems of improvement of management systems socio-economic developmentof the region. The issues of quality assessment information using tools of quality control are studied. The basic approachesand ways of creating quality information for decision making are considered. The ways of improving the management ofsocio-economic development of the region are suggested.

  9. Development Questions of Russian-Korean Economic Cooperation

    Petr S. Andreev


    Full Text Available This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.

  10. Development Questions of Russian-Korean Economic Cooperation

    Petr S. Andreev; Galina I. Novolodskaya


    This paper studies modern forms, problems and development prospects of Russian-Korean economic cooperation. Scientific, technical, trade, economic and investment cooperation are considered in details. The authors evaluate advantages of bilateral relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea.

  11. Assets of Nation (Pyramid of Economic Development)

    Ahmed, Ovais; mashkoor, Aasim


    The theory of economic development have designed to explore the assets of nations which explain and analyzed the emphasize on Water crisis, deforestation, land of agriculture for yield and minerals. these are the main resources of improving and generating economic health. we analyzed further significant factors which help to designed the qualitative theory of economic development.

  12. Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City

    A. Berezhna; Yu. Popova


    The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural), generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of fu...

  13. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Kristina A. Menshikova


    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  14. Public Economics and Sustainable Developments Policy

    U. Sankar


    The domain of public economics is increasing as governments‘ policy goal is shifting from economic development to sustainable development. Government has to act as a trustee representing future generations, and public policies must balance and integrate the three pillars (economic, social and environmental) of sustainable development, recognizing the ecological limits to growth. As per the UN development Agenda, sustainable development goals (SDGs) are meant for the period 2015-2030.This pape...

  15. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development

    Holger Strulik


    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  16. Energy consumption and economic development

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  17. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    O.V. Kornukh


    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc). The study of theoretical appro...

  18. Essays in Behavioral and Development Economics

    Rao, Gautam


    This dissertation is comprised of three essays in empirical economics. These essays are united by three clear intellectual and methodological themes. First, each essay attempts to bring theories and insights from psychology to bear on open questions in economics, with a focus on topics of importance to developing countries. Second, they use experiments - both randomized field experiments and natural experiments - to test economic theory. Finally, each paper attempts to measure economically im...

  19. The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?

    Stéphane J. Baele


    Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

  20. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Problems via Heavy Tails

    Kaňková, Vlasta

    Karviná: Silesian University in Opava, School of Busines Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 396-401 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization problems * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tailed distributions * stable distribution * Pareto distribution * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research estimates in economic and financial problems via heavy tails.pdf

  1. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Africa

    Nyasha Mahonye and Kalu Ojah


    This paper explores the relationship between economic development and financial structure: that is, whether the degree of financial system structure matter for pace and character of economic development in 15 African countries for the period of 1995 to 2011. The paper utilizes the fixed effect instrument variable technique for econometric estimation. None of the financial structure indicators enters any of the economic development regressions significantly at the conventional 10% level, which...




    Technology is considered as a key factor for economic development. Many authors in the field of technology management mention this impact on economic development as a motivator for their technology oriented study. What is this relationship between technology and economic development? In most studies, the relationship between technology and economy remains implicit. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between technology and the economy. Four literature streams are discusse...

  3. Science and Technology and Economic Development

    Lamberte, Mario B.


    Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...

  4. A distributed solution to the adjustable robust economic dispatch problem

    Lorenzen, Matthias; Bürger, Mathias; Giuseppe NOTARSTEFANO; Allgöwer, Frank


    The problem of maintaining balance between consumption and production of electric energy in the presence of a high share of intermittent power sources in a transmission grid is addressed. A distributed, asynchronous optimization algorithm, based on the ideas of cutting-plane approximations and adjustable robust counterparts, is presented to compute economically optimal adjustable dispatch strategies. These strategies guarantee satisfaction of the power balancing constraint as well as of the o...

  5. Methodology problems in international economic law and adjudication

    Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich


    This overview of 'methodology problems' in international economic law (IEL) and adjudication defines 'legal methodology' as the 'best way' for identifying the 'sources' of law, legitimate authority, the methods of legal interpretation, law-making and adjudication, the 'primary rules of conduct' and 'secondary rules of recognition, change and adjudication', the relationships between 'legal positivism', 'natural law' and 'social theories of law', and the 'dual nature' of modern legal systems. I...


    Pershin S. P.


    Full Text Available Modern trends of development of economic relations are not devoid of problems. The globalization of economic relations, development of communication network has opened a lot of abuse, incorrectly built relationships with contractors and agencies administration, well-known difficulties and shortcomings of law enforcement. The study showed that the weight of these circumstances caused the absence of an organized system of registration, formation, compilation, analysis and presentation of information. Collectively it is nothing like the attributes of the accounting system. The development of accounting in the region and the country as a whole in the direction of generalization of accounting information on all economic entities and other economic actors, becomes the requirement of time. The authors proposed the principles of the organization's user systems through a single automated account management system. Defined the functional role of each participant in such system. Much of the information comes from the so-called user agents – the authority of the state machinery and economic entities authorized in the formation and presentation of the required accounting information. The rules of the proposed system will provide the consistency required functionality of each participant and access to some form of economic information through economic roadmap. The implementation of the proposed accounting system will allow to define rules of functioning of the uniform economic space of the country, which will make possible the implementation of economic policies more effective, will allow to disseminate the experience of effective ministries in all areas of economic space

  7. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development


    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.


    Ana Mihei


    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  9. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...

  10. The debt problem of developing countries: developments and alternative solutions



    Full Text Available The debt crisis was triggered in 1982 by a combination of adverse external factors and poor economic and financial policies on the part of debtor countries. Furthermore, after the second oil "shock", stagnation in the industrial area caused a sharp slowdown in world trade, thus further deteriorating exports for developing countries. The present work analyses the debt problem for developing countries, its causes, the policies enacted thus far and possible solutions. The strategy to combat the problem between 1982 and 1985 is detailed and the Baker Plan is considered. The author then looks at more recent developments and innovative schemes to facilitate the solution of the debt problem. Finally, estimates are provided of the impact of some debt relief efforts on the banking system and on debtor countries.

  11. Russian Federation Monthly Economic Developments

    Hansl, Birgit; Cosic, Damir; Emelyanova, Olga; Kida, Mizuho; Matytsin, Mikhail; Vashakmadze, Ekaterine


    Second quarter gross domestic product (GDP) estimates and high-frequency indicators suggest continued weakness in the economy even before the latest round of economic sanctions introduced by the European Union (EU), the United States (U.S.), and other countries in late July. The World Bank maintains its current 0.5 percent growth projection for 2014. Inflation slowed in July, but the wide-...


    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN


    Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.

  13. Social and economic growth of developing nations

    This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations


    Pshunetlev A. A.


    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines

  15. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke


    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....


    郑茜; 李晓勤


    In November 2004,on international symposium was held in Kunming capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province,on economic development of China's ethnic cultures.Participants agreed that the gathering came in good time in view of the fact that economic development is posing a growing threat to the very existence of ethnic cultures.

  17. Socio-cultural factors in economic development

    Büscher, Martin


    Nearly all development theories, economic and non-economic, are based on a scientific-technological view of the world, which ignores the question of whether similar underlying social values and customs can be presupposed in other cultures. This is probably one of the key causes of the crisis in development theory and policy, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated.

  18. Biodiversity and marginality: Dilemma of economic development

    Piniero, M.C.


    This study investigates the impact of economic development on women and biodiversity in two rural communities in Ecuador. The level of womens integration into the development process as influenced by age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, are analyzed. The effects of the economic change on biodiversity using homegardens as its indicators are also evaluated.

  19. Theoretical Problems of Rural Territories Exploration as an Integral Socio-ecological-economic Systems

    Mariya Ilyina


    Long-term existence of a number of social, economic, and environmental problems of rural territories in Ukraine stipulates the necessity of researches on features of their functioning and development as well as on searching of innovative businesses patterns in rural areas, on enhancement of social capital and improvement of the environment. Researches on how certain economic industries work in rural sites are of high importance, and first of all those concerning tourism and recreation being g...


    Todt Horst


    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  1. Natural Disasters, Economic Development, and Humanitarian Aid

    David Strömberg


    Natural disasters are one of the major problems facing humankind. Between 1980 and 2004, two million people were reported killed and five billion people cumulatively affected by around 7,000 natural disasters, according to the dataset maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at University of Louvain (Belgium). The economic costs are considerable and rising. The direct economic damage from natural disasters between 1980-2004 is estimated at around $1 trilli...

  2. The human factor in Alaska's economic development

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the human factor in Alaska's economic development. The regions earlier development is discussed and introduction to an evaluation of the...

  3. Organizational And Economic Resources Greening Regional Development

    Vladimir Prykhodko


    The paper paid attention to the basics of ecological regional development. The main approaches to environmental policy at the national and regional levels of government. Creation of organizational and economic instruments that provide environmentalizing regional development.

  4. Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision

    Sergei Udin


    Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.

  5. Is inclusive development a sustainable development? : A political economic perspective

    Pushparaj, Soundararajan


    A major development policy challenge in the contemporary economic policy discourse is to sustain the development momentum. Prevailing political economic realities influence the economic thinking to accommodate the political compulsions. The inclusive development is one such development strategy. Inclusive development is not a mere political pragmatism but a sensible development strategy. This paper discusses the relevance of distributive justice in relation to civil disturbance across and wit...

  6. Using the synergistic principles for economic development management

    Romanova, Tatiana


    Methodological problems of development of the synergy as a science were researched. The synergistic approach to social-economic system research and its peculiarities were analyzed. The principles of synergistic development of an economy were substantiated. The role of chaos in appearance of dissipative structures on the way to self-organization was researched.

  7. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Optimization Problems

    Houda, Michal; Kaňková, Vlasta


    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2012), s. 50-69. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/1610; GA ČR GAP402/11/0150; GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf

  8. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.


    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....




    Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual


    Gabriel-Andrei Donici


    Full Text Available Most papers regarding public goods have a certain predisposition to “classic aspects” like their characteristics of non-rivalry and non-excludability. In this paper we try to emphasize that in the area of public goods one of the major problems is, in fact, the one of economic calculus. The reality is that public finances exist in a limited quantity so the public authority is forced to choose between ways to spend them. According to the definition of public goods the expenditures should be for the production of essential assets that are neglected by private investors. The problem is how to choose between public possibilities of spending the money after the application of the first criteria.


    Iulia-Alexandra Percă


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.

  12. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  13. The Economics of Slums in the Developing World

    Benjamin Marx; Thomas Stoker; Tavneet Suri


    The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is characteristic of that described in the literature on poverty traps. We document how human capital threshold effects, investment inertia, and a "policy trap" may prevent slum dwellers from seizing economic opportunities offered by geographic proximity to the city. We test the assum...

  14. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Dang, Vinh; Do, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung


    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  15. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long


    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.


    ЛУК’ЯНЕНКО, О.Д.; ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана»


     Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

  17. Academic Libraries and Regional Economic Development.

    Fiscella, Joan B.; Ringel, Joan D.

    Academic libraries should follow the practice adopted by some academic institutions during recent periods of economic scarcity and develop economic and political ties with the business community, a partnership that could provide genuine benefits for members of the business community, elected officials, and academia. An example of such cooperation…

  18. Economic and Workforce Development Program Annual Report

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014


    California's community colleges continue to play a crucial role in the state's economy by providing students with the skills and knowledge to succeed and by advancing the economic growth and global competitiveness of California and its regional economies through the Economic and Workforce Development Program (EWD). The EWD program invests in the…

  19. Economic Growth and Stock Market Development

    Aurora Sanchez


    The paper examines Japan’s equity capital market to find out whether stock market development proceeds from, or precedes, economic growth. It first starts with a general description of the capital market, its principal players and the various methods of financing investment. It then explores the relationship of economic growth and capital market development, focusing on the Japanese experience. The empirical evidence illustrates the case of growth first before stock market development, a find...

  20. Economism

    P. Simons


    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  1. Development of economical decontamination processes

    The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

  2. Study on Potential Problems of Shandong Economic Forest Construction and Standardization Construction Scheme

    Runze; CAO


    Shandong is a culturally powerful province with excellent natural geographical condition and the warm temperate monsoon climate creates abundant benefits to the agricultural development there.In 2009,Shandong administration bureau of Yellow River economic development held the forum on related issues of national new countryside industry office planning to build economic forest base around the Yellow River in Shandong.The primary intention was settled and the construction of Shandong Economic Forest was formally started.Although impressive progress has been achieved in recent years,there also exists potential problems in the construction of economic forest,among which heavy metal pollution and soil acidification are the worst,causing huge damage to the physiological health of the consumers of economic forest.The writer proposes the countermeasures against standardization construction of economic forest.Scientific management is to be adopted to improve the professional skills of the employees in economic forest and brand innovation should be emphasized to quicken the quality certification of the products of economic forest.Besides,standard production demonstration is to be created and promoted in order to boost scale development.Furthermore,mechanism innovation is also to be stressed and forestry specialized cooperation organizations should be largely supported.

  3. Darwin, Veblen and the problem of causality in economics.

    Hodgson, G M


    This article discusses some of the ways in which Darwinism has influenced a small minority of economists. It is argued that Darwinism involves a philosophical as well as a theoretical doctrine. Despite claims to the contrary, the uses of analogies to Darwinian natural selection theory are highly limited in economics. Exceptions include Thorstein Veblen, Richard Nelson, and Sidney Winter. At the philosophical level, one of the key features of Darwinism is its notion of detailed understanding in terms of chains of cause and effect. This issue is discussed in the context of the problem of causality in social theory. At least in Darwinian terms, the prevailing causal dualism--of intentional and mechanical causality--in the social sciences is found wanting. Once again, Veblen was the first economist to understand the implications for economics of Darwinism at this philosophical level. For Veblen, it was related to his notion of 'cumulative causation'. The article concludes with a discussion of the problems and potential of this Veblenian position. PMID:12472063

  4. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    O.V. Kornukh


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative

  5. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    Kuada, John


    to provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...... as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new...

  6. Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development

    The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)


    Vazakidis Athanasios


    Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.

  8. Some issues of environmental problem integration in sustainable development strategies

    Miljanović Dragana


    Full Text Available This article treats theoretical-methodological positions of interdependence economic and environmental dimension of development. Approaches to the environmental problems in process of defining development strategies in Serbia are presented. It was pointed that introduction of integrated approach in coordination development policy with environmental policy is necessary.

  9. A study of economic development in Tibet of China based on the ecological economic mode

    Zhao Xiaohong; He Jia; Jiang Li


    The purpose of this paper is to study the issues on keeping the continuous development of Tibetan economy and the relative stability of its ecosystem. Hence, in order to achieve the object, the study analyzes the status quo of economic development in Tibet and the problems of resource exploitation. It especially discusses frailty of Tibetan eco-environment, and evaluates the contradictions between the traditional economic developing mode and the safety of plateau's ecosystem. It concludes that there is an inevitable clash between the development of Tibetan economy and the safety of plateau's eco-system; this problem cannot be avoided by any decision maker. Therefore, the character of Tibetan eco-environment and the requirement of its economic development strategy determine that ecological economy developing mode is the only choice for Tibet. This paper suggests that it should be compensated by the national government to assure that Tibetan economy can keep a higher developing speed. In accordance with the feature of plateau eco-economy system and demand of Tibetan economic development, this paper also suggests several methods to apply the eco-economy developing strategy of Tibet.

  10. Nuclear power for economic development

    Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

  11. Financial Development and Economic Growth

    Pablo Emilio Guidotti; Jose De Gregorio


    This paper examines the empirical relationship between long–run growth and the degree of financial development, proxied by the ratio of bank credit to the private sector as a fraction of GDP. We find that this proxy enters significantly and with a positive sign in growth regressions on a large cross–country sample, but with a negative sign using panel data for Latin America. Our findings suggest that the main channel of transmission from financial development to growth is the efficiency of in...

  12. Essays in Economic History and Development

    Osafo-Kwaako, Philip


    Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the recent literature in economic history and long-run development, and summarizes the main findings of the three essays presented in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, I examine the subject of villagization in Tanzania, a major episode of development planning in post-independence Tanzania. I revisit this period of Tanzania’s economic history, focusing on the legacy of developmental villages (vijiji uya maendeleo) introduced in mainland Tanzania over the p...

  13. Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia: An overview

    Furuoka, Fumitaka


    The state of Sarawak is situated on Borneo Island in East Malaysia. It is the largest state in Malaysia covering an area of approximately 124 thousand square kilometres. Sarawak’s population is approximately 2.07 million people, which makes it the fourth most populous state in the country. There are several distinguished characteristics of the economic development process in Sarawak which highlight the contrast in economic development in Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. On the whole, the Mal...

  14. Malaysian Economic Development: Looking Backwards and Forward

    Hal Hill


    This paper provides an analytical and forward-looking overview of Malaysian economic development. Looking back over its 53 years of Independence, we identify the key stylized facts to include the country's generally rapid economic growth and structural change; its consistent openness, especially for merchandize trade and foreign direct investment; its creditable record of macroeconomic management; its consistently high inequality, in spite of the developing world's most consistently implement...

  15. Economic Development in the Middle East

    Yochanan Shachmurove


    The economic and financial development are examined in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, representing the Middle East and North Africa region. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, unclear regulations, corruption, and heavy reliance on oil exports pose major obstacles to economic development and integration into global markets. These controlled economies directly affect foreign and domestic i...


    T. J. Lomakina


    Full Text Available The necessity of continuous economic education of future professionals is caused by importance of forming correct understanding of the economic reality, of comprehension of economic basic laws, of understanding of global and national tendencies in economic development; the growing role of continuous economic education as a major factor of formation and development of a postindustrial society is shown; the reasons and circumstances of the active reference of the domestic pedagogical science and practice to problems of economic education are emphasized; the factors influencing development of continuous economic education are established in the article. Continuous economic education is considered as a part of continuous education promoting the formation of a competitive expert in conditions of market economy, demanded on labour market and directed on formation of economic competencies depending on the type of preparation (economic and not economic at different educational levels according to models of the graduate and the teacher and realized by means of economic training and economic education.

  17. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    R. Prathiba


    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

  18. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development



    Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.

  19. The research of economic development law in resourceful city



    The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region develop very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this means that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful region's economic development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering China's economic development practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention to existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional industrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.

  20. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede


    the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economicdevelopment......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...


    Sim Monica Ariana


    Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid

  2. Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance

    Ali Rıza Erdem


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".

  3. Environmental problems and developing countries.


    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and




    Full Text Available This study shows the problems and reflections of Romania,in the period after the aderation to EU, this being a period when all the economic activities will be tested according to their level of efficiency and productivity of work. Maintining the traditional form of organization of work, of investments of structure of the finite products may transform the country into a colony, into an exporter of raw materials and workforce in the EU. We can notice the same thing, based on our research, in the case of the Moldavian Republic: the exports and investments influence very little the economic growth. This is due to the reduced performances of Moldavian exporters, and, even more, to the uncompetitive structure on groups of products. Half of the Moldavian exports is assured by the agro-alimentary market, without noticing some obvious trends of specialization in other new branches. The cause of this trend is the weak productive potential of national agriculture and industry (Anastase.I 2010.

  5. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  6. Republic of Latvia; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Latvia during 1994–96. The paper highlights that developments during this period have been dominated by the after-effects of the fiscal slippage in 1994 and the banking crisis in 1995, although there are signs of a recovery from these adverse episodes. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of selected economic issues facing Latvia. It analyzes the environment for the private-sector development, and reviews interest rate developments, focusing in...

  7. Problems and prospects of Kumkol deposit development

    Kumkol deposit's petroleum balance supply situated in Southern-Turgaj depression makes up 153.2 million tones, extracted supply by C1 category includes 89.4 million tones. Petroleum of cretaceous and sediments by its physico-chemical content are light (density 0.835 g/sm3), high-paraffin (12-15 %), low-sulphur content one (0,5 %). Content of light fractions under temperature 300 deg C is up to 45 %, gasoline one is up to 25 %. Gas content of stratum petroleum and saturation pressure substantially is changing by productive horizons. Rational system of Kumkol deposit development with sustaining of reservoir pressure for increase of petroleum extraction rate from bed and increase its output is presented. Technological and economical parameters of the Yuzhneftgas Joint Stock Company operation in condition of market economy and urgent problems on increase of petroleum production are considered

  8. [Policies of economic development and population].

    Aleman, J L


    This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of

  9. Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development

    Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.


    Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence comprises its social capital.Individuals are trustworthy when they perform actions they have promised, even if these do not maximize their payoffs.The usual focus on incentive structures in motivatin...

  10. The Development of Environmental Thinking in Economics

    Clive L. Spash


    There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ...

  11. Economic Development and "National Competitive Advantage"

    J.T., Goode


    Despite the preponderance of economic theory and research which argues to the contrary, the notion that national economies stand in a fundamentally competitive relationship with one another remains surprisingly widespread. In recent years, some of the most influential impetus for this misperception has come from Michael Porter's conceptualization of "the competitive advantage of nations" in relation to economic development and date theory. It is argued that Porter neither proposes nor demonst...

  12. Education and Economic Development in India

    Monojit Chatterji


    This brief survey examines the returns to education in India , and then examines the role of education on both economic growth and economic development with particular reference to India. Throughout, the objective is to draw out the implications of the empirical results for education policy. The results suggest that female education is of particular importance in India. They also suggest that perhaps because of the externalities it generates, primary education is more important than might be ...

  13. National trade associations, economic development and globalization

    Mehar, Ayub


    In the post communism regime, the responsibility of economic development has largely been shifted to private sector. The increasing role of private sector enterprises introduced the new concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), democratization in business and finance, corporate culture, fair trade, good governance and economic freedom and participation. The ‘wealth maximization concept’ under the ‘extreme capitalism’, limited liability, separate entity, agency cost, professionalism, ...

  14. Social Composition, Social Conflict, and Economic Development

    Strulik, Holger


    This paper investigates how social composition affects social conflict and economic development when property rights are unenforceable. Groups follow Markovian strategies for consumption and investment and may also spend effort in an resource appropriation contest. It is shown that conflict prevents investment and growth in a society of symmetric groups. In a society at peace economic growth may occur. Growth, however, is decreasing in the degree of social fractionalization and smaller than i...

  15. Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development

    Gylfason, Thorvaldur


    Economic growth since 1965 has varied inversely with the share of natural capital in national wealth across countries. Four main channels of transmission from abundant natural resources to stunted economic development are discussed: (a) the Dutch disease, (b) rent seeking, (c) overconfidence, and (d) neglect of education. Public expenditure on education relative to national income, expected years of schooling for girls, and gross secondary-school enrolment are all shown to be inversely relate...

  16. Elections and economic policy in developing countries

    Chauvet, Lisa; Collier, Paul


    This paper investigates whether elections in developing countries have improved economic policies and economic governance. Both casual empiricism and casual theorizing suggest that they have done so. As contested elections have become more common since the 1990s, the policy ratings from the World Bank and the International Country Risk Guide have both improved markedly. These improvements accord with the fundamental notion that elections discipline governments into good performance. Yet this ...

  17. Economics, Area Studies and Human Development

    Ranis, Gustav


    This paper suggests that area studies and economics have a better chance to be married successfully if we shift our attention from the exclusive emphasis on economic growth towards improvements in human development, especially the much broadened version of that concept. Different areas are shown to differ substantially in terms of the choices they make among the various independent dimensions of well-being and the various indicators within each dimension. The particular characteristics of eac...

  18. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project


    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  19. Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties

    Dubinskaya O.Y.


    Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

  20. Monetary Policy, Governance and Economic Development

    Michael Chibba


    Botswana is at a crossroads, as economic growth has slowed significantly in recent years while social problems remain largely unresolved. Exacerbating this situation is a monetary policy in crisis as over a decade of generally high interest rates have failed to address inflationary pressures. Thus, the Botswana experience challenges generally accepted wisdom on the relationship between interest rates and inflation. The main lessons learned highlight the need for (i) enhancing the knowledge an...


    Orlov A. I.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of analysis of statistical and expert data in problems of economics and management that are discussed in the framework of scientific specialization "Mathematical methods of economy", including organizational-economic and economic-mathematical modeling, econometrics and statistics, as well as economic aspects of decision theory, systems analysis, cybernetics, operations research. The main provisions of the new paradigm of this scientific and practical field are developed by the author of this article in the 1980s during the creation of the All-Union Statistical Association. The new paradigm is compared with the old (corresponding to the middle of XX century. Is summarized monographs, textbooks and manuals prepared under the leadership of the author of this paper in the XXI century according to the new paradigm


    Zhang, Xiaobo; Fan, Shenggen


    Few studies have systematically documented the interdependency among different types of public goods and their impact on economic development. This papers aims to develop a methodological framework to evaluate the degree of interdependency and identify the weakest link of public goods provisions and empirically applies it to Uganda.

  3. Essays on economic growth and development

    DAO, Nguyen Thang


    This thesis contributes four essays to the theoretical literature of Economic Growth and Development covering issues of environment, optimal taxation, demography, gender inequality, endogenous technological progress, and comparative development in variations of overlapping generations modelling. The first essay addresses tax and transfer policies to conduct a Diamond (1965) overlapping generations economy with environmental externalities to the social optimum through Pareto-improving path. Th...

  4. Economic Deprivation and Early-Childhood Development.

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    This study used longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) to examine three issues regarding effects of economic deprivation on child development: (1) the effects on children's developmental outcomes of poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education; (2) the developmental…

  5. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa


    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development…

  6. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.


    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  7. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga


    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…


    Victoria Prokhorova


    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  9. Problems in the design and development of 750 MW turbogenerators

    Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W


    Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un

  10. Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries

    The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

  11. Bosnia and Herzegovina; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 1990–95. It describes the monetary arrangements that have evolved in the Federation and Republika Srpska, and summarizes the financial developments. The paper provides an overview of balance-of-payments developments and the external financing requirements associated with the authorities’ priority reconstruction program. It describes the exchange rate and trade systems of the two Entities. An assessment of macroecono...

  12. Photovoltaic Technology: Markets, Economics, and Development

    Erickson, Jon D.; Chapman, Duane


    Photovoltaic (PV) electricity has been widely supported as a remote energy source for developing countries. In response, the production and shipment of PV modules has steadily increased throughout the past decade, often marketed through the auspices of technology transfer and financed by international development aid. This paper investigates the motives, economics, and development implications of PVs in rural electrification. The implications of subsidizing a PV market rather than investing i...

  13. The research of economic development law in resourceful city

    LU Shi-chang


    The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region devel op very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this mean s that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful regions econom i c development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering Chinas economic develo p ment practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention t o existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional i ndustrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.

  14. Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects

    Barrett, Steven


    Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

  15. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev


    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  16. Road Transport System in Southeast Asia; Problems and Economic Solutions

    Sara Kaffashi


    Full Text Available In Southeast Asian countries (SEA, road transport accounts for the main energy consumption and CO2 emission. Air pollution is a major concern in densely populated cities such as Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of this paper is to give insights on trends of transport development, car ownership, and CO2 emissions in Southeast Asia. This study also attempts to review the successful transportation policies around the globe and to introduce the possible instruments that can help reduce air pollution in Southeast Asian countries. Economic instruments to estimate the benefits of a cleaner environment due to new policies are introduced as well. The results of this research could help policy makers consider approaches that could internalize external costs of transportation and maximize the societal welfare.

  17. Culture and economic development in Europe

    Beugelsdijk, S.


    The dissertation consists of a collection of papers on the relationship between culture and economic development in mainly western European regions. Data sources like the EVS make it possible to measure culture. This allows the author to operationalise concepts like social capital and empirically ex

  18. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    World Bank


    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  19. Local Economic Development Debates in South Africa

    Bond, Patrick


    This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.

  20. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    Kelly, John


    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  1. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.


    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  2. Intellectual Products, Result of Economic Development

    Stegaroiu, Carina-Elena


    Intellectual products, having the most diverse destinations in different time periods have some premises that have contributed to the intellectual product of necessity, need, application of ideas, level of socio-economic development, levels of exposure and transmission of information time and space

  3. Methodological Problems of Investment Attractiveness: Context of Economic and Environmental Research

    Vyacheclav Stepanov; Svitlana Rassadnykova


    The problem of investment attractiveness as a factor in the development of complex socio-economic and ecological systems in terms of modern science of the post neoclassical paradigm in the context of the theory of attractor is investigated and the essence of investment attractiveness using synergetic methodology and evolution of open nonlinear systems is revealed. It is offered a generalized model of system investment attractiveness as a category in the system theory of investment management....

  4. Sri Lanka; Recent Economic and Policy Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic and policy developments in Sri Lanka during 1996–98. Despite the slowdown in world trade and economic growth, Sri Lanka’s economy grew in 1998 at close to its historic average rate. The recorded 4¾ percent growth in real GDP was lower than 1997 when the economy was recovering after a bad harvest. In the first twelve months following the outbreak of the Southeast Asian crisis, Sri Lanka was helped by reduced export competition and lower commodity prices. But by...




    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  6. Land Policy and Economic Development in Lithuania

    Natalija Kazlauskiene; William H. Meyers


    Land reform and asset privatization are essential to the transformation of agriculture from a state controlled to privately operated sector and to its future development in a market oriented economy. Although these are necessary conditions for economic development under a market oriented regime, they are not sufficient conditions. In this paper we review the progress achieved in farm restructuring through land reform and asset privatization and the impacts of this restructuring on the structu...


    Bogdashev, I.V.


    The article examines the various concepts of sustainable development, which are determined on the basis of guidelines for further formation of intelligent behavior for government and society. We offer to place the system of education into the center of attention. Due to its development we can bring up and prepare the quasi-skilled and talented people who are able to become the intellectual elite of society, whom we can consider as a major driving force in terms of economic uncertainty and unp...

  8. Global health funding and economic development.

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark


    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  9. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  10. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic development standards. 598... DESIGNATIONS Empowerment Zone Grants § 598.615 Economic development standards. (a) Economic development... the planned use of HUD EZ Grant Funds must meet one of the following economic development...

  11. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other economic development... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic... meet the specified economic development objective. (a) Community Development goals: (1)...

  12. Economic activities of legal entities: problems of theory and practice

    Кочин, Володимир


    The article devoted to the theoretical definition of types of economic activity of legal entities, the relationship with their organizational and legal forms and types. It is proposed to move away from identifying the type of legal entity with its activities and stresses the need to define the principles of economic regulation.English abstractThe purpose of this article is to define the current view of the kinds of economic entities and their relationship with the types of legal entities and ...


    Ion Bucur


    The economic growth shows an ascending tendency of the economic evolution over a long period of time, having favorable social and economic effects. Each economic growth factor acts simultaneous trough three dimensions.

  14. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Rajan, Raghuram


    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  15. Energy needs for the economic development of developing countries: Present status and trends

    The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  16. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  17. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ


    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  18. Economic Recession, Teacher-Reported Cuts to School Resources, and Children's Economic and Psychiatric Problems in Young Adulthood

    Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti


    The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…

  19. Economic development and direct foreign investment in the transition economies

    Mrdaković-Cvetković Ružica


    The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP) and production in Serbia and other countries are currentl...

  20. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Ghassan F. Issa; Shaki M. Hussain; Hussein Al-Bahadili


    Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT) to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency A...

  1. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  2. 24 CFR 570.203 - Special economic development activities.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development... § 570.203 Special economic development activities. A recipient may use CDBG funds for special economic... part of an economic development project. Guidelines for selecting activities to assist under...

  3. Education - the key to economic development

    Andreea G. BURDUF


    Full Text Available Starting from the question if higher education is enough to have success, I want to analyze the impact of years spent in school and university on adults. Good results in school translate into business success? A person with completed studies can be a skilled specialist who has mastered the field, but sentenced only to professional competence. More difficult is to put into practice, develop their skills alone, to adapt to the changing market demands, and that theoretical courses during the school could not provide. Teachers are not prophets, whether they are teachers of economics or they study economic cycles. Will knowledge acquired during studies help the good of the economy, its sustainable development?

  4. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    Helmsing, Bert


    textabstractIn spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the localized nature of economic development: externalities, learning and governance. Externalities play a central role in the new geographical economics of Krugman and in new economic geography of cluster...

  5. Industrial pollution in economic development: Kuznets revisited

    Hettige, Hemamala; Mani, Muthukumara; Wheeler, David


    Using new international data, the authors test for an inverse U-shaped, or"Kuznets,"relationship between industrial water pollution and economic development. They measure the effect of income growth on three proximate determinants of pollution: the share of manufacturing in total output, the sectoral composition of manufacturing, and the intensity (per unit of output) of industrial pollution at the"end of pipe."They find that the manufacturing share of output follows a Kuznets-type trajectory...

  6. Essays in Public Economics and Development

    Gerard, Francois


    The present thesis studies public economics questions in the context of developing countries. In particular, I investigate the impact and design of specific government policies in Brazil. Government interventions may be desirable when unregulated market economies deliver socially inefficient outcomes. Goods and services tend to be under-provided in the presence of imperfect or asymmetric information. Such market failures may be pervasive in the insurance market and prompt governments to provi...

  7. Three Essays on Environmental and Development Economics

    Chong, Howard G.


    This dissertation emcompasses three empirical studies in environmental and development economics. In Chapter 1, I study whether electricity use in newer or older residential buildings rises more in response to high temperature in a region of Southern California. Peak electricity demand occurs at the highest temperatures which are predicted to increase due to climate change. Understanding how newer buildings differ from older buildings improves forecasts of how peak electricity use will grow o...

  8. Childhood Obesity, Sustainable Development, and Behavioral Economics

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Gwozdz, Wencke


    To understand the rising prevalence of obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This infrastructure is a direct reflection of the mainstream economic growth paradigm that the literature on consumer culture characterizes as chronic overconsumption. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a key contributory facto...

  9. Organic farming in Latvia: development and economics

    Melece, Ligita; Prauliņš, Artūrs; Popluga, Dina


    Organic agriculture plays an important role in the sustainable and environment-friendly agricultural production. The authors paper analyse the development and economic is¬sues of organic farming in Latvia. The primary information on organic farming in Latvia regarding the trends, the number of farms and land use, support payments as well as a short description of the structure of organic farming are provided. The influence of Latvia’s accession to the European Union on the organic farming dev...

  10. Essays on universities and economic development

    García Estévez, Javier


    This dissertation seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the roles that universities currently play in economic development. This topic is particularly relevant in the current situation, in the aftermath of the world financial crisis, when the leading industrial nations are increasing their support for universities and for scientific research in particular (Hughes and Mina, 2012). The main questions that this dissertation will deal with are therefore the following: How do universiti...

  11. Education and Economic Development: Evidence from China

    Shuanglin Lin


    Evidence from thirty Chinese provinces indicates that education is crucial for economic development. Provinces with the higher average years of schooling in the intial year have higher growth rates of real per capita GDP in the subsequent year. Provinces with higher literacy rates and higher average years of schooling in the initial year experienced a faster decline of the employment share of agriculture in the subsequent year than provinces with lower literacy rates and lower average years o...


    Cristinel Ichim


    The local budget process is in close connection with the economic development of the territorial-administrative units, firstly because the former implies the collection of budget revenues based on which local authorities provide public services to citizens and ensure the provision of such services by third parties. Also, through the implementation of expenditure, local government creates and maintains a favorable climate for local citizens and local traders for them to thrive and stimulates t...

  13. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  14. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Stern, Nicholas


    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007


    Nagaeva Olga Sergeevna


    Presented article is devoted the problem of forming conditions for sustainable socio-economic development of resource territory after exhaustion of mineral-resource potential. The features of socio-economic development of the resource territories situated in the conditions of the Far North cause the necessity of transition of such territory to sustainable socio-economic development. The basic conditions of transition of resource territory to sustainable socioeconomic development are gaining b...

  16. Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation

    Seyed Komail Tayebi


    Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

  17. Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain

    Arber, S; Bote, M; Meadows, R


    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...




    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  19. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Kelly CAREY


    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia’s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  20. Role of oil imports in economic development

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  1. Finance, growth and human development: An Islamic economic development perspective

    Uddin, Md Akther; Masih, Mansur


    In a growing body of literature, importance of financial sector development and growth on human development has been emphasized but so far little empirical evidence to support this. Islam is a progrowth religion but the concept of development in Islam is multidimensional, understanding the relationship between finance, growth and human development would help us better explain and develop a sustainable pro-Islamic economic growth model, which would help eradicate mass poverty, income inequalit...


    V. Zianko


    In the article has been investigated the essence of sustainable economic development. Differences of concepts of sustainable economic growth and sustainable economic development were analyzed. Necessity and feasibility of humanity's transition to a sustainable economic development model, the basis of which acts innovation activity were grounded.

  3. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn


    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...... relevant to actors and entities with a broader, and more microeconomic, focus such as national policymakers and the World Bank. It is in choices among competing projects and programs that trial and error is most likely to be necessary. Nevertheless, reforms of the IMF such as the "streamlining initiative...

  4. Human Development Report 1996: Economic Growth and Human Development

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP


    The Report argues that economic growth, if not properly managed, can be jobless, voiceless, ruthless, rootless and futureless, and thus detrimental to human development. The quality of growth is therefore as important as its quantity for poverty reduction, human development and sustainability.

  5. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Batanović Vladan


    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  6. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission dispatch problem using modified Ant colony optimization

    R Gopalakrishnan; A Krishnan


    Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the significant performance of the proposed MACO approach.




    The quality of tourist resources and tourist products, competitive ability and positioning of the destinations in the tourist market affect the economic development of the national economy. Natural resources are key, but under-utilized resources necessary for the tourism development, whereby reaching the level where the key development resources are on the verge of carrying capacities, thus making the model structure of the future development to be a significant contribution in searching the ...

  8. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Bunge, Mario


    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another. PMID:22403910

  9. Model developed for economic gas dispatch

    Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if? tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative 'what if?' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and off

  10. Polarization of Regional Economic Development in Croatia: Trends and Challanges in a New Geographic Reality

    Pavlaković-Koči, Vera; Pejnović, Dane


    This paper examines how the proposed conceptualization of Croatia’s regional economic development, Koncepcija regionalnong gospodarskog razvitka Republike Hrvatske (1999), addresses the challenges of Croatia’s uneven economic development. While the problems of Croatia’s lagging regions have been addressed, the conceptualization contains controversies regarding what should be the guiding principles of regional policy – targeted or balanced regional economic development. The proposed conceptual...

  11. Republic of Palau; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper examines recent economic developments in the Republic of Palau. Palau has made a modest recovery in 2000 and 2001. Real GDP growth has been about 1 percent in 2000 and 2001, after the recession brought about by the Asian crisis reached its trough of negative 5½ percent growth in 1999. This recovery was mainly owing to grant-financed large infrastructure projects. However, the outlook on tourism, Palau’s major industry, remains weak owing to the events on September 11, and the ex...

  12. Home economics in development through action research

    Benn, Jette


    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next in...... discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...

  13. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  14. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Bubka S.N.


    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  15. An efficient format for a problem based introductory economics course

    Woltjer, G.B.


    Problem-based learning is rather labor intensive for teaching staff. In addition, the problem-based structure does not work always optimally in practice. Brainstorming during pre-discussion of tasks becomes very superficial, preparation of the students is far from optimal, and post-discussion is more focused on repeating what is already in the book than on the task being discussed. However, these problems can be solved.This paper discusses a number of innovations in the format of the standard...

  16. Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation

    Alexandra Berger Masson


    Full Text Available This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Looking back on our experiences and outcomes since 2010, this article shows how the development and introduction of this new approach to local open innovation has changed the rules of the game in the region.

  17. Finance and economic development : policy choices for developing countries

    Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı


    The empirical literature on finance and development suggests that countries with better developed financial systems experience faster economic growth. Financial development-as captured by size, depth, efficiency, and reach of financial systems-varies sharply around the world, with large differences among countries at similar levels of income. This paper argues that governments play an important role in building effective financial systems and discusses different policy options to make finance...

  18. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Shahibul Ahyan


    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  19. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan


    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in levels as well as paths of psychosocial development on problem behaviour. The study uses data from the School project, a longitudinal research project on adolescents that examined (problem) behaviour ...

  20. Quantum economics

    Vukotić Veselin


    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  1. Electrification and social and economic development

    Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Economic effects in radioisotope-utilizing instruments and their problems

    Economic effects at present have been investigated limiting to radioisotope-utilizing instruments for industrial application. These instruments have increased year by year since they were introduced into Japanese industry about a quarter century ago, and reached 6058 sets as of March, 1976, in all industrial fields. Most widely used instruments are thickness gauges, level gauges, densimeters, moisture gauges and sulphur analyzers in this order. Methods for analyzing the economic effects includes several systems, and here, the cost-benefit ratio (C/B) method, which is called IAEA system, was adopted. Investigation has been conducted only on thickness gauges for paper making, coating film thickness gauges, sulphur analyzers and moisture gauges. For the thickness gauges, which are used a lot in paper machines and now fully automated, C/B is 1/3.16. The coating film thickness gauges are being changed from β-gauges to fluorescent X-ray system, and its C/B is equal to 1/30 to 1/50, very economical. Though the sulphur analyzers for oil industry are used off-line, here the on-line analyzers were investigated. The result of C/B of 1/10 was obtained for the plant whose production is 2,000 kl/day. The neutron moisture gauges are employed a lot specifically in iron and steel industry. Its C/B is from 1/20 to 1/40 for an example used in a pig iron plant. As seen above, the radioisotope- utilizing instruments have very high economic effects, and can contribute to energy saving, labor saving and resource saving in process and quality controls. (Wakatsuki, Y

  3. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy


    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  4. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  5. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole


    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of re...... of resource development experienced in Greenland in connection with mining acitivities....

  6. Nuclear energy; real problems of the long term development

    Whilst general public accepts the operation of western designed nuclear power stations as safe, waste management and decommission still figure as open problems, although such views are not in agreement with technical and economic status of these operations. A concern with imagined problems can have the effect of neglecting the real ones. In considering the long term development of nuclear energy the real problems can be associated with the wide use of plutonium and multiplication of national reprocessing and enrichment installations. Nuclear proliferation safety could be retained and developed through establishment of international nuclear fuel centres. Their operation would be particularly beneficial for small or medium nuclear countries. Several arguments are given why it is not premature to initiate a study which would identify and analyze the problems of establishing an international nuclear fuel centre. Central Europe could be a region which could be served by one of such nuclear fuel centres. (author)

  7. Paths for the Coordinated Development of Rural Economy and Environment in Economically Underdeveloped Areas—A Case of Huaian, China

    Tao, Ai-xiang


    Taking Huaian as an example, the rural economic and environmental problems in economically underdeveloped areas are expounded. The results show that rural areas in economically underdeveloped areas confront with lagged economic development, serious environmental pollution and scarce shortage of equipments for treating environmental pollution. The causes of these economic and environmental problems are analyzed, including inadequate fiscal support from the local government; unscientific system...


    Crisan Radu


    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  9. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  10. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Gareth Austin


    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  11. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe


    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  12. Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context

    To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Resource integration of regional economic development in northwest China


    Northwestern area is the most arid and underdeveloped area in China. Lots of researches have been done to find the approaches to alleviate poverty. But there are some problems, for example, how to invest, how to use capital,and why the utilization rate is ambiguous. Water, capital and human resources are analyzed in this paper to be compared with their Utilization rates. As a result, according to the dependences of economic growth on those resources, a new approach has been selected to organize the integration ways among these resources for economic development in northwestern China. The efficient ways to develop northwestern China are: firstly, use the wanting resources most effectively to make an efficient integration model of multiple resources. For example, enhance the utilization rate of water to raise the value of other resources. Secondly, invest more in basic factors for economic development to upgrade the competitiveness in the western China. For example, invest more in primary education and sustainable development of basic natural resources in order to have more power for sustainable development.

  14. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii


    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  15. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future


    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU


    Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

  17. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka


    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  18. Reading Economics: The Role of Mainstream Economics in International Development Studies Today (SWP 24)

    Jerven, Morten


    What is the role of the economics discipline in teaching and studying international development today? This paper draws upon experiences of teaching and reading economics with students in interdisciplinary international development studies. The main conclusion is that economic literacy is a key ingredient in development studies. This paper discusses different interpretations of what economic literacy may entail and why this literacy is important. It concludes by suggesting a number of paths t...


    Huru Dragos; Hrebrenciuc Andrei


    In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze) can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  20. Socio-economic development and its axiological aspects.

    Chojnicki, Zbyszko


    The article presents notions and issues concerning socio-economic development in an axiological perspective. Their presentation is limited to those the present author considers valid, and ignores their wider context as expounded in the various theories of socio-economic development. Underlying the axiological approach to socio-economic development is the opinion that the character of and research on socio-economic development are not neutral axiologically because values are an inh...

  1. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Hafas Furqani; Ratna Mulyany


    Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM) to see whether the Islamic financi...

  2. On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life II: Evolutionary Stable Economic Development Strategy in Brief

    Funk, Matt


    This paper offers a solution to 'The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development' on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models 'The Problem of Sustainabl...


    Sidorenko, O.


    The problem of food safety of the Eurasian Economic Union remains one of the most essential priorities of the formation of their economic strategy. The solution of the food problem primarily depends on the sustainable development of grain production. In this situation, the study of tendencies in the development of grain production, food self-sufficiency assessment and analysis of opportunities for agricultural exports are of current importance. The aim of the present study is to monitor the d...

  4. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras


    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  5. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  6. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  7. The Common Property Problem and Pastoral Economic Behaviour

    Livingstone, Ian


    Widely accepted views among technical personnel and particularly developmnent programme administrators are that the explanation of widespread range of degradation in pastoral areas lies in the problem of common property (whereby private benefits from putting additional livestock on the range exceed social benefits), and that, more generally, pastoralists have an "irrational" propensity to accumulate stock. The policy conclusions drawn int his paper relate to the appropriate level of water inv...

  8. Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem

    Swift-Hook, D.T. (King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom))


    The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK).

  9. Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem?

    The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK)

  10. Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower

    Fazil Yozgat


    Full Text Available In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shaping the regions countries. Industrial Revolution in Europe and made major investments in the first half of the 19th century particularly central Europe and Balkan region. Balkan regions represent complex and diverse reality. These regions are from Old Continent to Central Europe, South East Europe and Mediterranean. From Adriatic to Black Sea and Mediterranean also. In these regions there are some different economic, social and political events. I.e. Croatia moves to final round member of European Union some countries face to particular problems of political subjects.I offer framework analysis of the regional country by country based on the existing set of criteria, which are variables of social and economic development. Those variables are including (cluster industry, expenditure R&D od GDP, variations of capitals, population and market, some trade block which are impact of economic and social developmentProposed key pillars to support sustainable competitiveness in the Western Balkans. Sustaining competitiveness =Human capital development==Regional Cluster==SectorPolicy reforms.(OECD,2008Key words. Balkan region, Social development, Globalisation, Sustainable development




    Full Text Available The quality of tourist resources and tourist products, competitive ability and positioning of the destinations in the tourist market affect the economic development of the national economy. Natural resources are key, but under-utilized resources necessary for the tourism development, whereby reaching the level where the key development resources are on the verge of carrying capacities, thus making the model structure of the future development to be a significant contribution in searching the optimal model of sustainable development. The paper points to the importance of previous positive experience in the development of tourism and related activities especially in terms of development planning in accordance with the available resources, spatial opportunities and sustainable development. The research the possibility of defining an optimal model for sustainable tourism development in the case of mountain destinations in Zlatibor District will indicate the need to precisely define economic-geographical resources which determine the individual role of an each resource in creating the tourist offer, as well as, to show that the inadequate management of tourist resources and marketing activities leads to their degradation.


    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna


    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  13. Reframing place-based economic development in South Africa: the example of local economic development

    Rogerson Christian M.


    Local Economic Development (LED) planning is a place-based approach to development planning and increasingly significant across much of the global South. One of the key challenges facing LED planning is the necessity to adjust planning in relation to the dynamic nature of both international and national framework conditions. The purpose of this article is to show this challenge by examining the dynamic nature of the national policy environment impacting upon LED planning in South Africa, a co...

  14. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Affinnih, Yahya H


    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  15. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    Rafik Labdani


    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system


    Iulia-Alexandra Percă


    The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no ...

  17. Response of Land Use Planning in Less Developed Areas to Economic Globalization

    LIU Xiang-nan


    Under the background of economic globalization, the development mechanisms of various regions face potential deep transformation, and the effective participation of less developed areas in China in economic globalization is of great significance to the sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. In this study, we summarized the characteristics and influences of economic globalization from the aspects of industrial recombination and transfer, competition, economic relevance and development modes, and analysed the opportunities and challenges of land use in less developed areas brought by economic globalization. Afterwards, based on the major problems of land use planning management in the middle of Jiangsu Province, we put forward some suggestion including management of planning process, balanced development of ecology and economy, strengtheningn planing use zoning, spatial agglomeration and protecting cultural diversity to response to economic globalization.

  18. Multiobjective fuzzy dominance based bacterial foraging algorithm to solve economic emission dispatch problem

    Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)


    This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)

  19. Economic and energy environmental systems in Mediterranean basin, problems and perspectives

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse problems and perspectives of economic systems of Mediterranean basin in the process of energetic and environmental integration fixed in the 1995 Barcelona declaration

  20. Ecological catastrophe and economical damages. The problems of assessment from Amoco-Cadiz

    This book strikes the balance of the accident of the tanker ship Amoco-Cadiz (environmental effects and economic impact) and sets the problem of damages assessment, liabilities, victims compensation. 99 refs., 41 figs., 43 tabs

  1. Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method

    In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)


    Katarina Marosevic; Zvonimir Jurkovic


    Achieving the long-term economic growth rate and development is the aspiration of all economic policy makers. Contemporary economic theory recognizes institutions as fundamental sources of economic prosperity. According to Douglas North (1991), institutions represent designed limitations that manage political, economic and social interactions. Precisely, institutions are the rules of behavior in a society, or more formally speaking, the restrictions on which man has fi gured out how to shape ...

  3. A simple approach to global optimal feedback solutions : with emphasize on certain management problems in economics

    Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Berge, Gerhard


    Dynamic optimization problems covers a great class of problems in management science and technology. The classical problem formulations being the variational approach as in classical mechanics, like Hamilton's principle and the optimal control theory in economics as the Pontryagin's maximum principle. In this account we start with a general problem formulation as an alternative to an approach based on solving differential equations. We focus on creating an analytical environment aimed at deri...

  4. Methodological problems of economic security research in the conditions of transformed economy

    Goloshchapova  Zhypar  Esenbekovna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodological problems of research of financial and economic safety in the conditions of transformed economy. The author hypothesizes that should be divided into four zones of change of financial and economic security indicators: the zone of accumulation of critical mass; crisis zone; shear zone; fatal area.

  5. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    Townsend, Robert


    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  6. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Townsend, Robert


    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  7. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.


    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.




    Under the conditions of exacerbation of the crisis, problems of managing cyclic development of the Russian socioeconomic system are gaining special importance as it is necessary not only to level various crisis tendencies, but also to foster accelerated transition of the system to a new stage of development. The article presents the results of research into the conditions of formation of the resource-based model of economic development in Russia, as well as the problems of the economic enviro...

  9. Economism

    Simons, P.


    Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

  10. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that...... grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of...... Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  11. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO2. To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  12. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    Karl-Goran Maler


    Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may b...


    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov


    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  14. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse. 302.11 Section 302.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic...


    Kalyagina, L.; Pyzhikova, N.


    Reserves and factors which ensure stabilization and subsequent sustainable development of agro economic system are analyzed. The priority direction of sustainable development policy of agro-economic system, which is based on five interconnected components, based on the use of economic tools of nature-conservation activity of agricultural tenant farmer stimulation is emphasized.

  16. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Bowen, William M.


    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  17. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development... Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances. (a) For conveyances made pursuant to... the date of the initial transfer of property shall be used to support economic redevelopment of,...

  18. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL


    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  19. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Ghassan F. Issa


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  20. Economic impact of corrosion and scaling problems in geothermal energy systems

    Shannon, D.W.


    Corrosion and scaling problems have a significant impact on geothermal plant economics. A power plant must amortize the capital investment over a 20-year period and achieve satisfactory operating efficiency to achieve financial success. Corrosion and scale incrustations have been encountered in all geothermal plants, and to various degrees, adversely affected plant life times and power output. Using published data this report analyzes known geothermal corrosion and scaling phenomena for significant cost impacts on plant design and operation. It has been necessary to speculate about causes and mechanisms in order to estimate impacts on conceptual geothermal plants. Silica is highly soluble in hot geothermal water and solubility decreases as water is cooled in a geothermal power plant. Calculations indicate as much as 30,000 tons/year could pass through a 100 MWe water cycle plant. The major cost impact will be on the reinjection well system where costs of 1 to 10 mills/kwhr of power produced could accrue to waste handling alone. On the other hand, steam cycle geothermal plants have a definite advantage in that significant silica problems will probably only occur in hot dry rock concepts, where steam above 250 C is produced. Calculation methods are given for estimating the required size and cost impact of a silica filtration plant and for sizing scrubbers. The choice of materials is significantly affected by the pH of the geothermal water, temperature, chloride, and H{sub s} contents. Plant concepts which attempt to handle acid waters above 180 C will be forced to use expensive corrosion resistant alloys or develop specialized materials. On the other hand, handling steam up to 500 C, and pH 9 water up to 180 C appears feasible using nominal cost steels, typical of today's geothermal plants. A number of factors affecting plant or component availability have been identified. The most significant is a corrosion fatigue problem in geothermal turbines at the Geyser

  1. Social economic and environmental challenges of global energy development

    Gvishiani, J.M.; Livchits, V.N.; Orlova, E.R.; Smetanina, M.I.; Zimin, I.N. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The Report to the Moscow International Energy Club `Energy and Society: New Challenges for Mankind`, and this presentation aim to invite the world community to debate the current social development problems through a system investigation of the processes going on in one of the crucial areas, supporting humanity`s existence - i.e. the energy sector of economy - with regard to the intimate inter-relationship and interdependence between energy and society. Special emphasis is placed on the inter-related development of society and energy systems with a specific focus on global and universal socio-economic problems such as: uneven socio-economic growth in different countries; substantial differences in availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; aggravating ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weaponry (including nuclear weapons), their proliferation across the world and a market contribution to the ever greater tensions in a number of regions; alterations in morality, ethics and value systems. The aggravation of these problems, the frequently menacing metamorphoses thereof can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and non-trivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. Whilst being commonplace, the problems listed must be treated somewhat differently at present due to the essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The principal parts of this paper describes the concept of energy-society relationship analysis and its applications in investigating the cross-impact loops: society-energy and energy-society. (author) 15 refs.

  2. Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation



    This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

  3. Internet Multi-Homing Problems: Explanations from Economics

    Clayton, Richard

    Companies seeking to ensure that their Internet connection is resilient often purchase services from multiple providers. This leads them inexorably towards having their IP address range visible in the global routing table, increasing the resource usage of every Internet router. Since this is essentially ‘free', yet impacts the cost and stability of every router in the world, this is a classic ‘tragedy of the commons'. There is little prospect of change in the IPv4 world, but there is a chance to fix the problem as IPv6 is rolled out. Unfortunately, SHIM6, the engineering solution chosen to solve this issue in IPv6, will only be effective if universally adopted, and there are no short-term incentives to prefer SHIM6 over a duplication of the IPv4 arrangements. Incentives could be artificially introduced by requiring payment for adding multi-homed address space to the global routing table — a naïve estimate of the actual cost being 77 000 per routing prefix. However, it would be almost impossible to ensure the substantial revenues involved are correctly redistributed to those bearing the costs.

  4. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW)

  5. What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
    slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
    Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

  6. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Bruno Gurtner


    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  7. Pension Systems Development Problems in Latvia

    Voļskis, Edgars


    Edgars Volskis promotion paper „Pension System’s Development Problems in Latvia” analyses the theoretical aspects of establishment of pension systems, observes mechanisms of financing of pension budget and its sources, aspects of establishment and execution of the pension budget. There are also analysed main milestones of development of Latvian pension system from date of regaining of the independence until the completion moment of the latest reform of pension system. Second chapter of the wo...

  8. On the Essential Multidimensionality of an Economic Problem: Towards Tradeoffs-Free Economics

    Zeleny, Milan


    The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeo...

  9. The University and Local Economic Development

    John MULLIN


    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  10. Model Development of Isan Country Song Compositions for Economic, Social and Cultural Value-Added

    Nipinth Suwanrong; Khaentaphon Samdaengdech; Thaksina Krairach


    Problem statement: Country Song was related to history, society, culture and economic. The objectives of this study were: (1) the historical background in composing the Isan Country Song, (2) the current situation and problem of composing style of Isan Country Song and (3) the development of composing pattern the Isan Country Song for elevating the economic value. Approach: The research area consisted of Isan Region including Chiaya Phume, Ubon Rachatani, Amnat Charoen and Sri-Sa-ket Province...

  11. Toward Development of a New Health Economic Evaluation Definition

    Botchkarev, Alexei


    Economic evaluation is a dynamically advancing knowledge area of health economics. It has been conceived to provide evidence for allocating scarce resources to gain the best value for money. The problem of efficiency of investments becomes even more crucial with advances in modern medicine and public health which bring about both improved patient outcomes and higher costs. Despite the abundance of literature on the economic evaluation concepts, some key notions including the definition of the...

  12. Rural Economic Development: Policy Implementation in Nigeria

    Francis C. Alinno


    Full Text Available The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rural emancipation. The paper adopted the exploratory research approach involving the use of secondary source with minimal primary source to generate data through questionnaire and interview guide. The paper observes that the problem is not the lack of effective policy/programme initiation and formulation but the dearth of the political will to implement; high incidence of corruption; complete absence of purposive leadership; misguided and misdirected priority; placing the wrong person at the strategic position; inconsistency and absent of continuity in policy/programmes implementation in government affairs. For a way out amongst others, involvement of the benefiting rural/urban communities in monitoring the implementation of programmes or project execution in their domain is important while avoiding the pitfall of role conflict in policies and programmes formulation cum implementation.


    Ioan Beudean


    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  14. Socio-economic development of northern regions of Russia

    Yusif Alimovich Gadzhiev


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the characteristics and trends of socio-economic development of northern regions. To assess the socio-economic differentiation, groups of 21 primary indicator were selected (five economic, three financial, eleven social and two spacial. With the help of the statistical characteristics, the degree of economic and social divergence and convergence of the territories is determined. On the basis of principal component factor analysis and Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis, four groups of regions in terms of socio-economic development were identified - highly developed, developed, underdeveloped and problematic. A meaningful characterization of these clusters, which allows differential regulation of the development in the northern regions, is given. With respect to each type is necessary to develop a focused state regional policy in order to soften the uneven development and improve social and economic development of northern regions.


    Prokhorova, V.


    The article is devoted developments of conceptual model of management proof economic development of the industrialeconomy systems. Features are certain, the algorithm of impulse is offered and intercommunication of contours of management proof economic development of the industrialeconomy systems is investigational

  16. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO


    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  17. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The Impact of Economic Development on Higher Education in China

    FengyuWang; CodyS.Ding


    Higher education is not only directly dependent on economic development, but may also make a great contribution to economic development. The development of China's economy has made a great difference in the scope of higher education, including expansion of higher education institutions, improvement of the quality of the institutions, and promoting reform of educational systems. This article discusses the recent development in these three areas as the consequence of economic changes in China.

  19. Socio-economic developmental agenda- A study of developing nations

    Miley, Jose


    Various developmental agendas as adopted and worked-upon by developing countries towards achieving socio-economic development are key instruments for the balanced growth rate. The study paper reviews the relationship between socio and economic factors of development at the same time studies the connections between sociology, civilizations and economies as to their state of affairs thereby evaluates the socio-economic developmental agendas of the developing nations.

  20. Economic and Financial Developments in Goa

    Deepak Mohanty


    Goa is celebrating the Golden Jubilee Year of its Liberation. The recent economic achievements of the state are highlighted. The economic and financial structure of the state as well as the various financial inclusion initiatives taken by the Reserve Bank are outlined. Policy challenges ahead are presented. [Speech delivered at Goa Chamber of Commerce and Industry]. URL:[].

  1. Patent Protection, Financial Development and Economic Growth

    Shiyuan Pan; Mengbo Zhang; Heng-fu Zou


    This paper theoretically and empirically investigates the effects of patent protection on innovation and economic growth by looking at the interaction between patent system and financial system. On the one hand, patent protection accelerates economic growth through enhancing the value of innovation. On the other hand, it lowers the demand for capital by increasing the price, thereby weakening the learning-by-doing effect and raising the cost of production. It follows, in turn, patent protecti...

  2. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. CONCLUSIONS: Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  3. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.


    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  4. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku



    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  5. Regional development institutions as an economic growth factors

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin


    Full Text Available The article investigates the characteristics of development and the territorial distribution of regional development institutions. The methodical approach to assessing the level of development of regional institutions taking into account the systemic nature and activity of territories in the creation and development of regional institutions is introduced. The results of evaluation of the development level of regional institutions have allowed to identify the regions using various institutions and instruments of development most actively in their territories (22 Federal subjects of Russia and the regions where are no institutes for development (45 Federal subjects of Russia. Following parameters of performance evaluation of regional development institutions are offered: the indicators of intensity of innovation in production, performance intensity of innovation in society and the resulting performance of the dynamics of economic development. The results of evaluating the effectiveness of regional development institutions in the subjects of the Russian Federation are presented in the paper. The main problem of the formation of institutions and institutional environment in the regions of the Russian Federation due to the lack of unified science-based theoretical and methodological framework and the lack of integration links between science, business, education and government are defined.

  6. Decentralization, economic development, and growth in Turkish provinces

    Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar


    There have been important developments in the decentralization of the government structure in Turkey since the early 1980s. This paper examines economic development and growth in Turkish provinces. Although there is a rich literature on the economic effects of government decentralization from both developed and developing countries, these effects have not been examined widely in the contex...

  7. Economic and Human Resource Development: Challenges of the 90s.

    Ellison, Nolen M.

    A discussion is presented of the roles of economic and human resource development in a changing economy and society. Introductory material considers the economic changes taking place in society and argues that strategies for economic redevelopment and revitalization must explicitly incorporate strategies for partnership building related to work…

  8. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Acemoglu, Daron


    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…




    The paper reviews the economic growth and development experience of Malaysia since her early independence years against the major economic policy initiatives that she has undertaken over the years. It then tries to link those policy initiatives to the various economic growth theories. Subsequently, it dwells upon the various challenges faced by Malaysia to join the ranks of high income nations.

  10. Hidden trends of economic development of Ukraine industry

    Ivanova Marina


    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of the authors’ studies on technological development problems and industrial production efficiency in Ukraine is held. It has been proved that the industrial enterprises efficiency is not just low, but there is not even technological development foundation in the economic mechanism of their functioning. It is shown that the greatest increase in the innovative products sales volume is achieved due to investment in the external knowledge acquisition and the least profitableactivity is the purchase of equipment The article suggests the ways to improve the industrial enterprises efficiency and the effectiveness of their innovation activities. It is proved, that the optimization (reduction of investments in the purchase of machinery and equipment and the increase in funding of such directions of innovative activity of industrial enterprises as «The acquisition of external knowledge» may be appropriate.

  11. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Phouphet KYOPHILAVONG


    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...


    Al Shama, Nada


    Dubai’s rapid double-digit economic growth was severely challenged by the global financial crisis of 2007, which raised many concerns questioning the sustainability of the Dubai model of economic development and the viability of the emirate’s economic managerial practices. Although the economic landscape of Dubai has experienced a significant transformation over the last two decades, from a basic traditional economy of US $ 17.9 billion in 2001 to a diversified non-oil dependent economy of US...

  13. After Crisis? The Only Way: Economics for Sustainable Development

    Mestwin Stanislaw Kostka


    The aim of the paper is to justify why contemporary economics must be reoriented from the direction of Economic Growth to the direction of Sustainable Development. Human society is at a deadly curve. The Economic crisis is only one slice of Gordon’s Knot of Crises of our Civilization. The Economy is facing system challenges without precedence. Reasons for this situation are different fetishes of present positive and normative economics. The author explores the main aspects of diagnoses, progn...

  14. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it

  15. Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East

    The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

  16. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  17. Problem Based Learning and Education for Sustainable Development

    Guerra, Aida


    problem based learning (PBL), project based learning (PjBL), case study, role play, group discussion, field work, etc. These learning approaches are capable of integrating education for sustainable development (ESD) in engineering education at different levels, and do not aim to substitute the core......An engineering education that integrates education for sustainable development (ESD) perspectives claims for a learning approach centred on students, interdisciplinary and problem oriented, and this cannot be achieve through an “add on” strategy. Example of such active learning approaches are...... scientific and technological knowledge but instead align it with the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the professional practice. It is agreed among ESD experts that PBL is a suitable learning approach to integrate ESD in the engineering curricula. This paper provides an overview of the...

  18. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska


    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  19. A Typology of Suburban Economic Development Policy Orientations

    John P. Pelissero; David Fasenfest


    This article explores variations in economic development goals and orientations among suburban governments and the impact of these on economic development programs. The research was conducted among suburban officials in the Chicago Metropolitan area who responded to a survey in 1987. The results of the survey show that suburbs can be divided into five types based upon their economic development policies: aggressive, regulatory, cooperative, retentive, and reactive. These general policy orient...

  20. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    Neil Reid; Smith, Bruce W.


    Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these cha...

  1. Entrepreneurship, State Economic Development Policy, and the Entrepreneurial University

    Audretsch, David B; Ronnie J. Phillips


    In this paper, we discuss the nature of the university-industry relationship and recommend specific policies to help achieve the goal of greater economic growth. We argue that state-supported research universities can be used to integrate entrepreneurship into state economic development and incubate entrepreneurial companies. Regional entrepreneurship policy is a new strategy that regards economic development as a process that goes from supporting research and development to creating and grow...

  2. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development


    Bazhanova, O.


    In article the critical analysis of concepts "potential", „economic potential” is resulted, the concept "development" is specified, attempts of ordering of theoretical approaches to definition of the maintenance of concept «potential of economic development of the enterprise» are undertaken.

  5. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.


    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.


    Gabriel I. NĂSTASE; Dragoş Ionuţ G. Năstase


    The research and development and innovation, which is a crucial strategic component for economic development and social progress, is closely related to this field. Thus, science, technology and innovation are areas that consistently generate breakthrough, ensuring sustainability of future development and economic competitiveness of Romania.

  7. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  8. New Directions in Development Economics: Theory or Empirics? A Symposium in Economic and Political Weekly

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Bardhan, Pranab; Basu, Kaushik


    In May 2004 a conference was held at Cornell University entitled “75 Years of Development Research.”.1 Apart from the usual array of theoretical and empirical papers on development, a number of panels took stock of the state of development economics and discussed a range of methodological issues. One commentary that stood out in the challenge it posed to the current state of development economics was, “Is there Too Little Theory in Development Economics Today?” by Dilip Mookherjee. He answere...

  9. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    Alfred, Mary V.


    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  10. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola


    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  11. Capitalism and Black Economic Development: A Reappraisal.

    Green, Louis C.


    Explanations for the inferior socioeconomic status of Blacks are examined and strategies for improving the status of Blacks are discussed. It is concluded that changes in the distribution of wealth will require changes in the structure of the economic system itself. (Author/MC)

  12. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Ravshan Yuldashev


    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  13. Understanding multilevel interactions in economic development

    Goedhuys, M.; Srholec, Martin

    -, 2010-003 (2010), s. 1-44. ISSN 1871-9872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : productivity * technological capability * innovation Subject RIV: AH - Economics


    Filippidis Ioannis


    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  15. Ecological versus Economic Objectives: A Public Decision Making Problem in Agricultural Water Management

    Zekri, Slim; Romero, Carlos


    The planning of a new in·igated area is a complex problem where a multiplicity of very different criteria (economic, ecological, social, etc.) have to be taken into account. A lexicographic goal programming model capable of handling this multiplicity is formulated. The methodology is applied to the planning of the irrigated lands of the village of Tauste in Arag6n (Spain). An important result generated by the model is the conflict between economic criteria and environmental effects such as "s...

  16. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.


    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  17. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Próchniak Mariusz


    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  18. New Institutional Economics and Economic Development of the Republic of Kosovo

    Mejdi Bektashi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the analysis of the new institutional economics according to parameters and criteria that affect the growth and economic development such as free movement of capital, contract enforcement, information costs, risk transfer costs, free competition and their application into practice. Institutional innovation, in terms of establishing more efficient and effective institutions, can only be done if there is support of the whole society, but given the limitations set forth in Kosovo, as possible change of the Constitution, some laws and other internal and external restrictions, the achievement of this goal is difficult. Because of the very specific and serious past, and also very long delay in the process of transformation and transition, the economic development and new institutional economics in Kosovo, according to almost all development indicators has significantly stagnated in comparison with the countries of the European Union and Western Balkans. Economic growth and development implies a very complex and multidimensional process, influencing many factors such as economic, technological, institutional, political, social and cultural. Economic growth depends on political institutions and their capacity to define in a more clear and acceptable way its common goals. Given the political dimension of the capacity of the state, certainly should be considered also the institutional approach of development i.e. political dimensions of the institutions that support economic development.

  19. Quantum economics

    Vukotić Veselin


    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  20. Strategic and ethical leadership in economical development

    Nerimane Bajraktari


    Full Text Available By a simple analysis, it can be said that ethics includes two components. Firstly, it treats recognition and understanding for right or wrong processes, good or wrong processes, and then it evaluates the action in personal or institutional practice concluding that it’s conducted in the right or wrong way. According to ethicists the one that constitutes an ethical guide, often, the next day arrives to convert in written legal act, in a rule, or liability to be implemented. Values such as: respect, honesty, sincerity, responsibility, that show us how to behave are considered moral values. All views that show how these values are applying are often defined as moral or ethical principles. Managers or leaders of the organization have a leading role during a decision-making process. This is because managerial decision-making is one of the problems which has a greater focus recently. Business decisions have a suspicious behavior, because its success in most cases is measured by the profit, not by the effectiveness of humans. Therefore, managers are those who firstly present unethical behavior, influenced by the situation that they are facing and factors surrounding them. If someone in an organization behaves unethically, it will create a bad image for that organization. It is worth mentioning that the ethical code of the company that arises from the organization has a very important role because it links the personal and organizational ethics. The absence of ethical codes, moral and legal principles, will affect greatly the development of the individual, organization and all sectors of economy.

  1. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  2. Metaphors of Nature and Economic Development: Critical Education for Sustainable Business

    Helen Kopnina


    Neoliberal discourse often conceptualizes nature in relation to its market utility and economic development. This article will address the role of metaphors in shaping neoliberal discourse in business education. The aim of this article is to reveal reasoning patterns about environmental problems and economic development in students of sustainable business minor. The case study described in this article involves business students at The Hague University in The Netherlands. This case study aime...

  3. Institutions Without Culture. A Critique of Acemoglu and Robinson's Theory of Economic Development

    Dzionek-Kozłowska, Joanna; Matera, Rafał


    Acemoglu and Robinson’s theory presented in their famous Why Nations Fail, and other papers, should be placed among the institutional theories of economic development. Yet the problem is they strongly differentiate their concept from the so-called culture hypothesis, which they reject. This stance is difficult to accept, not only because of the significance of culture-related factors of economic development, but it is also difficult to reconcile with their own model. The aim of this paper ...


    Edgar L. Feige; Blau, David M.


    This paper analyses the problem of natural resource scarcity and its implications for economic development and international cooperation. We examine the meaning and measurement of resource “scarcity” and its implications for economic growth and development. The paper describes the conditions required for the efficient use of exhaustible natural resources and for optimal inter-temporal efficient paths and considers the consequences of uncertainty, risk, externalities, disequilibria and institu...

  5. Solution to the Problems of the Sustainable Development Management

    Rusko, Miroslav; Procházková, Dana


    The paper shows that environment is one of the basic public assets of a human system, and it must be therefore specially protected. According to our present knowledge, the sustainability is necessary for all human systems and it is necessary to invoke the sustainable development principles in all human system assets. Sustainable development is understood as a development that does not erode ecological, social or politic systems on which it depends, but it explicitly approves ecological limitation under the economic activity frame and it has full comprehension for support of human needs. The paper summarises the conditions for sustainable development, tools, methods and techniques to solve the environmental problems and the tasks of executive governance in the environmental segment.

  6. Technical and economical problems of decommissioning nuclear power plants (NPP) in Russia

    The introduction per new century has brought to atomic Engineering many new problems. One of them, which has got a serious urgency, we now shall consider. It is a problem of decommissioning NPP in Russia. By 2014 all maintained nowadays NPP in Russian Federation will develop the regular service life. And all of them on idea should be removed from operation. But, as we understand, in today's difficult economic conditions, to it NPP the procedure of prolongation of service life will be applied, and where it is impossible by virtue of the various reasons, the procedure of translation NPP in nuclear - safe condition and in a mode of a long storage under supervision, before acceptance of the decision about a method and way of financing of a decommissioning will be applied. Possible the following variants will be: use platforms of the old NPP for construction new NPP, or using as burial place NPP. The variant of a decommissioning up to a condition 'green grass' is represented unprofitable because of its dearness. The similar decommissioning was carried out in Japan. Was removed from operation research reactor of a type WWR. The expenses for this method of a decommissioning considerably surpass expenses for a method of a burial place NPP basically because of high cost of dismantle and transportation in long-term storehouses of the 1 contour equipment. The most urgent problem of decommissioning NPP, which developed their regular service life - is financing this final stage of a exploitation cycle of the block. I shall remind, that the financing is carried out from uniform fund of decommissioning. The formation of this fund occurs by deduction 1.3 % of cost of the put electric power to the consumers by all maintained NPP of Russia. The expenditure of this fund is carried on time on some tens years. They are spent for 3 basic stages: preparation to decommissioning NPP, long endurance under supervision, dismantle and burial the NPP equipment. Nowadays on faculty NPP MPEI


    SECUI D.C.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization algorithm called Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO, aiming to solve the economic dispatch problem. The DPSO algorithm is applied in the original version and also in a new version in which it is endowed with the chaotic Sine map (DPSO-Sine algorithm. The performance of DPSO and DPSOSine algorithms is tested on two systems having 13, and respectively 40 generating units. The results show that DPSO and DPSO-Sine have better performances than PSO algorithm and few other optimization techniques used to solve the economic dispatch problem.

  8. Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Case of Nigeria

    Eyo, Kufre Dominic


    ABSTRACT: The link between the financial development and economic growth is a widely investigated area in economic literature. Most cross-country studies established a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth pioneered by McKinnon and Shaw (1973). However, empirical research in low income countries, especially in most African and Latin American countries did not support the positive link hypotheses despite the liberalization of their financial markets. This rais...


    V. R. Palanivelu


    Full Text Available Economic development is the main priority for any country. Economic development means a process of upward change that is whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a period of time. Entrepreneurial talent existed in every country, the handicraft Entrepreneurial in India as old as human civilization itself. The village community was the centre of economic activity in India before it came into contact with the west. The village community consisted of farmers, artisans and priests.

  10. Economic development and industrial concentration: An inverted U-curve

    Junius, Karsten


    This paper sets up an economic geography model to show the endogenous forces that determine the degree of industry concentration in the course of economic development. The model includes centrifugal forces, such as home market effects and access to intermediate suppliers, and centripetal forces, such as demand pull of dispersed resources and congestion effects. Economic development increases the size of the industrial sector in terms of employment relative to the size of the agricultural sect...

  11. The Concept of Structural Break in Regional Economic Development

    Ariana Cericatto da Silva


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the concept of structural break in the regional economic development. To meet the goal a literature review was done in seeking to explain how regional economic development happens and how economies transform their sectorialstructures. The processes of structural break leads into a cumulative movement in strengthening the economy forward or rewindthe regions. The progress can both be stimulated by the growth of the economics activities basis for actions linked directly to the local community.

  12. Regional competitiveness, economic growth and stages of development

    Robert Huggins; Hiro Izushi; Daniel Prokop; Thopmson Piers


    This paper positions the concept of regional competitiveness within theories concerning regional economic growth and stages of economic development. It examines the sources of regional competitiveness encompassing an analysis based on the particular stage of economic development that the nations within which regions are situated have reached. As a means to achieve this, the paper undertakes an empirical analysis of data stemming from the World Competitiveness Index of ...

  13. Does Economic Diversification Lead to Financial Development? Evidence From topography

    Rodney Ramcharan


    An influential theoretical literature has observed that economic diversification can reduce risk and increase financial development. But causality operates in both directions, as a well functioning financial system can enable a society to invest in more productive but risky projects, thereby determining the degree of economic diversification. Thus, ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates of the impact of economic diversification on financial development are likely to be biased. Motivated by th...

  14. The Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth in Qatar

    Abdulla S. Al-Khulaifi


    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has attracted a great deal of attention among economists and policy makers alike. The economy of Qatar did not receive much attention in the empirical literature. This study attempts at filling this gap in economic literature, and examines the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth in Qatar for the period 1980-2012. Annual data were used, and the unit root properties of the data set are tested us...

  15. Economic and Environmental Perspectives on Sustainable Agriculture Developments

    Tisdell, Clem


    There is a great deal of concern today to ensure that economic development, including agricultural development, is sustainable. It is being increasingly emphasized that this sustainability requires care to be taken of the natural environment. This is because the natural environment is both the source of important resources that support economic activity and an avenue or sink for disposal of wastes from economic activity. Soil and water are for example, important natural resources used in agri...

  16. Attitudes of haemophilic patients towards their health and socio-economic problems in Iran.

    Mehramiri, A; Parand, S; Haghpanah, S; Karimi, M


    Although new technologies and treatments have improved the quality of life of people with haemophilia, they still face many health and socio-economic problems. We designed this study to identify some of these problems according to patients' attitudes towards efforts to solve them. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz, southern Iran, during January and May 2010. The participants were 100 patients with haemophilia who were referred to Shiraz Hemophilia Center, a major referral centre in southern Iran. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on the attitudes of haemophilic patients about some of their health and socio-economic problems. Mean age of the patients was 28.2 ± 9.0 (range of 16-67 years). In univariate analysis, disease severity, joint involvement, HCV status, income level and educational level of the patients were found to have possible effect on patients' attitude towards their health and socio-economic problems. However, in multivariate model we found that only income level, educational level and HCV status as independent factors influencing the patients' attitude towards childbearing, employment problems, occupational problems, social and friend relationship and continuing education. Haemophilic patients had many social and health problems, which could be alleviated with interdisciplinary interventions to improve their quality of life. Financial support of these patients should be taken into account to reduce their economic problems. Also, encouraging them and providing facilities to achieve a higher educational level could help them to have a better attitude towards their health and overcome the disease-related problems. PMID:21651677


    Ferreira, Leo da Rocha


    The path towards a common market requires an alignment of macroeconomic policies. In the case of the MERCOSUL member countries, the observed disparities in the exchange, tax and monetary policies constitute major imbalances and impede future international economic integration. Apart from residual differences on trade policies among the member countries, macroeconomic policy disparities also reflect populism and the resulting lack of political will and mutual commitment with the regional goals...

  18. Remittances for Economic Development: the Investment Perspective

    Thanh Le


    Based on the economic theory of the family, this paper constructs a model of remittances where the migrant, besides sending money to his family, also invests in his home country. The investment is looked after by a family member in return for some monetary compensation. The model focuses on two different cases: state-contingent transfers (transfers are tied to investment outcomes) and fixed transfers (transfers are mainly of altruistic motive). As the migrant derives utilities from consumptio...

  19. Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)

    The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

  20. Role Of FDI In Economic Development Of India

    Adgaonkar Ganesh


    Full Text Available FDI plays an important role in the development process of a country. It has potential for making a contribution to the development through the transfer of financial resources, technology and innovative and improved management techniques along with raising productivity. Developing countries like India need substantial foreign inflows to achieve the required investment to accelerate economic growth and development. It can act as a catalyst for domestic industrial development. Further, it helps in speeding up economic activity and brings with it other scarce productive factors such as technical knowhow and managerial experience, which are equally essential or economic development.

  1. Nuclear power development, safety and environmental problems

    The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)

  2. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Amirreza Nickkar


    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  3. The problems and threats of innovative development of Russian regions

    Irina Markovna Golova


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the main indicators of innovative development of the Russian Federation for 2006–2013, the most acute problems and risks impeding the transition economy of Russian regions to the innovative model are revealed. There are problems of a further narrowing of the science sector, the continued reduction of human scientific potential, extremely slow formation of innovation sector, in particular the small increase of the share of innovation active enterprises, as well as volumes of their new products. The article pays particular attention to the tasks of improving regional innovative policy aimed at creating of the conditions for the formation and expanded reproduction of full-cycle innovation, involvement the business sector in the innovation processes, and the correlation between the regions innovation and socio-economic policies.

  4. Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia

    Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II


    This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

  5. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    Barry, Frank


    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  6. 32 CFR 174.9 - Economic development conveyances.


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development conveyances. 174.9 Section... Economic development conveyances. (a) The Secretary concerned may transfer real property and personal property to the LRA for purposes of job generation on the installation. Such a transfer is an...

  7. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Hafas Furqani


    Full Text Available Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM to see whether the Islamic financial system contributes to the economic development and economic development that contribute to the transformation of the operation of the Islamic financial system in the longrun. We use time series data of total Islamic bank financing (IB financing and real GDP per capita (RGDP, fixed investment (GFCF, and trade activities (TRADE to represent real economic sectors. We found that in the short-run only fixed investment that granger cause Islamic bank to develop for 1997:1-2005:4. Where as in the long-run, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between Islamic bank and fixed investment and there is evidence to support ‘demand following’ hypothesis of GDP and Islamic bank, where increase in GDP causes Islamic banking to develop and not vice versa. Islamic banking is also found to have less contribution to the international trade in the form of export and import of goods and services.Keywords: Islamic banking, economic growth, Malaysia, VECM

  8. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview


    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  9. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro


    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…


    Gorkemli Kazar


    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  11. What is Wrong with Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection Problems in the Conventional Economic Theory

    Bertrand Lemennicier


    The purpose of this paper is to challenge the conventional theory of moral hazard and adverse selection. Moral hazard and adverse selection problems in contemporary economic theory are plagued with four major aws: 1) the alleged asymmetrical information between buyer and seller as a problem in the coordination process of the market; 2) the confusion between different concepts or denitions of probability: case or class probabilities, pure subjective beliefs on the occurrence of an event or rel...

  12. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts



    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is a...

  13. Mathematical programming based approaches for classes of complex network problems : economical and sociological applications

    Nasini, Stefano


    The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...

  14. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    Brink, Tove


    The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how...... to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact...... of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development...

  15. Problems in software development for nuclear robotics

    Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

  16. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board


    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY:...

  17. 78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board


    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY:...

  18. 75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board


    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY:...

  19. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik


    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  20. Tourism and Economic Development: the Beach Disease?

    Mario Holzner


    This paper analyses empirically the danger of a Dutch Disease Effect in tourism-dependent countries in the long run. Data on 134 countries of the world over the period 1970-2007 is used. In a first step the long-run relationship between tourism and economic growth is analysed in a cross-country setting. The results are then checked in a panel data framework on GDP per capita levels that allows to control for reverse causality, non-linearity and interactive effects. It is found that there is n...

  1. Addressing Economic Development Goals through Innovative Teaching of University Statistics: A Case Study of Statistical Modelling in Nigeria

    Ezepue, Patrick Oseloka; Ojo, Adegbola


    A challenging problem in some developing countries such as Nigeria is inadequate training of students in effective problem solving using the core concepts of their disciplines. Related to this is a disconnection between their learning and socio-economic development agenda of a country. These problems are more vivid in statistical education which…

  2. Economic development strategies of regions of Russia: system crisis and new economic space

    Aleksandr Borisovich Gusev


    Full Text Available To assess the strength of internal economic space of Russia and the positiveness of the interregional economic relations, the paper investigates the types of economic interaction of federal districts by means of “predator-prey” models. The strategic economic breaks between the European and East parts of the country are revealed. The accelerated economic growth of East part of the country is predicted that will allow to reach about the same volume of Gross Regional Product (GRP as GRP in the European part of Russia by 2020. With the help of model constructions the typology of integration crises of federal districts with each other is revealed: back-to-back paralyzing of economic activity (A crisis; mutual destruction (B crisis; economic indifference (C crisis; transition of a role of «predator» to the economically weak territories (D crisis. Macroeconomic threat and challenge to the territorial integrity of Russia is proved due to the state support of regions of the North Caucasus Federal District without involvement of intro regional sources of economic growth, and due to the accelerated economic development of the Far East Federal District. The limited opportunities of the Ural Federal District to support the national economy during a crisis at the expense of export of energy carriers is concluded. The thesis about the low sensitivity of the economy of Russia to the increase of the oil world prices, and about sensitivity to the negative external economic conditions are reasonable. Estimates of the GRP decrease in Russia at the various levels of decrease in the world prices for oil (up to 50 US dollars for barrel are received and given. The package of measures on response to the threats revealing to the internal economic space and territorial integrity of the country is presented.Keywords: regional economy, regional economic integration, federal districts, “predator-prey” model

  3. A Study on the Connotation of Regional Economic Development

    Tian; Yu-jia


    <正>1.Introduction Regional economic development means mutual development and ever-increasing communication of trade among areas,forming a reasonable tendency of regional division,keeping a high rate increase of overall regional economy as well as


    Dikan, V.


    The given article examines the questions of socio-economic development of region, the necessity of exposure of priorities of development for providing of strategic management on the basis of integral indicator of quality of life of population is grounded.

  5. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    De Bruyn, S.


    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  6. The Empirical Effects of Islam on Economic Development in Malaysia


    The studies on the effects of religion on economic development and growth had intrigued the economists to further develop quantitative plausible hypotheses for empirical testing. In Malaysia, albeit implementation of Islamic based policy in economic development had been started since 1969 with the inception of the Pilgrimage Management and Fund Board (Tabung Haji), and recently with the development of Islamic banking and takaful sector; there was very little evidence on the effectiveness of s...

  7. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria


    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growth in Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate that stock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth. The recommendations therein include - removal of impediments to stock market development which include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation's infrastructure to create an enabling environment for where business c...

  8. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications

  9. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    McBride, John Edward


    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  10. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Qiang He; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Bo Li; Guoqian Chen; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Junhong Bai; Tao Sun; Steven C Pennings; Jianguo Liu; Paul R Ehrlich; Baoshan Cui


    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impact...


    Staatz, John M.


    This paper briefly examines how social capital affects overall economic growth processes and individual firm development, both positively and negatively, in low- and middle-income countries. The paper discusses how the concept of social capital is related to simple economic growth models and to the analysis of economic networks these countries. The degree to which social capital can substitute for or complement other forms of capital investment is examined. The paper concludes with suggestion...

  12. Minimum water requirement for social and economic development

    Chenoweth, JL


    There is no common understanding of the minimum per capita fresh water requirement for human health and economic and social development. Existing estimates vary between 20 litres and 4,654 litres per capita per day, however, these estimates are methodologically problematic as they consider only human consumptive and hygiene needs, or they consider economic needs but not the effects of trade. Reconsidering the components of a minimum water requirement estimate for human health and for economic...

  13. Learning to Work. Improving Youth Employability. Education-Economic Development Series 4.

    Duggan, Paula; Mazza, Jacqueline

    This volume is part of a series that is designed to promote stronger ties between the educational resources in the Northeast and Midwest and the economic development process. This monograph examines programs that develop the employment potential of those youth who are not likely to make it on their own. It first looks at the problem of youth…

  14. Human resources of social sphere in the context of sustainable economic development

    Мосійчук, Ірина Вікторівна


    The paper studies the nature and peculiarities of human resources of social sphere under conditions of sustainable development; role of human resources in the economic system has been disclosed. In the context of sustainable development the problems of human resource in social sector have been disclosed; indicators of the present-day provision of personnel in social sphere have been analyzed.


    Yeghiazaryan, Margarita; Martirosyan, Arman


    The article discusses the issues of health care system in the Republic of Armenia, current situation and development trends. Health of the population is considered as one of the main indicators of socio-economic development of the country. In this respect some basic suggestions to mitigate and overcome problems caused by the crisis in this sphere are introduced.

  16. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Europe 2004 : Economic Integration and Social Responsibility

    Bourguignon, Francois; Jacquet, Pierre; Pleskovic, Boris


    To address these broad questions: How to analyze the impact of globalization? What is the effect of rich countries' policies on developing ones? How to redefine the development agenda and scale-up the aid effort? The European Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE-Europe) focused on some of the problematic features of globalization and discussed the global impact of developed countries...

  17. Economic development, political-economic system, and the physical quality of life.

    Cereseto, S; Waitzkin, H


    This study compared capitalist and socialist countries in measures of the physical quality of life (PQL), taking into account the level of economic development. The World Bank was the principal source of statistical data for 123 countries (97 per cent of the world's population). PQL variables included: indicators of health, health services, and nutrition (infant mortality rate, child death rate, life expectancy, population per physician, population per nursing person, and daily per capita calorie supply); measures of education (adult literacy rate, enrollment in secondary education, and enrollment in higher education); and a composite PQL index. Capitalist countries fell across the entire range of economic development (measured by gross national product per capita), while the socialist countries appeared at the low-income, lower-middle-income, and upper-middle-income levels. All PQL measures improved as economic development increased. In 28 of 30 comparisons between countries at similar levels of economic development, socialist countries showed more favorable PQL outcomes. PMID:3706593

  18. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.


    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  19. Longevity, Capital Formation and Economic Development

    Zhang Qiong


    Many researchers have concluded that longer life expectancies prompt increased investment in education, as a pro- longed labor supply raises the rate of return on education. Besides explaining the empirical evidence behind this conclusion (at an absolute level), there is another issue to be discussed: does time spent studying and working increase proportionally with higher longevity? Building on an extended life-cycle model, this paper shows that prolonged life expectancy will cause individuals to increase their time in education but may not warrant rises in labor input. Later we show that higher improvement rate of longevity rather than initial life expectancy will promote economic growth, even we exclude the mechanism of human capital formation, and only consider growth effects of higher improvement rate of life expectancy from physical capital investment.

  20. Roles of airships in economic development

    Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.


    It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

  1. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    Doroshenko, Valentina


    The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-eco...

  2. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

  3. Essays on Political Economy and Economic Development

    I. Lyubimov (Ivan)


    markdownabstract__The spillover of information from more developed economies to the less developed ones is of key importance for sustainable transition towards higher living standards in emerging societies. The amount and type of essential information which is transferred to developing world is far

  4. Predictor-Corrector Primal-Dual Interior Point Method for Solving Economic Dispatch Problems: A Postoptimization Analysis

    Antonio Roberto Balbo


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a predictor-corrector primal-dual interior point method which introduces line search procedures (IPLS in both the predictor and corrector steps. The Fibonacci search technique is used in the predictor step, while an Armijo line search is used in the corrector step. The method is developed for application to the economic dispatch (ED problem studied in the field of power systems analysis. The theory of the method is examined for quadratic programming problems and involves the analysis of iterative schemes, computational implementation, and issues concerning the adaptation of the proposed algorithm to solve ED problems. Numerical results are presented, which demonstrate improvements and the efficiency of the IPLS method when compared to several other methods described in the literature. Finally, postoptimization analyses are performed for the solution of ED problems.

  5. Collaboration in Local Economic Development: The Case of Toledo

    Neil Reid


    Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.

  6. Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework

    Yahua Wang; Angang Hu


    Based on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and in other countries. The results show that since China's reform and opening up, knowledge, international, human and physical capital have grown rapidly, with speeds of growth higher than that of economic growth. As the five types of capital have all increased at varying paces, the savings level of total capital in China has quadrupled in 25 years and overtook that of the USA in the 1990s. The changes in the five types of capital and total capital reveal that there are progressively multiple driving forces behind China's rapid economic development. Implications for China's long-term economic development are thereby raised.

  7. The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Md. Anowar H. Bhuiyan; C. Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Islam, R.


    Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the...


    L. Kyrylenko


    Approaches to understanding the nature of the process of socialization of the economic system, appearing to be an effective catalyst in the transformation of an active subject, who gets the power to regulate social and economic processes in accordance for their own purposes, conditions and development needs; approaches to the analysis of problems of adaptation the national economy to the requirements of the postindustrial society, the basic idea of national socialization policy is to be aware...

  9. Organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social development of Donetsk city

    Anisimov, A.; Dorofeyeva, A.


    Article analyzes the organizational structure and the interaction between the participants of the formation of the program of socio-economic development of Donetsk city, systematizes their functions, identifies problems and to substantiates directions of organizational interaction of responsible executives and program coordinators. The main result is the set of regulations and recommendations for the creation of organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social de...

  10. Economic Growth——"Sound and Rapid" Development



    Sound and rapid development is an intrinsic requirement in the implementation of the "scientific outlook on development" and represents an important change in the concept of economic development. This article, reviews past achievements under the guidance of "rapid and sound" development, and brings to light the reasons why we need to pursue "sound and rapid" development and how it can be achieved.

  11. Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine

    Sobolev Volodymyr M.


    Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

  12. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.


    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  13. Financial development and economic growth : views and agenda

    Ross Levine


    The author argues that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive first order relationship between financial development and economic growth. There is evidence that the financial development level is a good predictor of future rates of economic growth, capital accumulation, and technological change. Moreover, cross-country, case-style, industry level and firm-level analysis document extensive periods when financial development crucially affects the s...

  14. On Stock Market Development, Banks and Economic Growth in India

    Pratap chandra Biswal; B Kamaiah


    Using the stock market development indicators viz., market size, liquidity, and volatility along with bank credit to GDP ratio as an indicator of banking sector development, and Index of Industrial Production (IIP) as the proxy for GDP, this paper examines the role of stock markets and banks in promoting economic growth in India. On the basis of monthly data (1991:1–1998:12), the present study shows that stock market size and banking development are positively correlated with economic growth....




    Following the concept of sustainable development and standard economics, we find innovation presented as one of the most important factors of world economic growth. Although most authors focus their research on sustainable development, this paper will instead focus on sustainable innovation. The paper converges on studying innovation from the perspective of sustainable development and sustains several theoretical results in order to show the importance of adopting innovation process which res...

  16. Economics, Environment, and Equity: Policy Integration During Development in Vietnam

    O'Rourke, Dara


    Conflicts between economic development, environmental protection and social equity underlie efforts to promote sustainable development. The author proposes a simplified framework for integrating economic, environmental, and social policies in order to foster development that is ecologically and socially more sustainable. The paper analyzes the specific forms these policy areas are assuming in Vietnam, and the underlying political forces (both internal and external) driving policy implementati...


    Gheorghe RUSU


    Full Text Available Economic policies and decisions on EU association starting with the begginig of 90’s were pseudo-scientific, contradictory, incoherent because those policies have not based themselves on modern and current economic theories elaborated and promoted by the EU. Actuality. The topic is actual from the perspective of the factors’ analysis which were conducting to delay the association process of Moldova to the EU. At the same time, those were increasing instability, disequilibrium in the national economy and raise of social vulnerability and constraint levels which ultimately increased the gap between the national and EU economic development levels. During the period of 2000-2015, the socio-economic policy of the Republic of Moldova is described more as small and fragmented steps on conceiving economic and financial instruments for the integration into the EU which were reflected in the Neighbourhood Partnership and Association Agreement with the EU. These processes conducted for the state incapacity to define its own objectives and social-economic priorities for the association as well as legitimated a continuous stage of transition to the market economy. The scope of the present article is to propose a real change of the development and social-economic association policies for achieving final objective on integration to EU. The proposals would consist in emphasizing and implementation of the EU economic principles reflected in the neoclassic synthesis and neo-conservative theories; the elaboration and implementation of a new Strategy on economic supervision, coordination and anticipation of the economic disequilibrium; achieve economic stability for diminishing the negative effects of the global and regional crisis on national economy and adaptation of the development policies to the national socio-economic conditions. The methods used for the elaboration and achieving the expected results of the study were analysis and synthesis of the

  18. A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics

    Mehta, Dhagash


    Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...

  19. Rural Economic Development: Policy Implementation in Nigeria

    Francis C. Alinno; Ja’afaru Garba Sule; Dan Ikwegbe


    The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rura...

  20. Essays on Political Economy and Economic Development

    Lyubimov, Ivan


    markdownabstract__The spillover of information from more developed economies to the less developed ones is of key importance for sustainable transition towards higher living standards in emerging societies. The amount and type of essential information which is transferred to developing world is far from being exhausted by technological spillover effect, which is extensively studied in the literature (see, for instance, Acemoglu et al, 2006). Of equal importance is, for instance, information a...