WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic development problems

  1. Teaching Local Economic Development Using Problem-Based Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Brooks

    The course was a senior-level 3 credit seminar designed primarily for junior and senior economics majors and minors. This capstone-type course offered an opportunity for 18 students to learn about urban economics as it applies to local economic development while being actively involved in the actual practice of community and economic development through a partnership with Burlington's innovative Community and Economic Development Office (CEDO). Specifically, Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's economic development division: 1. Collected data to enable an up-to-date understanding of economic/demographic trends and conditions in Burlington and the region. CEDO has previously hired outside consultants to periodically produce a data rich document titled "Jobs and People." My students put together "Jobs and People IV." Key contributions unique to J&P IV were the construction of time series based on NAICS instead of SIC industry codes and the addition of variables to reflect Burlington's movement away from manufacturing to an economy based more on the arts, technology and sustainable agriculture. This report is now used throughout the state of Vermont. 2. Developed a dataset in excel with formulas and sources that makes it easy for CEDO staff to keep "Jobs and People" continuously updated and to modify the data and charts to meet their changing needs. CEDO will now need to rely less on expensive outside consultants. Students conducted the following activities for CEDO's community development division: 1. Conducted a survey of Burlington residents on their quality of life in the historical but economically challenged Old North End neighborhood. The survey was also designed to gather information about the types of supports residents want and to identify the role played by CEDO sponsored neighborhood associations in resident perceptions of quality of life.

  2. Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafoor Awan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

  3. Nuclear power option for solving problems in connection with economic development, energy supply and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is attempting to limit the emission of carbon dioxide by the year 2000 to approximately the level of 1990 while maintaining an appropriate economic growth. The issues of environmental protection, economic development and energy supply are being considered. In order to balance these issues, a reform of the energy supply and demand systems has become important. Regarding energy supply, the importance of nuclear power generation is increasing. In recent governmental reports, the target for nuclear power is that it should account for 33% of the overall power generation in FY 2000 and for 42% in FY 2010. For the future, the following conditions of nuclear power generation in Japan are expected: (a) The era of LWRs will continue until the middle of the 21st century; (b) the number of ageing nuclear reactors will increase; (c) decommissioning of nuclear reactors will begin; and (d) the human resources in this field will continue to decrease, whereas the number of power plants will increase. In addition, the number of people who have fears regarding the safety of nuclear power is significant. Measures to address these problems should be taken and electricity supply by LWRs should be increased. Japan's basic policy to establish a complete nuclear fuel cycle should be continued, with regard to the security of energy supply and the reduction of radioactive waste. The schedule for completion of individual nuclear fuel cycle projects has to be reviewed, taking into account c has to be reviewed, taking into account changes that will be necessary in order to achieve improvements in fuel cycle economics and nuclear non-proliferation measures. Regarding the use of plutonium, a system should be established which ensures that the quantity of plutonium in Japan is not larger than that required. In order to prevent an excessive stockpile, both the plutonium recovered in Japan and that returned from abroad must be handled carefully, following appropriate security procedures. (author). 5 tabs

  4. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author)

  5. CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Keshava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.

  6. South Korea's Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  7. [Economic Growth and Development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, A. W.

    Recent efforts of the World Bank to improve global economic problems are described, issues which will influence the role of the World Bank in the decade to come are discussed, and the Bank's future role is examined. Recent World Bank efforts to help developing nations include a lending program, project investments, analytical and advisory work,…

  8. Economic Development and Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Scha?fer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Macroeconomists dedicated substantial efforts to clarify the puzzle of growing incomes in some regions of the world and rising differences in standards of living across the globe. Although the question of why economies perform differently is as old as the theory of economic thought itself, it is only since recent times that economists integrate development patterns over the very long-run into formal dynamic general equilibrium models. The models we present here consider development patte...

  9. Economic Creativity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC. The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007 for Economic Creativity Development (ECD. This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitabi” (in Persian meaning Dy-namism and Restlessness. According to this theory, ECD relates to connections between emotion and thought. The ECD includes pro-moting individual readiness, utilization of eco-nomic resources, attitude towards economic af-fairs development, enhancing the utilization of economic experiences, conducting economic ac-tivity education, development of economic thinking and development of emotion of thought.

  10. Development of predictions of future pollution problems. Socio-economic environmental studies series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the results of a program to identify, rank and project short- and intermediate-term future pollution problems. Identification was accomplished using three independent search approaches based on industrial production, environmental, and societal trends and activity. Primary emphasis was placed on the environmental trends as gleaned from EPA, Battelle, Literature, and other sources. An initial list of problems was compiled with specific stressors identified with each. Nine ranking factors were devised to select ten most serious problems from the initial list. The factors included: persistence; mobility/pervasiveness; environmental, technological, social, and political complexity; physiological risk; research needs; and bulk or volume of the pollutant. The ten problems selected by this method were further ranked in order of relative importance. The ten selected problems in rank order are as follows: (1) Impacts of new energy initiatives; (2) Geophysical modifications of the earth; (3) Trace element (metal) contaminants; (4) Proliferating hazardous and toxic chemicals; (5) Emissions from new automobile fuels, additives, and control devices; (6) Disposal of waste sludges, liquids, and solid residues; (7) Critical radiation problems; (8) Fine particulates; (9) Expanding drinking water contamination; (10) Irrigation (impoundment) practices. Five to ten year projections were made of the ten problems which resulted

  11. An Analysis of the Social System and Planning Problems for the Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash Pati; Navin Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth is tied with planning in the modern world. It is widely believed that if a country seeks to uplift its economy it must adopt the path of planning. The word “Planning” itself is, however, ambiguous. It is used with many meanings. It has been known to cover the shooting of those who disagree, or it may mean nothing more than consultation, making sure that all interested parties are properly informed about each other’s and the government’s intentions. It may involve the s...

  12. Fabricating 'Economic development'

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlow, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the institutions of Irish economics; it is structured around two arguments each of which links to the thesis presented in Garvin’s Preventing the future (2004). Overall it will be demonstrated that Irish economics was shaped by intellectual trends experienced within economic thought globally as well as the social considerations that were peculiar to Ireland. The evidence presented indicates that firstly while Economic Development mattered to the Irish economy it...

  13. Causality problem in Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIS RETOLAZA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.

  14. Energy and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development

  15. Malaria and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Thuilliez, Josselin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on the endogenous relationship between the health status of a population and the economic development of a nation. We focus on a wide phenomenon touching many low-income countries: malaria. Firstly, we propose to rethink the economic analysis of malaria by combining economic epidemiology tools with the poverty trap literature. The endogeneity of malaria with respect to households and individuals socioeconomic characteristics and choices remains a part...

  16. Urbanization and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumas, P S; Williams, M

    1984-01-01

    "This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion on the relationship between the levels of urbanization, levels of economic development and the pattern of economic activities." The focus is on the situation in developing countries, and the data are from published World Bank sources. Data on per capita income are used to stratify countries into development levels. The study includes data on centrally planned economies and on African countries. PMID:12340490

  17. Entrepreneurship in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Naude?, Wim

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

  18. International Economic Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  19. States and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kohli

    2009-01-01

    Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the...

  20. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  1. States and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  2. Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Economic Development)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    The theory we have designed the idea of economic development which remain associated with main elements that consists of two main development area, firstly is Health and secondly, Education development. The main factor of this idea to provide Human development that enormously influence on economic development which resulted from different perspectives. Many researches explained by analysis of focus variables of economic growth which have relationship to lead the economic development. In addit...

  3. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  4. Poverty ? a major economical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistent Professor Somogyi János

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the state for the majority of the world?s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this? How is to blame? Poor people for their own predicament? Have they been lazy, madepoor decisions, and been solely responsible for their plight? What about their governments? Have theypursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are nodoubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. This article explores variouspoverty problems in more depth.

  5. Keynes and economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. P., Thirlwall.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância p [...] ara os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários. Abstract in english It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates [...] that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.

  6. Editorial: Economic Development (November 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Bashir; Chris McPhee

    2010-01-01

    Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local gov...

  7. Western Economic Developments: May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRB San Francisco's bi-monthly publication Western Economic Developments summarizes economic growth and development in the Twelfth District. The economy remained strong throughout the first quarter of 2000, with an employment growth rate of 2.5 percent annually. California's economic growth rate was especially high, due to "usually rapid growth of income and consumer spending."

  8. Economics 14.126 Problem Set III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew Fudenberg, Sergei Izmalkov

    Problem set for a PhD level economics class at MIT covering game theory. The questions are purely theoretical and do not deal substantially with economic applications. Solutions are available here: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/80316/14-12-fall-2005/contents/assignments/ps3sol.pdf.

  9. Economical problems of nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign papers dealing with technical and economical investigations of the problems of designing the nuclear power plants for district heating are reviewed. Results of investigations devoted to optimizing the profile, equipment set, technological arrangement and main parameters of the nuclear power plants for district heating (NPPDH) are considered as well as the results of studying the NPPDH and the thermal power plants (TPP) economic contestability. Results of determination of the rational scale of NDHP development are presented. The investigations carried out in the GDR show that the optimal power of the WWER type reactor unit for the single-purpose nuclear district heating plant is 100 MW(t). The FRG specialists maintain that expenses on heat generation at NPPDH and TPP.will be equal, if the cost of the organic fuel is 2 dollars/GJ (which corresponds to the world level of prices for oil and coal from Ruhr) with the reactor unit power of 1000-1200 MW(t) and heat supply of 500-600 MW(t). It is stressed that in the FRG the NPPDH with a reactor of 2000 MW thermal power and the distance of heat transportation more than 20 km and the NPPDH with the reactor of 3000 MW thermal power and transportation distance more than 30 km can contest with a thermal power plant. The economically reasonable level of the centralized heat supply system use for district heating is, as a rule, 40-60 % of the theoretically possible level

  10. Economic Growth and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Ranis, Gustav

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the links between economic growth and human development, identifying two chains, one from economic growth to human development, the other, from human development to economic growth. The importance of various links in each chain are explored empirically with the help of cross-country statistics for the period 1970-92. Public expenditures on health and education, notably female, represent especially important links determining the strength of the relationship between economi...

  11. Cooperative Sector and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmesh P Patel

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive paper focusing on Cooperative Sector and Economic Development. The paper has been divided in 4 parts namely - 1.Developing Countries2.Tool for Promoting Development3.Modernization Process4.Training—An Important Input

  12. Property rights and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy; Ghatak, Maitreesh

    2009-01-01

    This chapter develops a unified analytical framework, drawing on and extending the existing literature on the subject, for studying the role of property rights in economic development. It addresses two fundamental and related questions concerning the relationship between property rights and economic activity. (i) What are the mechanisms through which property rights affect economic activity? (ii) What are the determinants of property rights? In answering these, it surveys some of the main emp...

  13. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  14. Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vannella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to attribute environmental problems to the economic activities that generate them. In particular, a complex procedure of explanatory analysis carried out on a regional scale is suggested. Based on environmental measurements already performed all over the national territory, the procedure identifies territorial and environmental characteristics and latent variables, as well as the variety of the intricate phenomena in a way that is compatible with the requirements of the national schemes for economic an environmental accounting. References are given to environmental variables on a regional scale that have not been previously considered in ISTAT’s current NAMEA projects and that can be obtained faster.

  15. Applying Economic Analysis to Environmental Problems: Opportunities and Constraints Applying Economic Analysis to Environmental Problems: Opportunities and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Dixon

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying Economic Analysis to Environmental Problems: Opportunities and Constraints Economic analysis of environmental and natural resource mgement problems is receiving increasing attention. Whether the concern is with traditional pollution related issues, especially of air and water in urban areas, or with more complex natural resource management problems in rural areas, economists are increasingly being called upon to conduct analysis and offer policy advice for meeting these needs. This paper discusses the evolution of economic analysis of environmental concerns and considers some of the constraints to and opportunities for expanded economic analysis of environmental pmblems. Experience from both developing and developed countries is used to illustrate various points and an assessment of recent experience is offered.

  16. Economic issues in the legacy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

  17. Developing States: Politics and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the developing nations of the Pacific Rim to be the Philippines, Indonesia, and 21 small states such as Fiji and Papua, New Guinea. Discusses the political and economic factors which both hinder and aid the governments of these nations. Contends that the region's tremendous potential is unrealized because of economic underdevelopment…

  18. FE: Aspects of Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Simon, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This book presents national and international perspectives on the role of further education (FE) in economic development in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Throughout the papers, special attention is paid to the need to reassess FE and its role as service provider, stakeholder, and strategic partner in view of the following social and economic

  19. Regional and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased febec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. Development Economics and Economic Development: Why do Institution Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is a complex phenomenon, at least when speaking about understanding its real sources, despite the simplifying tendencies of economic growth neoclassical theories. These orthodox theories limit themselves to identifying the necessary conditions - such as capital accumulation and technological progress - for production increasing. But, in order to explain "why" people are saving, investing, learning and looking for knowledge, we must take into consideration the institutions that define any economic system. Within society, people are perceptive to a system of general rules that provides incentives and constraints for human behavior. Institutions' and human action's mutuality, and also its economic and political implications, explain the essential importance of institutions in economic science and the institutional approach viability.

  1. STRATEGY OF TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Medvid’

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.

  2. Dependent Data in Economic and Financial Problems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Vol. 1. Praha : Professional Publishing, Mikulova 1572/13, 149 00 Praha 4, Czech Republic, 2011 - (Dlouhý, M.; Sko?dopolová, V.), s. 327-332 ISBN 978-80-7431-058-4. [29th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2011. Janská Dolina (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/1610; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic programming * Wasserstein metric * L_1norm * Empirical estimates * One-stage problems * Multistage problems * Independent samples * m-dependent samples * Markov dependence * Phi-mixing random samples Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/kankova-dependent data in economic and financial problems.pdf

  3. Development Economics and Economic Development: Why do Institution Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-01-01

    Economic development is a complex phenomenon, at least when speaking about understanding its real sources, despite the simplifying tendencies of economic growth neoclassical theories. These orthodox theories limit themselves to identifying the necessary conditions - such as capital accumulation and technological progress - for production increasing. But, in order to explain "why" people are saving, investing, learning and looking for knowledge, we must take into consideration the institutions...

  4. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  5. Economics and Development Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitiri, H. M. A.

    1983-01-01

    As the recession of 1982 has deepened, economists have disagreed on how to promote recovery. This crisis is particularly severe in the developing countries, and any recovery there is dependent on cooperation with the developed nations. The history of this crisis is reviewed and recommendations for change are made. (IS)

  6. Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yu. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  7. Income Redistribution and Socio-economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericková Beáta Mikušová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trade off efficiency and equity issue, which is represented by income redistribution, becomes increasingly debated not only in economic and social, but also in political dimension. Solution of this trade-off problem is projected into the implementation of social policy and results achieved in macroeconomics policy, with the goal to define the optimal scope and character of the income redistribution processes. The submitted empirical study responds to this problem through the investigation of research question focused on the existence of a relationship between the social protection expenditure (expenditure on policy of family, old age and unemployment and the achieved level of socio-economic development (quantified by Human Development Index HDI. The existence of this relationship is statistically tested in a sample of 15 countries. The research sample is heterogeneous in relation to the analyzed indicators, and it contains countries with a different level of economics development and income redistribution policy. Based on the results of quantitative analysis in most surveyed countries, impact of social protection expenditure on the reached level of economic development was confirmed. The correlation between the social protection expenditure and socio-economic development is positive in the case of the family and old-age pension policy, and negative in the case of employment policy

  8. Essays in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The difficulties and obstacles faced by the poorer nations of the global economy on the path to development are extremely diverse. It is the aim of this thesis to address some of the interesting questions related to the key obstacles. As such, this thesis is neither wholly empirical or theoretical, macro or micro and instead may be viewed as an eclectic mix of approaches and ideas that go some way toinvestigating the challenges faced by the world's least developed economies. The first chapter...

  9. Remittances And Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2003-01-01

    The document contains a paper submitted for consideration by the House of Commons Select Committee on International Development in the course of the inquiry into Migration and Development. It is largely a product of the author's longstanding interest in migratory flows from the Punjab region of Northern India and Pakistan to the UK, and in the impact which counter-flows of remittances have on the local economy in and around their villages of origin.

  10. Economic Dispatch Problem using Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Ahlem GHERBI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A BAT algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is presented in this paper. The modern power system has become very complex in nature with consumption of the electric power which is in rise progression and this tendency increases with the industrialization and the growth of the population. Moreover, one loss of alimentation can cause the interruption of the various production processes, and in front of consumers who become increasingly demanding by wanting more energy and better quality, the companies of production of electrical energy must thus ensure the regular provisioning of this request, and without interruption, but these requirements compromise the cost of generation. Application of BAT algorithm in this paper is based on mathematical modeling to solve economic dispatch problems by a single equivalent objective function. The algorithm is tested on 6-unit system. BAT algorithm is easy to implement and better than other algorithms in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  11. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  12. On some problems of physical economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Ill-posed inverse problems in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A parameter of an econometric model is identified if there is a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping from the population distribution of the available data to the parameter. Often, this mapping is obtained by inverting a mapping from the parameter to the population distribution. If the inverse mapping is discontinuous, then estimation of the parameter usually presents an ill-posed inverse problem. Such problems arise in many settings in economics and other fields where the parameter of interest ...

  14. Manufacturing and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Szirmai, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for the hypothesis that manufacturing is the main engine of growth in developing countries. The paper opens with an overview of the main arguments supporting the engine of growth hypothesis and then examines each of these arguments using a mix of statistical analysis of secondary data and secondary literature. The paper concludes that manufacturing will continue to be important in accelerating growth and achieving catch-up in developi...

  15. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  16. Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The ...

  17. The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapa, Lakshman S.

    1985-01-01

    Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)

  18. Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  19. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  20. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, T. H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in explaining cross-country variation in economic development. Finally, it presents and discusses three different views of why we can observe the large cross-country variation in legal institutions, the s...

  1. ENTERPRISE STEADY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ivanchuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of a modern enterprise should be its ability to dynamic changes. Development and implementation of an efficient business model of an enterprise is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Such a business model should include the availability of flexible strategies, moving plans, resources mobilizing alternatives and so on. However, despite the enterprises' desire for dynamic development, ensuring sustainability in the market environment is of great importance for an enterprise. Fragmented categorial and conceptual apparatus of the given problem prompted the subject of the research, which is to determine the economic content and usefulness of the category of steady economic development in the practice of company management. The paper presents a critical analysis of economists' views on the nature of such categories as "sustainability" and "steady economic development"; differentiation of the concepts of sustainability and stability of a company; substantiation of the expediency of using the term "steady economic de­velopment" in the practice of company management. Scientific novelties of the research are proposed interpretations of economic categories "sustainability" and "steady economic development". In particular, the author considers enterprise sustainability as the ability of a company to return to the balanced condition after deviations caused by destabilizing influence of external or internal factors. The main feature of stability and sustainability of a company is that stability implies immutability and sustainability means the ability to maintain equilibrium operation. A specific feature of the proposed approach to the definition of steady economic development is represented by the following content specifications: the purpose of development is increased enterprise flexibility and adaptability to internal and external destabilizing factors; the direction of development within the steady space borders can follow the ascending, descending or stagnation vector and different trajectories; in the case of lost sustainability resulting from development processes the company quickly returns to sustainable operation and restores its equilibrium. The practical significance is that specification of the content features of the concept "steady economic development" provides unconditional basis for a modern approach to enterprise development management from the standpoint of sustainability.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chiritescu, Vergina; Gogonea, Manuela Rodica; Andrei, Ruxandra Daniela; Kruzslicika, Mihaela; Gavrila, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

  3. Corporate governance, innovative enterprise, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Lazonick, William

    2006-01-01

    The notion that good corporate governance means maximizing shareholder value derives from the neoclassical theory of the market economy. I explain why this perspective is highly problematic for understanding the operation and performance of the business corporation and hence the institutions that, for the sake of economic development, should govern it. The main problem is that the market-economy perspective cannot comprehend the process of innovation, including the role of the business corpor...

  4. Integrating regional economic development analysis and land use economics

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Mark D.; Rickman, Dan S.

    2012-01-01

    Two largely separate literatures exist on regional economic development and land use economics. In this chapter, we argue that a full understanding of each of the two areas requires greater knowledge of their interrelationship. We review key studies of the two literatures, particularly those related to the close interconnectedness of regional economic development and land use. We contend that a critical shortcoming in the literatures is that key features that affect both land use and economic...

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  6. Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Abubakar

    2010-01-01

    The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria). Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies r...

  7. A Study of Education Investment and Xinjiang Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    As a main form for human capital investment, education has irreplaceable effect on national or regional economic development. This paper, based on the relationship between Xinjiang regional economic development and education, analyzes the present conditions of Xinjiang educational investment, the scale and problems of Xinjiang education, the contribution of education to Xinjiang economy, and how to drive Xinjiang regional economic development. Finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy ...

  8. Institutions, policies and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodko, Grzegorz W.

    2006-01-01

    nstitutions are not only created and built, but also, and especially, need to be learnt. It is a process which takes place in all economies, but acquires a special importance in less advanced countries. Not only theoretical arguments, but also the practical experience over the past 15 years demonstrates that faster economic growth, and hence also more broadly, socioeconomic development, is attained by those countries which take greater care to foster the institutional reinforcement of market ...

  9. The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Pyotr A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.

  10. Religion & Economic Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Sushmit

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the interlinkages between religious beliefs and practices and the economic growth and development of a particular country or region. In the paper I have reviewed some empirical work carried out in the recent times to explain the relationship between religion and growth. I have also tried to present Adam Smith's view on the subject and how it could be understood in the present context. The paper ends with a case study of the state of Gujarat in India, which shows the rela...

  11. Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berezhna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

  12. / Science, religion and economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Klaus, Jaffe.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploraram-se as correlações entre os índices cientométricos, as variáveis macroeconômicas e os resultados de pesquisas sobre a atitude moral-religiosa em diversos países. Os resultados mostram que se requer de um umbral mínimo de desenvolvimento econômico (por volta de 1000US$ de PIB per cápita) pa [...] ra que a ciência e a economia de um país interatuem. Por encima de esse umbral se evidencia una interação positiva entre o desenvolvimento econômico, o desenvolvimento científico e atitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconhecemos ainda os mecanismos de estas interações. Abstract in spanish Se exploraron las correlaciones entre los índices cientométricos, las variables macroeconómicas y los resultados de encuestas sobre la actitud moral-religiosa en diversos países. Los resultados muestran que se requiere de un umbral mínimo de desarrollo económico (alrededor de 1000US$ de PIB per capi [...] ta) para que la ciencia y la economía de un país interactúen. Por encima de ese umbral se evidencia una interacción positiva entre el desarrollo económico, el desarrollo científico y actitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconocemos todavía los mecanismos de estas interacciones. Abstract in english The correlations between scientometric indices, macroeconomic variables and results from attitude polls in different countries were explored. The results show that a minimum threshold of economic development (around GDP per capita of 1000US$) is required for science and the economy of a country to i [...] nteract. Above that threshold, a positive interaction can be observed between economic development, scientific development and tolerant moral-religious attitudes. The way these interactions occur remains to be uncovered.

  13. Resonances from Economic Development for current economic policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Frances

    2008-01-01

    On November 25 1958, an article in the Irish Times stated that the publication of Economic Development was a unique event, because for the first time, an Irish Government has revealed in full detail the view put to it on the whole range of economic policies by its principal adviser, the Secretary of the Department of Finance.

  14. Problems of Ukraine trade potential development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

  15. The Relationship between Credit Market Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product...

  16. Electricity use and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the relationship between electricity use and economic development in over one hundred countries, constituting over 99 per cent of the global economy has been undertaken. Correlations between electricity consumption/capita and GDP/capita have been analysed and compared with those between total primary energy supply/capita and GDP/capita. A supporting analysis has correlated the proportion of energy used in the form electricity, the 'e/E ratio', with GDP/capita. The general conclusions of this research are that wealthy countries have a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than do poor countries and that, for the global economy as a whole, there is a stronger correlation between electricity use and wealth creation than there is between total energy use and wealth. The study also shows that, in wealthy countries, the increase in wealth over time correlated with an increase in the e/E ratio. The results imply that the energy ratio (US dollars/toe) should be replace by the electricity ratio (US dollars/kWh) as a development indicator and, more precisely, by the e/E ratio (kWh/toe). (author)

  17. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  18. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kornukh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative changes of an economic component of a corporation’s activities conditioned by the level of innovativeness of all kinds of activities for providing economic growth within the chosen mission, motivation and activity intellectualization. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The study made enables stating the fact that the category «corporation’s economic development» transforms into the category «corporation’s economic and innovative development» and from this perspective all components of the latter will be treated as «corporation’s operational and innovative development», «corporation’s financial and innovative development», «corporation’s investment and innovative development» and «corporation’s logistic and innovative development». Also working out a system of dynamic indicators for determining the level of innovativeness of a corporation’s economic development and a system of motivating and intellectualizing a corporation’s economic and innovative activities is a direction for further research.

  19. The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Erber, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

  20. Dificultades de la gobernanza del desarrollo económico en el entorno regional de Medellín / Les difficultés de la gouvernance du développement économique dans la région nord de la ville de Medellín / Governance Problems Related to Economic Development in Medellín's Periphery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Polanco.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La perennidad del páramo del entorno regional de Medellín es un problema de gobernanza del desarrollo económico. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar las dificultades de esta gobernanza. Las primeras conciernen a la relación entre desarrollo económico y protección ambiental. Las segundas, tie [...] nen que ver con la institucionalización de reglas de juego entre actores gubernamentales. Se consideran elementos teóricos de la nueva geografía económica y del neoinstitucionalismo, partiendo de los resultados de un análisis espacial multiobjetivo. Se observa que la gobernanza es sensible al efecto de aglomeración económica, pues presenta mayores dificultades técnicas conforme se está más cerca de la ciudad. Finalmente, las dificultades políticas radican en reglas de juego excluyentes, como consecuencia de una lógica de proyecto burocrática. Abstract in english Conservation efforts aimed at preserving forest resources in the Páramo (moor) System of the northern periphery of Medellín is a territorial governance problem related to economic development. The scope of this article is to identify technical and political difficulties of governance. Technical diff [...] iculties concern the relationship between economic development and environmental preservation. Political difficulties have to do with the institutionalization of rules between government actors. This study uses a New Economic Geography and Neoinstitutionalism approach and applies a Multi-objective Spatial Analysis. Results suggest that technical difficulties of governance are affected by economic agglomeration effects, increasing as territories get closer to the city. Finally, the tenets of the bureaucratic project promote non-inclusive political rules.

  1. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  2. Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

  3. The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane J. Baele

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

  4. The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terwase Shabu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side, it is an impediment to economic development of most nations. This paper correlates urbanization with economic development indicators of developing countries and concludes that there is weak relationship between urban growth and economic development in developing countries. To further the understanding of this relationship, the study also compares the economic situation of urban and rural areas which shows that, it was better in the cities.

  5. A Causal Relationship between Financial Market Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial market development and economic growth for United Kingdom for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on...

  6. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  7. Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework for Various Types of Economic Thermal Power Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Subramanian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a single execution. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving economic load dispatch problem, combined economic and emission dispatch problem, multiarea economic dispatch problem and economic dispatch problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed methodology is tested with different scale of power systems. The generating unit operational constraints are also considered. The simulation results obtained by proposed methodology for various economic dispatch problems are compared with previous literatures in terms of solution quality. Numerical simulation results indicate an improvement in total cost saving and hence the superiority of the proposed method is also revealed for economic dispatch problems.

  8. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  9. Economics 201B: Game Theory Problem Set #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Levine

    Problem set for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. This set of questions focuses on Bayesian Games and mechanism design, specifically, sequentiality, signaling, the Beer-Quiche game, the Hold Up Problem, the Revelation Principle and the Principle-Agent Problem.

  10. BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE REGION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshunetlev A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines

  11. THE ROLE OF ART AND CULTURE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. KESHAVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual

  12. Problems of strategic municipal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchaikovskaja Nina Vladimirovna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of implementing the development strategy of the municipality. Tools are implementing municipal policies. The main problems of transition to a balanced scorecard for strategic development

  13. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir SAYAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  14. The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Terwase Shabu

    2010-01-01

    The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side,...

  15. Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Aristidis; Tsanos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD) algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB) problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission...

  16. Problems facing developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  17. Does Economic Growth Promote Financial Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010 from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financial development respectively.These findings suggest that policies that stimulate economic growth and human capitaldevelopment as well as keep inflation rates at low levels are needed to improve the financialsystems of the study countries.

  18. Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

  19. How ethnic diversity affects economic Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Go?ren, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical relationship between the two concepts of ethnicity and economic growth. Ethnicity is assumed to affect economic growth through a number of possible transmission channels that are generally included in cross-country growth regressions by proposing an extended econometric system of equations to describe growth incorporates new channel variables for the potential indirect effects of ethnicity that are important in the process of economic development. The res...

  20. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  1. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

  2. Economics of aquaculture development in greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, Denis

    1987-01-01

    (OCR non controlé) General terms of reference for the project and conclusions reached by other consultants point out that Greece offers good opportunities to develop aquaculture to the level of a socially and economically significant industry. Aquaculture development is stated to contribute to Government aims such as food security, preservation of foreign exchange, social and economic development of remote rural areas and contribution to the gross national product by rational use of water re...

  3. Education and economic development : an empirical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Erich

    2001-01-01

    There is surprisingly little macroeconomic empirical research which would support a presumed link between education and development. I identify three major reasons why it remains difficult to estimate the economic relevance of education as a determinant of growth and development. First, most empirical research has ignored some of the crucial productivity aspects of education as proposed by new growth models. Second, measuring the contribution of education to economic development has largely i...

  4. Does Economic Growth Promote Financial Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Adusei

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010) from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM) estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financ...

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A HEALTH ECONOMICS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Ioan Pantea; Delia Gligor

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the link between health economics and its determinants and sustainable development, emphasizing the significance that quality, equity and accessibility of health services have on the populations’ health, with implications upon the sustainable development of a society. The concept of sustainable development, although widely used, has different meanings, being  an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Since health effects are one of the dr...

  6. Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework for Various Types of Economic Thermal Power Dispatch Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Srikrishna Subramanian; Ganesan Sivarajan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a ...

  7. National trade associations, economic development and globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mehar, Ayub

    2008-01-01

    In the post communism regime, the responsibility of economic development has largely been shifted to private sector. The increasing role of private sector enterprises introduced the new concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), democratization in business and finance, corporate culture, fair trade, good governance and economic freedom and participation. The ‘wealth maximization concept’ under the ‘extreme capitalism’, limited liability, separate entity, agency cost, professio...

  8. Fair competition: The engine of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Alex M.; Walling, Lima

    2011-01-01

    This paper questions the existing notion of competition prevalent in economic theory. It is shown that the prevalent idea of competition is incompatible with economic development. Fair competition, this paper argues, ought to be understood in context. The paper ends by providing some preliminary suggestions to economists and policy makers on how to understand competition.

  9. Toward Ecological and Economical Power Equipment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tatsuki; Goda, Yutaka

    Ecological and economical stand point of view becomes the most significant issues in electric power technology these days. There are many research works and reports on the development of ecological and economical power technology including new machines and also new asset management methods. In this report, several research results are explained mainly based on the research works presented in 2004 CIGRE Paris meeting.

  10. Conflict between Developing Economic and Protecting Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlong Guo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation, this still has the dispute. In this essay I will analyze the conflict between the developing economic and protecting environment. Through the analysis cause where can get a balance between them.

  11. Naxal problem in India an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Raj Kishor

    2013-01-01

    India, having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and being the most populous democratic country, has great potential to become a future superpower. However, in this increasingly globalised environment, India faces several threats to its security. The Naxalites has been identified as the biggest internal security threat to India by none other than the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The complex and structural causes of the problem support this proposition. The Naxal movement al...

  12. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

  13. Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)

  14. Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, Valeria; MONNI, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic growth are mainly analyzed through the so-call...

  15. Personal Development Planning and the Economics Tribe

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The experience of outsourcing personal development planning (PDP) for first-year economics students to a central team is examined in the context of a research-led university. A pilot programme running PDP as a conference for 120 students was evaluated.The process suggests that there are differences between tutor and student perceptions which can be usefully addressed, especially the issue of developing conceptual understanding.The prevailing pedagogy of economics is reviewed to try to illumin...

  16. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Muntean, Mihaela-Carmen; Costel NISTOR; Nistor, Rozalia; Ludmila Daniela MANEA

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic lo...

  17. Economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The state of Sarawak is situated on Borneo Island in East Malaysia. It is the largest state in Malaysia covering an area of approximately 124 thousand square kilometres. Sarawak’s population is approximately 2.07 million people, which makes it the fourth most populous state in the country. There are several distinguished characteristics of the economic development process in Sarawak which highlight the contrast in economic development in Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. On the whole, the M...

  18. Essays in Economic History and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Osafo-kwaako, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the recent literature in economic history and long-run development, and summarizes the main findings of the three essays presented in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, I examine the subject of villagization in Tanzania, a major episode of development planning in post-independence Tanzania. I revisit this period of Tanzania’s economic history, focusing on the legacy of developmental villages (vijiji uya maendeleo) introduced in mainland Tanzania over the...

  19. Economic development in rural Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aris, S. [Canadian Wind Energy Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the impact that the wind power industry has had on the rural community of Pincher Creek, Alberta. Rural communities dominated by agriculture are facing threats to traditional agriculture by competing interests, climate change and economies of scale. The elements of success that the wind industry can bring to the agricultural community include land owner compensation, land tax assessment, property values, green energy and community pride. This presentation included slides of the construction and commissioning phases of the Pincher Creek wind turbine array. The beneficial economic outcomes per 100 MW in the short- and long-term periods were outlined. The wind energy project has brought millions of dollars into the local economy and there is strong public support for the wind industry in Pincher Creek. tabs., figs.

  20. Solution of Economic Dispatch Problem using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED with transmission loss by satisfying the linear equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA.

  1. DEVELOPING INDIA: INCLUSIVE POLICY AND ECONOMIC INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on to study the overall socio-economic condition and the development process through the government as well banking services and achieving sustainable development through the fulfillment of all basic needs of weaker section of society and eradicate social exclusion in this agree-based, developing, mix-economy accepted democratic country to make positive changes

  2. A Dream Experiment in Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Russo, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a unique project carried out by 13 teams of four students each in the undergraduate Development Economics class during the 2012 spring semester at a private liberal arts college. The goal of the "Dream Experiment" was to think of an idea that promotes development, employs concepts from development

  3. Development of economical decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

  4. Economic and Financial Problems via Multiobjective Stochastic Optimization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Jihlava : College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojackova, H.) ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-14445S; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic multiobjective optimization problems * efficient solution * Wasserstein metric * L_1 norm * empirical estimates * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kankova-economic and financial problems via multiobjective stochastic optimization.pdf

  5. Does economic growth influence financial development. Case study on Russian economic growth and financial development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tishchenko, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The objective of the thesis is to evaluate connection between economic growth and financial development. Especially, identify if there is causal relationship between economic growth and financial development. Previous studies are still in disagreement of causal relationship. Therefore, the thesis tries to clarify this connection. The study concentrates its efforts on developing markets, particularly on Russian economic growth and its effect on financial developme...

  6. [Nutrition and economic development of poor areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, Y

    2000-09-01

    The relationship between nutrition and economic development is discussed, it illustrates that nutrition is not only the consequence of economic development, but also as one of the motive power, playing important role in economic development. The authors reviewed the scientific insight of the impact of malnutrition on disease prevalence, mental development, adult physical capability and productivity. Data on nutrition status of population in the poor areas and the analysis on the risk of chronic disease poverty population facing to are presented. In order to protect the health of the poor, and to guarantee the physical efficiency and productivity of the current labor force in poor areas, and to provide a mentally and physically well developed manpower for the future economy, the authors appeal to the policy-makers to integrate nutrition component into poverty alleviation program. Several low cost and effective approaches for nutrition improvement are listed. PMID:12520949

  7. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Menshikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  8. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  9. A New Engine of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Poole

    2010-01-01

    As our global economy shifts from one dominated by production to one based on knowledge, governments are looking for new ways to add value to the people they serve. Open Government initiatives have emerged as one response to these new economic realities. In this article, we discuss how the theory of a multi-sided stakeholder platform can be applied to create an innovative engine of regional economic development. We describe that engine, its parts, and the value that the participants realize f...

  10. The weightless economy in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Quah, Danny

    1999-01-01

    Can the increasing significance of knowledge-products in national income - the growing weightless economy - influence economic development? Those technologies reduce ''distance'' between consumers and knowledge production. This paper analyzes a model embodying such a reduction. The model shows how demand-side attributes - consumer attitudes on complex goods; training, education, and skills for consumption (rather than production) - can importantly affect patterns of economic growth and develo...

  11. Culture and Economic Development in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beugelsdijk, S.

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation consists of a collection of papers on the relationship between culture and economic development in mainly western European regions. Data sources like the EVS make it possible to measure culture. This allows the author to operationalise concepts like social capital and empirically explore the relation between (types of) social capital and economic growth. In addition, he investigates the antecedents of cultural differences in European regions.

  12. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  13. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Shivani M.

    2013-01-01

    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

  14. Technology trade in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Groizard, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence on the respective contributions of institutions and trade to income levels across countries has demonstrated that - once endogeneity is considered - institutional quality clearly dominates the effect of trade. We argue that overall trade is not the most appropriate measure for technology diffusion as a source of productivity growth and propose to focus on imports of research and development (R&D) intensive goods instead. Overall, we confirm previous findings that institutions ...

  15. World Bank Game: An Economic Development Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes an economic development simulation in which student groups roleplay the leadership of a developing nation. Suggests a semester schedule and provides a number of student materials that include a map and a project participation rating check sheet. Describes information sources where materials may be obtained for further study. (KO)

  16. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  17. Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Adalbert

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

  18. E-Learning and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Kelly; Blatnik, Stanko

    2005-01-01

    E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slo...

  19. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

    2014-09-01

    Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  20. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new development models just like other SSA countries. It has also followed many other African countries in embracing private enterprise development as a model for growth. This volume of the dissertation draws on three decades of research I have conducted into enterprise formation and management in the country to provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volumeone as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further research.

  1. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  2. Climate Policy and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although developing countries face a drastic increase in their greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation actions against climate change do not rank high among their priorities. The obvious reason lies in the necessity for them to continue the development process, which is characterised by pressing needs other than emission control. For developing countries the real problem is thus not emissions but economic growth. Therefore the key question is whether or not the Kyoto Protocol provides an opportunity for growth and thus for their economic development. The only way to accelerate the participation of developing countries in climate agreements - and therefore to come closer to the goal of a global climate control - is to design strategies which enable their economic development. The dilemma of reducing emissions on a global scale while ensuring growth in the poorer regions can only be solved if there are possibilities embedded in the agreements which can contribute to the sustainable development of those regions. As a consequence, greater emphasis must be placed on the economic development dimension of the Kyoto Protocol as far as the impact on developing countries is concerned

  3. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  4. Technological and economical problems in exploitation of coal stripe mines in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into consideration the restructure of the mining-energetic industry into the new economic conditions, financial, technical and technological problems are analysed, as well as their influence on the economic effects of the coal production in Bulgaria. Ecological standards for environmental policy are noticed. Perspectives for development of the coal production industry are pointed out, especially in the mining/power complex Maritsa East, one of the most important region for power generation in Bulgaria

  5. The Relationship between Credit Market Development and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.08%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.56% and also an increase of investments rate per 1% induced an increase of bank credits per 0.18% in Spain. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that economic growth and investment have a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate has a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

  6. A continuous convex knapsack problem with one convex complicating constraint: The Economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltenmark, S.; Lindberg, P.O.

    1994-12-31

    We consider a problem from power production planning; the Spinning Reserve Constrained Economic Dispatch Problem (EDC). It arises as a subproblem in the more general Unit Commitment problem where it typically has to be solved hundreds of times. The EDC-problem is usually modelled as a convex continuous knapsack problem with one extra constraint that ensures sufficient marginal to the upper capacity limit of the system. We present efficient algorithms based on solving ordinary continuous knapsack problems, e.g. by the algorithm of Bitran & Hax. We also extend the Bitran & Hax algorithm to work with both constraints simultaneously, enabling fast reoptimization. Computational results are given.

  7. Regulatory problems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical regulatory problems of developing countries are discussed relative to the lack of governmental understanding of a new technology, budget restrictions, manpower shortage, and organizational deficiencies. Consequences of these problems include the shortcomings of national nuclear laws, the limited role of national regulatory bodies in contract negotiations, their co-operation with utilities, and the control of plant activities. Recommendations outline the early establishment of a national regulatory body, conditions for reactor sale approval, and periodic review of the proper functioning of the national regulatory body. (author)

  8. Economic sense and problems of mineral raw economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consider the role of mineral raw recourses in the society life, historical development of rock-ore business, the areas of applying of mineral raw, economic aspects, tendencies and prospects of their development in our country and abroad. In this work also was paid attention to exhaustion of profitable mineral recourses and measures of their rational using

  9. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  10. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  11. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  12. A New Engine of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Poole

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As our global economy shifts from one dominated by production to one based on knowledge, governments are looking for new ways to add value to the people they serve. Open Government initiatives have emerged as one response to these new economic realities. In this article, we discuss how the theory of a multi-sided stakeholder platform can be applied to create an innovative engine of regional economic development. We describe that engine, its parts, and the value that the participants realize from it.

  13. Poverty and economic development of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    The economy of Kenya has been continued to be the largest in the East African region and third largest in Sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa and Nigeria respectively. At present Kenya is one of the most highly literate countries in sub-Saharan Africa. But more than 60% people of Kenya live below the poverty line. Rapid increases in inflation could reduce economic growth and worsen the poverty levels of the citizens of Kenya. In Kenya economic development is dependent on agricultural improv...

  14. Oligarchic land ownership, entrepreneurship, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinger, Josef; Grossmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theory in which oligarchic ownership of land or other natural resources may impede entrepreneurship in the manufacturing sector and may thereby retard structural change and economic development. We show that, due to oligopsony power of owners in the agricultural labor market, higher ownership concentration depresses entrepreneurial investments by landless, creditconstrained households, whose investment possibilities depend on the income earned in the pr...

  15. Applying behavioural economics to international development policy

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, C. Leigh; Stamoulis, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    Many development policies and programmes are premised on a traditional economic model of rationality to predict how individuals will respond to changes in incentives. Despite the emphasis of these programmes on poverty reduction, economists and the development community in general are still unable to fully understand how the poor make decisions, especially under uncertainty and over time. Individuals avail themselves less than predicted in health programmes, participate less than expected in ...

  16. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsing, A. H. J.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the localized nature of economic development: externalities, learning and governance. Externalities play a central role in the new geographical economics of Krugman and in new economic geography of clusters and indust...

  17. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Problems via Heavy Tails.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ková, Vlasta

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Busines Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 396-401 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/0956; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/1610 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization problems * empirical estimates * thin and heavy tailed distributions * stable distribution * Pareto distribution * Lipschitz property Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Kankova-empirical estimates in economic and financial problems via heavy tails.pdf

  18. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  19. How behavioral economics can help to avoid 'The last mile problem' in whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S; McGuire, Amy L; Green, Robert C; Ubel, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Failure to consider lessons from behavioral economics in the case of whole genome sequencing may cause us to run into the 'last mile problem' - the failure to integrate newly developed technology, on which billions of dollars have been invested, into society in a way that improves human behavior and decision-making. PMID:25614766

  20. Economic Disadvantage and Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…

  1. Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguang Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

  2. Study on the Interaction of Enterprise Technological Innovation and Regional Economic Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing SUN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    with the development of economy and society, technological innovation has become an important factor of supported the sustainable development of regional economy, it is the guarantee of sustained regional economic growth. This essay to interaction effects of technological innovation and regional economic development as the theme, elaborated advantages in the interaction between technological innovation and regional economic development, and to the problems in the development of the regional economy, proposed the countermeasures for the technological innovation and regional economy development reciprocal promotion.

    Key words: Technological innovation; Regional economic; Creativity

  3. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they cate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  4. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  5. Economic Development, Technological Change and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Sayed Moawad

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to track the development process in Egypt since the early sixties. The paper starts with the broad definition of the development and its goals, then it evolves to the stages of development in Egypt since the first five years plan (1960-1965) passing by the open door policy in the 70s , and the hard times of the economy at the 80s and economic reform program at the early 90s until 2004. Furthermore, the paper gives a deep concern to the issue of poverty in Eg...

  6. The Problem of Developing Minority Education in Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfang

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the problem of developing educational programs in a province in which one-third of the population is composed of minority nationalities and whose population is both economically and culturally backward. Describes efforts to develop such programs. Concludes that minority programs are dependent upon producing teachers from local areas. (KO)

  7. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Goran Maler

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

  8. Essays on Empirical Development and Political Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bei

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...

  9. Essays On Corruption And Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Freille, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses two central questions in the field of corruption: the relationship between corruption and some of its main determinants and the effect that these relationships have on economic development. The research presented in this thesis extends the literature on corruption in several directions. The third chapter studies the empirical relationship between press freedom and bureaucratic corruption. As one of the main democratic checks and balances, press freedom is thought to ...

  10. Human genetic diversity and comparative economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Quamrul; Galor, Oded

    2008-01-01

    This research contributes to the understanding of human genetic diversity within a society as a significant determinant of its economic development. The hypothesis advanced and empirically examined in this paper suggests that there are socioeconomic trade-offs associated with genetic diversity within a given society. The investigation exploits an exogenous source of cross-country variation in genetic diversity by appealing to the 'out of Africa' hypothesis of human origins to empirically esta...

  11. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU; Iulian DR?GHICI

    2013-01-01

    Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribut...

  12. Intelligent Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique to Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems. The results are obtained for a test system with three and thirteen generating units. In this paper the performance of the BFO is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The results clearly show that the proposed method gives better optimal solution as compared to the other methods.

  13. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

  14. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  15. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  16. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly CAREY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia?s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  17. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice. PMID:12317026

  18. Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Udin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.

  19. Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

  20. Energy and economic development (environmental implications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment

  1. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another. PMID:22403910

  2. Empirical Estimates in Economic and Financial Optimization Problems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houda, Michal; Ka?ková, Vlasta

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 19, ?. 29 (2012), s. 50-69. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/1610; GA ?R GAP402/11/0150; GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stochastic programming * empirical estimates * moment generating functions * stability * Wasserstein metric * L1-norm * Lipschitz property * consistence * convergence rate * normal distribution * Pareto distribution * Weibull distribution * distribution tails * simulation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/houda-empirical estimates in economic and financial optimization problems.pdf

  3. State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligonenko Larysa O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a wide range of scientific and practical issues that characterise the state and identify problems of economic development and ways of their solution. The study uses the Enterprise Performance Management (EPM methodology, which allows assessment of indicators of enterprise activity and opens opportunities for inter-country comparison of results and identification of correspondence of Ukrainian realities in the sphere of economic enterprise management with the world tendencies. The goal of the article is publication of results of the “State and problems of introduction of economic management at Ukrainian enterprises”. The detected, during the comparative analysis, lag from the generally accepted modern requirements and approaches to management confirms the objective necessity of formation of theoretical grounds and development of the relevant practical mechanism of economic enterprise management as a factor of ensuring high efficiency of operational, investment and financial activity of Ukrainian enterprises, establishment of conditions for increasing the economic potential of development and ensuring vitality in the long run.

  4. Problems in the design and development of 750 MW turbogenerators

    CERN Document Server

    Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    1963-01-01

    Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un

  5. Energy and economic development in isolated regions: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High production costs and inadequate supply of electricity are severe handicaps to economic development in remote areas. Costs are increased further by the low level and high variability of electric loads. In order to face these problems a simultaneous development of wind diesel energy resources and productive projects with demand management is proposed. This paper illustrates such a case in Southern Chile where present electricity costs are reduced as consumption is increased from 85 to 468 KWh/person/year. A new refrigeration plant increases the storage capacity for the small fishing activity and effectively uses the output of wind energy generators. (author)

  6. POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR THE ECONOMICAL ACTIVITY OF SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONCEA AMELIA GEORGIANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Small and medium enterprises bring a significant contribution in what concerns competitiveness, research, innovation, employment as well as the solution to particular problems. We should strive to develop a dynamic and competitive SME sector, which will contribute to economic growth, employment and reduction of poverty. The increased focus on and importance of small and medium-sized enterprises have the objectives to understand the necessity of development, them for the national economy, knowing the optimal strategies to be adopted, practical possibility to adopt strategies of innovation by the SMEs.

  7. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  8. Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R?za Erdem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".

  9. [The problem of oxygen in developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Her, P; Tchoua, R; Hutin, R; Soumbou, A; Yos, P; Saissy, J M

    2006-12-01

    Availability of a reliable oxygen (O2) supply is critical for hospitals in developing countries. The AIDS pandemic that is associated with severe pulmonary infections has further enhanced this problem. Today in 2006, even though a number of financially viable solutions adapted to conditions in developing countries are available, lack of oxygen is still a cause of death in Africa including in some capital cities. Hospitals in industrial countries have wall outlets supplied from liquid O2 storage tanks (-183 degrees C). However this solution requires advanced cryogenic technology with storage as well as transportation of liquid O2. In developing countries, O2 is supplied from pressurized O2 cylinders (200 bars) sometimes stored in racks to supply wall outlets but more often moved from bed to bed as needed. This solution is expensive because of the cost of transportation on poor roads in all areas outside capital cities. Frequent supply shortages lead to major disruptions in care quality. Properly maintained O2 concentrators can provide a highly effective low-cost easy-to-use solution for health facilities in developing countries. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process based on reversible nitrogen adsorption is a reliable economical autonomous oxygen production process ideally suited to hospitals in developing countries. It can be used to supply wall outlets or fill cylinders. Return on investment is achieved within one to two years. PMID:17286038

  10. An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Subramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Dispatch(ED problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA, for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the FA to ED for different Test Case system. ED is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Simulated Annealing (SA, Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, and Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  11. Economic Development, Education and Transnational Corporations. Routledge Studies in Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the questions of: why do some economically disadvantaged nations develop significantly faster than others, and what roles do their educational systems play? As case illustrations, in the early 1960s Mexico and South Korea were both equally underdeveloped agrarian societies. Since that time, the development strategies pursued…

  12. Quantum economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukoti? Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  13. A Conceptual Model of National Skills Formation for Knowledge-based Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Schwalje, Wes

    2011-01-01

    The movement of many countries towards knowledge-based economic development requires the transition to more effective skill formation systems. This paper proposes an institutionalist approach to national skills development systems in the advancement towards knowledge-based economic development. There is currently no accepted general framework to analyze national skills development systems which has resulted in countries adopting reactive approaches to skills development problems. The conceptu...

  14. Energy needs for the economic development of developing countries: Present status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible eyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  15. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

  16. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  17. Openness and economic growth in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Erich

    1996-01-01

    Openness appears to have a strong impact on economic growth especially in DCs, which typically exhibit a high share of physical capital in factor income and a low share of labor. In the neoclassical growth model with partial capital mobility, physical capital?s share in factor income determines the difference in the predicted convergence rates for open and closed economies. With a 60 percent share as in many developing countries, the convergence rates should differ by a factor of about 2.5. M...

  18. ECONOMIC FREEDOM – A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the ”architecture” of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals’ life.

  19. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  20. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

  1. Electrification and social and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issuancial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Economic Reform and Regional Development of Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Hatthachan Phimphanthavong

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs) reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural r...

  3. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  4. Development Problems of Alternative Energy ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Tatyana I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the problems of using renewable energy sources (RES, particularly wind energy. Assessed the current state of funding green energy market.? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (???, ? ????????? ???????????????. ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? «???????» ??????????.

  5. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prathiba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

  6. Health care economics in Serbia: current problems and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosi?, Sanja; Karanovi?, Nevena

    2014-11-01

    One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability. PMID:25536810

  7. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  8. VOICE PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATIONS OF ROMANIAN AND ENGLISH ECONOMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid repetition of the subject; c to put emphasis on the action or the process; d to convey objectivity; e to avoid a long active subject.

  9. Wind Energy for Rural Economic Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    The wind industry contributes to the economies of 46 states, and the outlook for regional economic growth from wind energy is heartening. Wind energy projects provide new jobs, a new source of revenue to farmers and ranchers, and an increased local tax base for rural communities. And wind energy is homegrown energy that helps secure our energy future during uncertain times while reducing pollution emissions and preserving our precious water resources. In fact, achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative during the next 20 years will create$60 billion in capital investment in rural America, provide$1.2 billion in new income for farmers and rural landowners, and create 80,000 new jobs. Wind energy is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, and rural communities are poised to reap the benefits. This brochure provides rural stakeholders with information about wind energy projects and rural economic development, including case studies an d resources for those interested in bringing wind energy to their communities.

  10. Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMIRTY CHISTILIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

  11. Sustainable Economic Development: The Main Principles and the Basic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    DMIRTY CHISTILIN

    2010-01-01

    This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.

  12. Financial development and economic growth: An empirical analysis for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economic growth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study w...

  13. AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribution of tourism and agro-tourism sector in accomplishment of GDP, by average made on the analyzed period and by annual growth rate, analyze that place Romania on the position 150 of 176 countries surveyed with an annual growth rate of 1.52% from GDP.

  14. Do Technological Developments and Financial Development Promote Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rehman, Ijaz; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between financial development, technological development and economic growth in Romania. We construct aggregate indices of financial development and technological development using principal component analysis. The ARDL bounds testing approach shows the presence of cointegration between financial development, technological development and economic growth. Financial development and technological development contribute to economic growth. Moreover, financial developmen...

  15. What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
    slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
    Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

  16. CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BARNA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital markets play an important role in the economic development of emerging capital markets. Well functioning markets insure that both corporations and investors get or receive fair prices for their securities. In the literature on endogenous growth, the link between capital markets development and economic growth has received much attention. Thispaper examines the correlation between capital market development and economic growth in Romania using a regression function. The results show that the capital market development is positively correlated with economic growth, with feed-back effect, but the strongest link is from economic growth to capital market, suggesting that financial development follows economic growth, economic growth determining financial institutions to change and develop.

  17. Is Economic Growth Criminogenic for Firms In Developing Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have explored the relationship between economy level crime rates or individual level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms which is an important issue especially for developing economies. Using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries we find that economic growth has a negative effect on crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the rela...

  18. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

  20. 77 FR 6517 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...Docket No. 120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...

  1. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ECONOMIC SECTOR IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAL ALIN-MIHAI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available the economic sector plays an important role in the development of the local economy. Local economic development is also a continuous and complex process of planning and implementing strategic programmes and sustainable development policies for the purpose of improving the quality of life of the entire local community by diligently using local resources, may they be human or financial. Also, this article contains a description of the principles of local development, of the actors, factors and sources of local economic development and of their role in the process of planning, elaborating and implementing the strategies for local economic development, as well as a description of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

  3. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflati...

  4. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    A. Vazakidis; Adamopoulos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1979-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation ...

  5. Experience of Development and Application of Expert Systems for Economic Macroparameters Forecasting and Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Alexey; Satyr, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    In this article there are considered problems of forecasting economical macroparameters, and in the first place, index of inflation. Concept of development of synthetical forecasting methods which use directly specified expert information as well as calculation result on the basis of objective economical and mathematical models for forecasting separate “slowly changeable parameters” are offered. This article discusses problems of macroparameters operation on the basis of a...

  6. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  7. Natural Science Constraints in Environmental and Resource Economics. Method and Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Baumga?rtner, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Most, if not all, environmental problems of our time have their origin in human economic activity. In order to better understand how environmental problems arise from economic activity and how they may be solved in a sustainable manner, one needs to combine scientific expertise from the natural sciences and from economics. For, it is the domain of the natural sciences to analyze nature', while economics studies the economy'. In this study, I contribute to this interdisciplinary task in a thr...

  8. Economic Development in Indian Country: Traits that Lead to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Mantonya; Milan Wall

    2008-01-01

    Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC) and suppor...

  9. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

  10. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.

  11. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  12. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO2. To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  13. Conflict between Developing Economic and Protecting Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Longlong Guo; Hongbo Ma

    2009-01-01

    The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation...

  14. World financial and economic crisis and problems of social responsibility of economic subjects ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Petr A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share of shadow economy. The article provides examples of social irresponsibility of marketing in chase of profit, revealed in industrially developed countries and Ukraine. They cause huge irreplaceable damage to society. The article justifies a conclusion that in countries, economic systems of which cannot ensure a proper level of state regulation of economy and social responsibility of economic subjects, the population is destined to be exploited by socially irresponsible subjects of business, moral and physical degradation and even extinction. The concept of socially responsible marketing, based only on the growth of consciousness of company owners and social initiative, cannot be realised widely.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????, ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????. ? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????. ????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????.

  15. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  16. Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Komail Tayebi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

  17. The world economic development with the ISER-PIUS for developing and developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power as a base for the world economic development has, unfortunately, been posing some potential risks including excessive radiation and radioactivity releases from the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl-4 as well as the future risks of nuclear waste management. On the other hand, it is a fact that nuclear power is already being used substantially as an economical energy option throughout the world. Therefore, the ISER-PIUS is now envissaged to be used eventually as safe and economical power source to be employed widely in the world. The present economic conditions and future economic development in Indonesia, taken as an example of less developed country, are described briefly. It is insisted that the policy of nuclear power introduction into a less developed country is neither economical nor realistic. More feasible seems a system of domestically designed and developed inherently safe reactor like ISER-PIUS. An analysis is also made of the future potential of such reactors in advanced countries in terms of the future of ISER-PIUS. It is concluded that cheap electricity and heat are needed for the economic development in less developed nations and for the maintenance of the economy level now attained by developed countries as well. International collaboration for the ISER-PIUS development will be a vehecle for the world-wide economic development in the next century. (Nogami, K.)

  18. The Role of Cooperative Societies in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The aim is to investigate the ways in which cooperatives can act as agents towards sustainable community development. The paper is a descriptive survey, which involves the collection of data for the purpose of describing the role of cooperative societies in economic development. The paper posits that for over 160 years now cooperatives have been an effective way for people to exert control over their economic livel...

  19. The University and Local Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MULLIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  20. 24 CFR 598.615 - Economic development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...including efforts to stimulate the development or expansion of microenterprises...assistance meets the economic development standard only if the EZ's...governance board members or staff of the EZ's lead agency...roles with respect to economic development projects expected to be...

  1. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  2. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. ice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

  3. Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

  4. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Parshyn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.

  5. Rural Economic Development: Policy Implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C. Alinno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rural emancipation. The paper adopted the exploratory research approach involving the use of secondary source with minimal primary source to generate data through questionnaire and interview guide. The paper observes that the problem is not the lack of effective policy/programme initiation and formulation but the dearth of the political will to implement; high incidence of corruption; complete absence of purposive leadership; misguided and misdirected priority; placing the wrong person at the strategic position; inconsistency and absent of continuity in policy/programmes implementation in government affairs. For a way out amongst others, involvement of the benefiting rural/urban communities in monitoring the implementation of programmes or project execution in their domain is important while avoiding the pitfall of role conflict in policies and programmes formulation cum implementation.

  6. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in levels as well as paths of psychosocial development on problem behaviour. The study uses data from the School project, a longitudinal research project on adolescents that examined (problem) behavi...

  7. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market development, a similar finding with that of Huang and Temple (2005. As for financial openness, equity-related assets and liabilities have a more robust impact on financial development. Finally, government policy in terms of less government enterprises / government investment and interest rate liberalization have a significant effect on the banking sector rather on the stock market sector.

  8. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

    2011-01-01

    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. PMID:21094300

  9. An Explanation of Economic Change and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fusari, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The contribution to the explanation of economic change that this paper sets out is centered on a core of interconnected endogenous variables, mainly innovation, radical uncertainty and entrepreneurship, which current economic analyses consider only in part and separately, sometimes as endogenous but for the most as exogenous. The article (and the formalized model) suppose that the functioning of the economy is not disturbed by the operation of pathological factors mainly concer...

  10. On Dictatorship, Economic Development and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Artige, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to account for varying economic performances and political stability under dictatorship. We argue that economic welfare and social order are the contemporary relevant factors of political regimes' stability. Societies with low natural level of social order tend to tolerate predatory behavior from dictators in exchange of a provision of civil peace. The fear of anarchy may explain why populations are locked in the worst dictatorships. In contrast, in societies enjoying a relati...

  11. Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, S.; Bote, M.; Meadows, R.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

  12. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  13. Financial development and economic growth:a panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter). Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27), and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel dat...

  14. Social change through integrated social and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, A.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve years into democracy, South Africa is still facing deep-seated social and economic inequalities. The expanding divide between the rich and the poor emphasises the sharp division between the modern economy and the marginalised second economy, which characterises the two worlds in South Africa. South Africa’s macroeconomic policy fosters economic growth, which is essential for socio-economic development, but at the same time it also highlights the challenges required for development, w...

  15. The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nazura Abdul Manap; Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of socie...

  16. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  17. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanovi? Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  18. Economics and the refinery's CO2 emissions allocation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of a market for CO2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (authornished products should be subject. (author)

  19. Economism

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, P.

    2010-01-01

    Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

  20. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  1. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  2. Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Lira-Olivares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficiesThe Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

  3. / METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

  4. Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

  5. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  6. Historical development of radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)

  7. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development

  8. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  9. Regional Integration in Southern African Development Community.Politics Versus Economics : Politics versus Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Annick

    2009-01-01

    Regional integration has gained keen drive since the 1980s throughout the world. Political and economic considerations complement each other in any kind of process; yet classical economic integration theory would advocate that regional integration is an economic process occurring largely as a result of greater interaction between neighboring states, functioning almost like a kind of invisible hand. This theory is based on the historical example of the development of the European Union, yet it...

  10. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  11. Cumulative Estimate of the Ukrainian Regional Economical Development Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Atamaniuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels. The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH;• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH;• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH.The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.

  12. Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the eva mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  13. The Empirical Effects of Islam on Economic Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ahmad Wan Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the effects of religion on economic development and growth had intrigued the economists to further develop quantitative plausible hypotheses for empirical testing. In Malaysia, albeit implementation of Islamic based policy in economic development had been started since 1969 with the inception of the Pilgrimage Management and Fund Board (Tabung Haji, and recently with the development of Islamic banking and takaful sector; there was very little evidence on the effectiveness of such policy that had been reported by the researchers over the last 40 years. This study was to fill the gap and to review the previous research findings on relationship between Islam and economic development. The objective was to investigate the empirical effects of Islam on economic development in Malaysia. The subject of Islam and economic development had raised a hypothesis whether there was a level relationship in short and long-run equilibria. The Islamization index was employed as a proxy of Islam. Real per capita GDP is used as the indicator of economic development. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL approach was utilized for empirical analyses based on 42-year dataset from 1969 to 2011. Basically, the results from the cointegration analyses using ARDL approach suggested that Islam, as a religion of the population, had a significant effect on economic development in Malaysia.

  14. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  15. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  16. Mineral development prospects of the Indochina area: Potential exceeds problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reform is under way in several nations within the Indochina area to stimulate economic growth and foreign investment. Though once forbidden, participation by foreign companies in mining exploration and development activities in Myanmar, Kampuchea, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam is now being solicited by the respective governments. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of mineral and energy resources in the region and outlines possible development scenarios based on economic policies, financial and infrastructural constraints and industry interest. The investment climates for resource-related projects are assessed qualitatively by country. Clearly, the long-term development potential of mineral and energy resources in the Indochina area is large, and the potential gains outweigh any of today's problems. (author). 34 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs

  17. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications of factors of economic development an improved classification of the driving forces of advancing national economic development was offered, the basis of which systemically factors amount. It was proved that the optimistic scenario of socio-economic development of Ukraine can be based only on the economic model of advancing development, which should take into account the non renewable resources, based on the rapid establishment of mechanisms for high-tech export-oriented economy, which is the driving force of intellectual resources, cultural values, and creative energy. Guenon-factor of advancing economic development is defined. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Guenon-factor concentrates the cause of changes in the system state and can be represented by two levels depending on the degree of objectivity and distance from the system itself. The studies presented an opportunity to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. Each factor of the formed registry was described by a brief characteristic or feature showing its impact on economic development. Likely Guenon-factor is characterized by variability, however, still forms the initial system-factors in the study of which are seen as the prospect for further research.

  18. ARTICLE REVIEW THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  19. Modelling Influence of Fiscal Policy upon Economic Development ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Mar?ya M.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises a macro-economic model, which describes dynamics of influence of fiscal load upon economic development of Ukraine. Parameters of the model are calculated on the basis of statistical data for 2000 – 2012. The article analyses fiscal load of Ukraine: its optimal level for economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. It assesses and compares calculations of the taxation load, traces its dynamics and compares results with analogous indicators of the developed countries of the world. It analyses prospects of application of the proposed approach for forecasting development of the national economy.? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? 2000 – 2012 ??. ?????????? ????????? ??????. ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????: ?? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 19,29% ???. ????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????. ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????.

  20. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES : PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kotur, Mrutyunjaya B.; Ningappa N; Arabagonda

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are not made but they grow. Libraries are considered to be the heart of educational institutions. They play very important role in teaching and learning environment process. This paper highlights problems of collection development in library.”

  1. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahibul Ahyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  2. Socio-economic problems of returning migrants' reintegration in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Tukhashvili, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    The present work of research reveals that despite an economic revival, the labour market infrastructure in Georgia and the cost of labour force do not contribute to any reduction in labour emigration. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on the facilitation of return migration back to the homeland and the socio-economic efficiency of this process. The results of the sampling survey of return migrants in the capital of Georgia and two large industrial cities – Kutaisi and Rustavi – show tha...

  3. The Problem of Methodological Pluralism in Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Methodological pluralism advocates balanced consideration of multiple research methods. The concept rests upon the necessity of choice in the absence of conclusive principles to guide the preference of method. Ecological economics, however, appears to be engaging in a different conception creating confusion as to the scope for intellectual openness. This paper offers clarifications for this concept and a critique. Ecological economics advances a coherent theory crafted along its biophysical w...

  4. A Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C. L.; Khamkaew, T.; Mcaleer, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    The significant impact of international tourism in stimulating economic growth is especially important from a policy perspective. For this reason, the relationship between international tourism and economic growth would seem to be an interesting empirical issue. In particular, if there is a causal link between international tourism demand and economic growth, then appropriate policy implications may be developed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether tourism specialization is im...

  5. Theory, General Equilibrium, and Political Economy in Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2010-01-01

    I discuss the role of economic theory in empirical work in development economics with special emphasis on general equilibrium and political economy considerations. I argue that economic theory plays (should play) a central role in formulating models, estimates of which can be used for counterfactual and policy analysis. I discuss why counterfactual analysis based on microdata that ignores general equilibrium and political economy issues may lead to misleading conclusions. I illustrate the mai...

  6. Minimum water requirement for social and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Chenoweth, Jl

    2008-01-01

    There is no common understanding of the minimum per capita fresh water requirement for human health and economic and social development. Existing estimates vary between 20 litres and 4,654 litres per capita per day, however, these estimates are methodologically problematic as they consider only human consumptive and hygiene needs, or they consider economic needs but not the effects of trade. Reconsidering the components of a minimum water requirement estimate for human health and for economic...

  7. Aboriginal Community Economic Development: Overcoming Barriers to Aboriginal Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mcbride, John Edward

    2004-01-01

    Aboriginal entrepreneurs are key to building a healthy economy on-reserve, providing jobs, and slowing the outflow of money and young people who are leaving to look for economic opportunities. This study explores the question: how can Aboriginal communities foster a supportive climate for Aboriginal entrepreneurs and business startup? The literature review finds a high degree of compatibility between the characteristics and strategies of community economic development and Aboriginal economic ...

  8. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Valli; Donatella Saccone

    2009-01-01

    The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetra...

  9. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan EKMEKÇ?O?LU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

  10. Review of principles of economic development - will this be enough to reverse the enviromental loss?

    OpenAIRE

    Vyniarchuk, N.

    2012-01-01

    All in all, we expect integration of sustainable development principles into state policies to force governments be more accurate in their prediction of adverse effects the further progress may possibly bring. At the same time we believe that ecology alone, deprived from economic research and analysis, is unlikely to cope with environmental problems on its own the same as international economics without environmental restriction and limitations will probably lead to complete devastation and d...

  11. Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children's cognitive and emotional development in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Huerta, Maria Carmen

    2008-01-01

    This study uses data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study to examine the extent to which economic circumstances in infancy and mother's mental well-being are associated with children's cognitive development and behaviour problems at age 3 years, and what part parenting behaviours and attitudes play in mediating these factors. The analyses derived from Structural Equation Modelling show that economic deprivation and maternal depression separately and collectively diminish the cognitive and emot...

  12. The Study of Poverty as a Deterrent to Economic Development of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey A. Surkov

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to an actual problem of poverty in Russia. Availability of poverty constrains economic development of Russia, because reduces economic activity of its inhabitants. Poverty separation by types is given. Based on surveys of different kinds dependencies poverty “poverty equation” built. The difference between the right and left parts of this equation shows the degree of social tension. Dependence of this tension on the time was obtained, and a comparison with significant event...

  13. Local economic development in the Emfuleni municipal area : a critical analysis / Lennard Clifford van Vuren

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vuren, Lennard Clifford

    2003-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on local economic development (LED) by the South African government, given the paradigm shift away from local government being viewed as simply delivery agents to the concept of developmental local government. LED is essentially an ongoing process, based on local initiatives and driven by local stakeholders (especially the local government) to stimulate economic activity and to create jobs in a specific locality. The structural weaknesses and problems...

  14. An Applied Using Local Wisdom to Making Ironware for Community Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chalor Yaekkhoksung; Songkoon Chantachon; Prasopsuk Ritthidet

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Arts and craft were important for economics and society of northeastern people in Thailand: For all that, local wisdom to make ironware lack interest from society. This research aimed to an applied using local wisdom to make ironware for community economic development. Approach: Research method was a qualitative research which studied populations who lived in 5 provinces: Khai village, Chaiyaphum; Pai village, Buriram province; Muang Wan village, Khonkaen province; Phon vil...

  15. The Role of Home Stay for Ecotourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Md Anowar H.; Siwar, C.; Ismail, Shaharuddin M.; Islam, R.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the...

  16. The analysis of economic development and forecasting of info-communications development in the Republic of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamno Armand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of the Republic of Cameroon at the present time is analyzed. The dependence between the level of economy development and the level of info-communication development is shown. The problems inter-fering an output of the Republic of Cameroon on the modern level in the field of info-communications are considered. It is stated that Cameroon is going through scientific and technical and information revolution which has already distinctly changed the conditions and the way of economic development of the country.

  17. Evaluation of Rural Economic and Social Development Level in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Guo-jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the background of urban and reral balanced development, in order to promote the understanding for rural development in Chongqing , and this article evaluated its economic and social development. Based on the development status of Chongqing's urban and rural areas, we set the indicators system of evaluation for Chongqing rural economic and social development, and prove its reason through the factor analysis and gray relational analysis. Finally we get the composite score and ranking of each district. Taking cluster analysis to composite scores and correlation analysis with per capita investment in fixed assets, road density and the economic pattern,and also taking hierarchical display, we get three levels area of rural development status, and prove that it is correct to increase investment and build infrastructure and make a rational economic distribution. It also shows that , for every regional rural economic and social development states, an hour economic areas is better than the northeast of Chongqing ,and the northeast of Chongqing is better than the southest of Chongqing overall. Finally, we try to explore some overall measures for superior areas such as an hour economic area, Wanzhou district and poor areas , the northeast and the southeast of Chongqing and Tongnan county in the west edge.

  18. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can s...

  19. The Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Anyanga Musamali; Nyamongo, Esman M.; Moyi, Eliud D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Itpresents evidence on a cross section of 50 African countries whose data is available for theperiod 1980-2008. Two proxies of financial development are employed: the ratio of credit tothe private sector to total GDP and the ratio of broad money (M2) to total GDP. We establisha positive relationship between financial development and economic growth. However, wefind that the relationship between private sec...

  20. Does Rural Financial Development Spur Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Sani Ibrahim, Saifullahi

    2013-01-01

    Robust economic development is not possible without financial deepening more especially in rural community where vast majority of the populace of Less Developed Countries (LDCs) resides. This paper analyses the impact of rural financial development on economic growth of Nigeria. The study uses time series data covering 1980 to 2011 periods paving the way for the application of Johansen and Juselius model of cointegration to detect the long-run relation among the variables in question. Accordi...

  1. Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Tichaona Zivengwa; Joseph Mashika; Bokosi, Fanwell K.; Tendai Makova

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the v...

  2. RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORINA-GEANINA M?RG?RIT (ST?NESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.

  3. SCREENWRITING FORECASTING OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS’S DEVELOPMENT ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ??????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko A. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodological approaches to screenwriting predicting complex economic processes based on the systemic nature of the study. This article presents some of the approaches to the construction of scenarios, such as the imitation modeling of economic processes and expert approach allowing obtaining long term scenarios based on global patterns of development

  4. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

  5. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  6. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization with 29 Member countries from North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific area. The OECD serves as a "forum for governments of the industrialized democracies to study and formulate the best policies possible in all economic and social spheres." Content is organized into activity sections such as development and co-operation, economics, environmental issues, transition economies, trade and transport. Within each activity, visitors can usually find related publications. The OECD site features a news and events page highlighting the latest OECD developments, and a guide to free on-line documents sorted by activity.

  7. Population Growth and Economic and Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    All evidence shows that fast population growth slows development in the developing countries. It is the combination of social development and family planning that is so powerful in reducing fertility. Governments must act now. (RM)

  8. REMMITTANCES, BANKING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN FIJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janesh Sami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of remittances and economic growth in banking sector development in Fiji using annual data from 1980-2010. This study finds evidence of long run relationship between banking sector development, remittances and economic growth using bounds testing procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001. In addition, our causality analysis based on vector error correction model (VECM and Toda Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test (1995 suggest that there is causality from economic growth and remittances to banking sector development. The study indicates that remittances inflows may not be only important for economic growth but also for development of banking sector. It is thus, important for policymakers to ensure that remittances flow through formal channels.

  9. Economic-Mathematical Modeling of Social and Environmental Risks Management of Projects of Urbanized Territories Development

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Dmitrievich Murzin; Tatiana Yurievna Anopchenko

    2014-01-01

    The article covers the problem of development of management methods of social and environmental risks of urbanized territories development. The main purpose of research is a development and scientific substantiation of economic-mathematical model, allowing to increase the efficiency of risk management of urban development and selection for the practical implementation of the most efficient investment and town-planning projects. During the investigation the conditions and possible consequences...

  10. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  11. Problems of tourism development in transboundary areas

    OpenAIRE

    I. Shpylovyy

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of tourism development in cross-border areas, justified the need for a cross-border inter-regional eco-tourism cluster in the Azov-Black Sea region, defined its main objectives and development potential.

  12. Initial value problems: practical theoretical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gear, C W

    1979-03-01

    Several recent developments in the theory of multistep initial-value solvers that are useful for the implementation of practical codes are surveyed. These developments are concerned with stability of variable step/order methods, starting at a high order (and, hence, with a large step), and the integration of problems with rapidly oscillating solutions. 3 figures.

  13. Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…

  14. The Problems in Sustainable Development of Resource Orientated City and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Wang; Yuanyuan Liu; Yan Xu

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development of resource orientated city is a highly regarded problem in China and in the world. By analyzing the status quo of resource orientated city, this paper puts forward the problems in the development of resource orientated city, such as economic structure, spatial structure, environmental pollution, capital and technology, and puts forward countermeasures for these problems. It is concluded that cities should insist on sustainable development in the future.

  15. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  16. Clothes from Grain--A Miracle or a Problem? Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Joyce

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time required…

  17. Economic Development in Islamic Perspective: Concept, Objectives, and Some Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Zubair

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the concept and objectives of economic development from an Islamic perspective.A few related issues including motivation, role of the state, population, and growth-equity trade off have also been discussed.

  18. 76 FR 76491 - Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...procurement method to Construction the traditional Investments design/bid/build...42 U.S.C. 3211; Department of Commerce Organization Order 10-4. 2. Revise...is located at: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Development...

  19. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  20. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  1. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  2. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko, Valentina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.

  3. Long-Lasting Development – Basic Principle of Economic Development of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have long-lasting economic and social development in any field, the economic and the other socio-human, cultural, ecologic, technological aspects must be compatible. Any economic and social development must take into account the complex nature of the system as well as its interdependency and correlation with other systems.

  4. The United Arab Emirates: Some lessons in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    NYARKO, Yaw

    2010-01-01

    Oil was discovered in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) just 50 years ago. During that time, UAE has been able to transform itself into a rapidly modernizing country, which is fast becoming a major economic hub and a key player on the international economic landscape. This paper discusses a number of aspects of the development strategy of the UAE that contributed to its phenomenal development: (i) the political system, which has resulted in a perception of stability and minimal political risk, e...

  5. Monetary systems, sustainable growth and inclusive economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Omerc?evic?, Edo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to review the literature on monetary issues and discuss how money and monetary systems contribute to the achievement of sustainable growth and inclusive economic development. The paper is based on an extensive review of literature that deals with monetary issues with the objective of building a case that the achievement of sustainable growth and inclusive economic development requires the right monetary system to be put in place which supports those objecti...

  6. Economic development and intellectual capital : an international study

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Víctor Raúl; Alfaro Navarro, José Luis; Nevado Peña, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study relationships between economic development and the national level of intellectual capital. To measure the intellectual capital of nations we have used a model adapted to microeconomic level that takes into account aspects not contemplated by GDP. It considers intangible assets such as human development, economic structure, international trade, foreign image and innovation. This model is applied to 82 countries grouped in three clusters according to the...

  7. Fast Economic Development Accelerates Biological Invasions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen; Zhou, Guofa; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2007-01-01

    Increasing levels of global trade and intercontinental travel have been cited as the major causes of biological invasion. However, indirect factors such as economic development that affect the intensity of invasion have not been quantitatively explored. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with climatic information for China from the 1970s to present. We demonstrate that the increase in biologic...

  8. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Wadad Saad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a relationship exists between financial development and economic growth in Lebanon. The investigation of this link is carried out within a VECM framework over the period 1972–2012. This study uses the VECM-based Granger-causality test to provide empirical evidence of the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth. The evidence suggests that the credit market is still underdeveloped in this country and its contrib...

  9. Financial infrastructure, technological shift, and inequality in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Ryo, Horii; Kazuhiro, Yamamoto; Ryoji, Ohdoi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overlapping generations model with technology choice and imperfect financial markets, and examines the evolution of income distribution in economic development. The model shows that improvements in financial infrastructure facilitate economic development both by raising the aggregate capital-labor ratio and by causing a technological shift to more capital-intensive technologies. While a higher capital-labor ratio under a given technology reduces inequality, a technologi...

  10. Cluster Economic Performance Concept – Present Experiences and Future Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Biriescu, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for researchers and economic development professionals.Clusters are groups of companies and institutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and/or services. Given changes in the global environment, businesses and countries are changing the way they compete. These changes are characterised by the ability of multinational corporations to lo...

  11. Gautrain: successful implentation of socio economic development objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Merwe, Carel; Merwe, Elzer; Negota, George; Zyl, Olaus

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the South African Government is to use major infrastructure projects as vehicles to enhance economic development, growth and job creation and to address past inequalities and imbalances most notably in socio-economic development (SED). The Gautrain Rapid Rail Link is breaking new ground to ensure that specific SED objectives are met. Gautrain introduced a fourth cornerstone; over and above the normal technical, financial and legal perspectives, and adopted an innovative pr...

  12. Federalism and economic development in India: An assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar; Srinivasan, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines India’s federal system in the context of prospects for India’s future economic growth and development. After a brief review of India’s recent policy reforms and economic development outcomes, and of the country’s federal institutions, the analysis focuses on the major issues with respect to India’s federal system in terms of their developmental consequences. We examine the impacts of tax assignments, expenditure authority and the intergovernmental transfer syste...

  13. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekc?i?og?lu, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The m...

  14. THE ROLE OF ART AND CULTURE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional developme...

  15. Stock Exchange Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mustafa Al-Qudah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Amman stock exchange development measured by MarketCapitalization Ratio (MCR) and Value Traded Ratio (VTR) and Jordan economic growth measured by GrossDomestic Product Growth (GDPG) for the period 1978–2012. The study used Vector Error Correction Model(VECM) to examine the hypotheses. The study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationshipbetween Amman stock exchange development and Jordan economic growth. In addition, th...

  16. University’s Organization and Economic Mechanism: a Strategy for Innovation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Loktev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sharp reducing of the government cutting of the university funding and simultaneously increasing the requirements for the efficiency, particularly in teaching and education, research and financial economic areas posed a serious problem of complex analysis of aggregate performance indicators of the universities and reforming organizational and economic relations between the departments.Scientific researches of the leading national economists were devoted to the the issue of organizational-economic mechanism of higher education but in these works not enough attention has been paid to theoretical premises of theoretical organizational-economic mechanism of the universities towards the strategy of innovative development, and that led to the topicality of these investigations.General analysis of the approaches to solving the problems of univer­sity management underlines that scientists (especially foreign focus on the study of the factors of macro- and micropositions of the universities, leading to organizational changes in the structure of universities, that led to the increase of the competition between them for receiving orders and financing.The search for new organizational and economic forms is carried out in the direction of greater decentralization and autonomy of the university system and transferring the functional load on the subsystems.The application of the above-mentioned approaches will create an effective organizational and economic mechanism of universities in the direction of the strategic focus.Further the proposed organizational economic mechanism will provide innovative development of the universities in a competitive market providing educational services.

  17. EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

  18. Stock Exchange Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mustafa Al-Qudah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between Amman stock exchange development measured by MarketCapitalization Ratio (MCR and Value Traded Ratio (VTR and Jordan economic growth measured by GrossDomestic Product Growth (GDPG for the period 1978–2012. The study used Vector Error Correction Model(VECM to examine the hypotheses. The study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationshipbetween Amman stock exchange development and Jordan economic growth. In addition, the pairwise Grangercausality test shows that there is a unidirectional causality running from market capitalization ratio and valuetraded ratio to economic growth.

  19. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Kanishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all directions. Recently improvement of commercial and economic relations between states is in the heart of diplomatic dialogue. Main reasons of interest in economic diplomacy are based on the following: globalization of trade and business, implementation of economic reforms in processes of orientation to a market economy, which shrinks area of non-market economy in the world and leads to reduction of characteristic of its closeness and self-sufficiency. Tasks which are the basis of interests of economic diplomacy also include: amplifying struggle between individual links of the global economic system, growth of number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment, expansion of regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investment processes which determine at a considerable extent the leading role of the EU, MERCOSUR, NAFTA, FTAA and others. Modern trends in development of economic diplomacy in the context of globalization are based on management decisions on different levels of structure of the world market – on mega, macro, meso and micro levels. Deep analysis of current geo-economic trends is an important step in understanding the nature and features of effective use of tools of economic diplomacy in international economic relations. The current situation of economic diplomacy is characterized by next trends: activation of multilateral regular relations between countries, that consequences in integration processes in trade and business; providing economic reforms, aimed on creation market economy, which constricts the area of non-market economy; the increasing of the number of industrialized countries, resulting in a constantly growing share of foreign trade and investment in trade balance of countries; expand regional trade agreements with the aim to remove barriers for international trade and investments; increased state involvement in promotion and protection of national interests on the world market. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The economic di

  20. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint analysis of how natural resources and aid potentially affect total output in society through rent-seeking activities. We survey the existing evidence on both direct and indirect effects of windfalls and provide some new empirical evidence of the association between aid/natural resources and institutions in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear

  1. Roles of airships in economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Turkish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ozcan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.

  3. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and bulk buying. PMID:12870505

  4. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes that economic valuation is vital for bringing, ecosystems to decision-making agendas in developing countries and that great effort must be made to bridge the gap between scientists and decision makers.

  5. Multiobjective fuzzy dominance based bacterial foraging algorithm to solve economic emission dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  7. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Maria GHERMAN; George ?TEFAN

    2013-01-01

    In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal) and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in ...

  8. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

    2013-01-01

    In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial ...

  9. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  10. Economic Development and the University: A Case Study of a Failed Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Richard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the university in programs to stimulate economic development is examined, and the case of one such program that failed is described. Problems within the program included financial losses in large projects, corruption, widespread public criticism, and criminal convictions of two top program officers. Possible solutions, including…

  11. An Integrated GA-ABC Optimization Technique to Solve Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch Problems

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sumathi; Archana, N.; P Surekha

    2012-01-01

    Unit Commitment (UC) and Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems are significant research areas to determine the economical generation schedule with all generating unit constraints, such as unit ramp rates, unit minimum and maximum generation capabilities and minimum up-time and down-time. This study proposed a technique for solving the UC and ELD problems using bio-inspired techniques like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Optimization. The experiments are performed in two...

  12. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vazakidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

  13. The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazura Abdul Manap

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of societies in general. This paper evaluates the policies of cooperatives and their programs and performances in boosting the economy of Malaysia as well as investigates the function of cooperative societies in the growth of economic development. It concludes by stating that to be effective and successful, cooperative institutions must adhere to the principles and precepts provided for by the government as in the Cooperatives Societies Act 1993.

  14. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  15. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  16. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. OTIMAN

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense) to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian) economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within ...

  17. Institutional economics – a potential tool of the research on socio-economic development of regions

    OpenAIRE

    Soko?owicz, Mariusz E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite not questioning the important role of the processes of globalization in shaping the conditions for national economies, there is still a discussion on the role of regions (considered as the components of states) in economic development. Despite globalization processes, territorial specificity is increasingly being exposed as an important, if not the primary factor in building sustainable competitive advantage.Institutional economics, with its variety of research approaches seems to be ...

  18. Neoclassical theory versus new economic geography. Competing explanations of cross-regional variation in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Fingleton, Bernard; Fischer, Manfred M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data for 255 NUTS-2 European regions over the period 1995-2003 to test the relative explanatory performance of two important rival theories seeking to explain variations in the level of economic development across regions, namely the neoclassical model originating from the work of Solow (1956) and the so-called Wage Equation, which is one of a set of simultaneous equations consistent with the short-run equilibrium of new economic geography (NEG) theory, as descr...

  19. Relationships among parents' economic stress, parenting, and young children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-12-01

    In a time of economic recession, identifying how economic stress may be related to parenting stress, to the parenting behaviors used by mothers and fathers, and to young children's behavior problems may provide insight into interventions that may best assist families through their own economic crises. As part of this study, 124 culturally diverse parents with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own economic, life, and parenting stress; their parenting behaviors; and their young children's behavior problems. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that negative economic events and parenting stress provide unique incremental variance in predicting young children's internalizing problems, whereas life stress and parenting stress provide unique incremental variance in predicting young children's externalizing problems. With closer examination, parenting stress fully mediated the relationship between parents' financial cutbacks and young children's internalizing problems and the relationship between parents' negative economic events and young children's externalizing problems. These findings suggested that these variables are important to examine collectively. PMID:24500325

  20. A simple approach to global optimal feedback solutions :with emphasize on certain management problems in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Berge, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic optimization problems covers a great class of problems in management science and technology. The classical problem formulations being the variational approach as in classical mechanics, like Hamilton's principle and the optimal control theory in economics as the Pontryagin's maximum principle. In this account we start with a general problem formulation as an alternative to an approach based on solving differential equations. We focus on creating an analytical environment aimed at deri...

  1. Monetary Policy And Economic Development In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N.Shendge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals.

  2. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary countries. This effect is more pronounced for high-aid receiving countries.

  3. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vazakidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1979-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 2.2%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 5.6% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development for Greece.

  4. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...our economy with new industries and jobs. While...development of this important industry and to coordinate...and assist in retail marketing efforts; (b) Coordinating...as needed to preserve industry employment; and ...made available in the Food, Conservation,...

  5. ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tchai Tavor

    2011-01-01

    Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

  6. Polluting technologies and sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Bertinelli, Luisito; Strobl, Eric; Zou, Benteng

    2006-01-01

    We study how the import of older and more polluting technologies alters the relationship between output and environmental quality in developing countries within a vintage capital framework. Our results show that old technologies prolong the period until which pollution may eventually decrease and cause this turning point to be reached at a higher level of pollution. An empirical analysis using export data of vintage technologies from the US and Europe to developing countries supports our theo...

  7. Role of Islamic banks in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to give the real meaning of DEVELOPMENT from Islamic perspective. Most of Muslim countries are LDCs and using the religious and social ideology of Islam is very useful to establish institutions and to bring moral and ethical change for development in these countries. Islam appears to be the only dynamic religion and tells us about prevention of interest, similar to Christian and Jewish theologies. But at the same time gives a comprehensive setoff trade and...

  8. Economic Development Web Site: State and Local Policy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Economic Development Web Site is maintained by the State and Local Policy Program, in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, at the University of Minnesota. The site provides various resources related to economic development at the regional level. Visitors may want to start with Understanding Your Industries -- A Framework for Industry Analysis, which will examine several different analytical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) that help to describe how key industries cluster in a particular area. Several examples of areas that include industry cluster in their development strategies are available. There are also "ten key principles for developing a cutting edge economic development strategy for your area" and links to both national and state data coupled with a description of the data.

  9. Economic considerations for deep water Gulf of Mexico development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the economic drivers behind deep water development in the Gulf of Mexico. Capital costs are also examined versus water depth and required system. Cost categories are compared. The cost analysis was carried out by using the SEAPLAN computer program. The program is an expert system that identifies, conceptually defines, and economically compares technically feasible approaches for developing offshore oil and gas fields. The program's sizing logic and cost data base create physical and cost descriptions of systems representative of developments being planned in the deep water GOM. The examination was done separately for oil and gas developments. The material presented here is for only oil, it serves as a useful framework for viewing development economics and technology trends

  10. Stock Market Development and Economic Growth in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichaona Zivengwa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the value of stocks traded as a ratio of stock market capitalisation. The study utilised advanced econometric techniques of Unit Root Tests, Vector Autoregressive (VAR and Granger Causality Tests to explore the relationships. The empirical results showed a uni-directional causal link that runs from stock market development to economic growth and there is evidence of an indirect transmission mechanism through the effect of stock market development on investment.

  11. Role Of FDI In Economic Development Of India

    OpenAIRE

    Adgaonkar Ganesh; Joshi V.N.

    2012-01-01

    FDI plays an important role in the development process of a country. It has potential for making a contribution to the development through the transfer of financial resources, technology and innovative and improved management techniques along with raising productivity. Developing countries like India need substantial foreign inflows to achieve the required investment to accelerate economic growth and development. It can act as a catalyst for domestic industrial development. Further, it helps ...

  12. Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Theory, Evidence and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naude?, Wim A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

  13. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  15. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

  16. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong [Tsinghua University Beijing, School of Public Policy and Management, Programme of Management, Science and Engineering, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China); Oberheitmann, Andreas [Research Center for International Environmental Policy (RCIEP), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, Sino-Italian Energy Efficiency Building, Room 1004, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China)]|[Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI Essen) (Germany)]|[Centrum fuer internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM) (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO{sub 2}-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

  17. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yong [Tsinghua University Beijing, School of Public Policy and Management, Programme of Management, Science and Engineering, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China)], E-mail: yongli03@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Oberheitmann, Andreas [Research Center for International Environmental Policy (RCIEP), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, Sino-Italian Energy Efficiency Building, Room 1004, Tsinghua Yuan, Haidian District, 100084 Beijing (China); Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI Essen) (Germany); Centrum fuer internationale Migration und Entwicklung (CIM) (Germany)], E-mail: oberheitmann@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO{sub 2}-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities.

  18. Financial liberalisation,stockmarkets and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    1996-01-01

    Abstract During the 1980s and 1990s, many developing countries (DCs) have been engaged in far-reaching reforms of their financial systems, liberalising them and making them more market-oriented. This liberalisation, involving inter alia ‘financial de-repression’ has been inspired partly by the work of the McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973) [M-S] school. This paper suggests that, in addition to financial de-repression, there has been a major new element in the development of DC finan...

  19. Universities, Industrial Clusters, and Economic Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hoda Abd El Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of industrial clusters in the development of the Egyptian universities & research institutes (URIs), and economic performance. The study hypothesizes that the large industrial clusters in Egypt are old and traditional, and have weak impact on URIs, and economic performance. To this end, we examine Egypt regions where that contain long-existing and traditional industrial clusters are compared to all other regions. The analysis is conducted separately for seven indu...

  20. The role of science, technology and research in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.; Pernia, Ernesto M.; Gaduena, Ammielou; Mendoza, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Starting with the premise that technological innovation and economic growth are interactive and mutually reinforcing, this paper argues that in order to have a fighting chance in the Asean Economic Community (AEC), let alone global, competition, the Philippines (PH) needs to appreciably ramp up investment spending in science, engineering, and research and development. To the extent that this is achieved - along with the other ongoing policy and institutional reforms - the economy could in tim...

  1. Infrastructure in developing countries: An overview of some economic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Moore, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys the main issues and controversies in the economic literature on infrastructure in developing countries. Section I reviews the evidence on the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth. It is argued that, although infrastructure may be more important for growth than other types of capital, the exact size and form of its effect is less clear than is often assumed. Section II looks at the issue of infrastructure needs, estimates of which are pervasive in both the aca...

  2. Developing a composite index of economic activity for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This Economics Research Note outlines the development of a monthly Ai Group 'composite' index of economic activity for Australia. A simple weighted composite index is outlined, covering the three Ai Group performance indices as well proxies for the rural and mining sectors using available monthly data. This simple index shows that the economy has been generally in a slight contractionary phase in recent months, consistent with benign recent official data on the Australian economy.

  3. Investments – Fundamental Element for Economic Development of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Bîrlea

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Capital market represents a important element of the financialconomic system of any modern economy and they play an important role in the allocation of capital within the economy. The development of the capital market represents the essential component of the restructuring process of the economic system. The analysis of environmental, economic, political and legal factors represents a strategic step for the opportunity to invest in a particular country.

  4. Investments – Fundamental Element for Economic Development of Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Bîrlea

    2013-01-01

    Capital market represents a important element of the financialconomic system of any modern economy and they play an important role in the allocation of capital within the economy. The development of the capital market represents the essential component of the restructuring process of the economic system. The analysis of environmental, economic, political and legal factors represents a strategic step for the opportunity to invest in a particular country.

  5. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RAMONA PÎRVU; MARIA DANATIE ENESCU

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability ...

  6. Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C. L.; Allen, D. E.; Mcaleer, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Research papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics”. The breadth of coverage is substantial, and includes original research and comprehensive review papers on theoretical, empirical and numerical topics in Financial Economics and Econometrics...

  7. The Problem of Modelling of Economic Dynamics in Differential Form

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyshov, S I; Voronin, A V

    2008-01-01

    Traditional models of macroeconomic dynamics are fundamentally incorrect. The reason lies in a misunderstanding of peculiarities of the analysis of infinitesimal quantities. However, even those types of solutions that are envisaged by the above-mentioned models are nonrepresentative in the sense of the reflection of realities. It became obvious that the techniques of the theory of linear differential equations were insufficient here. Accordingly, the scientists' attention switched to the theory of nonlinear differential equations. At the same time, balance and, accordingly, the model with matrix properties are objectively inherent in the economic system. For the reduction of this model to a differential form, there exist rather elementary means that proved to be unclaimed. Macroeconomic rhetoric - the power of the accelerator, a lag on the part of demand, etc. - accompanied by the use of a lot of abstract coefficients prevailed. However, there is no organic interrelation between matrix and nonlinear different...

  8. Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK)

  9. Multisectoral economic models for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, David P.

    1981-01-01

    A feature of the economies of many less developed countries (LDC's) is their heavy reliance for foreign exchange earnings on a few export commodities whose markets are characterised by low income elasticities on the demand side and whose supply is continually expanding under the influence of improved production technologies while remaining highly sensitive to year weather conditions. Given these commodity market characteristics, such economies, unless they reduce their high export concentrati...

  10. Nature's role in sustaining economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's ...

  11. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun Olowe, Ph D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial in...

  12. Emerging markets, industrialisation and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    1995-01-01

    Abstract An outstanding feature of the world financial economy during the last decade or so has been the establishment and the very fast expansion of stock markets in developing countries. Between 1982 and 1992 the total combined capitalisation of companies quoted on the emerging markets included in the IFC list rose from less than hundred billion dollars to nearly a trillion U.S. dollars.

  13. International competition policy and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    1996-01-01

    During the past half century many nations have adopted policies whose function is to discourage cartels and other restrictive practices. Industrialized nations led the movement toward pro-competition policies, but more recently, developing nations have begun to join the parade. Initial steps have also been taken toward the implementation of competition policies spanning national borders, and proposals for their extension have been made. This paper analyzes the consequences national and intern...

  14. Women's Education for Economic Development in Cross Section of Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    International organizations and researchers in the field of education and development have emphasized the importance of women's education for the social and economic development of Third World countries. However, women's educational levels are lower than men's in most countries throughout the world. This paper presents findings of a study that…

  15. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Rafik Labdani; Linda Slimani; Tarek Bouktir

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF) problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

  16. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is there a cluster effect that properly harnessed in an US could allow achieving a significant economic growth in the area.

  17. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    2001-01-01

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.

  18. Climatic change and economic development: equity rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with alternative equity rules in the allocation of carbon emissions among countries. It is composed in two parts. The first one provides a discussion of such rules which enlightens their key characteristics. The second part proposes some calculations whose aim is to evaluate the implications of a strict egalitarian rule. Although the changes in emissions and key indicators implied by such a rule are large, implementing an emissions trading regime strongly helps both the attainment of the target and development paths in poor countries

  19. Uranium royalties and Aboriginal economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 and 1979 agreements were negotiated under the Land Rights Act for development of the Ranger and Nabarlek uranium deposits, both located in the Alligator River Region. Over the period between March 1979 and June 1986, some $70 million have been paid to Aboriginal communities by these two projects. This paper is concerned with expenditure of uranium revenues by Aboriginal associations which have been established to receive up front and rental payments provided for in these agreements as well as the 30% of statutory royalties payable to Aboriginal communities affected by mining operations

  20. THE ROLE OF ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN MARKET AN INDIAN PROSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikanth S. Kalashetty

    2014-01-01

    Managerial economics is the application of the economic concepts and economic analysis to the problems of formulating rational managerial decisions". It is sometimes referred to as business economics and is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to decision methods of businesses or other management units. As such, it bridges economic theory and economics in practice. It draws heavily from quantitative techniques such as regression analysis, correlation a...

  1. THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF THE ECONOMIC ELITE’S DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. Shevchuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient interpretation of problems of studying the elite, which is based on the factor analysis of the main determinants of the economic elite’s development in the scientific and professional economic sources stipulated the topicality of the article, the logic of presenting its provisions and objective.The study includes two basic theories – the theory of rational behavior, which implies maximizing the usefulness of any subject of the economic activity, and the theory of the elites, as a condition for the effective functioning of a company. This gives the opportunity to determine the five-factor model of the economic elite’s development.This model is based on two triangles – the triangle of knowledge, the foundation of which is knowledge, research and innovations, and the triangle of power, which is characterized by three main determinants of knowledge, power and wealth. The intersection of these triangles allows to define five basic factors influencing the formation and development of the economic establishment.On the basis of five factors’ system analysis the dynamic model of the modern economic elite’s development was determined.

  2. Relationship between Financial Sector Development and Sustainable Economic Development: Time Series Analysis from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study empirically investigated the contribution of financial sector in sustainable economic development of Pakistan. Annual data were used from the period of 1973 to 2007. The main objectives of the study were to analyze the long run relationship between financial sector development and sustainable economic development along with direction of causality between financial sector indicators and sustainable development. Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bound testing technique for cointegration was applied to estimate the long run relationship. A stable long run relationship was found between financial sector indicators and the sustainable economic development. Error Correction coefficient was statistically significant. It was concluded that financial sector had positive impact on the sustainable economic development in short run as well as in the long run. Causality test revealed that financial sector development was the basis for economic development.

  3. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferationale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

  4. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emisscouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  5. Geo-economic development scenarios for the republic of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheshmi Hajiyeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides systematic analysis of Azerbaijan’s geo-economic development potential scenarios in the context of multivariation and multi-vector nature of the existing economic development paradigm. Methodological framework of the research was formed based on ‘intersection points’ of the pair ‘post-positivism ? post-structuralism’. The author first provided scientific substantiation of the key mono- and multi-factor scenarios of Azerbaijan development based on technogenic and evolutionary competitiveness models. Analysing combination of interrelations between events and processes (such as revolutionary, political, social, military, etc. in the triad ‘country ? multidimensional communication space ? global economy’ allowed for determining an integrative approach to formation of a single scenario for providing high competitive status of the country and its economic impact expansion in the Eurasian continent

  6. Agritourism and local economic development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Christian M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of tourism for local economic development (LED is a topic of critical importance for geographers. In the case of South Africa tourism is a priority sector for national economic development. The significance of research issues around tourism and LED is underlined by the ‘developmental’ mandate of local governments. Although tourism has received attention in a growing body of LED writings on South Africa issues around agritourism so far have been overlooked. Agritourism represents an evolving form of rural tourism which is targeted at mainly urban consumers. Against the background of a review of international scholarship on agritourism this article explores its potential implications for LED planning in South Africa. A national audit of agritourism is presented which shows its uneven geographical distribution. Agritourism is of special significance for small town economic development in South Africa’s intermediate tourism spaces. Policy suggestions are offered for strengthening agritourism as a driver for LED in South Africa.

  7. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Labdani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

  8. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  9. The economic impact of wind industry development in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities aeation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs

  10. Education for Sustainable Development in India: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hetal Pandya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available India is considered as a world leader amongst the developing countries in terms of economic sustainability and growth. India also has a growing number of literate populations due to rapid expansion of secondary and post-secondary education landscape. However, when it comes to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD, India stands more elitist to serve only privileged sections of population. A basic aim of Environmental Education (EE is to succeed in making individuals and communities understand the complex nature of the natural and the built environments resulting from the interaction of their biological, physical, social, economic, and cultural aspects, and acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, and practical skills to participate in a responsible and effective way in anticipating and solving environmental problems, and in the management of the quality of the environment. Education is the single most important means for empowerment and sustained improvement in all well being. Sustainable development is a basic Human Right and unless this target is reached with the potent tool of Education the purpose of Education would remain unfulfilled. Education for Sustainable development is a dynamic undertaking where every person has a chance to benefit from Educational opportunities and learn the life style, behavior and values necessary to create a sustainable future.The present paper aims at identifying the role of education in attaining sustainable development, identifying the problems and future prospects of Education for Sustainable development in India. An attempt is made to recognize the challenges faced by India as regards its education system at various levels in attaining sustainability. Necessary strategies, guidelines and recommendations are provided for Higher Education Institutions in India.

  11. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Nickkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  12. Development of the Knowledge Economy in Russia and Ukraine: Problems and Factors of Development ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????: ???????? ? ??????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotykh Irina B.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses reasons and factors of development of the knowledge economy in Russia and Ukraine. It justifies urgency of development of the knowledge economy, for which the following is typical: high index of economic freedom, the developed civil society and democracy, and knowledge economy. It considers problems of development of education, information and communication technologies, national innovation system, in particular, technology parks and increase of their efficiency. It analyses practical experience in this problem in the developed countries. It underlines the necessity of increase of the role of business in financing fundamental and applied research, and also activation of their activity with participation of the state academies of sciences. The education system should be directed not only at satisfaction of primary needs, but at provision of the socio-economic development of society. In order to create favourable conditions of development of the human capital it is required to: ensure innovation character of development of the higher education; create an optimal structure of training and re-training personnel for the needs of innovation economy; expand accessibility of higher education.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ???????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????????: ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ???????? ??????. ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????-???????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ????????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????. ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????, ?? ? ?? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????: ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????; ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????; ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????.

  13. 77 FR 6492 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Community Development Quota Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...Background The CDQ Program is an economic development program associated with...invest in BSAI fisheries, to support economic development in western Alaska, to alleviate poverty and provide economic and social benefits for residents...

  14. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  15. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  16. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  17. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  18. ELR-led economic development: a plan for Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaboub, Fadhel

    2007-01-01

    This paper establishes the financial feasibility of an employer-of-last-resort (ELR) program in a small developing country like Tunisia. It argues that an ELR-led economic development policy is vastly superior to the traditional import substitution industrialization (ISI), export-led, and FDI-led development models, all of which Tunisia has adopted without much success in reducing unemployment. Despite outperforming its peers in terms of macroeconomic stability, Tunisia’s official unemp...

  19. The economics and psychology of inequality and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined te...

  20. The relationship between financial development and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Opheim, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Developing countries in Asia and Africa have economically often been lagging behind the economies of the West. One reason can be found by looking at the executive capacities and the necessary financial structures. Global financial crisis has made the situation worse for many of the developing countries. What can be done to make developing countries in Asia and Africa stronger participants in the growing global economy? Will an improved financial sector reflected by an expansion of the insuran...

  1. Tourism in the global development strategy of Macedonia: Economic perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Petrevska

    2011-01-01

    This case study makes an attempt to identify the adequate position of tourism within the global development strategy of Macedonia. The paper discusses two, extremely opposite attitudes. The first, argues that necessary preconditions must be established in order tourism to have intensive development, thus clearly stating in the development strategy the priority orientation of tourism industry. The second underlines the fake image of tourism and its economic contributions. The paper brings out ...

  2. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.

    2013-07-15

    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  3. Issues of health economics in the practice of radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a rapid expansion of radiation oncology services in developing countries over the past decade. The question arises of how far, how fast and which technology should be introduced and expanded and yet remain sustainable. The problem can be reduced to a simple issue of an increasing number of cancer cases (refer S. Whelan), hence increasing demand for radiotherapy in less-developed countries while the current resources for treatment are at present concentrated in well-developed countries. By 2015 there will be a shortfall of 10,000 teletherapy machines for providing radiotherapy. Micro- and macro-economic aspects that affect development of radiotherapy in developing countries are discussed

  4. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  5. Impact of Development and Efficiency of Financial Sector on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib, Najia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of development and efficiency of financial sector on economic growth of a group of selected developing countries using a cross-country data averaged over the period 2005-2009. The results show that the impact of financial sector efficiency on economic growth is significantly positive for developing countries. For a sample of 50 developing countries the effect of financial sector development and financial sector efficiency is positive and highly significant. The ...

  6. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ? Economic dispatch. ? We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ? Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  7. Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

  8. A particle swarm approach to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED problems in power systems such as, environmental/economic dispatch (EED and multi-area environmental/economic dispatch. The proposed model considers the environmental impact to achieve the minimization of fuel costs and pollutant emissions, simultaneously. The EED problem is further extended to dispatch the power among different areas to aid emission allowance trading. The performance of the proposed PSO is compared with conventional method and genetic algorithm. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithms give global optimum solution compared to the other methods. The results obtained also show that the proposed PSO algorithms can provide comparable dispatch solutions with reduced computation time for all types of ED problems.

  9. Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

  10. Social groups and economic poverty: A problem in measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper points to some elementary conflicts between the claims of interpersonal and intergroup justice as they manifest themselves in the process of seeking a real-valued index of poverty which is required to satisfy certain seemingly desirable properties. It indicates how ‘group-sensitive’ poverty measures, similar to the Anand-Sen (1995) ‘Gender Adjusted Human Development Index’ and the Subramanian-Majumdar (2002) ‘Group-Disparity Adjusted Deprivation Index’, may be construct...

  11. Attracting, Developing, and Maintaining Human Capital: A New Model for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development," a 2011 book by Timothy Bartik, Senior Economist at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, provides a new evidence-based approach for effective economic development. This approach is designed to support business growth and job creation by improving worker…

  12. Development of Methods of Economic Monitoring of the Logistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abukhamedekh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of logistic customer service is the main advantage in competitive activity of the modern market enterprises. Taking into account that changes in enterprises working modes and in environment take place quickly enough, it is possible to talk about the necessity in further development of the systems of such phenomena monitoring. The analysis of literary sources allows to say that the issue of development of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic systems hasn’t be Literary sources today do not provide precise classifications of methods of economic monitoring. However, taking into account that economic monitoring overlaps with controlling, diagnostics etc we should use the experience of these subjects.Summarizing the review of the existing methods, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that there are no materials considering the methods and models of monitoring the objects of research. Most of the works basically deal with analysis.Relying on the determination of control methods, and also the concept of monitoring, it is possible to give the determination of the method of economic monitoring – it is the sum total of ways and methods which help to achieve the goals of monitoring.It is suggested to distinguish (to classify monitoring methods into such groups: supervision, evaluation, forecasting. When systematizing this information and also taking into account the elements of logistic service, the approach to forming the groups of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic system is offered.As the methods of supervision in the systems of economic monitoring it is suggested to take the methods of collection of information as a basis, that is used in marketing. en studied thoroughly enough. There is a small number of works, which purposefully consider the questions of economic monitoring. They mainly focus on financial matters.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  14. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. OTIMAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the crisis’ context can be thus formulated: rural development and agriculture are factors of accentuating the crisis or (potential solutions of mitigating the crisis and re-launch economic growth? Starting from today’s state of the Romanian rural setting (precarious infrastructure, insufficient technical endowment of the rural territory, villages and households; preponderantly agricultural rural economy; low absorption of agricultural workforce in non agricultural rural economy etc. and agriculture (all levels of agricultural activity are unbalanced; very slow economic growth with a high degree of weather dependency (from simple to double; technical and structural obsolescence of the capital; reduced investment and as an effect, insignificant growth and modernising of assets; low absorption of European funding; low productivity and output; still high presence of sustenance agricultural economy; major unbalance in food supply safety; low importance of commercial agriculture; markets contraction; increasing transformation of Romanian agricultural goods in a market for imported goods; price distortion; profoundly negative trade balance for agricultural goods; unbalanced participation of farms in the distribution of the profit from agricultural activities, considering the smallest portion of the Gross Added Value returns to the farmers and most of it to the traders, all these leading to a reduced degree of compatibility and competitiveness of Romanian agriculture on the European market and in a broader sense the world market, accepting from the economic practice and doctrine the fact that agriculture is a vital economic activity for society, and it represents a sector that contributes to maintaining the stability, continuity and growth of economy, and, in the current situation, in mitigating, to a great extent, the economic crisis. But, this contribution can manifest itself only in the presence of massive investments in productivity increasing infrastructure (watering systems, farms consolidation and in the technical and technological endowment of the rural setting and villages, in rural non agricultural economy, agriculture and rural development as a whole, as factors of economical growth.

  15. Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev Volodymyr M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

  16. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  17. AN ENERGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...

  18. Economic indicators of sustainable development of small towns in Moravia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana

    Ljubljana : Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, 2007 - (Lampi?, B.; Špes, M.), s. 89-97 ISBN 978-961-237-212-5 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk - program KONTAKT(XE) 17/200506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : sustainable development * economic indicators * small towns * Moravia * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Economic and ecological aspects of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 14 papers on: economic analyses of the cost of nuclear power plant construction and service life extension; comparison of environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants; processing and burial of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning; the development and current status of assessment of nuclear power plant accident risks. (J.P.)

  20. The Economics of Open Source Software Development: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Bitzer, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter introduces the fundamentals of Open Source Software, its nature, the central economic aspects and the key mechanisms of its development. Furthermore, we present the themes of the book and provide a first overview for the reader by giving short summaries of its chapters.

  1. Economic Development, Human Capital, and Gender Earnings Differentials in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ying Chu

    2004-01-01

    Gender earnings differentials in China during the course of development in the post-reform period were examined. The analysis showed that the female-male earnings ratio increased over time in all regions. The region with relatively rapid economic reforms had the highest female-male earnings ratio. Decomposition of the gender earnings differential…

  2. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  3. Impact of economic growth and financial development on exports: Cointegration and causality analysis in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Rahman, Mizanur

    2011-01-01

    The analysis shows cointegration between exports, economic growth and financial development in case of Pakistan. The results that economic growth and financial development stimulate rate of exports growth in Pakistan. The causality analysis reveals bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and economic growth, financial development and exports and exports and economic growth in case of Pakistan.

  4. The Riches of the Ocean for Humankind: Rethinking Value in Economics and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Orio Giarini

    2014-01-01

    We acknowledge the inadequacy of the ancient model to develop the wealth of nations and the recognition that both economics and ecology are the best possible ways to manage world and human resources to achieve a better wealth of nations. The rebuilding of economics and of a credible strategy for increasing the wealth and well-being of nations is today at the center of the problem of providing a sound basis for the legitimacy and credibility of public institutions and governments. If the dicho...

  5. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone GrØnbæk

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the general nature of two-sector environmental and natural resource problems and highlights the issue of two sector models where one sector imposes a one-sided negative externality on the other sector, e.g. the polluting sector causes changes in the economic value of the fishery sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can be used to describe the optimal link between the two sectors.

  6. Socio-Economic Principles of the Development of the Area Urban Housing Renewal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kosiak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The city is determined as a "clot" of many elements: people, infrastructure, real estate, jobs and others. These components require the scientific basis for new approaches in providing housing organizational and economic recovery, designed to use organizational, managerial, financial, legal and even administrative resources in the housing and communal services of cities and regions of Ukraine that will allow their inhabitants to provide further use of housing nowadays.Moreover, people who live in modern cities occupy rather small, but economically active area, generating a number of phenomena of social and economic nature: the housing market with its laws, problems of the role and limits of government responsibility and problems of local governments in meeting housing problems of citizens, and models of maintenance andrenewal of urban housing, etc., that foregrounds issues highlighted in the article.At the same time socio-economic factors as prerequisites for the development of housing sector of city and region economy in special scientific literature are remained out of sufficient attention, hampering the process of monitoring and forecasting regional trends and defining the prospects of creating conditions for public-private partnership in the housing sector. Therefore the purpose of the article is to study social and economic foundations of the development of housing sector at the regional level and the scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of regeneration of urban housing in the context of sustained development of the region. Therefore, comprehensive research on the socio-economic changes and scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of housing development are of great theoretical and practical importance.The mechanism of housing renewal should be developed not only by finding the new sources of financial support, but also by improving the economic-and-organizational and legal support, usage the strategies of development and monitoring.It is substantiated, that the change in financing of the housing system that is accompanied by increasing of the rates and tariffs for housing services for the population and by the decreasing and even to canceling the level of budgetary subsidies, increases the interest of housing businesses in the timely receipt of payments from the population, and at the same time creates the problem of laying investment component in the tariffs for the population to pay housing services.

  7. Problems and prospects of post-crisis development of entrepreneurship: a regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Fisunenko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.

  8. Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.

  9. Nuclear power development, safety and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)

  10. The history of transaction cost economics and its recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz, Hardt

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of transaction cost economics (TCE) in the early 1970s with Oliver Williamson’s successful reconciliation of the so called neoclassical approach with Herbert Simon’s organizational theory can be considered an important part of the first cognitive turn in economics. The development of TCE until the late 1980s was particularly marked by treating the firm as an avoider of negative frictions, i.e., of transaction costs. However, since the 1990s TCE has been enriched by various...

  11. Emerging equity market and economic development: Bangladesh perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan; Rajib Datta; Arjun Kumar Das

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a...

  12. Investing in health for economic development: The case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Health is an asset with an intrinsic value as well as an instrumental value. Good health is a source of wellbeing and highly valued throughout the world. Health is not only the absence of illness, but capacity to develop a person’s potential. Health is also an important determinant of economic growth. Given the importance of health, both as a source of human welfare and a determinant of overall economic growth, the Popular Health Insurance (Seguro Popular) was first introduced in Mexico as ...

  13. Fitoprodutos e desenvolvimento econômico / Phytoproducts and economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Angelo S., Zuanazzi; Paulo, Mayorga.

    1421-14-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Natural products have been, historically, very important for Brazil. Coffee, sugar and soy were some examples that prove this economical significance. A project that involves phytoproducts should be guide by three main axis: agriculture management for the plants; pharmaceutical; support the national [...] industry and academy. In Brazil, pharmaceutical products contribute negatively to the commerce balance showing an enormous technological dependence in this economical sector. The consolidation of the phytoproduct's chain in Brazil could contribute for the development of the pharmaceutical sector in order to help all domains in natural products area.

  14. Relationship between Financial Sector Development and Sustainable Economic Development: Time Series Analysis from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Sofia; Shabir Ghulam; Hussain zakir

    2011-01-01

    The study empirically investigated the contribution of financial sector in sustainable economic development of Pakistan. Annual data were used from the period of 1973 to 2007. The main objectives of the study were to analyze the long run relationship between financial sector development and sustainable economic development along with direction of causality between financial sector indicators and sustainable development. Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing technique for cointe...

  15. Innovation Cluster and Economic Development in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei; Claudia Ionescu; Simona Curpan

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework fo...

  16. Financial development and economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Monica DUDIAN; Raluca Andreea POPA

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the empirical analysis of the relationship between financial development and economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe. Financial development is measured by broad money growth (annual%), domestic credit to private sector (% GDP), domestic credit to private sector (% GDP) annual growth, interest rate spread (lending rate minus deposit rate,%) and nonperforming loans (% total loans) and annual growth in GDP growth rates. Methodologically, we used a panel model...

  17. Financial development and Economic Growth: The Case of Cape Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunyiola, Ayorinde

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the long-run relationship and short-run dynamics between financial development and economic growth in Cape Verde for the period 1980 - 2011. The study employs the Johansen and Juselius approach to cointegration, pairwise granger causality test for causality and the VECM approach was also explored. The analysis was carried out using three indicators to measure financial development which are the money supply as a percentage of GDP(M2), ratio of credit provid...

  18. INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SMART CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.

  19. THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sta?nciulescu, Gabriela Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services), while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract ...

  20. The role of education in economic development: a theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Ilhan

    2001-01-01

    Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development. No country can achieve sustainable economic development without substantial investment in human capital. Education enriches people’s understanding of themselves and world. It improves the quality of their lives and leads to broad social benefits to individuals and society. Education raises people’s productivity and creativity and promotes entrepreneurship and technological advances. In addition it plays a very cruc...

  1. Introduction to Gender, Economic Development and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moheyuddin, Ghulam

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents define and explain the concepts gender and gender equality, explains the relationship between the gender inequality and poverty, discusses the importance of the gender issues in the economic development and also discuss the importance of linking gender to Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). The paper describes that the both poverty and gender inequality are correlated, as poverty exacerbates the gender inequality while the gender inequality exacerbates the poverty and des...

  2. From Economic to Sustainable Development: Enlarging the concept of law

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, Hanne Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The title "From Economic to Sustainable Development: Enlarging the Concept of Law" signals a meta-theoretical approach. However, this thesis is also firmly centred in practice by questioning if, and in what form, law has a role to play in implementation of sustainable development, apart from being a tool for shaping concrete legal mechanisms, such as international conventions and national laws and regulation. Thus, at its core, the research is focused on the role of law in a process of politi...

  3. INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.

  4. Regional financial development and bank competition: effects on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Guevara, Juan; Maudos, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have analysed the effect of financial development and bank competition on economic growth from a cross-country perspective. However, to our knowledge, no paper has analysed the effect of these two financial variables on growth at regional level. This paper examines the case of the Spanish regions in an attempt to fill this gap. Our results show that firms in industries with a greater dependence on external finance grow faster in more developed financial regions. The results also ...

  5. Aquaculture development in Asia :current status, economics and future outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Madan Mohan; Sheriff, Natasja; Bjørndal, Trond

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse aquaculture development in selected Asian countries. The contribution of Asia to world aquaculture will be documented. In Asia, different culture systems are practised and numerous species are farmed, and these will be surveyed. Patterns of fish supply, demand and trade are described, followed by an analysis of economic conditions in aquaculture. Finally, a number of scenarios for future development are analysed.

  6. Desenvolvimento, progresso e crescimento econômico / Development, progress and economic growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos, Bresser-Pereira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor define neste ensaio o progresso ou o desenvolvimento humano como o gradual alcance dos cinco objetivos políticos que as sociedades modernas definiram para si próprias (segurança, liberdade individual, bem-estar, justiça social e proteção do ambiente), e o distingue do desenvolvimento econômi [...] co ou do crescimento econômico - o processo de acumulação de capital com incorporação de progresso técnico que aumenta os padrões de vida. E defende a tese de que o desenvolvimento econômico, ao produzir um excedente econômico em relação ao nível de subsistência da renda por habitante, é estratégico para o alcance dos cinco objetivos políticos acima referidos. Abstract in english In this essay the author defines progress or human development as the gradual achievement of the five policy objectives that modern societies have defined for themselves (security, individual liberty, economic wellbeing, social justice and protection of the environment), and distinguishes it from ec [...] onomic development or economic growth - the process of capital accumulation with the incorporation of technical progress that increases standards of living. And defends the thesis that, in so far economic development produces an increasing economic surplus over subsistence level, it is strategic to reach the other above referred five political objectives.

  7. Problems in software development for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

  8. An Effective Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm to Slove Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thanushkodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

  9. Finance, economic development and the transition: the East German case

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, Wendy; Richthofen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    The role of banks in the transition concerns three issues: the bad loans problem, the role of banks in providing a solution to the problems of corporate governance of privatized enterprises and the access of new enterprises to finance for investment. This paper shows how the combination of early privatization of the banking system plus financial restructuring of enterprises by the Treuhand prevented the development of a 'bad loans' problem in East Germany. The merits of banks as large stakeho...

  10. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The Danish mortgage finance system is attracting much international attention due to its simple, robust and efficient securitization principle, the balance principle. Housing finance experts consider how the model can be introduced in other countries to overcome shortcomings in previous mortgage systems (e.g., in the US) or to alleviate the gigantic unmet needs for housing finance around the world. In support of such efforts the research challenge was the development of a methodology for screening of readiness for transplanting this financing system to other countries. However, the development of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the requirements of infrastructure in respect to protecting ‘security of collateral’, and on international monitoring systems providing information on the status of what cadaster, real property registration and other functions of importance for securing collateral and for valuation of properties. In the absence of data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between formal property rights regimes and real credit with implications for development strategies. The PhD was co-sponsored by VP Securities A/S, www.vp.dk

  11. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-01

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  12. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    HA Qazi; J Ahmed Soomro; Hashmi, A.; M Hafeez Qadri; Rasheed, F.; M Tariq Karim

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling wa...

  13. Study on Coupling Degree and Optimal Path between Land Water Resources and Economic Development in Poyang Lake Ecological Economical Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-gui Lv; Ci-fang Wu

    2013-01-01

    The coordination between resources and economy is a challenge for Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, which is a new economic development zone in China, with the rapid development in the past few years, the contradiction is more intense than ever before. In this paper, the coupling degree between the carrying capacity of land water resources and economical development were assessed to demonstrate how optimal coupling path can be selected. Methods of information entropy were employed to dete...

  14. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

  15. TOURISM IN THE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF MACEDONIA: ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study makes an attempt to identify the adequate position of tourism within the global development strategy of Macedonia. The paper discusses two, extremely opposite attitudes. The first, argues that necessary preconditions must be established in order tourism to have intensive development, thus clearly stating in the development strategy the priority orientation of tourism industry. The second underlines the fake image of tourism and its economic contributions.The paper brings out results of a comprehensive analysis of direct economic tourism effects, hence making clarification whether tourism sector has significant contribution within the entire economy, its influence on the employment, as well as its effects on the balance of payments.

  16. The contribution of the Saudi woman in economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Elimam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to analyze the contribution of Saudi woman in economic development of the country. This report develops an understanding of women contributions towards economic development. The method used to analyze the data was Pearson correlation. Through correlation we can determine the relationship between the variables. The study was a quantitative study. The data for five years was taken. Hypotheses development proceeded by focusing on labor work force participation, literacy rate of adult females and GDP rate within Saudi Arabia. Analysis was done on the results and the findings confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the variables. This study was of exploratory nature, it is recommended that this research be expanded to a statistically valid base within Saudi Arabia and then expand the study to additional countries. The findings showed that there was a high significant relationship between women labor work force participation and GDP. Whereas, there was moderate significant relationship between labor work force and literacy rate. Hence, there is a positive relationship between women contribution and economic development. The research is conducted within the context of Saudi Arabia and has certain limitation with further directions of conducting research in related field to get more accurate results.

  17. The Role of Economics in Interdisciplinary and Problem-Oriented Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, David; Rutman, Gilbert

    1978-01-01

    In a study of intermediate level college economics courses, achievement levels of students taught by a problem-centered approach were compared with achievement levels of students taught by traditional lecture and discussion methods. Experimental students did no better than the control students. Additional research is suggested. (Author/DB)

  18. Economic-Mathematical Modeling of Social and Environmental Risks Management of Projects of Urbanized Territories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Dmitrievich Murzin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of development of management methods of social and environmental risks of urbanized territories development. The main purpose of research is a development and scientific substantiation of economic-mathematical model, allowing to increase the efficiency of risk management of urban development and selection for the practical implementation of the most efficient investment and town-planning projects. During the investigation the conditions and possible consequences of socio-environmental violations of natural and antropogenic environment in urban areas were examined, the characteristics of the information base of the assessment and objects of socio-ecological and economic risks of urban development were identified, the peculiarities of the negative occurrences of the deterioration of environmental quality were distinguished. As a base for the source data array composition, the authors propose to use the common system of integral parameters of sustainable development and environmental indicators. As basic function of socio-ecological damage is proposed to use the direct dependency of the health level of the population from the most significant parameters of the environment, expressed in the econometric equation. For formal description of the dependency of economic-mathematical models, the whole complex of factors affecting the value of socio-ecological damage were studied, the drawbacks of simple regression models for description of interaction between the mentioned factors were examined, the assumption about the need to include in a formal description the factors of socio-economic risks of the interrelated equations system was made. The main result of the study is developed economic-mathematical model describing the process of formation of socio-environmental risk during implementation of investment and construction projects of urbanized territories development. The main conclusion of the study is the justification for the need to identify environmental and social risks and due to their presence the economic damage in the process of developing programmes and projects of urban territories development. The use of the proposed model assists with pictorial rendition of the correlation between environmental problems and development of city economy, as well as more objective substantiation of efficiency of investments in the urban environment development.

  19. Economic and energy prospects of Pacific Basin developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic problems in the USA, Japan, Canada and Australia are the result of four imbalances: dependence on imported non-renewable energy, large government deficits, trade imbalances and protectionism, and high unemployment. Markets and governments are the factors that will act through rising oil prices, high interest rates, restrictive fiscal policy, and a declining U.S. dollar exchange rate to correct these imbalances over the next ten years. There is a long-term opportunity for nuclear power to take over from oil as an energy source, although the high cost of capital will increase the price of nuclear electricity

  20. Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Pauls

    2013-04-02

    In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

  1. Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeking to identify the principal actions needed to make sure that the process towards sustainability be given a much wider impulsion, the Fifth Environmental Action Programme of the ED underlined the increasing need for the application of a broader range of instruments aimed at influencing decisions which affect the environment. In this perspective economic tools were seen as the most adequate and powerful instruments available for efficient use and management of natural resource base in addition to and complementary not only to direct regulations but also to social pressure, negotiation and other forms of moral suasion. Thus, at the beginning of the 1990s, the European environmental policy began a transformation from merely growth-oriented model to sustainable development, moving into its second stage of environmental agenda. Widening the portfolio of policy instruments represents a main aspect of the Sixth Environmental Action Programme as well. In the search for innovative and sustainable solutions to the problems of the internalisation of the negative as well as positive impacts of production and consumption patterns on the environment, the new Programme requires, inter alia: encouraging reforms of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development; analysing the environmental efficiency of tradable environmental permits as a generic instrument and of emission trading with a view to promoting andssion trading with a view to promoting and implementing their use where feasible; promoting and encouraging the use of fiscal measures such as environmentally related taxes and incentives, at the appropriate national or Community level; promoting the integration of environmental protection requirements in standardisation activities. In ardor to analyse whether the process towards sustainability started in 1992 has taken roots, several evaluation studies revealed that broadening the range of instruments had proved to be more difficulty than envisaged when the recent European environmental policy was adopted. With the inevitable consequence that the most common environmental policy solution had frequently continued to be direct regulations. The scant progress in widening the range of instruments for control and behavioural change confirms the existence of a large disagreement between the normative prescriptions of economic theory and decisions effectively taken within the political process. If a large divergence between theory and practices often prevails, the relevant issue is then to understand why ED and Member States have failed to refer to the proposed wider box of instruments. In this direction, this paper points out the usefulness of the contribution that public choice theory can provide for understanding why particular environmental instruments are actually adopted and implemented. According to the individualistic approach of public choice, the paper deals with the issue concerning the choice and implementation of environmental policy tools through the analysis of the functioning of two strictly connected markets: the political market and the para-political market, and tries to give an explanation as to why in representative democracies, in which forces may be identified as demand and supply, an incentive-oriented environmental policy has many difficulties of being implemented

  2. THE PROBLEM ENHANCING STRATEGIC COMPETITIVENESS OF DEVELOPING AGRIBUSINESS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Baba

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the problem facing the Nigerian agricultural production, the basic and fundamental reasons why the government has failed to realize and address the failure in the sector. Though agricultural program was finalized in 1988 and new policy was released in 2001 but still accommodates the policies of the old one. Which means the policies was on the right direction. Still little or no effect has been made in the sector. Currently, however, many important questions about the goals, objectives, reforms, and ways to achieve them, tactics and strategies of development of agribusiness, the location of bodies, state powerand administration in place of socio- economic processes and others are debatable. Agribusiness development is a large constrained combination of factors: unfavorable to microeconomic conditions, inadequate legal basis of functioning on enterprises and their relationships with each other and the state, lack of comprehensive scientific research in this field of knowledge that are acceptable in a transition economy. This paper will serve as the brain and evaluation of the problems and the strategies required to revive the sector. Agriculture is vast and the most important sector of the Nigeria economy engaging about 70% of the labor force, the sector has not been exploited to the fullness and that is why the country cannot compete with other countries in the world even with 95% of the land cultivable. As economic activity, agriculture can be the source of growth for national economy provider of investment opportunities for private sector and a prime diver of agriculture related industries and the rural nonfarm economy.

  3. The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development was started in 1987 by Professors Stephen Cornell and Joseph P. Kalt. The Project's primary goal is "to understand and foster the conditions under which sustained, self-determined social and economic development is achieved among American Indian nations." To accomplish this goal, the Project has sponsored a number of conferences and events, and as also offered advisory services to interested persons and tribal leaders. The "Publications" area is a good way to take a look at the fruits of their labors, as it includes the archives of the Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs and a variety of field reports, such as "Renewing Beauty: Options for Navajo Land Management and Decision Making".

  4. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-06-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  5. The economics of the thermohaline circulation - A problem with multiple thresholds of unknown locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potentially serious environmental threat facing humanity is the possibility of a collapse of the thermohaline circulation. Resulting climate changes, including absolute cooling near Greenland and northwest Europe, could be abrupt. Collapse of the thermohaline circulation may be triggered if the temperature or the rate of temperature change exceeds certain thresholds. The locations of these thresholds are unknown. Economic regulation of this problem requires solution methods for a class of dynamic optimization problems with multiple thresholds located in n-dimensional space. This class of problems has hitherto not been discussed in the literature. We present a model for the economic regulation of CO2 emissions in the presence of threshold-triggered risk of a collapsing thermohaline circulation and derive optimality conditions for regulation. (author)

  6. International economic problems in the mid-eighties: Energy - technology - environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn (FRG), in 1984 invited to an international meeting of experts for discussing ''International economic problems in the mid-eighties''. The meeting took place from November 19 to 20, and gathered about 700 experts from 40 countries. The topics on the agenda were those problems which in the industrialized societies throughout the world are of prime interest: Energy forms the basis of industrial production. Modern technologies have changed the countries' economic structures, and their social life, considerably. The natural environment is exposed to impacts induced by industry, or traffic and transport, which have reached a level causing anxiety and alarm, especially in areas of agglomeration. Remedial action taken so far still is patchwork, optimum solutions still are out of range. The problems resulting from this situation were discussed during the meeting by politicians, members of the business community, and scientists from various countries. (orig./HP)

  7. Urbanization, urban concentration and economic growth in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bertinelli, Luisito; Strobl, Eric

    2003-01-01

    We investigate how urban concentration and urbanization affect economic growth in developing countries. Using semi-parametric estimation techniques on a cross-country panel of 39 countries for the years 1960-1990 we discover a U-shaped relationship for urban concentration. This suggests the existence of an 'urban-concentration trap' where marginal increases in urban concentration would reduce growth for about a third of our sample. Furthermore, there appears to be no systematic relationship b...

  8. Classical Free Trade: A Policy Towards Economic Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Meoqui, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of this dissertation is to make an unambiguous international trade policy recommendation for developing countries grounded on rigorous economic theory. As is generally known, trade models featuring increasing returns to scale and imperfect competition have challenged the mainstream case for free trade which is built upon unrealistic assumptions like constant return to scale and perfect competition. In this context, the core contribution of this dissertation is the restatement ...

  9. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  10. Public finance and economic growth: Empirical evidence from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Odedokun, Matthew O.

    2001-01-01

    The study is an empirical test of the effects of different categories of government expenditure, revenue and deficits on economic growth in developing countries. It is based on panel data of annual series over the last three decades for 103 countries, which are further classified into low-income, high-income, mineral exports dependent, and foreign aid dependent groups. Our findings suggest that the effects of the fiscal variables on growth vary across these groups of countries. But broadly, c...

  11. Green finance is essential for economic development and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tasnim; Datta, Rajib; Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...

  12. Domestic capital formation, financial intermediation and economic development in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    This paper focusses on the reasons of the poor performance of domestic resource mobilization in Peru. It begins with an analysis of the structure of domestic savings and its changes in the course of economic development (Section II) . After the description of the Peruvian financial sector (Section III) financial policies since the early 1970 are reviewed and the effects of financial repression discussed (Section IV). Finally some policy suggestions to improve domestic resource mobilization ar...

  13. USDA Finances Wind for Rural Economic Development (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomb, C.; Walters, T.

    2005-05-01

    To foster rural economic development and growth, Congress passed the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program as Section 9006 of the 2002 Farm Bill. This program provides financial assistance to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems or make energy efficiency improvements. The Rural Business and Cooperative Services of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers this program. This conference poster provides an overview of Section 9006.

  14. Environmental issues in economic partnership agreements: Implications for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chaytor, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    This issue paper, titled 'Environmental Issues in Economic Partnership Agreements: Implications for Developing Countries', and written by Mrs. Beatrice Dove-Edwin, is a contribution to that process. The paper exhaustively reviews all rules related to trade and environment in several of the already signed EPAs. The aim of the paper is to enable ACP countries to understand how trade policy related to the environment has been introduced in EPAs, and how those policies might impact sustainable de...

  15. Economic growth and institutions in developing countries: Panel evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mahyudin; Marwan, Nur Fakhzan

    2012-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have documented the evidence of institutional significance towards economic growth. This study extends such evidence as it examines the link between institutions and growth in developing countries including East Asian region. By using neoclassical growth framework augmented with institutional controls and latest estimation technique in panel data analysis, this study finds evidence of positive institutions growth-effects and uncovers the channel of their effects tow...

  16. Culture and institutions : economic development in the regions of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tabellini, Guido

    2005-01-01

    Does culture have a causal effect on economic development? The data on European regions suggest that it does. Culture is measured by indicators of individual values and beliefs, such as trust and respect for others, and confidence in individual self-determination. To isolate the exogenous variation in culture, I rely on two historical variables used as instruments: the literacy rate at the end of the XIXth century, and the political institutions in place over the past several centuries. The p...

  17. Lessons from post-colonial Malaysian economic development

    OpenAIRE

    S., Jomo K.; Hui, Wee Chong

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian economic development has been shaped by public policy in response to changing national and external conditions. Public investments peaked in the 1970s and early 1980s, until the policy reversals driven by sovereign debt concerns and new policy ideology fads. Foreign investments continued to be favoured after independence for ethnic political reasons. Thus, foreign investments continued to be very significant in financial services as well as manufacturing growth, both for import subs...

  18. Egalitarian norms, economic development, and ethnic polarization (Online first)

    OpenAIRE

    Haagsma, R.; Mouche, P. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Economic development generally implies that traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs are replaced by modern individualistic values. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, this transformation may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We illustrate this point by describing the processes of land privatization in Sub-Saharan Africa and then present two models that capture some salient aspects of this transformation in rural communities, ...

  19. The Relation between Economic Development and Business Ownership revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Carree, M. A.; Stel, A. J.; Thurik, A. R.; Wennekers, A. R. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the two-equation model of Carree, van Stel, Thurik and Wennekers (2002) where deviations from the ‘equilibrium’ rate of business ownership play a central role determining both the growth of business ownership and that of economic development. Two extensions of the original setup are addressed: using longer time series of averaged data of 23 OECD countries (up to 2004) we can discriminate between different functional forms of the ‘equilibrium’ rate and we allow for ...

  20. Geography rules too!: Economic development and the geography of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry,

    2006-01-01

    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This paper sheds a different light on these determinants. We use spatial econometrics to analyse the importance of the geography of institutions. We show that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate, but also relative geography, the spatial linkages between countries, that matters for a country?s...