WorldWideScience
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Long-term economic development problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term economic development of New Mexico parallels the major energy issue of the nation - the impact of non-proliferation policy. The short lifespan and waste of energy resources in this country reflects a lack of foresight which can no longer be tolerated. The principal unknowns affecting uranium development in New Mexico are the extent and demand for uranium, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the lifespan of nuclear power plants, with or without reprocessing. Further areas of concern include the costs of reprocessing facilities, the evaluation of fuel cycles to minimize proliferation, and the impacts of waste disposal

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Problems of Social and Economic Development Facing Third World Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The developed Western countries with their free market economy; the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe with their economies that are highly planned and subject to both public ownership and control; the developing countries of the Third World with oscillating differences in their political systems and economic structures yet linked through a common history of conquest and exploitation by colonial powers, are all bedevilled by the problems of organizing their own economies in a manner which would maximize the interest and social welfare of those they purport to serve.

Patterson, P.J.

1984-01-01

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Problems of Development of Economic Entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article were systematized and analyzed the problems of economic entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Particular attention is paid to economic and legal foundations, as well as trends in education and development, assessing their status in the region. Substantiates the main directions of development of small and medium-sized businesses, as well as commercial production companies in the country.? ?????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????????. ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????.

Kerimov Elsevar Nariman ogly

2012-09-01

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The selected problems of energy sector development in new economic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General problems of energy market development in Poland are addressed. The structure of Polish energy sector and conditions of its functioning are presented. The general concept of national and local energy market organisation is also discussed. This is particularly crucial in programming the processes of investments in the energy sector under new economic conditions in Poland. (author)

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Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Economic Development: A Theoretical Approach to Environmental Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution is the major facing by every country. Natural resources are depleting rapidly, creating scarcity problem for the next generation. A large number of population particularly poor segments of societies are suffering badly. On the one hand, every country is trying to increase economic growth to alleviate living standard of their people and on the other hand, environmental problems are becoming complicated due to excessive use of resources.Objective: The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between environment and sustainable economic development. Another objective is to study how sustainable economic development can be achieved? How can environmental degradation be controlled?Methodology: The methodology of the study is descriptive in nature because it mostly involves the description of environmental issues and suggesting the ways how they can be solved? However, different statistical techniques such as trend and content analysis have been used to measure the impact of environmental pollution.Data and Source: The author used secondary data in this study because it was not possible to collect primary data due to geographical constraints. The was taken from World Bank, IMF,Asian Development Bank, Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests, United Nations Environment Program, Economic Survey of Pakistan, relevant research journals and books.Findings: The findings of the study are robust because the author has found that both developed and developing countries are responsible for environmental hazards. The developed countries are using excessive resources to produce surplus goods for exports while poor countries are exploiting their existing resources to feed their growing population and end poverty level. This race of resources exploitation has created a dangerous situation all over the world and has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable. The author concludes that judicious use of environmental resources is an imperative need for sustainable economic development.

Abdul Ghafoor Awan

2013-03-01

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Regional economic and development problems and perspectives: Case study of Slavonia and Baranja (Croatia  

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Full Text Available Slavonia and Baranja or Eastern Croatia is a physical-geo­graphical part of the Pannonian Basin and it is divided administratively into 5 counties: Virovitica-Podravina, Požega-Slavonia, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Sirmium (which make nearly 20% of the state. Regarding functional organization, Slavonia and Baranja is a part of Osijek nodal region but with interrelated influences of other regional centres like Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Vukovar, ?akovo and Požega. Analysis of this region consisting of 22 cities and 104 municipalities with 805,998 people (according to Census 2011 will be conducted according to several economic-geographic indicators: foreign trade exchange, number of employed people per 100 inhabitants, number of unemployed people per 100 inhabitants, economic structure of population as well as the share of people employed in agriculture and industry as the most important sectors in the regional economy. Demographic problems will also be analysed, because the population is one of the most important factors of economic and social development. The main problems of the analysed region are depopulation, aging and rural exodus as well as the fact that every city or municipality, except one, had the decline of population comparing to previous Census of 2001. These processes are accompanied by spatial population polarization which has also resulted in economic decline.

Lon?ar Jelena

2014-01-01

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?????????????????? The Status Quo, Problems and Countermeasures of Industrial Economic Development in Ji’nan  

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Full Text Available ????2010?1~7??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The survey on industrial economic of Ji’nan city from January to July in 2010 showed remarkable achievements: industrial production and efficiency improved steadily, key industries and enterprises run well, upgrade of transformation and energy conservation promoted solidly, industrial investment and exports in-creased steadily, yet many problems are appearing. Therefore, we should take the following measures: the mode transferred and the structure adjusted be speed up, and the modern industrial system be built actively; increase industrial investment, focus on strengthening the potential of industrial development; strengthen the construction of the park, and greatly enhance the level of industrial concentration; promote the independent innovation, and strive to improve sustainable development, further develop the functions of government ser-vices, and actively promote enterprises bigger and stronger.

??

2011-10-01

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THE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC SUPPORT FOR CONTROL PROBLEMS IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY  

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Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology

Orlov A. I.

2014-05-01

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CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA; BASIC ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND POLICY SUGGESTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.

S. R. Keshava

2014-06-01

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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMICS-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR PROJECTING FUTURE POLLUTION PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The research in this project was devoted to developing a methodology having utility for an ultimate purpose of identifying potential future toxic substance pollution problems. An approach was desired that would be systematic, comprehensive, and futuristic. The methodology that ha...

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The Economics of Water Management in Developing Countries Problems, Principles and Policies  

OpenAIRE

The increasing scarcity of water resources (in terms of quantity and quality) is one of the most pervasive natural resource allocation issues facing development planners throughout the world.This problem is especially prevalent in less developed countries where the management of this valuable resource has become a critical policy concern.This authoritative new volume outlines the fundamental principles and difficulties that characterise this challenging task. The authors begin ...

Koundouri, Phoebe; Pashardes, Panos; Swanson, Timothy; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

2003-01-01

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Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood  

OpenAIRE

Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to mo...

Votruba-drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-carren?o, Carolina; Li-grining, Christine; Chase-lansdale, P. Lindsay

2010-01-01

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An Analysis of the Social System and Planning Problems for the Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

Economic growth is tied with planning in the modern world. It is widely believed that if a country seeks to uplift its economy it must adopt the path of planning. The word “Planning” itself is, however, ambiguous. It is used with many meanings. It has been known to cover the shooting of those who disagree, or it may mean nothing more than consultation, making sure that all interested parties are properly informed about each other’s and the government’s intentions. It may involve the s...

Kailash Pati; Navin Kumar Jha

2012-01-01

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Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

2010-01-01

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The nuclear electric option in developing countries: Technical, economic, and political problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this century and the first half of the next, energy will be obtained principally from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas); in about 20 years, the production of petroleum will start to diminish due to the exhaustion of reserves, and the principal energy source will become coal, whose world reserves are ten times greater than hydrocarbons. In spite of its' petroleum reserves, Mexico should consider itself as a country poor in fossil fuel because its reserves of mineral coal are small. Petroleum and gas provide, at present more than 85% of the energy that the country uses and an amount similar to that which they consume is exported. Apart from burning it, petroleum has other very important applications such as petrochemicals and the production of fertilizers. At present, countries like Mexico which are poor in fossil fuels are sending fuels to countries rich in fossil fuels. They are doing this to achieve their development and to satisfy urgent needs. Faced with this situation which is irreversible, there is an obligation to programming the development of energy not in a six year period but 50 years or more, and to revise the program continually, due to the existing uncertainties; only in this way can the energy resources which will be left to new generations for their survival be planned

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Energy and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development

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Entrepreneurship in economic development  

OpenAIRE

What is the role of entrepreneurship in economic development? At a minimum the answer should be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the structural transformation of countries from low income, primary-sector based societies into high-income service and technology based societies. More broadly though, it should also be able to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the opposite pole of stagnating development (including conflict) and in high innovation-driven growth. Although economic dev...

Naude?, Wim

2008-01-01

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Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

2011-01-01

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States and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

Atul Kohli

2009-06-01

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Economics 14.126 Problem Set III  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem set for a PhD level economics class at MIT covering game theory. The questions are purely theoretical and do not deal substantially with economic applications. Solutions are available here: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/80316/14-12-fall-2005/contents/assignments/ps3sol.pdf.

Drew Fudenberg, Sergei Izmalkov

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Economical problems of nuclear district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foreign papers dealing with technical and economical investigations of the problems of designing the nuclear power plants for district heating are reviewed. Results of investigations devoted to optimizing the profile, equipment set, technological arrangement and main parameters of the nuclear power plants for district heating (NPPDH) are considered as well as the results of studying the NPPDH and the thermal power plants (TPP) economic contestability. Results of determination of the rational scale of NDHP development are presented. The investigations carried out in the GDR show that the optimal power of the WWER type reactor unit for the single-purpose nuclear district heating plant is 100 MW(t). The FRG specialists maintain that expenses on heat generation at NPPDH and TPP.will be equal, if the cost of the organic fuel is 2 dollars/GJ (which corresponds to the world level of prices for oil and coal from Ruhr) with the reactor unit power of 1000-1200 MW(t) and heat supply of 500-600 MW(t). It is stressed that in the FRG the NPPDH with a reactor of 2000 MW thermal power and the distance of heat transportation more than 20 km and the NPPDH with the reactor of 3000 MW thermal power and transportation distance more than 30 km can contest with a thermal power plant. The economically reasonable level of the centralized heat supply system use for district heating is, as a rule, 40-60 % of the theoretically possible level

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Poverty ? a major economical problem  

OpenAIRE

Poverty is the state for the majority of the world?s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this?...

Assistent Professor Somogyi János

2008-01-01

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Economic issues in the legacy problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables

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Economic Development: Threats and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by economic development on the environment. Straddling legality and illegality, harmful economic conduct is then equated to a specific form of white collar crime, while an attempt is made to trace in the history of economic thought itself the embryo of a destructive rationale. After considering how harm to individuals and the environment is hidden through ideological strategies, the paper looks at some refreshing proposals to turn the threats of economic development into human opportunities.

Vincenzo Ruggiero

2012-09-01

25

Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully-contained, growing, dependent sub-system of a non-growing ecosphere. Potential solutions fly in the face of contemporary development trends and cultural values. PMID:12858997

Rees, William E

2003-01-01

26

UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.

GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

2011-01-01

27

Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

Bazhenov Yu. N.

2012-01-01

28

Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

2009-07-01

29

On some problems of physical economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states - either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present. (reviews of topical problems)

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Financial Structures and Economic Development Financial Structures and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

Financial Structures and Economic Development This paper examines the relationship between the evolution of financial services and long-run economic growth. Liquidity risk, productivity risk, transactions costs. and information gathering and resource coordination costs create incentives for the emergence of financial contracts and institutions. The level of income per capital public policies, and legal codes determine the provision of financial services aid the types of financial structures t...

Ross Levine

1993-01-01

31

Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In presented article ?Globalisation process and problem of the trespass upon economical power? I have analysed relationship between global economy forming and tresspassing upon economical power.I aim to state which factors have caused change of the structure and relationships system in human society, that is one of the most important signs of present period of its development. Consequently synergical effect will be described as well as practical application and applying of forms of economical policy. After that I tried to define resulting facts from such process.When I wanted to achieve stated goal, I describe information process and integration problems of Slovac Republic, especially what is neccessary when we want to be ready to create assumptions for future development. I evaluate development in Slovac Republic as a period of the wasted occasions, that remove from society essential part of competitive advantages, that would enable society to integrate to the european structure from the economical, as well as from the social view as relatively equal society.Consequently I described globalisation process and trespassing of economical power, where first of all I mentioned signs of concrete social environment in present time. After such description I mentioned basic fact, that are forming global policy, goals and ways of tools applying of such policy.In last part I mentioned bearers of economical power in global economy. In conclusion I can state, that as concern to the transitive states of middle and eastern Europe, bearers of economical power have elaborated shocking scenario of its transmission to the market economy. In presented article I wanted to present process that would be basis, very important for realizastion of economies restructuralisation.Since till now mentioned fact was successfully achieved only in few cases, monopolisation of decision on the level of institutions, that manage forming of global economy as well as pressing of strongest economical subjects interests in world economical system are results of mentioned development.

Vodzinský Vladimír

2000-12-01

32

3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential...2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum...locally is a powerful engine of economic growth, they must be developed...limits environmental impact. Today, the Environmental...

2010-01-01

33

Manufacturing and economic development  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the theoretical and empirical evidence for the hypothesis that manufacturing is the main engine of growth in developing countries. The paper opens with an overview of the main arguments supporting the engine of growth hypothesis and then examines each of these arguments using a mix of statistical analysis of secondary data and secondary literature. The paper concludes that manufacturing will continue to be important in accelerating growth and achieving catch-up in developi...

Szirmai, Adam

2011-01-01

34

Essays on development economics  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The studies in this thesis investigate some of the effects of humanitarian aid and the production of natural resources in developing countries. The studies suggest that these “free lunches” can have negative (unintended) consequences. Even though it achieves its goal of increasing food consumption and life expectancy, humanitarian aid can have adverse effects on government expenditure for education, health, and military purposes. Commodity exports can negatively influence the ru...

Zentho?fer, A. F.

2013-01-01

35

The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)

Yapa, Lakshman S.

1985-01-01

36

Economic Development of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2013-01-01

37

Women Empowerment and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

Women empowerment and economic development are closely related: in one direction, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women; in the other direction, empowering women may benefit development. Does this imply that pushing just one of these two levers would set a virtuous circle in motion? This paper reviews the literature on both sides of the empowerment–development nexus, and argues that the interrelationships are probably too weak to be se...

Duflo, Esther

2012-01-01

38

Mathematical model in economic environmental problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

1996-12-31

39

Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

40

Infinite-horizon optimal control problems in economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.

Aseev, Sergei M; Besov, Konstantin O; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V

2012-04-30

41

Economic development: How should we proceed?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the following questions: where were we in a systemic and development sense in October 2000? What changes have occurred in the last three years? What are the main problems regarding economic development and, opposed to them, the created stereotypes? What are the key mistakes from economic aspect? What should be done in the short run and in the medium run? In addition to providing the necessary level of investment as the most important tool of sustainable development and growth in gross domestic product, it is also necessary to ensure: conditions for efficient market functioning, firm and uncompromising legal protection of businesses innovative management, modern technological base. If such conditions are fulfilled, it will be possible to transform the economy, to ensure sustainable economic growth and to regularly service foreign debts. The alternative is a populist scenario, with a short-run rise in living standards and its fall in the medium and long run.

Stamenkovi? Stojan

2004-01-01

42

Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The ...

Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos

2009-01-01

43

Sustainable Economic Development in Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency E...

Anawat Bunnag

2013-01-01

44

Population growth and economic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes some of the results of 5 different projections of the future growth of the world economy, each incorporating a different combination of assumptions concerning the future population trends in developed and less developed countries. The computations are based on the multiregional input-output model of the world economy prepared for the United Nations report entitled "The Future of the World Economy." However, the future income levels of the different regions that for the purposes of most of the economic projections included in that report were exogenously prescribed are treated in the present computation as endogenously determined variables. A comparison of the 5 new projections reveals the nature of intraregional and interregional dependence rates of economic growth on population trends in the developed and the 2 groups of less developed countries. The possibility of reducing the "income gap" between the developed and less developed countries is assessed and found to be rather remote so long as the framework of structural, or rather institutional, constraints that now govern economic relationships between these 2 groups of countries continues to prevail. PMID:12262112

Leontief, W

1979-01-01

45

ENTERPRISE STEADY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATIO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main characteristic of a modern enterprise should be its ability to dynamic changes. Development and implementation of an efficient business model of an enterprise is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Such a business model should include the availability of flexible strategies, moving plans, resources mobilizing alternatives and so on. However, despite the enterprises' desire for dynamic development, ensuring sustainability in the market environment is of great importance for an enterprise. Fragmented categorial and conceptual apparatus of the given problem prompted the subject of the research, which is to determine the economic content and usefulness of the category of steady economic development in the practice of company management. The paper presents a critical analysis of economists' views on the nature of such categories as "sustainability" and "steady economic development"; differentiation of the concepts of sustainability and stability of a company; substantiation of the expediency of using the term "steady economic de­velopment" in the practice of company management. Scientific novelties of the research are proposed interpretations of economic categories "sustainability" and "steady economic development". In particular, the author considers enterprise sustainability as the ability of a company to return to the balanced condition after deviations caused by destabilizing influence of external or internal factors. The main feature of stability and sustainability of a company is that stability implies immutability and sustainability means the ability to maintain equilibrium operation. A specific feature of the proposed approach to the definition of steady economic development is represented by the following content specifications: the purpose of development is increased enterprise flexibility and adaptability to internal and external destabilizing factors; the direction of development within the steady space borders can follow the ascending, descending or stagnation vector and different trajectories; in the case of lost sustainability resulting from development processes the company quickly returns to sustainable operation and restores its equilibrium. The practical significance is that specification of the content features of the concept "steady economic development" provides unconditional basis for a modern approach to enterprise development management from the standpoint of sustainability.

K. Ivanchuk

2014-09-01

46

Corporate governance, innovative enterprise, and economic development  

OpenAIRE

The notion that good corporate governance means maximizing shareholder value derives from the neoclassical theory of the market economy. I explain why this perspective is highly problematic for understanding the operation and performance of the business corporation and hence the institutions that, for the sake of economic development, should govern it. The main problem is that the market-economy perspective cannot comprehend the process of innovation, including the role of the business corpor...

Lazonick, William

2006-01-01

47

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

OpenAIRE

The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

Chiritescu, Vergina; Gogonea, Manuela Rodica; Andrei, Ruxandra Daniela; Kruzslicika, Mihaela; Gavrila, Viorica

2013-01-01

48

Globalization and Developing Economies: Problems and Prospects  

OpenAIRE

The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria). Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies r...

Abubakar, M. B.

2010-01-01

49

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

Vergina CHIRITESCU

2013-12-01

50

Economic development, variety and employment  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies qualitative change taking place during economic development. In the model presented qualitative change is created by the emergence of new sectors, each of which produces an output that is different from other sectors. A system with a variable number of sectors is simulated. The model predicts that under given conditions the evolution of a sector tends to follow a life cycle in both the number of firms and in terms of employment. The cyclical behavior is determined by the ba...

Saviotti, Pier Paolo; Pyka, Andreas

2003-01-01

51

The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.

Orlov Pyotr A.

2013-01-01

52

Labor emigration and economic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This article is concerned with the extent to which labor migration is advantageous to the labor exporting country. It focuses on development consequences of labor emigration with a view toward the formulation of policies which can shape those consequences into a positive force for development, discussing a wide variety of potential costs and benefits generated by labor emigration. The issue of private versus public choice relative to emigration is examined, as [are] the major economic benefits and costs of labor emigration and the influence of development objectives on the valuation of these costs and benefits. Policies by which emigration countries may increase the benefits from labor emigration and reduce the costs are outlined." PMID:12265314

Stahl, C W

1982-01-01

53

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

OpenAIRE

Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports s...

Ana Mihei

2010-01-01

54

/ Science, religion and economic development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Exploraram-se as correlações entre os índices cientométricos, as variáveis macroeconômicas e os resultados de pesquisas sobre a atitude moral-religiosa em diversos países. Os resultados mostram que se requer de um umbral mínimo de desenvolvimento econômico (por volta de 1000US$ de PIB per cápita) pa [...] ra que a ciência e a economia de um país interatuem. Por encima de esse umbral se evidencia una interação positiva entre o desenvolvimento econômico, o desenvolvimento científico e atitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconhecemos ainda os mecanismos de estas interações. Abstract in spanish Se exploraron las correlaciones entre los índices cientométricos, las variables macroeconómicas y los resultados de encuestas sobre la actitud moral-religiosa en diversos países. Los resultados muestran que se requiere de un umbral mínimo de desarrollo económico (alrededor de 1000US$ de PIB per capi [...] ta) para que la ciencia y la economía de un país interactúen. Por encima de ese umbral se evidencia una interacción positiva entre el desarrollo económico, el desarrollo científico y actitudes moral-religiosas tolerantes. Desconocemos todavía los mecanismos de estas interacciones. Abstract in english The correlations between scientometric indices, macroeconomic variables and results from attitude polls in different countries were explored. The results show that a minimum threshold of economic development (around GDP per capita of 1000US$) is required for science and the economy of a country to i [...] nteract. Above that threshold, a positive interaction can be observed between economic development, scientific development and tolerant moral-religious attitudes. The way these interactions occur remains to be uncovered.

Klaus, Jaffe.

2005-06-01

55

The Problem of Money Illusion in Economics  

OpenAIRE

Money illusion in economic theory has been an assumption rejected for academic economists for quite some time. However, with the gradual diffusion of behavioural economics based on experimental research this has changed. Now, it has become a respected fact to accept money illusion as a stylized fact of human behaviour. However, it still needs a better understanding why monetary phenomena especially related to financial markets play an important role in understanding the real economy, the prod...

Erber, Georg

2010-01-01

56

Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

57

Problems of Ukraine trade potential development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych

2014-05-01

58

Evolution of approaches to economic security problems in Europe  

OpenAIRE

The report, written by the experts of the Center for European Studies of IMEMO RAN – Dr. Alexey Kuznetsov, Natalia Toganova and Anna Gutnik – analyzes the evolution of the approaches to the problems of economic security in Europe. The report is prepared for the Commission of the Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative (EASI). The authors analyze the reasons why some economic problems in Europe cause the attention as the security problems. The report presents a study on transformation of the ...

Kuznetsov, Alexey; Toganova, Natalia; Gutnik, Anna

2010-01-01

59

Economics 201B: Game Theory Problem Set #2  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem set for an economics class at UCLA focusing on game theory. This set of questions focuses on Bayesian Games and mechanism design, specifically, sequentiality, signaling, the Beer-Quiche game, the Hold Up Problem, the Revelation Principle and the Principle-Agent Problem.

David Levine

60

Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework for Various Types of Economic Thermal Power Dispatch Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a single execution. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving economic load dispatch problem, combined economic and emission dispatch problem, multiarea economic dispatch problem and economic dispatch problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed methodology is tested with different scale of power systems. The generating unit operational constraints are also considered. The simulation results obtained by proposed methodology for various economic dispatch problems are compared with previous literatures in terms of solution quality. Numerical simulation results indicate an improvement in total cost saving and hence the superiority of the proposed method is also revealed for economic dispatch problems.

Srikrishna Subramanian

2010-05-01

61

Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

Zhang, Yu Aimee

2012-01-01

62

Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1988, the World Bank Group (described in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has addressed issues of economic architecture, corporate governance, crime, land reform, and the economics of transition at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE). Currently, papers from previous ABCDE's are available online with a keynote addresses, such as by nobel laureate James Tobin, and interested individuals are invited to comment on forthcoming conference papers at the ABCDE homepage.

63

Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

Furuoka, Fumitaka

2014-01-01

64

Social Security and Minority Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

For the thirty years of the implementation of reform and opening up policy, China has made significant achievements in the economic development. And the western region resided by the minorities has also made great progress in the economic growth. However, there is still a great gap compared with the well-developed eastern coastal region. Relatively speaking, the economic development of western region is still backward. People have lower ability of self-protection and the family security and t...

Wei Zheng

2009-01-01

65

Understanding Islam: Development, Economics and Finance  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, the foundational rules governing human, economic and financial development in Islam, as understood from the Quran and from the life and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), are summarized. These rules pave the path to development as the basis of institutional structure, which in turn, underpin the path of economic and social progress. The essential elements in the life of a Muslim—the unity of creation, freedom and freedom of choice, economic and human development, econ...

Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; Krichene, Noureddine; Mirakhor, Abbas

2013-01-01

66

The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

Stéphane J. Baele

2013-11-01

67

Teaching Economics to the Best Undergraduates: What Are the Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students with negative repercussions on their performance. The literature suggests that the students' problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the style and method of teaching together with the course content. Particularly attacked are the chalk and…

Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros

2009-01-01

68

ECONOMIC/FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...

69

Energy consumption and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

70

Social Security and Minority Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the thirty years of the implementation of reform and opening up policy, China has made significant achievements in the economic development. And the western region resided by the minorities has also made great progress in the economic growth. However, there is still a great gap compared with the well-developed eastern coastal region. Relatively speaking, the economic development of western region is still backward. People have lower ability of self-protection and the family security and they have stronger desire for social security. Social security, as the means and mechanism to promote economic development and safeguard the social stability, plays an important part in the economic system of the minorities. Under the circumstances that the economy in minority areas needs to be improved urgently, the interaction will become more significant of the social security and economic development of the minorities.

Wei Zheng

2009-06-01

71

Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

Samir SAYAH

2008-06-01

72

Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD problem is a common task in the operational planning of a power system, which requires to be optimized. This paper presents an effective and reliable particle swarm optimization (PSO technique for the economic load dispatch problem. The results have been demonstrated for ELD of standard 3-generator and 6-generator systems with and without consideration of transmission losses. The final results obtained using PSO are compared with conventional quadratic programming and found to be encouraging.

Hardiansyah

2012-11-01

73

ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.

Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

2012-01-01

74

The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side, it is an impediment to economic development of most nations. This paper correlates urbanization with economic development indicators of developing countries and concludes that there is weak relationship between urban growth and economic development in developing countries. To further the understanding of this relationship, the study also compares the economic situation of urban and rural areas which shows that, it was better in the cities.

Terwase Shabu

2010-12-01

75

Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD) algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB) problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission...

Vlachos, Aristidis; Tsanos, Evangelos

2013-01-01

76

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

Ana Mihei

2010-12-01

77

Social and economic growth of developing nations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations

78

Economics and obesity: costing the problem or evaluating solutions?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no doubt that obesity is a major public health problem. However, what is the contribution of economics to solving it? In this report, we make the case that the role of economics is not in measuring the economic burden of obesity, through so-called cost-of-illness studies. Such studies merely confirm that obesity is a serious societal issue; adding a monetary figure to this does not add much. The economic foundations of such estimates can also be questioned, thus lessening their policy relevance. The real value of economics in the arena of obesity care is in evaluating, through formal economic evaluation, the use of our scarce health care resources in different strategies to prevent and treat obesity. PMID:14981208

Roux, Larissa; Donaldson, Cam

2004-02-01

79

WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"  

Science.gov (United States)

The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

80

Sequential Approach with Matrix Framework for Various Types of Economic Thermal Power Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a ...

Srikrishna Subramanian; Ganesan Sivarajan

2010-01-01

81

The Relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development in Developing Countries  

OpenAIRE

The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side,...

Terwase Shabu

2010-01-01

82

Does Economic Growth Promote Financial Development?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010 from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financial development respectively.These findings suggest that policies that stimulate economic growth and human capitaldevelopment as well as keep inflation rates at low levels are needed to improve the financialsystems of the study countries.

Michael Adusei

2014-04-01

83

The Economics of Slums in the Developing World  

OpenAIRE

The global expansion of urban slums poses questions for economic research as well as problems for policymakers. We provide evidence that the type of poverty observed in contemporary slums of the developing world is characteristic of that described in the literature on poverty traps. We document how human capital threshold effects, investment inertia, and a "policy trap" may prevent slum dwellers from seizing economic opportunities offered by geographic proximity to the city. We test the assum...

Marx, Benjamin; Stoker, Thomas Martin; Suri, Tavneet

2013-01-01

84

Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

2012-11-01

85

Does Geographic Factors Determine Local Economic Development?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of geographic characteristics on the local economic development. There are two important reasons related to that objective. First, study on this topic in the case of Indonesia is rather limited, especially in the field of local economic development of the country. Second, geographically, Indonesia is a heterogeneous country and its consequence is development policy should also consider the geographic characteristics of the country. The stu...

Brata, Aloysius Gunadi

2009-01-01

86

Education and economic development : an empirical perspective  

OpenAIRE

There is surprisingly little macroeconomic empirical research which would support a presumed link between education and development. I identify three major reasons why it remains difficult to estimate the economic relevance of education as a determinant of growth and development. First, most empirical research has ignored some of the crucial productivity aspects of education as proposed by new growth models. Second, measuring the contribution of education to economic development has largely i...

Gundlach, Erich

2001-01-01

87

Does Economic Growth Promote Financial Development?  

OpenAIRE

The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010) from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM) estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financ...

Michael Adusei

2014-01-01

88

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A HEALTH ECONOMICS APPROACH  

OpenAIRE

This research analyzes the link between health economics and its determinants and sustainable development, emphasizing the significance that quality, equity and accessibility of health services have on the populations’ health, with implications upon the sustainable development of a society. The concept of sustainable development, although widely used, has different meanings, being  an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Since health effects are one of the dr...

Marius Ioan Pantea; Delia Gligor

2013-01-01

89

The collective action problem in primate territory economics  

OpenAIRE

Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species, we find a positive association between range overlap and group size, controlling for economic defendability and phylogenetic non-independ...

Willems, Erik P.; Hellriegel, Barbara; Schaik, Carel P.

2013-01-01

90

Academic Libraries and Regional Economic Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic libraries should follow the practice adopted by some academic institutions during recent periods of economic scarcity and develop economic and political ties with the business community, a partnership that could provide genuine benefits for members of the business community, elected officials, and academia. An example of such cooperation…

Fiscella, Joan B.; Ringel, Joan D.

91

Conflict between Developing Economic and Protecting Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation, this still has the dispute. In this essay I will analyze the conflict between the developing economic and protecting environment. Through the analysis cause where can get a balance between them.

Longlong Guo

2009-02-01

92

Solution of Economic Dispatch Problem using Differential Evolution Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED with transmission loss by satisfying the linear equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA.

C.Kumar

2012-01-01

93

Climate changes, raw materials shortage, and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)

94

Stages of growth in economic development.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 27, ?. 5 (2003), s. 771-800. ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : growth * human capital * development Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2003

Kejak, Michal

2003-01-01

95

Essays in Economic History and Development  

OpenAIRE

Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the recent literature in economic history and long-run development, and summarizes the main findings of the three essays presented in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, I examine the subject of villagization in Tanzania, a major episode of development planning in post-independence Tanzania. I revisit this period of Tanzania’s economic history, focusing on the legacy of developmental villages (vijiji uya maendeleo) introduced in mainland Tanzania over the...

Osafo-kwaako, Philip

2012-01-01

96

Environment, Human Development and Economic Growth  

OpenAIRE

Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic growth are mainly analyzed through the so-call...

Costantini, Valeria; Monni, Salvatore

2006-01-01

97

Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation Problems and methods of forest-biodiversity economic valuation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For optimum and effective forest management, determining the economic value of the elements making up biodiversity is necessary but difficult. Methods to facilitate the task do exist.We present here the outline of the book written by Brahic and Terreaux (2009 addressing economic valuation of forest biodiversity, useful if not essential to the efficient management of forests, but which can lead to various methodological problems. The objective is to help public and private forest managers in choosing the economic valuation method best suited to the aspect of biodiversity addressed, to put difficulties into perspective and possibly find solutions for them.

Élodie Brahic and Jean-Philippe Terreaux

2011-03-01

98

Quebec Seeks Solutions: An Economic Development Agency's Role in Local Open Innovation  

OpenAIRE

This article offers an economic-development perspective on a new method for local companies to find innovative solutions to their most challenging business problems: local open innovation. Quebec International, the economic development agency for the Quebec City area, contributed to the development of the Seeking Solutions approach to local open innovation, which included the hosting of problem-solving conferences with local research centres, economic development actors, and companies. Lookin...

Alexandra Berger Masson

2013-01-01

99

Economism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

P. Simons

2010-07-01

100

Infectious Diseases and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation contains three essays analyzing how disease (particularly communicable disease) and development interact. The first chapter explores how TseTse-transmitted Trypanosomiasis influenced African development. The second essay seeks to understand why the HIV epidemic declined in Uganda. The third study investigates the effect of population health on foreign direct investment. In the first essay, I examine the effect of the TseTse fly on African historical development. African ethn...

Alsan, Marcella Mousavi

2012-01-01

101

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

OpenAIRE

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

102

An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

The Economic Dispatch(ED) problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA), for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is...

Subramanian, R.; Thanushkodi, Dr K.

2013-01-01

103

An Efficient Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an efficient simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for solving economic load dispatch (ELD) problems in electrical power system. The objectives of ELD problems in electric power generation is to programmed the devoted generating unit outputs so as to meet the mandatory load demand at lowest amount operating cost while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraints. Global optimization approaches is inspired by annealing process of thermodynamics. The SA a...

Junaidi Junaidi; Ms, Yohannes; Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

2013-01-01

104

Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

Economic load dispatch (ELD) is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA). This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other n...

Prathiba, R.; Balasingh Moses, M.; Sakthivel, S.

2014-01-01

105

BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic growth and Sustainable development concepts have emerged at different moments in history.However, at this time, they are related to each other more than ever, because at one point, one of them evolutiondetermined the other’s birth, preventing humanity to destroy itself.This paper intends to present some conceptual delimitation, evolution of the concept of economic growth, butalso several theories and models of economic growth that was the subject of specialists’ researches. Like any economicphenomenon, growth brings some benefits and some costs. When these costs threaten the future of humanity, somesolutions need to be found, no matter how hard ware them to implement, to remove unwanted effects.In this light, the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development, with this emergence and evolution, butespecially with the link between sustainable development and economic growth.

TROANCA DUMITRU

2013-02-01

106

Development of economical decontamination processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

107

Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are require. Therefore, in this paper, we investigated the environmental/economic power dispatch problem by employing a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The power dispatch is formulated into a bi-objective optimization problem, which is to minimize the fuel cost as well as pollutant emission simultaneously. Two objectives are merged in to a single objective by using the weighted sum method. Best cost and best emission solution are obtained for different loading conditions for the standard IEEE 118-bus, 14 generating units system.

Neha Mishra

2013-04-01

108

Indicators of socio-economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

109

Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan  

Science.gov (United States)

Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur), centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2) were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012) and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

Husain, I.; Husain, J.; Arif, M.

2014-09-01

110

[Policies of economic development and population].  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of a watered down redistribution policy and a strong birth control policy may be the most promising. PMID:12179413

Aleman, J L

1974-01-01

111

Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

1991-12-31

112

The role of FDI in economic development  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with two questions: First, what are the determinants of FDI? Second, what is the role of FDI in economic development? In order to provide some answers to these questions, we draw upon the existing theoretical and empirical literature as well as insights derived from five country studies that we have conducted. Important location advantages include a stable social, political and economic environment, liberal trade policies, and geographical proximity to large and growing econo...

Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Kind, Hans Jarle; Norda?s, Hildegunn Kyvik

2001-01-01

113

Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence comprises its social capital.Individuals are trustworthy when they perform actions they have promised, even if these do not maximize their payoffs.The usual focus on incentive structures in motivatin...

Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.

2003-01-01

114

A New Engine of Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

As our global economy shifts from one dominated by production to one based on knowledge, governments are looking for new ways to add value to the people they serve. Open Government initiatives have emerged as one response to these new economic realities. In this article, we discuss how the theory of a multi-sided stakeholder platform can be applied to create an innovative engine of regional economic development. We describe that engine, its parts, and the value that the participants realize f...

Robert Poole

2010-01-01

115

The European origins of economic development  

OpenAIRE

A large literature suggests that European settlement outside of Europe shaped institutional, educational, technological, cultural, and economic outcomes. This literature has had a serious gap: no direct measure of colonial European settlement. In this paper, we (1) construct a new database on the European share of the population during the early stages of colonization and (2) examine its impact on the level of economic development today. We find a remarkably strong impact of colonial European...

Easterly, William; Levine, Ross

2012-01-01

116

Nuclear power for economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

117

EMPIRICAL ESSAYS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS  

OpenAIRE

In developing countries, where formal credit and insurance markets are incomplete or non-existent, households use informal mechanisms to increase their consumption, savings and insurance possibilities. This dissertation studies two of these informal devices: participation in Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (roscas), and internal migration. I mainly follow an empirical approach, using the Indonesia Family Life Survey dataset (IFLS). In particular, I analyze the effect of mothers’...

Groppo, Valeria

2012-01-01

118

Economic lot scheduling problem with consideration of money time value  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP is a challenge between sequencing and lot sizing. In this problem, several products must be produced on a single machine in a cyclical production pattern and the primary goal is to minimize the total setup and holding expenditures. Since time affects the value of money, it is necessary to take into account the time value of money when gradual payment is the case. In this paper, a new ELSP model with the consideration of the time value of money is considered. The proposed model of this paper is formulated as a nonlinear mixed integer model and a hybrid GA is presented to solve the resulted model for large-scale problems. The proposed method is solved for some benchmark problems for large-scale problems.

Maryam Mokhlesian

2010-06-01

119

Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

120

Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance  

OpenAIRE

During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...

Winkler, Adalbert

1998-01-01

121

Financial Development and Economic Growth An Empirical Analysis for Greece  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial market development is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock market development on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationships between these variables using Granger causality tests based on a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Approach: To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences according to Dickey-Fuller (1979. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. A vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. Finally, Granger causality test was applied in order to find the direction of causality between the examined variables of the estimated model. Results: A short-run increase of stock market index per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.06% in Greece, also an increase of bank lending per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.14% in Greece, while an increase of productivity per 1% leaded to an increase of economic growth per 0.32% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term found statistically significant with a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that economic growth causes stock market development and industrial production index, while industrial production index causes credit market development for Greece. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development and credit market development through industrial production growth in Greece.

Athanasios Vazakidis

2009-01-01

122

The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

Rajan, Raghuram

2010-01-01

123

Cuckoo Search for Solving Economic Dispatch Load Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic Load Dispatch (ELD is a process of scheduling the required load demand among available generation units such that the fuel cost of operation is minimized. The ELD problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem with both equality and inequality constraints. In this paper, two test systems of the ELD problems are solved by adopting the Cuckoo Search (CS Algorithm. A comparison of obtained simulation results by using the CS is carried out against six other swarm intelligence algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization, Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, Harmony Search and Firefly Algorithm. The effectiveness of each swarm intelligence algorithm is demonstrated on a test system comprising three-generators and other containing six-generators. Results denote superiority of the Cuckoo Search Algorithm and confirm its potential to solve the ELD problem.

Adriane B. S. Serapião

2013-11-01

124

Mechanisms ensuring the sustainable development: problems and tasks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A world economy ran into the problem of limit nature of practically all types of resources that results lately not only in the slump of the economy growing but also to the origin of global ecological and social problems. One of the most perspective ways of decision of these problems, i.e. the conception of "sustainable development" is considered. However, the economy of Ukraine develops mostly without application of principles of sustainable development and balancing the economic interests with the ecological and social principles. In the article the basic problems, reasons of their origin and fundamental tasks of sustainable development of Ukrainian economy are conditioned.

Yu.V. Elagin

2012-08-01

125

Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

Kelly, John

2011-01-01

126

The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

Dinan, Desmond

1993-01-01

127

How behavioral economics can help to avoid 'The last mile problem' in whole genome sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure to consider lessons from behavioral economics in the case of whole genome sequencing may cause us to run into the 'last mile problem' - the failure to integrate newly developed technology, on which billions of dollars have been invested, into society in a way that improves human behavior and decision-making. PMID:25614766

Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S; McGuire, Amy L; Green, Robert C; Ubel, Peter A

2015-01-01

128

Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems

Karl-Goran Maler

1990-03-01

129

Green economic growth premise for sustainable development  

OpenAIRE

Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD). In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Ma...

Trica?, Carmen Lenut?a; Papuc, Marilena

2013-01-01

130

Augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for economic dispatch problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problems. The proposed ALHN is a new improvement of continuous Hopfield neural network by using augmented Lagrange function as its energy function. The ALHN is applied for solving different ED problems consisting of classical ED, ED with fuel constraint, ED with piecewise quadratic fuel cost, ED with prohibited operating zones, combined heat and power ED, and ED for hydrothermal systems. The proposed method has been tested on different systems and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods. The result comparison has shown that the proposed ALHN can obtain less total costs and faster computational times than many others. Therefore, ALHN could be a very powerful method for solving the ED problems.

Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Schegner, Peter; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

2012-11-01

131

Intelligent Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique to Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems. The results are obtained for a test system with three and thirteen generating units. In this paper the performance of the BFO is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The results clearly show that the proposed method gives better optimal solution as compared to the other methods.

R. Vijay

2012-05-01

132

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

133

Green economic growth premise for sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

Carmen Lenu?a TRIC?

2013-01-01

134

Economic development and direct foreign investment in the transition economies  

OpenAIRE

The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP) and production in Serbia and other countries are currentl...

Mrdakovi?-Cvetkovi? Ružica

2006-01-01

135

Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.

Sergei Udin

2015-02-01

136

Japan's Economic Development Status and the Enlightenment to China's Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.

Xinguang Chen

2013-12-01

137

Economic Development, Technological Change and Growth  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to track the development process in Egypt since the early sixties. The paper starts with the broad definition of the development and its goals, then it evolves to the stages of development in Egypt since the first five years plan (1960-1965) passing by the open door policy in the 70s , and the hard times of the economy at the 80s and economic reform program at the early 90s until 2004. Furthermore, the paper gives a deep concern to the issue of poverty in Eg...

Attia, Sayed Moawad

2008-01-01

138

INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

2014-10-01

139

Migration, human capital accumulation and economic development  

OpenAIRE

We study how the possibility of migration changes the composition of human capital in sending countries, and how this affects development. In our model, growth is driven by productivity growth, which occurs via imitation or innovation. Both activities use the same types of skilled labour as input, albeit with different intensities. Heterogenous agents accumulate skills in response to economic incentives. Migration distorts these incentives, and the accumulation of human capital. This slows do...

Di Maria, Corrado; Striszowski, Piotr

2009-01-01

140

Essays on Empirical Development and Political Economics  

OpenAIRE

The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...

Qin, Bei

2013-01-01

141

AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA  

OpenAIRE

Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contrib...

Smedescu, Dragos-ion; Dra?ghici, Iulian

2013-01-01

142

The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

1998-09-01

143

Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

Dorel AILENEI

2011-02-01

144

An Efficient Firefly Algorithm to Solve Economic Dispatch Problems  

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Full Text Available The Economic Dispatch(ED problems are the major consideration in electric power generation systems in order to reduce the fuel cost their by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an Efficient and Reliable Firefly Algorithm (FA, for solving ED Problem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost characteristics subjected to limits on generator true power output & transmission losses. The FA is a stochastic Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of the FA to ED for different Test Case system. ED is applied and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Simulated Annealing (SA, Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, and Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO optimization techniques. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

R.Subramanian

2013-03-01

145

An Efficient Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problems  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient simulated annealing (SA algorithm for solving economic load dispatch (ELD problems in electrical power system. The objectives of ELD problems in electric power generation is to programmed the devoted generating unit outputs so as to meet the mandatory load demand at lowest amount operating cost while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraints. Global optimization approaches is inspired by annealing process of thermodynamics. The SA algorithm presented here is applied to two case studies, which analyze power systems having three, and six generating units. The results determined by SA algorithm are compared to those found by conventional quadratic programming (QP and genetic algorithm (GA.

Junaidi Junaidi

2013-03-01

146

Actual economic and energetical problems of Baltic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper considers actual situation in the economy of Baltic countries, especially in the energetic sector. It shows tendencies observed for main economical and energetic parameters. It also discusses the latest development of legislation concerning the energy sector and actual situation in privatisation of the energy enterprises. The paper presents the privatisation and ownership structure of the energy sector and provides the current data on energy supply and consumption in the Baltic countries (author)

147

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

OpenAIRE

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

2006-01-01

148

E-Learning and Economic Development  

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Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia?s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

Kelly CAREY

2005-01-01

149

Development of Cultural Industries to Promote Urban Economic Development  

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Full Text Available Further development of the urban economy in general the need for a new round of industrial restructuring. Pursuit of cultural products and intellectual development is premised on the value of local culture to explore for the content, people and cities to meet the needs of economic development as the goal of a resource-conserving development. Therefore become cultural products accumulate wealth, create jobs and improve the competitiveness of the drivers of urban-based industries.

Fang Hu

2009-09-01

150

Coal, economic development and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

151

Optimal Algorithms for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with Multi-supplier  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the economic lot-sizing problem with multi-supplier in which the retailer may replenish his inventory from several suppliers. Each supplier is characterized by one of two types of order cost structures: incremental quantity discount cost structure and multiple set-ups cost structure. The problem is challenging due to the mix of different cost structures. By analyzing the optimal properties, we reduce the searching range of the optimal solutions and develop several optimal algorithms to solve all cases of this multi-supplier problem.

Bai, Qing-Guo; Xu, Jian-Teng

152

Home economics in development through action research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways.

Benn, Jette

2010-01-01

153

Economic Development in Indian Country: Redefining Success  

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Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.

Corry Bregendahl

2008-11-01

154

Economic geography and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country's location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income differences between SSA countries. We base our empirical analysis on a new economic geogr...

Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

2008-01-01

155

Quantum economics  

OpenAIRE

The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

Vukoti? Veselin

2011-01-01

156

Energy and economic development in isolated regions: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High production costs and inadequate supply of electricity are severe handicaps to economic development in remote areas. Costs are increased further by the low level and high variability of electric loads. In order to face these problems a simultaneous development of wind diesel energy resources and productive projects with demand management is proposed. This paper illustrates such a case in Southern Chile where present electricity costs are reduced as consumption is increased from 85 to 468 KWh/person/year. A new refrigeration plant increases the storage capacity for the small fishing activity and effectively uses the output of wind energy generators. (author)

157

Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

Bubka S.N.

2011-12-01

158

Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

159

Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems  

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Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

R. Prathiba

2014-05-01

160

Research on the Coordination of Social Security and Economic Development in Hubei Province  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that maintaining stable coordination of social security and economic development is absolutely necessary for Hubei province, so how to analyze the coordination becomes an important content in Hubei economic development. In this paper, using factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, the author try to evaluate the regional level of social security and economic develop in Hubei province. The results indicate that Hubei need to take measures to promote social security level and balanced development. At the end of this article, some economic suggestions are given to deal with uncoordinated problem.

Rong, Cao

161

Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

162

ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION  

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Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.

Crisan Radu

2012-12-01

163

VOICE PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATIONS OF ROMANIAN AND ENGLISH ECONOMIC TEXTS  

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Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid repetition of the subject; c to put emphasis on the action or the process; d to convey objectivity; e to avoid a long active subject.

Sim Monica Ariana

2011-07-01

164

Health care economics in Serbia: current problems and changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability. PMID:25536810

Stosi?, Sanja; Karanovi?, Nevena

2014-11-01

165

Artificial Immune Algorithm for Practical Power Economic Dispatch Problems  

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Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial immune algorithm with a multiplier updating method (AIA-MU for practical power economic dispatch (PED considering units with prohibited operating zones (POZ. The AIA equipped with a migration operation can efficiently search and actively explore solutions. The multiplier updating (MU is introduced to handle the system constraints. To show the advantages of the proposed algorithm, two examples are investigated, and the computational results of the proposed method are compared with that of the previous methods. The proposed approach integrates the AIA and the MU, revealing that the proposed approach has the following merits - ease of implementation; applicability to non-convex fuel cost functions of the POZ; better effectiveness than previous methods, and the requirement for only a small population in applying the optimal PED problem of generators with POZ.

C. L. Chiang

2013-12-01

166

Increasing the economic development benefits of higher education in Michigan  

OpenAIRE

This paper considers how a state such as Michigan can increase the economic development benefits of higher education. Research evidence suggests that higher education increases local economic development principally by increasing the quality of the local workforce, and secondarily by increasing local innovative ideas. These economic development benefits of higher education can be increased by: 1) competent management of conventional economic development programs that focus on business attract...

Bartik, Timothy J.

2004-01-01

167

Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shaping the regions countries. Industrial Revolution in Europe and made major investments in the first half of the 19th century particularly central Europe and Balkan region. Balkan regions represent complex and diverse reality. These regions are from Old Continent to Central Europe, South East Europe and Mediterranean. From Adriatic to Black Sea and Mediterranean also. In these regions there are some different economic, social and political events. I.e. Croatia moves to final round member of European Union some countries face to particular problems of political subjects.I offer framework analysis of the regional country by country based on the existing set of criteria, which are variables of social and economic development. Those variables are including (cluster industry, expenditure R&D od GDP, variations of capitals, population and market, some trade block which are impact of economic and social developmentProposed key pillars to support sustainable competitiveness in the Western Balkans. Sustaining competitiveness =Human capital development==Regional Cluster==SectorPolicy reforms.(OECD,2008Key words. Balkan region, Social development, Globalisation, Sustainable development

Fazil Yozgat

2014-10-01

168

An Advanced Genetic Optimization Algorithm to Solve Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch Problem  

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Full Text Available The dispatch of electric load is one of the key functions in electrical power system operation, management and planning. The key intention of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. In the present time, energy resources to generate mechanical power supplied to the rotor shaft of generating units are of fossil fuels. This leads to the emission of huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx that results in atmospheric pollution. Reducing those pollutions resulted by usage of fossil-fired generating units has received great consideration. This provides wide field for the researchers to develop a better system to handle those needs. This leads to the development of Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch (CEED techniques. There are various technique proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. The efficient optimization technique among the proposed work is Genetic Algorithm (GA. But still some problems like slower convergence and higher computational complexity exists in using GA for solving CEED problem. To overcome those difficulties, this paper uses Non- Dominated Ranked Genetic Algorithm (NRGA which uses rank based Roulette Wheel selection algorithm with Pareto-based population ranking Algorithm. The simulation result shows that the proposed technique for solving combined economic and emission dispatch problem results in better convergence rate when compared to the existing techniques.

R. Gopalakrishnan

2012-03-01

169

Managing Sustainable Development of Socio-Economic Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development permeates the entire economy, affecting the development of certain commercial structures, local areas and even countries. As mentioned above, the stability of the whole system is derived from the stability of its constituent elements. Although, in practice, a direct relationship between these phenomena do not exist. Identification of these mechanisms will form a model of sustainable development management of socio-economic system based on the balanced development of its individual elements. This project is aimed at solving the problem of finding a balance between the need to develop socio-economic systems in modern conditions and sustainability of their operation. Crises of recent years have actualized questions the sustainability of commercial organizations, as showed no willingness of individual companies to major changes in the external environment, as well as proven strategies unsustainability developed earlier in their development. Meanwhile, in terms of increased competition in some markets and in some regions, as well as in terms of accelerating changes in the environment of non-standard search ("breakthrough" strategic decisions, radical transformation of existing ideas about the technologies and the possible trajectories of development is often the deciding factor and the pledge successful companies in the future. Objects of research-oil and gas companies and local territory of the Russian Federation. Subject of research-theoretical and methodological, organizational and practical aspects of sustainable development of the energy profile of Russian and local areas.

Olga Viktorovna Lenkova

2014-11-01

170

THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.

Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU

2009-02-01

171

Environmental problems and developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and possibly immune system damage, and temperature increases which will increase the levels of the seas. PMID:12285660

1992-06-01

172

Electrification and social and economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issuancial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

173

Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

2012-05-01

174

Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

Dubinskaya O.Y.

2014-03-01

175

Economic Determinants of Regional Integration in Developing Counties  

OpenAIRE

Regional integration is often viewed as a way to support development and economic growth in developing countries through the related with it benefits to trade and welfare. Economic integration theory goes through two development stages each of which addresses the political and economic context relevant for its time. The first stage is regarded as classic theory or static analysis and includes the traditional theories of economic integration that explain the possible benefits of integration. T...

Marinov, Eduard

2014-01-01

176

Economic minerals of Scotland : bedrock of Scotland's economic development  

OpenAIRE

The work is the result of a digitisation project funded by the New Opportunities Fund RLS (Resources for Learning in Scotland). This report contains 600 images and text descriptions on the economic minerals of Scotland. Most of the specimens have been sourced from the BGS collections. The digitisation project took place between December 2002 and March 2003 and the images and descriptions will be made available on the RLS website and the BGS National Archive of Geological Photog...

Mcintosh, R. P.; Hyslop, E. K.; Mactaggart, F.; Cullen, T.; Rayner, J.

2004-01-01

177

Economic development and direct foreign investment in the transition economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems related to economic development in Serbia and Southeast-European countries. Comparative analysis has been used for distinguishing typical changes of gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and gross domestic product per capita in Serbia, the countries of Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The analysis indicates that the levels of both the gross domestic product (GDP and production in Serbia and other countries are currently lower than in 1989, the year generally taken as the beginning of the process of transition from centrally planned to market economies. .

Mrdakovi?-Cvetkovi? Ružica

2006-01-01

178

Actual economic and energetics problems of Baltic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)

179

Areva's contribution to the local economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Areva, the world leader firm in nuclear power has industrial activities in 43 countries and a staff of 65.583 persons. In 2007 Areva had a turnover of 11923 106 euros and a net profit of 743 106 euros. For about 10 years Areva has been deploying a policy of supporting local economic development that relies on 2 tools: first, investment in viable small and mean-scale firms and secondly, the reconversion of industrial sites into firm parks in which new companies settle to share common services. The investment can be either a loan or the purchase of capital shares. Since 1998, more than 120 investment operations have been carried out representing a total investment of 10 million euros and the creation of 2500 jobs, moreover 6 firm parks have been created. (A.C.)

180

AGROTOURISM – CHANCE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribution of tourism and agro-tourism sector in accomplishment of GDP, by average made on the analyzed period and by annual growth rate, analyze that place Romania on the position 150 of 176 countries surveyed with an annual growth rate of 1.52% from GDP.

Dragos-Ion SMEDESCU

2013-12-01

181

World financial and economic crisis and problems of social responsibility of economic subjects ??????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share of shadow economy. The article provides examples of social irresponsibility of marketing in chase of profit, revealed in industrially developed countries and Ukraine. They cause huge irreplaceable damage to society. The article justifies a conclusion that in countries, economic systems of which cannot ensure a proper level of state regulation of economy and social responsibility of economic subjects, the population is destined to be exploited by socially irresponsible subjects of business, moral and physical degradation and even extinction. The concept of socially responsible marketing, based only on the growth of consciousness of company owners and social initiative, cannot be realised widely.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????, ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????. ? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????. ????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????.

Orlov Petr A.

2013-02-01

182

Economical development of Estonian oil shale industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the first reliable written evidence of oil shale mining on the Kukruse headland stems already from the 1870s [1], the real beginning of oil shale industry in Estonia is considered to be June, 1916 when the first amount of produced oil shale was sent to Petrograd[2]. Thus 1991 is the year of its 75th anniversary. November 25, 1918 the government of the Estonian republic took possession of all three shale open casts, which were founded with Russian state's and private capitals, but at that time controlled by German occupation authorities [3]. In the course of years the oil shale industry has undergone several economical and political crises influencing its development. An idea of the dynamics of this development can be obtained from Figure, representing the annual increase (decrease) of oil shale output, calculated by the method of sliding average of 5-year period. Having analyzed the data given in Figure and taking into account historical events, the author of this paper has divided the development of Estonian oil shale industry into eight different periods. (author). 6 refs., fig

183

Recent trends in economic theory – implications for development geography  

OpenAIRE

Development geography and mainstream economic theory have for many years lived separate lives. Especially so since the downfall of development economics, an academic subject which has repeatedly been pronounced dead by one of today’s leading US economists. The geographical dimension - the location of production in space - has completely disappeared from neo-classical economic theory. This is, in one sense, curious, because the ‘founding father’ of neo-classical economic t...

Reinert, Erik S.; Riiser, Vemund

1994-01-01

184

Is Economic Growth Criminogenic for Firms In Developing Economies?  

OpenAIRE

Several studies have explored the relationship between economy level crime rates or individual level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms which is an important issue especially for developing economies. Using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries we find that economic growth has a negative effect on crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the rela...

Islam, Asif

2012-01-01

185

A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

1998-12-01

186

The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

187

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ECONOMIC SECTOR IN LOCAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available the economic sector plays an important role in the development of the local economy. Local economic development is also a continuous and complex process of planning and implementing strategic programmes and sustainable development policies for the purpose of improving the quality of life of the entire local community by diligently using local resources, may they be human or financial. Also, this article contains a description of the principles of local development, of the actors, factors and sources of local economic development and of their role in the process of planning, elaborating and implementing the strategies for local economic development, as well as a description of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

GAL ALIN-MIHAI

2010-12-01

188

Responsiveness of the MENA Economic Growth to the EU Financial Integration: A Problem Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.

Seyed Komail Tayebi

2011-01-01

189

The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

Bruno Gurtner

2010-03-01

190

Regional dimensions of economic development in Iran: A new economic geography approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a spatial analysis of the regional dimensions of poverty and economic development across provinces of Iran. It offers one of the few estimations made in developing countries using this strand of New Economic Geography (NEG) models and provides a comparison of the results for Iran with those in previously studied developed countries. The goal of this study is to offer an analysis of the effects of agglomeration and dispersion economies on the patterns of regional econom...

Farmanesh, Amir

2009-01-01

191

Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.

Ghassan F. Issa

2009-01-01

192

Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.

Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

2010-10-01

193

Quantum economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

Vukoti? Veselin

2011-01-01

194

Global wind power development: Economics and policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO2. To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

195

Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

Antonios Adamopoulos

2010-07-01

196

Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain  

OpenAIRE

Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

Arber, S.; Bote, M.; Meadows, R.

2009-01-01

197

The University and Local Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

John MULLIN

2012-11-01

198

Economic consequences of fusion materials development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The programme of qualification and improvement of materials for use in a fusion power station is crucial to the introduction of fusion power into the energy market and power plant studies are used to guide the targets for materials development. It is common to mis-interpret these targets as minimum values that must be achieved for fusion power to be a viable energy source, implying that failure to fully meet these targets will prevent fusion from playing a role in future. It remains important to improve materials properties but this must always be considered in context by an integrated power plant design in which all aspects are consistent. Rather than making fusion an impossibility, different levels of materials performance will lead to a different design in which their use is optimised, for instance compensating reduced lifetime neutron fluence by power density and machine size. Such trade-offs are an economic issue and relatively large variations in materials properties can be accommodated with small changes in overall cost of electricity. The full material impacts are much more complex than just the tolerance to neutron damage, and these must all be considered in a fully integrated way. Of particular importance are the tolerance to heat load, the combined effects of operating temperature and neutron load, which can impact on thermodynamic efficiency, the compatibility of different materials and their phase stability over the characteristic timescale of continuous he characteristic timescale of continuous operation of a power plant. (author)

199

Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

2000-10-01

200

Post-reform economic development in Punjab: constraints and remedies  

OpenAIRE

Punjab economy has experienced a down turn in its economic development in the post-reform period compared with acceleration of economic growth of the Indian economy as well as other dynamic states. Therefore, a legitimate question arises why Punjab economy could not develop at a rate that has experienced by the Indian economy. An attempt has been made in this paper to explore economic development experience of Punjab economy in a comparative perspective to arrive at the factors that have cont...

Singh, Lakhwinder

2010-01-01

201

Entrepreneurship, state economic development policy, and the entrepreneurial university  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we discuss the nature of the university-industry relationship and recommend specific policies to help achieve the goal of greater economic growth. We argue that state-supported research universities can be used to integrate entrepreneurship into state economic development and incubate entrepreneurial companies. Regional entrepreneurship policy is a new strategy that regards economic development as a process that goes from supporting research and development to creating and grow...

Audretsch, David B.; Phillips, Ronnie J.

2007-01-01

202

The world economic development with the ISER-PIUS for developing and developed countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power as a base for the world economic development has, unfortunately, been posing some potential risks including excessive radiation and radioactivity releases from the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl-4 as well as the future risks of nuclear waste management. On the other hand, it is a fact that nuclear power is already being used substantially as an economical energy option throughout the world. Therefore, the ISER-PIUS is now envissaged to be used eventually as safe and economical power source to be employed widely in the world. The present economic conditions and future economic development in Indonesia, taken as an example of less developed country, are described briefly. It is insisted that the policy of nuclear power introduction into a less developed country is neither economical nor realistic. More feasible seems a system of domestically designed and developed inherently safe reactor like ISER-PIUS. An analysis is also made of the future potential of such reactors in advanced countries in terms of the future of ISER-PIUS. It is concluded that cheap electricity and heat are needed for the economic development in less developed nations and for the maintenance of the economy level now attained by developed countries as well. International collaboration for the ISER-PIUS development will be a vehecle for the world-wide economic development in the next century. (Nogami, K.)

203

Economism  

OpenAIRE

Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

Simons, P.

2010-01-01

204

SINGULARITY DEVELOPMENT IN MOVING-BOUNDARY PROBLEMS  

OpenAIRE

Singularity development is considered for a class of Stefan moving-boundary problems. Conformal mapping methods are used to construct explicit solutions when the specific heat is zero and these solutions are used to describe singularity development for more general problems in two and three space dimensions. © 1985 Oxford University Press.

Howison, S.; Ockendon, J.; Lacey, A.

1985-01-01

205

A particle swarm approach to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED) problems in power systems such as, environmental/economic dispatch (EED) and multi-area environmental/economic dispatch. The proposed model considers the environmental impact to achieve the minimization of fuel costs and pollutant emissions, simultaneously. The EED problem is further extended to dispatch the power among different areas to aid emission allowance trading. The perfo...

Yee Ming Chen ,; Wen-Shiang Wang

2010-01-01

206

Peace, petroleum and economic development in the Middle East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first obstacle which is still on the way to lead to a durable peace is the issue of negotiations between Israel and Syria and Lebanon, but it is only a question of time. Arab and Israeli people make relations in all kind of areas: industry, agriculture, finances, tourism, trade. Hope of economic development were well illustrated by big projects such roads and trains networks, interconnection of electric networks. An important challenge to realize these works is to collect the money which is necessary to their realization; the project of a bank for the development in the middle east, helped by Usa, is not welcome for arab countries of the Gulf. They think a new bank is not necessary but in reality they are afraid that the loans give profits only to Israeli people. In the same time, it does not seem possible to increase the petroleum prices when Opec and non Opec countries disagree and Usa and industrialized countries are not disposed to pay more for their energy; finally if the peace is necessary to allow an economic development in this area, it is not sufficient to solve the poverty problem, frustrations and social tensions, which are now the principle menaces in this area for the policy stability

207

INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.

I. Parshyn

2014-03-01

208

An Explanation of Economic Change and Development  

OpenAIRE

The contribution to the explanation of economic change that this paper sets out is centered on a core of interconnected endogenous variables, mainly innovation, radical uncertainty and entrepreneurship, which current economic analyses consider only in part and separately, sometimes as endogenous but for the most as exogenous. The article (and the formalized model) suppose that the functioning of the economy is not disturbed by the operation of pathological factors mainly concer...

Fusari, Angelo

2014-01-01

209

Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence  

OpenAIRE

To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in levels as well as paths of psychosocial development on problem behaviour. The study uses data from the School project, a longitudinal research project on adolescents that examined (problem) behavi...

Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

2008-01-01

210

/ METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding

Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.

2011-12-01

211

Environmental and health problems of developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental variables largely determine the disease pattern in developing countries. Infections and malnutrition predominate, due to the effects of both poverty (a summary of many aspects of material deprivation) and a high ambient temperature. Environmental changes may be intended to improve health--examples include improved domestic water supplies and sanitation--or they may be due to socio-economic developments, which often have favourable or unfavourable health consequences. These are explored for water resource developments, where the health effects are complex, and for deforestation and urbanization. Although environmental impact assessment has been of value in reducing the adverse health impacts of socio-economic development projects, the use of health opportunity assessment is proposed as a more positive approach to optimizing the consequences of development to human health. PMID:8222995

Bradley, D J

1993-01-01

212

Environmental/Economic Power Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

OpenAIRE

At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are requ...

Neha Mishra; Manjaree Pandit

2013-01-01

213

System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

Batanovi? Vladan

2011-01-01

214

Historical development of radon problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)

215

The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of socie...

Nazura Abdul Manap; Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani

2014-01-01

216

Social change through integrated social and economic development  

OpenAIRE

Twelve years into democracy, South Africa is still facing deep-seated social and economic inequalities. The expanding divide between the rich and the poor emphasises the sharp division between the modern economy and the marginalised second economy, which characterises the two worlds in South Africa. South Africa’s macroeconomic policy fosters economic growth, which is essential for socio-economic development, but at the same time it also highlights the challenges required for development, w...

Lombard, A.

2006-01-01

217

An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

Próchniak Mariusz

2014-10-01

218

A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

219

The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan  

OpenAIRE

Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

Mohamed, Issam A. W.

2010-01-01

220

THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

Gorkemli Kazar

2014-04-01

221

32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration for economic development conveyances...REALIGNMENT Real Property § 174.10 Consideration for economic development conveyances...form of payment and the schedule. The consideration may be in cash or in-kind and...

2010-07-01

222

MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

2013-01-01

223

Cumulative Estimate of the Ukrainian Regional Economical Development Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels. The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic system mobility.From the position of the regional economic system effectiveness identification, the cumulative estimate of the regional economic development is a topical issue, as it enables to identify the territorial distribution of general tendencies of regionally dispersed economic phenomena.In order to identify the regional economic development cumulative features, the system of variables reflecting various aspects thereof has been formulated, in particular:• the level of population economic activity in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• population employment level in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old; population unemployment level (according to the MOP methodology in percentage to the population amount aged from 15 to 70 years old;• average nominal salary of workers (per month, in UAH;• gross regional product per capita in factual prices (UAH;• fixed capital expenditures per capita in factual prices (UAH.The approach towards regional economic development estimate proposed in the research enables to identify the regional rating that is the tool for the economic and social development policy formulation, as the adoption of grounded administrative decisions requires local governmental agencies to master the full amount of information regarding the regional economic development dynamics indicators.

R. Atamaniuk

2010-12-01

224

Regulatory-legal provision of economic regulation of regional development ??????????-???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies issues of regulatory-legal regulation of economic regional development. It analyses main tendencies and priorities of the newest stage of law creation with respect to economic regulation of regional development. It studies issues of two-level structure of economic regulation of regional development (regional and interregional levels. It gives theoretical substantiation of levels of location of regulatory-legal documents of regulation of regional development. It establishes that the higher level hosts regulatory-legal acts of the legislative body of the state – Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the lower level hosts regulatory documents of the executive branch of the power – President of Ukraine and Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, and the lowest – central body of the executive power on economic policy – Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????-????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????. ????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? (???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????????, ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????-???????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? – ????????? ???? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? – ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???? – ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? – ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????.

Medvid' Viktoria Yu.

2013-01-01

225

Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

Lee, Alice

226

Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

Ravshan Yuldashev

2010-06-01

227

International technology transfer and catch-up in economic development  

OpenAIRE

Book description: International technology transfer has been an essential element of the ‘catching up’ process in developing countries over the last 30 years. This book reappraises its role in economic development in light of the globalization of the world economy.

Radosevic, S.

1999-01-01

228

Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

Anca Maria GHERMAN

2013-11-01

229

COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES : PROBLEMS  

OpenAIRE

Libraries are not made but they grow. Libraries are considered to be the heart of educational institutions. They play very important role in teaching and learning environment process. This paper highlights problems of collection development in library.”

Kotur, Mrutyunjaya B.; Ningappa N; Arabagonda

2014-01-01

230

Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

Shahibul Ahyan

2014-01-01

231

Theoretical and Methodical Basis of the Ecologically Balanced Management of Region Social and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors of the article "Theoretical and Methodical Bases of the Ecologically Balanced Management of Region Social and Economic Development" approach to providing the regional ecologically balanced management of social and economic development. This is an especially actual topic for Ukraine.Some basic approaches to a regional management issue were analyzed by the authors of the article. It is offered to understand the way a regional management is carried out, realization and regulation of a complex of purposes, approaches and actions connected with the balanced management of region social and economic development based on the mutual consistency of both national and regional interests.The article considers the ways of solving the basic management problems of region social and economic development. The authors of the article assert that a part of these problems can be solved on a regional level, while some scientists insist on state intervention.The article presents the regional management structure scheme, where the authors suggest distinguishing between the regional management controlled by the state structures and the regional management controlled by the local authority.The authors believe the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development to be effective only if there is an accurate definition between its purposes. The most significant purposes presented in the article separate social and economic development management into economic, social and ecological components.The authors affirm that the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development should provide the achievement of all purposes because the realization of some of them does not improve the entire social and economic system and does not balance its management development.

V. Lukyanykhyn

2011-06-01

232

Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP) and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stag...

Shahibul Ahyan; Zulkardi, .; Darmawijoyo

2014-01-01

233

Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications of factors of economic development an improved classification of the driving forces of advancing national economic development was offered, the basis of which systemically factors amount. It was proved that the optimistic scenario of socio-economic development of Ukraine can be based only on the economic model of advancing development, which should take into account the non renewable resources, based on the rapid establishment of mechanisms for high-tech export-oriented economy, which is the driving force of intellectual resources, cultural values, and creative energy. Guenon-factor of advancing economic development is defined. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Guenon-factor concentrates the cause of changes in the system state and can be represented by two levels depending on the degree of objectivity and distance from the system itself. The studies presented an opportunity to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. Each factor of the formed registry was described by a brief characteristic or feature showing its impact on economic development. Likely Guenon-factor is characterized by variability, however, still forms the initial system-factors in the study of which are seen as the prospect for further research.

E.Yu. Yahelskaia

2014-06-01

234

Micro-Economic Models of Problem Choice in Basic Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain representations of basic scientific knowledge can be coupled with traditional micro-economic analysis to provide an analysis of rational research planning or agenda setting in basic science. Research planning is conceived of as a resource allocation decision in which resources are being allocated to activities directed toward the solution…

Sneed, Joseph D.

235

Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras

2009-12-01

236

A Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

The significant impact of international tourism in stimulating economic growth is especially important from a policy perspective. For this reason, the relationship between international tourism and economic growth would seem to be an interesting empirical issue. In particular, if there is a causal link between international tourism demand and economic growth, then appropriate policy implications may be developed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether tourism specialization is im...

Chang, C. L.; Khamkaew, T.; Mcaleer, M. J.

2009-01-01

237

Minimum water requirement for social and economic development  

OpenAIRE

There is no common understanding of the minimum per capita fresh water requirement for human health and economic and social development. Existing estimates vary between 20 litres and 4,654 litres per capita per day, however, these estimates are methodologically problematic as they consider only human consumptive and hygiene needs, or they consider economic needs but not the effects of trade. Reconsidering the components of a minimum water requirement estimate for human health and for economic...

Chenoweth, Jl

2008-01-01

238

Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Case of Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

This paper has examined the empirical relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan over the period 1971–2004. The results show that, in the long run financial depth and real interest exerted positive impact on economic growth. The share of investment is although positively correlated to real income, but remained insignificant. Furthermore, in the short run economic growth is positively and significantly affected by changes in the share of investment. Moreover, ...

Khan, Arshad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sheikh, Saeed

2005-01-01

239

Religious affiliation and economic development: a recent literature review  

OpenAIRE

This article provides an overview of the recent literature relevant to the study of the relation between economics and religion. The paper also appeals to the critical review on the implications of religious markets and church-state relation. The study argues that economic development depress religiosity. Subsequent comments will be linked to a much more comprehensive literature on the social and economic consequences of religious beliefs.

Olimid, Anca Parmena

2010-01-01

240

Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

Ercan EKMEKÇ?O?LU

2013-06-01

241

Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development. Connections are revealed to have no significant influence on the internal control of resources but a significant direct influence on economic development through value chain activities. Through the analyses in this paper the notion of ‘boundary utility’ is elaborated as the crossing and transformation of the dynamic composite underlying boundaries to enable innovation for positive impact on economic development.

Brink, Tove

2010-01-01

242

Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

243

About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems  

OpenAIRE

The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

Voloshyn, Oleksiy

2006-01-01

244

Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem  

OpenAIRE

In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal) and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in ...

Gherman, Anca Maria; S?tefan, George

2013-01-01

245

Artificial Immune Algorithm for Practical Power Economic Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes an artificial immune algorithm with a multiplier updating method (AIA-MU) for practical power economic dispatch (PED) considering units with prohibited operating zones (POZ). The AIA equipped with a migration operation can efficiently search and actively explore solutions. The multiplier updating (MU) is introduced to handle the system constraints. To show the advantages of the proposed algorithm, two examples are investigated, and the computational results of the proposed...

Chiang, C. L.

2013-01-01

246

Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems During Childhood  

OpenAIRE

Childhood psychological conditions including depression and substance abuse are a growing concern among American children, but their long-term economic costs are unknown. This paper uses unique data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) following groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years prospectively collecting information on education, income, work, and marriage. Following siblings offers an opportunity to control for unobserved family and neighborhood effects. A r...

Smith, James Patrick; Monica, Santa; Smith, Gillian C.

2010-01-01

247

To Conquer or Compel: War, Peace, and Economic Development  

OpenAIRE

Theories of economic development suggest variously that national income increases or decreases the propensity for states to fight, while systematic evidence of the impact of development on warfare is ambiguous or non-existent. The lack of empirical support for nominally opposing claims can be reconciled if elements of both perspectives are partially correct. We use a formal model to construct an explanation linking economic development with interstate conflict that resolves contradictory theo...

Gartzke, Erik; Rohner, Dominic

2010-01-01

248

Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development  

OpenAIRE

Based upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regressing GEM’s 2002 data for nascent entrepreneurship in 36 countries on the level of economic development as measured either by per capita income or by an index for innovative capacity, we find support for a ...

Wennekers, A. R. M.; Stel, A. J.; Thurik, A. R.; Reynolds, P.

2005-01-01

249

Meeting Summary, Economic Development Panel, Business Meeting No.31  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK-B135 The objectives of the meeting were as follows: (1) Learn more about and discuss economic impacts of wind power development in the U.S, highlighting the NWCC report, ''Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Power Development''; (2) Learn more about and discuss wind integration costs and the impacts of recent studies on wind energy development; and (3) Review activities and products planned for FY 2004.

Kevin Bryan

2003-06-18

250

The Role of Savings in the Economic Development of the Republic of Azerbaijan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the possibilities of the accumulation and mobilization of savings and their role in the economic development of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Currently, the national economic growth is mostly based on the resource components; crude oil, natural gas and oil products. For the development of the non-oil sector the mobilization of domestic savings into investments would prove very useful. Savings of people should be the most important investment resource for the development of the non-oil sector, as the foreign capital is mostly involved in production of natural resources like oil and gas. The mobilization of domestic savings is crucial for raising the economic growth and promoting development, as it is the private savings that affect the domestic investments significantly. The most of the savings are made when they are fully channeled into the productive investments. As a result, this will lead to the solution of problems of employment and economic growth.

Nagi Bairamli

2010-12-01

251

Education and Economic Development. ERIC Digest Series Number 23.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, educational leaders have joined forces with businesses and community members to prepare students for a new, challenging labor market and, in so doing, are making major contributions to economic development. As the transition to the information age continues, the adaptable, creative student may provide the force to direct economic

Haynes, Chloe J.

252

The analysis of economic development and forecasting of info-communications development in the Republic of Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic development of the Republic of Cameroon at the present time is analyzed. The dependence between the level of economy development and the level of info-communication development is shown. The problems inter-fering an output of the Republic of Cameroon on the modern level in the field of info-communications are considered. It is stated that Cameroon is going through scientific and technical and information revolution which has already distinctly changed the conditions and the way of economic development of the country.

Tamno Armand

2010-02-01

253

Multiobjective fuzzy dominance based bacterial foraging algorithm to solve economic emission dispatch problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)

Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

2010-12-15

254

Problems of increasing the efficiency of the special economic zone legal regime in the Kaliningrad region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the main problems of improving the legal regime of the Special Economic Zone through the prism of efficiency increase. The author stresses the imperfection of some provisions contained in the Law on the Special economic Zone. Certain proposals on the legal regulation and law enforcement are formulated.

Nilov K.

2014-09-01

255

STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

2012-10-01

256

Localizing vector optimization problems with application to welfare economics  

OpenAIRE

In the present paper, the Polyak's principle, concerning convexity of the images of small balls through C1,1 mappings, is employed in the study of vector optimization problems. This leads to extend to such a context achievements of local programming, an approach to nonlinear optimization, due to B.T. Polyak, which consists in exploiting the benefits of the convex local behaviour of certain nonconvex problems. In doing so, solution existence and optimality conditions are esta...

Uderzo, Amos

2013-01-01

257

Intelligent Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique to Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO) is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli) bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Ec...

Vijay, R.

2012-01-01

258

An Integrated GA-ABC Optimization Technique to Solve Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

Unit Commitment (UC) and Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems are significant research areas to determine the economical generation schedule with all generating unit constraints, such as unit ramp rates, unit minimum and maximum generation capabilities and minimum up-time and down-time. This study proposed a technique for solving the UC and ELD problems using bio-inspired techniques like Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Optimization. The experiments are performed in two...

Sumathi, S.; Archana, N.; Surekha, P.

2012-01-01

259

Harmony search algorithm for solving combined heat and power economic dispatch problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the key optimization problems in electric power system operation. The problem grows complex if one or more units produce both power and heat. Combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (EDHS) algorithm to solve CHPED. Some standard examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in obtaining the optimal solution. In all cases, the solutions obtained using EDHS algorithm are better than those obtained by other methods.

260

Quadratic Approximation PSO for Economic Dispatch Problems with Valve-Point Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Quadratic Approximation Particle Swarm Optimization (qPSO) is a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) which hybridize Quadratic Approximation Operator (QA) with PSO. qPSO is already proven to be cost effective and reliable for the test problems of continuous optimization. Economic dispatch (ED) problem is one of the fundamental issues in power system operations. The problem of economic dispatch turns out to be a continuous optimization problem which is solved using original PSO and its variant qPSO in expectation of better results. Results are also compared with the earlier published results.

Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Deep, Kusum

261

The efficiency assessment of big cities social and economic development: a system dynamics approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the actual problems of social and economic development of big cities. To assess the efficiency of this development, we have made a methodology, based on a system dynamics approach which meets the modern requirements. One of the main elements of the methodology is a system dynamics model of urban development. This model helps to determine the efficiency borders of this development, the cost of urban growth, tariffs on the urban infrastructure services. The results of such c...

Shcherbakova, Nadezda

2010-01-01

262

Economic-Mathematical Modeling of Social and Environmental Risks Management of Projects of Urbanized Territories Development  

OpenAIRE

The article covers the problem of development of management methods of social and environmental risks of urbanized territories development. The main purpose of research is a development and scientific substantiation of economic-mathematical model, allowing to increase the efficiency of risk management of urban development and selection for the practical implementation of the most efficient investment and town-planning projects. During the investigation the conditions and possible consequences...

Anton Dmitrievich Murzin; Tatiana Yurievna Anopchenko

2014-01-01

263

Relationships among parents' economic stress, parenting, and young children's behavior problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a time of economic recession, identifying how economic stress may be related to parenting stress, to the parenting behaviors used by mothers and fathers, and to young children's behavior problems may provide insight into interventions that may best assist families through their own economic crises. As part of this study, 124 culturally diverse parents with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own economic, life, and parenting stress; their parenting behaviors; and their young children's behavior problems. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that negative economic events and parenting stress provide unique incremental variance in predicting young children's internalizing problems, whereas life stress and parenting stress provide unique incremental variance in predicting young children's externalizing problems. With closer examination, parenting stress fully mediated the relationship between parents' financial cutbacks and young children's internalizing problems and the relationship between parents' negative economic events and young children's externalizing problems. These findings suggested that these variables are important to examine collectively. PMID:24500325

Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

2014-12-01

264

Economic impact of corrosion and scaling problems in geothermal energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and scaling problems have a significant impact on geothermal plant economics. A power plant must amortize the capital investment over a 20-year period and achieve satisfactory operating efficiency to achieve financial success. Corrosion and scale incrustations have been encountered in all geothermal plants, and to various degrees, adversely affected plant life times and power output. Using published data this report analyzes known geothermal corrosion and scaling phenomena for significant cost impacts on plant design and operation. It has been necessary to speculate about causes and mechanisms in order to estimate impacts on conceptual geothermal plants. Silica is highly soluble in hot geothermal water and solubility decreases as water is cooled in a geothermal power plant. Calculations indicate as much as 30,000 tons/year could pass through a 100 MWe water cycle plant. The major cost impact will be on the reinjection well system where costs of 1 to 10 mills/kwhr of power produced could accrue to waste handling alone. On the other hand, steam cycle geothermal plants have a definite advantage in that significant silica problems will probably only occur in hot dry rock concepts, where steam above 250 C is produced. Calculation methods are given for estimating the required size and cost impact of a silica filtration plant and for sizing scrubbers. The choice of materials is significantly affected by the pH of the geothermal water, temperature, chloride, and H{sub s} contents. Plant concepts which attempt to handle acid waters above 180 C will be forced to use expensive corrosion resistant alloys or develop specialized materials. On the other hand, handling steam up to 500 C, and pH 9 water up to 180 C appears feasible using nominal cost steels, typical of today's geothermal plants. A number of factors affecting plant or component availability have been identified. The most significant is a corrosion fatigue problem in geothermal turbines at the Geyser's geothermal plant which is presently reducing plant output by about 10%. This is equivalent to over $3 million per year in increased oil consumption to replace the power. In the course of assessing the cost implications of corrosion and scaling problems, a number of areas of technological uncertainty were identified which should be considered in R and D planning in support of geothermal energy. Materials development with both laboratory and field testing will be necessary. The economic analysis on which this report is based was done in support of an AEC Division of Applied Technology program to assess the factors affecting geothermal plant economics. The results of this report are to be used to develop computer models of overall plant economics, of which corrosion and scaling problems are only a part. The translation of the economic analysis to the report which appears here, was done on AEC Special Studies Funds.

Shannon, D.W.

1975-01-01

265

A simple approach to global optimal feedback solutions :with emphasize on certain management problems in economics  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic optimization problems covers a great class of problems in management science and technology. The classical problem formulations being the variational approach as in classical mechanics, like Hamilton's principle and the optimal control theory in economics as the Pontryagin's maximum principle. In this account we start with a general problem formulation as an alternative to an approach based on solving differential equations. We focus on creating an analytical environment aimed at deri...

Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Berge, Gerhard

2001-01-01

266

A Hybrid Tabu Search and Algorithm Genetic for Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

The application of optimization techniques to power system planning and operation problems has been an area of active research in the recent past. Genetic Algorithm (GA), Tabu Search (TS) are widely used to combinatorial optimization in recent years. Combining the advantages of individual algorithms, a hybrid TS/GA algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is proposed in this paper, using the method of penalty to transform the problem ED with constraints in a simple problem without con...

Naama, Bakhta; Bouzeboudja, Hamid; Lahdeb, Mohamed; Ramdani, Youcef

2013-01-01

267

Application of Krill Herd and Water Cycle Algorithms on Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic economic dispatch (DED) is a complicated nonlinear constrained optimization problem and one of the most important problems in operation of power systems. In this paper two novel optimization algorithms have been proposed to be applied on DED problem. The first method, Krill herd (KHA) is a novel meta heuristic algorithm for solving optimization problems which is based on the simulation of the herding of the krill swarms as a biological and environmental inspired method and is applied ...

Mani Ashouri; Seyed Mehdi Hosseini

2014-01-01

268

The Problems in Sustainable Development of Resource Orientated City and Countermeasures  

OpenAIRE

Sustainable development of resource orientated city is a highly regarded problem in China and in the world. By analyzing the status quo of resource orientated city, this paper puts forward the problems in the development of resource orientated city, such as economic structure, spatial structure, environmental pollution, capital and technology, and puts forward countermeasures for these problems. It is concluded that cities should insist on sustainable development in the future.

Zhen Wang,; Yuanyuan Liu; Yan Xu

2009-01-01

269

Does Stock Market Development Promote Economic Growth in Ghana?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates whether the stock market in Ghana contributes to the growth of the Ghanaian economy using quarterly data (2006Q1–2013Q2. A bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality in the vector error correction model are used for analysis. The results of the cointegration analysis indicate that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between stock market development and economic growth. The results of the causality analysis demonstrate that there is a unidirectional causality running from stock market development to economic growth. However, since the long-run regression analysis shows a negative relationship between stock market development and economic growth, we conclude that stock market development does not promote economic growth in Ghana.

Michael Adusei

2014-05-01

270

GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

271

GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

272

Economic Development in Islamic Perspective: Concept, Objectives, and Some Issues  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the concept and objectives of economic development from an Islamic perspective.A few related issues including motivation, role of the state, population, and growth-equity trade off have also been discussed.

Hasan, Zubair

1995-01-01

273

Windfall gains, political economy and economic development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint analysis of how natural resources and aid potentially affect total output in society through rent-seeking activities. We survey the existing evidence on both direct and indirect effects of windfalls and provide some new empirical evidence of the association between aid/natural resources and institutions in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear

Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

2008-01-01

274

Metaphors of Nature and Economic Development: Critical Education for Sustainable Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neoliberal discourse often conceptualizes nature in relation to its market utility and economic development. This article will address the role of metaphors in shaping neoliberal discourse in business education. The aim of this article is to reveal reasoning patterns about environmental problems and economic development in students of sustainable business minor. The case study described in this article involves business students at The Hague University in The Netherlands. This case study aimed to explore a shift in student understanding of environmental problems and economic development before and after the intervention. The results suggest that critical curriculum can inform students about the alternative conceptions as well as instruct them about potential solutions to the sustainability challenges. The article culminates with the argument that without goal-oriented education for sustainability; neoliberal education may not permit transcendence from unsustainable practices.

Helen Kopnina

2014-10-01

275

EMERGING EQUITY MARKET AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BANGLADESH PERSPECTIVE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific region. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development ofhuman capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environment sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy and other plans. Economic development differs from economic growth and economic development is policy involvement activities with aims of economic and social well-being of people. Economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in gross domestic product. In this paper an attempt has been taken to analyze the capital market in some details.

Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

2012-06-01

276

Local economic development in South Africa : policy implications  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to locate and examine the effi cacy of the implementation of the policy on local economic development within the context of the sphere of local government in South Africa. The sphere of local government is currently faced with numerous challenges and bottlenecks that stem from high poverty and unemployment rates, shortage of skills required to propel local economic development, lack of administrative capacity and ineffective implementation of poli...

Koma, S. B.

2012-01-01

277

DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF ROMANIAN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we propose using the discriminant analysis for the identification of a typology for the Romanian counties by the economic development level. In this purpose, we used a set of variables that characterize the economic and social development. The treatment of the data is done with the SPSS software. The results obtained in this paper can be used as arguments in making decisions regarding the harmonization of the Romanian regions and the allocation of the investments in appropriate ...

ELISABETA JABA; D?NU? VASILE JEMNA; DANIELA VIORIC?; CHRISTIANA BRIGITTE BALAN

2007-01-01

278

Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The m...

Ekmekc?i?og?lu, Ercan

2013-01-01

279

Cluster Economic Performance Concept – Present Experiences and Future Developments  

OpenAIRE

Cluster-based economic development has become an increasingly popular topic for researchers and economic development professionals.Clusters are groups of companies and institutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and/or services. Given changes in the global environment, businesses and countries are changing the way they compete. These changes are characterised by the ability of multinational corporations to lo...

Biriescu, Simona

2010-01-01

280

Monetary systems, sustainable growth and inclusive economic development  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study is to review the literature on monetary issues and discuss how money and monetary systems contribute to the achievement of sustainable growth and inclusive economic development. The paper is based on an extensive review of literature that deals with monetary issues with the objective of building a case that the achievement of sustainable growth and inclusive economic development requires the right monetary system to be put in place which supports those objecti...

Omerc?evic?, Edo

2013-01-01

281

Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.

Doroshenko, Valentina

2012-05-01

282

FDI and Economic Development: Evidence from Mainland China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endeavors have been made in this paper to discern the long-run relations between FDI (Foreign Direct Investment and economic development in China in the comprehensive framework, which incorporates determinants as output, FDI, capital formation, employment, human capital and international openness. VAR (vector autoregressive modelsImpulse Response, Variance Decomposition, Johansen Co-integration and VECM (vector error correction have been estimated, focusing on the long-run structural relations; findings indicate that in the long run, FDI tends to decrease economic growth; economic development in China seems to be fueled by domestic capital accumulation and employment growth; FDI inflows do crowd out domestic capitals, and reduce employment growth.

Liyan Liu

2011-12-01

283

78 FR 8295 - Guarantees for Bonds Issued for Community or Economic Development Purposes  

Science.gov (United States)

...flexibility and innovation. [[Page 8301...Community or Economic Development Purposes defined...we_make/research/community-economic-development...businesses. Financial innovation and development of products...

2013-02-05

284

On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life: Introducing a Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionarily Stable Island Economic Development Strategy  

OpenAIRE

This discourse offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded delay supergame which models The Problem of Su...

Funk, Matt

2009-01-01

285

Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes that economic valuation is vital for bringing, ecosystems to decision-making agendas in developing countries and that great effort must be made to bridge the gap between scientists and decision makers.

Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

2010-01-01

286

Strategic evaluation of economic feasibility of mountain tourist region development: Case study of Stara Planina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper covers theoretical, methodological and practical discoveries and evaluation of the economic aspects of development and planning of the mountain tourist regions. The basic aspects of economic-spatial theories, analysis and methods are presented for research of development effects in the mountain regions. It is also pointed to the basic terms of the mountain tourist regions development in the countries of the European Union which realize respective development results The work analyses significance of tourism in development of the mountain regions characterized by the capability for innovative activities, i.e. starting the whole range of complementary activities which reversibly influence the forming of growth and development poles. Especially are analyzed commercial and non-commercial effects of realization of the mountain tourist centers in ecologically saved, but as a rule, economically not enough developed mountain regions. The approach in the strategic evaluation of the economic feasibility of development of the tourist region is considered in accordance with the experience of the countries with higher degree of mountain region development, on example of Stara Planina. The analysis of economic feasibility of mountain region development Stara Planina covered the following segments: market, consumption, number of employed, investment means and economic effects of exploitation. Considering the fact that Stara planina is region covered by the Park of Nature and Tourist region for which the Spatial plan is done, a special problem was harmonization of development and protection functions, i.e. evaluation of economic and ecological acceptability for development implementation. The Spatial plan foreseen rational model of sustainable regional development of the Stara planina region based on integration of urban and rural economies on one side and development of tourism and protection of nature, on the other.

Miliji? Saša

2009-01-01

287

Electricity from nuclear energy: an economic or environmental problem?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of both nuclear power and renewable energy sources are evaluated. Nuclear power is relatively safe, clean, cheap and plentiful and in countries such as Japan and Korea where there are few natural energy sources, the future of nuclear power is assured. However, natural gas and 50% efficient combined cycle gas turbines have a considerable cost advantage and these are replacing existing coal and oil fired plant. Other competition comes from wind energy, waste incineration and biomass. Even if cheaper alternatives are available nuclear energy may still have a place in a country's energy policy for several reasons including diversity of supply. However, economic disadvantage make the future of nuclear power in countries such as the UK and USA uncertain. (UK)

288

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.

Hardiansyah Hardiansyah

2013-01-01

289

[Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from the employee's viewpoint or the employer's. The consequences of importing manpower must be studied in relation to possible alternatives. PMID:12346374

Lim, L L

1994-01-01

290

Neoclassical theory versus new economic geography. Competing explanations of cross-regional variation in economic development  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses data for 255 NUTS-2 European regions over the period 1995-2003 to test the relative explanatory performance of two important rival theories seeking to explain variations in the level of economic development across regions, namely the neoclassical model originating from the work of Solow (1956) and the so-called Wage Equation, which is one of a set of simultaneous equations consistent with the short-run equilibrium of new economic geography (NEG) theory, as descr...

Fingleton, Bernard; Fischer, Manfred M.

2008-01-01

291

The relationship between savings and economic growth in countries with different level of economic development  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to analyze the cause and effect relationship between economic growth and savings in advanced economies and in emerging and developing countries2. In this work we used the method based on studies in macroeconomics and international finance as well as econometric methods (co-integration models and Granger's causality test). All statistical data used in this paper came from the International Monetary Fund database (World Economic Outlook database). The results confirmed ...

Misztal, Piotr

2011-01-01

292

The Contribution of Cooperative Law to Economic Development in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of societies in general. This paper evaluates the policies of cooperatives and their programs and performances in boosting the economy of Malaysia as well as investigates the function of cooperative societies in the growth of economic development. It concludes by stating that to be effective and successful, cooperative institutions must adhere to the principles and precepts provided for by the government as in the Cooperatives Societies Act 1993.

Nazura Abdul Manap

2014-07-01

293

Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF) problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

Rafik Labdani; Linda Slimani; Tarek Bouktir

2006-01-01

294

Monetary Policy And Economic Development In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals.

Rajendra N.Shendge

2012-09-01

295

Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.

Balcha, Berhanu

2001-01-01

296

Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

2009-06-01

297

The strategic economic plan and the role of independent power in economic development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Independent power production (IPP) in Newfoundland was examined within the context of the province's Strategic Economic Plan. Provisions of the Plan were summarized, with special reference to the promotion of alternative energy technologies and government efforts to amend regulations to facilitate development of alternative energy sources by independent producers. IPP was considered to be an ideal tool for regional economic development and diversification, assuming that environmental concerns were carefully considered and addressed. Some of the benefits ascribed to IPP included strengthening the private sector, creating new small business opportunities, improving competitiveness, promoting regional development, contributing to import substitution and enhance the province's technology and knowledge base

298

Economic development and injury mortality : Studies in global trends from a health transition perspective  

OpenAIRE

Globally, injury is a major public health problem. The extent of the problem varies considerably by demographic subgroups, regions and national income. The overall objective of this thesis is to examine the relationship between injury mortality and economic development, and to discuss its role in the changing patterns of mortality as described in health transition theory. By cross-sectional analysis between cause-specific injury-related mortality and income per capita, studies included in thi...

Moniruzzaman, Syed

2006-01-01

299

Staff Development in Problem-based Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that, for problem-based learning (PBL) to succeed, a sound program of staff development is required and describes the introduction of PBL into Nursing and Midwifery curricula at the University of Dundee (Scotland) including key components and evaluatory evidence to support its efficacy. (DB)

Murray, Ian; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2000-01-01

300

On the Essential Multidimensionality of an Economic Problem: Towards Tradeoffs-Free Economics  

OpenAIRE

The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeo...

Zeleny, Milan

2009-01-01

301

Causal Relationships between Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to examine the causality relations between financial development, trade openness and economic growth (GDP for the Turkish economy. Approach: In time series context, recently developed econometric techniques were used: namely the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF for unit root, Johansen and Juselius (JJ for cointegration and Granger causality test for causal relationships. Results: The findings of the study showed that while trade openness has a positive effect, financial development has a negative effect on growth. Conclusion: Moreover, the Granger causality test results revealed the presence of bicausal relationship between financial development, trade openness and growth indicating that economic policies aimed at financial development and trade openness have a statistically significant impact on economic growth.

Fatih Yucel

2009-01-01

302

ONLINE ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS  

OpenAIRE

Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I ...

Tchai Tavor

2011-01-01

303

Economic growth and development constraints in Africa  

OpenAIRE

The slowing growth throughout the world over the past number of quarters has been uncomfortable for advanced countries, but a real source of hardship to many developing countries and a real setback to the fight against world poverty. These developments underscore the need for an integrated concept for answering critical questions about globalisation and the difficulties of specifically African countries to share in the concomitant generation of wealth. NEPAD has to do just t...

Schoeman, N. J.

2002-01-01

304

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A NEW APPROACH TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available t The pointing start for the concept of sustainable was the global ecological crisis and it has developed later by incorporating economic, social and human spheres, so that in recent years, sustainable development represents the new theory of development and a new way for humanity. The idea underlying this concept is to ensure a better quality of life for all inhabitants of the planet, both for the present generation and for future generations. Sustainable development brings a new set of values that will guide future model of economic and social progress; these values are represented by man and by natural environment

PATRICHI IOANA CRISTIANA

2014-05-01

305

Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appropriate health-economic studies on this topic specifically targeted at the developing world are essential in order to justify adding another vaccine into the existing Expanded Program on Immunization in these countries. We present a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccination against HBV for developing and less-developed countries. Vaccine price, the discount rate, incidence and prevalence of HBV infection were found to be major drivers of cost-effectiveness. Data accuracy and reliability were also major issues, with major potentials for improvement in studies of these countries. The choice between monovalent or combination vaccines (diphteria, tetanus and polio-hepatitis B) poses new challenges to cost-effectiveness analysis. It is concluded that for many developing countries implementation of universal immunization against HBV to reduce the level of endemicity of hepatitis B is an appropriate strategy, and probably cost effective in many settings. Given their limited financial resources, developing countries should properly plan how to achieve this. Further country-specific economic evaluations and related gathering of high-quality data must be conducted in developing countries in order to raise both public awareness of the effectiveness and economic attractiveness of universal immunization against HBV. PMID:19538116

Tu, Hong-Anh T; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Kane, Sumit; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; van Hulst, Marinus; Postma, Maarten J

2009-07-01

306

Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

307

Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emisscouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

308

Solution to the Problems of the Sustainable Development Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper shows that environment is one of the basic public assets of a human system, and it must be therefore specially protected. According to our present knowledge, the sustainability is necessary for all human systems and it is necessary to invoke the sustainable development principles in all human system assets. Sustainable development is understood as a development that does not erode ecological, social or politic systems on which it depends, but it explicitly approves ecological limitation under the economic activity frame and it has full comprehension for support of human needs. The paper summarises the conditions for sustainable development, tools, methods and techniques to solve the environmental problems and the tasks of executive governance in the environmental segment.

Rusko, Miroslav; Procházková, Dana

2011-01-01

309

Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferationale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development

310

Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

311

Challenges of rapid economic growth in China. Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)

312

24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nominations by economic development corporations...URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES...ONE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 597.502 Nominations by economic development corporations...area nominated by an Economic Development...

2010-04-01

313

24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Nominations by Economic Development Corporations... URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 598.510 Nominations by Economic Development Corporations...area nominated by an Economic Development...

2010-04-01

314

7 CFR 25.502 - Nominations by State-chartered economic development corporations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...by State-chartered economic development corporations... RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.502...State-chartered economic development corporations...area nominated by an economic development...

2010-01-01

315

31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Economic development of resources located in Burma. 537.302 Section 537...302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities...

2010-07-01

316

Wind power engineering: development problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Status and prospects of wind power engineering development in different countries are considered. Basic parameters of wind power plants developed in Russia and abroad are presented. The conclusion is made that wind power engineering in our country constitutes independent trend of scientific-technical progress. Scientific and production potential enabling solution of the whole complex of engineering problems related to development and design of wind power plants, tests of facilities and their systems, construction and operation of wind power plants and evaluation of wind potential is created

317

Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems  

OpenAIRE

Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may b...

Karl-Goran Maler

1990-01-01

318

The Contributions of Capital Market to Economic Development in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Virtually all aspects of human endeavor entail the use of money either self-generated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which could be raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulations carefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators. Economic development is a process by which a high degree of self reliant economic growth in a given society is sustained over a given time. It is associated with substantial re...

Adewuyi, I. D.; Olowookere, J. K.

2011-01-01

319

Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

Research papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics”. The breadth of coverage is substantial, and includes original research and comprehensive review papers on theoretical, empirical and numerical topics in Financial Economics and Econometrics...

Chang, C. L.; Allen, D. E.; Mcaleer, M. J.

2013-01-01

320

The role of science, technology and research in economic development  

OpenAIRE

Starting with the premise that technological innovation and economic growth are interactive and mutually reinforcing, this paper argues that in order to have a fighting chance in the Asean Economic Community (AEC), let alone global, competition, the Philippines (PH) needs to appreciably ramp up investment spending in science, engineering, and research and development. To the extent that this is achieved - along with the other ongoing policy and institutional reforms - the economy could in tim...

Clarete, Ramon L.; Pernia, Ernesto M.; Gaduena, Ammielou; Mendoza, Adrian

2014-01-01

321

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT vs. INNOVATION – THE MAIN ENGINE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH  

OpenAIRE

Regional development and innovation are vital processes for social and economic growth of Europe. In the current period, deeply affected by the financial and economic crisis with major demographic changes, intense global competition, many budgetary restrictions, the competitiveness in Europe as well as its capacity to create new jobs, briefly, our life standard depends on its ability of innovation in products, services and commercial and social processes. This is the reason why innovation has...

ELENA M?D?LINA OPRI?ESCU

2012-01-01

322

Improving software development process through economic mechanism design  

OpenAIRE

We introduce the novel concept of applying economic mechanism design to software development process, and aim to find ways to adjust the incentives and disincentives of the software organization to align them with the motivations of the participants in order to maximize the delivered value of a software project. We envision a set of principles to design processes that allow people to be self motivated but constantly working toward project goals. The resulting economic mechanism will rely on g...

Yilmaz, Murat; O Connor, Rory V.; Collins, J. J.

2010-01-01

323

Infrastructure in developing countries: An overview of some economic issues  

OpenAIRE

This paper surveys the main issues and controversies in the economic literature on infrastructure in developing countries. Section I reviews the evidence on the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth. It is argued that, although infrastructure may be more important for growth than other types of capital, the exact size and form of its effect is less clear than is often assumed. Section II looks at the issue of infrastructure needs, estimates of which are pervasive in both the aca...

Dethier, Jean-jacques; Moore, Alexander

2012-01-01

324

Growth, economic development and structural transition in small vulnerable states  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the critical theoretical and policy issues relating to growth, economic development and structural transition in small states. The paper discusses alternative perspectives on small size and highlights the salient characteristics which give rise to their economic sub-optimality. The theoretical and empirical relationship between size and growth is reviewed, including recent inferences relating to structural transition and comparative advantage in small states. This discussio...

Read, Robert

2001-01-01

325

Convention and Intersubjectivity: New Developments in French Economics  

OpenAIRE

The recently formed French School of the "économie des conventions" have claimed that they are developing a revolutionary new approach to the social sciences. This group of researchers in economics, philosophy, sociology, law and history attempt to transcend the inherited analytical frameworks of structural-functionalist sociology and neoclassical economics and provide an alternative picture of the social world. This article will investigate some of these claims in detail. First, I trace the...

Latsis, John

2006-01-01

326

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

2007-01-01

327

Economic incentives for future fuel developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost of nuclear fuel is put into perspective by a short review of the total nuclear power costs and comparisons are made with other types of thermal electricity generating plants. Fuel costs are divided into components of natural uranium, enrichment services, fabrication, inventory and back end, which are used as a structure for discussing the impact of different development trends on the final fuel costs and, consequently, the incentives for future fuel improvements. The factors related to fuel design and performance affect nuclear power plant operation and are the most important incentive for future fuel development, depending on the power system under which the nuclear power plants operate. The potential impact of fuel improvements, both in terms of design and verification of performance, is analysed and discussed with respect to the following: plant operation: load follow, capacity factors; fuel utilization: extended burnup, improved moderation, low parasitic absorption; back end costs: volume of fuel, MOX fuel; fabrication processes: improved processes; fuel related technology: fuel management, safety analysis. A short historical review is given for each item in order to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, the expected impact of changes that have occurred and the incentives to continue development along historical trends. Constraints which might limit the actual benefits of these potential improvements are pointed out. The areas in whichements are pointed out. The areas in which the incentives for further improvements in design and performance of nuclear fuel are most pronounced are identified and discussed. (author)

328

A modified differential evolution based solution technique for economic dispatch problems  

OpenAIRE

Economic dispatch (ED) plays one of the major roles in power generation systems. The objective of economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal combination of power dispatches from different power generating units in a given time period to minimize the total generation cost while satisfying the specified constraints. Due to valve-point loading effects the objective function becomes nondifferentiable and has many local minima in the solution space. Traditional methods may fail to reach the ...

Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Fernandes, Edite Manuela Da G. P.

2012-01-01

329

Hybrid DE-SQP Method for Solving Combined Heat and Power Dynamic Economic Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

Combined heat and power dynamic economic dispatch (CHPDED) plays a key role in economic operation of power systems. CHPDED determines the optimal heat and power schedule of committed generating units by minimizing the fuel cost under ramp rate constraints and other constraints. Due to complex characteristics, heuristic and evolutionary based optimization approaches have became effective tools to solve the CHPDED problem. This paper proposes hybrid differential evolution (DE) and sequ...

Shehata, A. M.; Elaiw, A. M.; Xia, X.

2013-01-01

330

The Rusty Bucket. Community Economic Development that Makes Sense.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamic community economic development and education process has emerged in Missouri. This effort is bringing about changed awareness and attitudes as well as developing skills and community self-help actions as a result of collaboration between communities, Extension specialists, and the University of Missouri-Columbia. One of the institutions…

Leuci, Mary Simon

331

Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is there a cluster effect that properly harnessed in an US could allow achieving a significant economic growth in the area.

Florin Marian Buhociu

2013-12-01

332

Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

De Bruyn, S.

2013-07-15

333

A particle swarm approach to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED problems in power systems such as, environmental/economic dispatch (EED and multi-area environmental/economic dispatch. The proposed model considers the environmental impact to achieve the minimization of fuel costs and pollutant emissions, simultaneously. The EED problem is further extended to dispatch the power among different areas to aid emission allowance trading. The performance of the proposed PSO is compared with conventional method and genetic algorithm. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithms give global optimum solution compared to the other methods. The results obtained also show that the proposed PSO algorithms can provide comparable dispatch solutions with reduced computation time for all types of ED problems.

Yee Ming Chen

2010-06-01

334

What should EDA fund? Developing a model for pre-assessment of economic development investments  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the completion of a 'comprehensive study of regionalism' that was conducted by a joint team of economists and economic development specialists for the Economic Development Administration (EDA). The project consisted of two main activities: an examination of the factors associated with economic development success and the creation of a practical interactive tool for EDA project assessment and comparison. Findings from surveys, interviews, and project case studies are discu...

Watts, Brad R.; Erickcek, George A.; Duritsky, Jacob; O Brien, Kevin; Robey, Claudette; Robey, Jim

2009-01-01

335

Japan's model of economic development: Relevant and nonrelevant elements for developing economies  

OpenAIRE

Japan was the first non-western country to accomplish successful industrialization, and the dominant perception of its industrial policy had over-emphasized specific characteristics of Japan. However, from the perspective of today's development thinking, Japan's economic history shared a wide range of common factors in usual economic development: macroeconomic stability, human resource development, and economic infrastructure. Industrial policy in Japan sometimes worked well and sometimes did...

Kimura, Fukunari

2009-01-01

336

Technical and economical problems of decommissioning nuclear power plants (NPP) in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction per new century has brought to atomic Engineering many new problems. One of them, which has got a serious urgency, we now shall consider. It is a problem of decommissioning NPP in Russia. By 2014 all maintained nowadays NPP in Russian Federation will develop the regular service life. And all of them on idea should be removed from operation. But, as we understand, in today's difficult economic conditions, to it NPP the procedure of prolongation of service life will be applied, and where it is impossible by virtue of the various reasons, the procedure of translation NPP in nuclear - safe condition and in a mode of a long storage under supervision, before acceptance of the decision about a method and way of financing of a decommissioning will be applied. Possible the following variants will be: use platforms of the old NPP for construction new NPP, or using as burial place NPP. The variant of a decommissioning up to a condition 'green grass' is represented unprofitable because of its dearness. The similar decommissioning was carried out in Japan. Was removed from operation research reactor of a type WWR. The expenses for this method of a decommissioning considerably surpass expenses for a method of a burial place NPP basically because of high cost of dismantle and transportation in long-term storehouses of the 1 contour equipment. The most urgent problem of decommissioning NPP, which developed their regular service life - is financing this final stage of a exploitation cycle of the block. I shall remind, that the financing is carried out from uniform fund of decommissioning. The formation of this fund occurs by deduction 1.3 % of cost of the put electric power to the consumers by all maintained NPP of Russia. The expenditure of this fund is carried on time on some tens years. They are spent for 3 basic stages: preparation to decommissioning NPP, long endurance under supervision, dismantle and burial the NPP equipment. Nowadays on faculty NPP MPEI under the direction of the senior lecturer Mikhail A. Skachek was estimated the basic economic parameters of decommissioning process NPP with the various types of reactors (WWR-440, WWR-1000, RBMK-1000) Now we are researching the subscription of disposal the nuclear waste in a total cost of decommissioning NPP. The estimation of expenses for decommissioning NPP was carried out with the helps of the program DECOST - adapted on faculty NPP MPEI to a Russian economy conditions of the transition period. Program 'DECOST' is developed for an estimation of expenses and payments for removal from operation of nuclear power installations in different conditions. (author)

337

Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

2014-09-01

338

Geo-economic development scenarios for the republic of Azerbaijan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides systematic analysis of Azerbaijan’s geo-economic development potential scenarios in the context of multivariation and multi-vector nature of the existing economic development paradigm. Methodological framework of the research was formed based on ‘intersection points’ of the pair ‘post-positivism ? post-structuralism’. The author first provided scientific substantiation of the key mono- and multi-factor scenarios of Azerbaijan development based on technogenic and evolutionary competitiveness models. Analysing combination of interrelations between events and processes (such as revolutionary, political, social, military, etc. in the triad ‘country ? multidimensional communication space ? global economy’ allowed for determining an integrative approach to formation of a single scenario for providing high competitive status of the country and its economic impact expansion in the Eurasian continent

Cheshmi Hajiyeva

2014-10-01

339

Agritourism and local economic development in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of tourism for local economic development (LED is a topic of critical importance for geographers. In the case of South Africa tourism is a priority sector for national economic development. The significance of research issues around tourism and LED is underlined by the ‘developmental’ mandate of local governments. Although tourism has received attention in a growing body of LED writings on South Africa issues around agritourism so far have been overlooked. Agritourism represents an evolving form of rural tourism which is targeted at mainly urban consumers. Against the background of a review of international scholarship on agritourism this article explores its potential implications for LED planning in South Africa. A national audit of agritourism is presented which shows its uneven geographical distribution. Agritourism is of special significance for small town economic development in South Africa’s intermediate tourism spaces. Policy suggestions are offered for strengthening agritourism as a driver for LED in South Africa.

Rogerson Christian M.

2014-12-01

340

Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

Amirreza Nickkar

2015-03-01

341

Relationship between Financial Sector Development and Sustainable Economic Development: Time Series Analysis from Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study empirically investigated the contribution of financial sector in sustainable economic development of Pakistan. Annual data were used from the period of 1973 to 2007. The main objectives of the study were to analyze the long run relationship between financial sector development and sustainable economic development along with direction of causality between financial sector indicators and sustainable development. Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bound testing technique for cointegration was applied to estimate the long run relationship. A stable long run relationship was found between financial sector indicators and the sustainable economic development. Error Correction coefficient was statistically significant. It was concluded that financial sector had positive impact on the sustainable economic development in short run as well as in the long run. Causality test revealed that financial sector development was the basis for economic development.

Anwar Sofia

2011-01-01

342

ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH PROBLEM WITH VALVE POINT EFFECT USING FIREFLY ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes application of Firefly algorithm for solving economic load dispatch problem with valve point effect. Firefly algorithm is a metaheuristic population based method which was based on the flashing patterns and behaviour of fireflies. The proposed approach has been examined and tested with the numerical results of economic load dispatch problems with three and five generating units with valve point loading without considering prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits. The results of the proposed Firefly algorithm are compared with that of other techniques such as lambda iteration and ABC.

Dinakara Prasad Reddy P

2015-02-01

343

Fifty Years of Malaysian Economic Development:Policies and Achievements  

OpenAIRE

Malaysia is a small country but has big achievement in economic development to its credit. This year (August 2007) the country celebrates the completion of the first 50 years of its independence. It is in the fitness of things that this paper takes a look at its economic achievements over the past decades and the policies that shaped its success story in the matter. This is all the more apt as not a few regard Malaysia as a role model for the developing countries, especially the OIC members. ...

Hasan, Zubair

2007-01-01

344

A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application  

OpenAIRE

A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T) = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T). This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard bound...

Alan Zinober; Suliadi Sufahani

2013-01-01

345

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

346

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

347

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

348

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

349

Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338

Chang, K S

1991-07-01

350

PPP IN RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BOON OR BANE!  

OpenAIRE

PPP in today's globalised world is seen as an efficient mechanism to develop infrastructure in developing economy and transform the static economy into dynamic economy. Despite more than six decades of planning, rural India is having high illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, ignorance, blind beliefs, and other social economic evils, when compared to Urban India. Government proposed PPP in rural development to utilize the private sector efficiencies to finance and build the s...

S, R. Keshava

2014-01-01

351

The relationship between financial development and economic growth  

OpenAIRE

Developing countries in Asia and Africa have economically often been lagging behind the economies of the West. One reason can be found by looking at the executive capacities and the necessary financial structures. Global financial crisis has made the situation worse for many of the developing countries. What can be done to make developing countries in Asia and Africa stronger participants in the growing global economy? Will an improved financial sector reflected by an expansion of the insuran...

Opheim, Magnus

2011-01-01

352

Tourism in the global development strategy of Macedonia: Economic perspectives  

OpenAIRE

This case study makes an attempt to identify the adequate position of tourism within the global development strategy of Macedonia. The paper discusses two, extremely opposite attitudes. The first, argues that necessary preconditions must be established in order tourism to have intensive development, thus clearly stating in the development strategy the priority orientation of tourism industry. The second underlines the fake image of tourism and its economic contributions. The paper brings out ...

Biljana Petrevska

2011-01-01

353

An Effective Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm to Slove Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementation of an Effective Biogeography Based Algorithm (EBBO for Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power system in order to obtain optimal economic dispatch with minimum generation cost. Approach: A viable methodology has been implemented for a 20 unit generator system to minimize the fuel cost function considering the transmission loss and system operating limit constraints and is compared with other approaches such as BBO, Lambda Iteration and Hopfield Model. Results: Proposed algorithm has been applied to ELD problems for verifying its feasibility and the comparison of results are tabulated and pictorial visualization for convergence of EBBO is represented. Conclusion: Comparing with the other existing techniques, the EBBO gives better result by considering the quality of the solution obtained. This method could be an alternative approach for solving the ELD problems in practical power system.

K. Thanushkodi

2012-01-01

354

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1993-01-01

355

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

356

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.

357

RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE: OPORTUNITIES FOR MITIGATING THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AND RESUMING ECONOMIC GROWTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acceleration of the national economies interdependencies within the world economy as well as the increasing connexions and sector dependencies of the country’s economy are processes that determine the connexion of Romanian economy and agriculture (rural development in a broader sense to the current financial and economic crisis.Considering the present frame and world (and Romanian economic climate, the main dilemma regarding agriculture and food processing economy’s position within the crisis’ context can be thus formulated: rural development and agriculture are factors of accentuating the crisis or (potential solutions of mitigating the crisis and re-launch economic growth? Starting from today’s state of the Romanian rural setting (precarious infrastructure, insufficient technical endowment of the rural territory, villages and households; preponderantly agricultural rural economy; low absorption of agricultural workforce in non agricultural rural economy etc. and agriculture (all levels of agricultural activity are unbalanced; very slow economic growth with a high degree of weather dependency (from simple to double; technical and structural obsolescence of the capital; reduced investment and as an effect, insignificant growth and modernising of assets; low absorption of European funding; low productivity and output; still high presence of sustenance agricultural economy; major unbalance in food supply safety; low importance of commercial agriculture; markets contraction; increasing transformation of Romanian agricultural goods in a market for imported goods; price distortion; profoundly negative trade balance for agricultural goods; unbalanced participation of farms in the distribution of the profit from agricultural activities, considering the smallest portion of the Gross Added Value returns to the farmers and most of it to the traders, all these leading to a reduced degree of compatibility and competitiveness of Romanian agriculture on the European market and in a broader sense the world market, accepting from the economic practice and doctrine the fact that agriculture is a vital economic activity for society, and it represents a sector that contributes to maintaining the stability, continuity and growth of economy, and, in the current situation, in mitigating, to a great extent, the economic crisis. But, this contribution can manifest itself only in the presence of massive investments in productivity increasing infrastructure (watering systems, farms consolidation and in the technical and technological endowment of the rural setting and villages, in rural non agricultural economy, agriculture and rural development as a whole, as factors of economical growth.

P. I. OTIMAN

2009-05-01

358

Opinions of primary and secondary school teachers on economical problems and their effects on performance  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work....

Ali R?za Erdem

2010-01-01

359

A Novel Approach for Economic Load Dispatch Problem Based On GA and PSO  

OpenAIRE

Economic load dispatch (ELD) is an important issue in the operation of power system, and several models by using different techniques have been used to solve these problems. Some traditional approaches are utilized to find out the optimal solution of non-linear problem. More recently, the soft computing techniques have received more attention and were used in a number of successful and practical applications. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are the most popul...

Nishant Chaturvedi; Walkey, A. S.

2014-01-01

360

Solving the short run economic dispatch problem using concurrent constraint programming  

OpenAIRE

This paper shows a description of an application for solving the Short-Run Economic Dispatch Problem. This problem consists of searching the active power hourly schedule generated in electrical networks in order to meet the demand at minimum cost. The solution cost is associatted to the inmediate costs of thermal units and the future costs of hydropower stations. The application was implemented using Mozart with real-domain constraints and a hybrid model among real (XRI) and finite domains (F...

Di?az Fri?as, Juan Francisco; Romero, Iva?n Javier; Lozano, Carlos

2006-01-01

361

Issues of health economics in the practice of radiotherapy in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been a rapid expansion of radiation oncology services in developing countries over the past decade. The question arises of how far, how fast and which technology should be introduced and expanded and yet remain sustainable. The problem can be reduced to a simple issue of an increasing number of cancer cases (refer S. Whelan), hence increasing demand for radiotherapy in less-developed countries while the current resources for treatment are at present concentrated in well-developed countries. By 2015 there will be a shortfall of 10,000 teletherapy machines for providing radiotherapy. Micro- and macro-economic aspects that affect development of radiotherapy in developing countries are discussed

362

Development of Methods of Economic Monitoring of the Logistic System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of logistic customer service is the main advantage in competitive activity of the modern market enterprises. Taking into account that changes in enterprises working modes and in environment take place quickly enough, it is possible to talk about the necessity in further development of the systems of such phenomena monitoring. The analysis of literary sources allows to say that the issue of development of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic systems hasn’t be Literary sources today do not provide precise classifications of methods of economic monitoring. However, taking into account that economic monitoring overlaps with controlling, diagnostics etc we should use the experience of these subjects.Summarizing the review of the existing methods, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that there are no materials considering the methods and models of monitoring the objects of research. Most of the works basically deal with analysis.Relying on the determination of control methods, and also the concept of monitoring, it is possible to give the determination of the method of economic monitoring – it is the sum total of ways and methods which help to achieve the goals of monitoring.It is suggested to distinguish (to classify monitoring methods into such groups: supervision, evaluation, forecasting. When systematizing this information and also taking into account the elements of logistic service, the approach to forming the groups of methods of economic monitoring of the logistic system is offered.As the methods of supervision in the systems of economic monitoring it is suggested to take the methods of collection of information as a basis, that is used in marketing. en studied thoroughly enough. There is a small number of works, which purposefully consider the questions of economic monitoring. They mainly focus on financial matters.

A. Abukhamedekh

2011-03-01

363

Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

Sobolev Volodymyr M.

2013-11-01

364

Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

Guogang Wang

2015-01-01

365

Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Reader.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document consists of articles which have been selected to provide insight into different aspects of the relationship between the two most pressing and challenging issues of the current time. The first is the need to achieve a just level of economic development for two-thirds of the world's population that live in poverty. The second is the…

Gold, Howard, Ed.

366

Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

367

Parenting and Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

368

Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

369

Economic and ecological aspects of nuclear power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain 14 papers on: economic analyses of the cost of nuclear power plant construction and service life extension; comparison of environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants; processing and burial of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning; the development and current status of assessment of nuclear power plant accident risks. (J.P.)

370

Socio-Economic Principles of the Development of the Area Urban Housing Renewal Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The city is determined as a "clot" of many elements: people, infrastructure, real estate, jobs and others. These components require the scientific basis for new approaches in providing housing organizational and economic recovery, designed to use organizational, managerial, financial, legal and even administrative resources in the housing and communal services of cities and regions of Ukraine that will allow their inhabitants to provide further use of housing nowadays.Moreover, people who live in modern cities occupy rather small, but economically active area, generating a number of phenomena of social and economic nature: the housing market with its laws, problems of the role and limits of government responsibility and problems of local governments in meeting housing problems of citizens, and models of maintenance andrenewal of urban housing, etc., that foregrounds issues highlighted in the article.At the same time socio-economic factors as prerequisites for the development of housing sector of city and region economy in special scientific literature are remained out of sufficient attention, hampering the process of monitoring and forecasting regional trends and defining the prospects of creating conditions for public-private partnership in the housing sector. Therefore the purpose of the article is to study social and economic foundations of the development of housing sector at the regional level and the scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of regeneration of urban housing in the context of sustained development of the region. Therefore, comprehensive research on the socio-economic changes and scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of housing development are of great theoretical and practical importance.The mechanism of housing renewal should be developed not only by finding the new sources of financial support, but also by improving the economic-and-organizational and legal support, usage the strategies of development and monitoring.It is substantiated, that the change in financing of the housing system that is accompanied by increasing of the rates and tariffs for housing services for the population and by the decreasing and even to canceling the level of budgetary subsidies, increases the interest of housing businesses in the timely receipt of payments from the population, and at the same time creates the problem of laying investment component in the tariffs for the population to pay housing services.

A. Kosiak

2011-03-01

371

Problems and prospects of post-crisis development of entrepreneurship: a regional aspect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.

P.A. Fisunenko

2012-06-01

372

A non-linear goal programming approach to modeling intraregional economic development.  

Science.gov (United States)

"This paper provides a one-period normative model that may be used as a guide or benchmark by which the economic planner may develop policies and plans for regional economic development. The model can accomodate a region that could be as large as a small country or as small as a city, provided sufficient relevant data are available." The authors outline "a procedure for modeling and solving economic planning and analysis problems with 'intergoal trade-offs' while retaining the deviational variable as a measure of satisfaction....[They present] a generalized regional polynomial goal programming model with some suggested objectives and constraints [and illustrate] the approach with a hypothetical example." PMID:12315386

Spahr, R W; Deckro, R F

1988-01-01

373

Religious freedom and objectives for economic intercultural development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Text, accepted by the Director, of the report presented at the International Consultation on Religious Freedom Research (Istanbul on 17 March 2013, supervised by Prof. Antonio Fuccillo. This text was admitted after being assessed by the members of the evaluation scientific committee of the International Institute of Religious Freedom.SUMMARY: 1. The theory of public goods: religious freedom as a public good – 2. Economics and religion: the reasons for the need of intercultural relationship – 3. Religious factors and asymmetric information in economics – 4. Ethical development, religion and the cross-cultural domain – 5. Financial choices and religious factors – 6. Concluding remarks.

Antonio Fuccillo

2013-03-01

374

The history of transaction cost economics and its recent developments  

OpenAIRE

The emergence of transaction cost economics (TCE) in the early 1970s with Oliver Williamson’s successful reconciliation of the so called neoclassical approach with Herbert Simon’s organizational theory can be considered an important part of the first cognitive turn in economics. The development of TCE until the late 1980s was particularly marked by treating the firm as an avoider of negative frictions, i.e., of transaction costs. However, since the 1990s TCE has been enriched by var...

Lukasz, Hardt

2009-01-01

375

Problems in software development for nuclear robotics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

376

Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the contribution of different measures of human capital development to economic growth in Nigeria. It used data from Nigeria and adopted the growth account model which specifies the growth of GDP as a function of labour and capital. The model also included a measure of policy reforms. Based on the estimated regression and a descriptive statistical analysis of trends of government commitment to human capital development, it was found that though little commitment had been ac...

Isola, Wakeel A.; Alani, R. A.

2012-01-01

377

The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries  

OpenAIRE

The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricu...

Barbier, E. B.

1997-01-01

378

Financial development and economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper is the empirical analysis of the relationship between financial development and economic growth in Central and Eastern Europe. Financial development is measured by broad money growth (annual%), domestic credit to private sector (% GDP), domestic credit to private sector (% GDP) annual growth, interest rate spread (lending rate minus deposit rate,%) and nonperforming loans (% total loans) and annual growth in GDP growth rates. Methodologically, we used a panel model...

Dudian, Monica; Popa, Raluca Andreea

2013-01-01

379

THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN THE LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

OpenAIRE

Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services), while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract ...

Sta?nciulescu, Gabriela Cecilia

2009-01-01

380

Introduction to Gender, Economic Development and Poverty Reduction  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents define and explain the concepts gender and gender equality, explains the relationship between the gender inequality and poverty, discusses the importance of the gender issues in the economic development and also discuss the importance of linking gender to Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). The paper describes that the both poverty and gender inequality are correlated, as poverty exacerbates the gender inequality while the gender inequality exacerbates the poverty and des...

Moheyuddin, Ghulam

2005-01-01

381

INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SMART CITY  

OpenAIRE

This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.

Batagan, Lorena

2011-01-01

382

Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480

Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

2006-08-01

383

INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SMART CITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.

Lorena BATAGAN

2011-09-01

384

Thoughts on Speeding up the Foreign Economic and Trade Development in Chinese Western Area------ In Perspective of Chongqing City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To implement the grand western development strategy and to speed up the regional economic development is a vital decision of the central government in the new century. Foreign economy and trade is an important component of national economy. To develop the foreign economy and trade in western area and to speed up the opening-up process is significant to drive the economic and social development there. Chongqing city, as the only municipality in western area, the growth of foreign economic and trade development will benefit the western area in general. Therefore, to study how to speed up the foreign economic and trade development in Chongqing is meaningful in practice. Since the execution of reform and opening up policy, the foreign economy and trade have developed fast in Chongqing. But there are problems in attracting foreign capitals.

Yakun Wang

2009-05-01

385

Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabsn. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

386

CREDIT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES AMONG THE ITALIAN REGIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups, helping to clarify and explain the dynamics of the socioeconomic differences that still exist. We use a Multidimensional scaling analysis with the aim of exploring the relationship between credit and socioeconomic development in the different Italian areas, observing in particular the structural differences that could lead to a deeper distance of the wellbeing of the poorest regions in the South compared to that of North-central.

colantonio emiliano

2014-07-01

387

The economics of the thermohaline circulation - A problem with multiple thresholds of unknown locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A potentially serious environmental threat facing humanity is the possibility of a collapse of the thermohaline circulation. Resulting climate changes, including absolute cooling near Greenland and northwest Europe, could be abrupt. Collapse of the thermohaline circulation may be triggered if the temperature or the rate of temperature change exceeds certain thresholds. The locations of these thresholds are unknown. Economic regulation of this problem requires solution methods for a class of dynamic optimization problems with multiple thresholds located in n-dimensional space. This class of problems has hitherto not been discussed in the literature. We present a model for the economic regulation of CO2 emissions in the presence of threshold-triggered risk of a collapsing thermohaline circulation and derive optimality conditions for regulation. (author)

388

Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish mortgage finance system is attracting much international attention due to its simple, robust and efficient securitization principle, the balance principle. Housing finance experts consider how the model can be introduced in other countries to overcome shortcomings in previous mortgage systems (e.g., in the US) or to alleviate the gigantic unmet needs for housing finance around the world. In support of such efforts the research challenge was the development of a methodology for screening of readiness for transplanting this financing system to other countries. However, the development of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused on the requirements of infrastructure in respect to protecting ‘security of collateral’, and on international monitoring systems providing information on the status of what cadaster, real property registration and other functions of importance for securing collateral and for valuation of properties. In the absence of data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning screening methodology. The research has analyzed the 200 year history of the Danish Mortgage finance system, and its contribution to economic development and adaptability through different economic stages. Development theories related to credit and property rights were analyzed to study the dynamics between formal property rights regimes and real credit with implications for development strategies. The PhD was co-sponsored by VP Securities A/S, www.vp.dk

Haldrup, Karin

2011-01-01

389

Positioning Community Colleges via Economic Development. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community colleges, because of their late arrival in the development of American education, have suffered from an image and identity problem since their inception. To deal with this problem, community colleges should position themselves as unique community-based service-oriented colleges and market a specific focus to the general public. The first…

Zeiss, Anthony

390

Study on Coupling Degree and Optimal Path between Land Water Resources and Economic Development in Poyang Lake Ecological Economical Zone  

OpenAIRE

The coordination between resources and economy is a challenge for Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, which is a new economic development zone in China, with the rapid development in the past few years, the contradiction is more intense than ever before. In this paper, the coupling degree between the carrying capacity of land water resources and economical development were assessed to demonstrate how optimal coupling path can be selected. Methods of information entropy were employed to dete...

Tian-gui Lv; Ci-fang Wu

2013-01-01

391

TOURISM IN THE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF MACEDONIA: ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study makes an attempt to identify the adequate position of tourism within the global development strategy of Macedonia. The paper discusses two, extremely opposite attitudes. The first, argues that necessary preconditions must be established in order tourism to have intensive development, thus clearly stating in the development strategy the priority orientation of tourism industry. The second underlines the fake image of tourism and its economic contributions.The paper brings out results of a comprehensive analysis of direct economic tourism effects, hence making clarification whether tourism sector has significant contribution within the entire economy, its influence on the employment, as well as its effects on the balance of payments.

Biljana Petrevska

2011-06-01

392

Economic and energy prospects of Pacific Basin developed countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic problems in the USA, Japan, Canada and Australia are the result of four imbalances: dependence on imported non-renewable energy, large government deficits, trade imbalances and protectionism, and high unemployment. Markets and governments are the factors that will act through rising oil prices, high interest rates, restrictive fiscal policy, and a declining U.S. dollar exchange rate to correct these imbalances over the next ten years. There is a long-term opportunity for nuclear power to take over from oil as an energy source, although the high cost of capital will increase the price of nuclear electricity

393

A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics  

CERN Document Server

Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...

Mehta, Dhagash

2015-01-01

394

Application of Krill Herd and Water Cycle Algorithms on Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch (DED is a complicated nonlinear constrained optimization problem and one of the most important problems in operation of power systems. In this paper two novel optimization algorithms have been proposed to be applied on DED problem. The first method, Krill herd (KHA is a novel meta heuristic algorithm for solving optimization problems which is based on the simulation of the herding of the krill swarms as a biological and environmental inspired method and is applied on DED problem with two configurations named KHA1 and KHA2. The second algorithm is based on how the streams and rivers flow downhill toward the sea and change back in nature, named Water Cycle (WCA method. Two common case studies considering various constraints have been used to show the effectiveness of these methods. The results and convergence characteristics show that the proposed methods are capable of giving high quality results which are better than many other previously applied algorithms.

Mani Ashouri

2014-08-01

395

Problemy i vozmozhnosti razvitija vneshnejekonomicheskoj dejatel'nosti Sankt-Peterburga, Leningradskoj oblasti i Respubliki Karelija [Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

Bazhenov Yuri

2012-01-01

396

Inoculant production in developing countries - Problems, potentials and success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sustainable agriculture is a long-term goal that seeks to overcome some of problems and constraints that confront the economic viability, environmental soundness and social acceptance of agricultural production systems. In this context, bio-fertilizers assume special significance particularly because they are 'eco-friendly', but also since their alternative, chemical fertilizers are expensive. Undoubtedly, the most commonly used bio-fertilizers are soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, but others like Azolla, Azospirillum, various cyanobacteria also contribute significant amounts of N to e.g. rice. Other bacteria like Frankia and Acetobacter contribute N to trees of the genus Casuarina and sugarcane, respectively. Furthermore, although they are rarely used as inoculants, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphobacteria help countless plants solubilise and assimilate soil phosphorus. Despite these advantages, bio-fertilizers could be more widely used in developing countries. Contingent upon greater use is improved quality of the inoculants, and all aspects of their production are discussed here. (author)

397

Economic opportunities from east coast natural gas developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect economic benefits associated with the development of the Sable Offshore Energy and Pipeline project were discussed. A perspective of the relative size of the project compared to other activities in the economy was also presented. It was announced that the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council (APEC) is developing a new project which will take a close look at the natural gas industry and how Atlantic Canada can maximize the economic opportunities presented by this development. It was pointed out that major developments such as the Hibernia and Terra Nova Crude Oil projects and the Sable natural gas projects are attracting billions of dollars in new investment capital to Atlantic Canada. There are currently over 30 new mineral and energy projects in the four Atlantic provinces. The total value of these projects has been estimated to be in the order of $24 billion with the majority of them maturing within the next five to eight years. While small by national Canadian standards, these projects nevertheless have the potential to contribute to a much stronger economy in the four Atlantic provinces for many years to come

398

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

HA Qazi

2009-09-01

399

Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

2014-06-01

400

THE PROBLEM ENHANCING STRATEGIC COMPETITIVENESS OF DEVELOPING AGRIBUSINESS IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the problem facing the Nigerian agricultural production, the basic and fundamental reasons why the government has failed to realize and address the failure in the sector. Though agricultural program was finalized in 1988 and new policy was released in 2001 but still accommodates the policies of the old one. Which means the policies was on the right direction. Still little or no effect has been made in the sector. Currently, however, many important questions about the goals, objectives, reforms, and ways to achieve them, tactics and strategies of development of agribusiness, the location of bodies, state powerand administration in place of socio- economic processes and others are debatable. Agribusiness development is a large constrained combination of factors: unfavorable to microeconomic conditions, inadequate legal basis of functioning on enterprises and their relationships with each other and the state, lack of comprehensive scientific research in this field of knowledge that are acceptable in a transition economy. This paper will serve as the brain and evaluation of the problems and the strategies required to revive the sector. Agriculture is vast and the most important sector of the Nigeria economy engaging about 70% of the labor force, the sector has not been exploited to the fullness and that is why the country cannot compete with other countries in the world even with 95% of the land cultivable. As economic activity, agriculture can be the source of growth for national economy provider of investment opportunities for private sector and a prime diver of agriculture related industries and the rural nonfarm economy.

Kenneth Baba

2012-02-01

401

Economic-Mathematical Modeling of Social and Environmental Risks Management of Projects of Urbanized Territories Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers the problem of development of management methods of social and environmental risks of urbanized territories development. The main purpose of research is a development and scientific substantiation of economic-mathematical model, allowing to increase the efficiency of risk management of urban development and selection for the practical implementation of the most efficient investment and town-planning projects. During the investigation the conditions and possible consequences of socio-environmental violations of natural and antropogenic environment in urban areas were examined, the characteristics of the information base of the assessment and objects of socio-ecological and economic risks of urban development were identified, the peculiarities of the negative occurrences of the deterioration of environmental quality were distinguished. As a base for the source data array composition, the authors propose to use the common system of integral parameters of sustainable development and environmental indicators. As basic function of socio-ecological damage is proposed to use the direct dependency of the health level of the population from the most significant parameters of the environment, expressed in the econometric equation. For formal description of the dependency of economic-mathematical models, the whole complex of factors affecting the value of socio-ecological damage were studied, the drawbacks of simple regression models for description of interaction between the mentioned factors were examined, the assumption about the need to include in a formal description the factors of socio-economic risks of the interrelated equations system was made. The main result of the study is developed economic-mathematical model describing the process of formation of socio-environmental risk during implementation of investment and construction projects of urbanized territories development. The main conclusion of the study is the justification for the need to identify environmental and social risks and due to their presence the economic damage in the process of developing programmes and projects of urban territories development. The use of the proposed model assists with pictorial rendition of the correlation between environmental problems and development of city economy, as well as more objective substantiation of efficiency of investments in the urban environment development.

Anton Dmitrievich Murzin

2014-07-01

402

Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower)  

OpenAIRE

In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shapi...

Fazil Yozgat

2014-01-01

403

Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeking to identify the principal actions needed to make sure that the process towards sustainability be given a much wider impulsion, the Fifth Environmental Action Programme of the ED underlined the increasing need for the application of a broader range of instruments aimed at influencing decisions which affect the environment. In this perspective economic tools were seen as the most adequate and powerful instruments available for efficient use and management of natural resource base in addition to and complementary not only to direct regulations but also to social pressure, negotiation and other forms of moral suasion. Thus, at the beginning of the 1990s, the European environmental policy began a transformation from merely growth-oriented model to sustainable development, moving into its second stage of environmental agenda. Widening the portfolio of policy instruments represents a main aspect of the Sixth Environmental Action Programme as well. In the search for innovative and sustainable solutions to the problems of the internalisation of the negative as well as positive impacts of production and consumption patterns on the environment, the new Programme requires, inter alia: encouraging reforms of subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and are incompatible with sustainable development; analysing the environmental efficiency of tradable environmental permits as a generic instrument and of emission trading with a view to promoting andssion trading with a view to promoting and implementing their use where feasible; promoting and encouraging the use of fiscal measures such as environmentally related taxes and incentives, at the appropriate national or Community level; promoting the integration of environmental protection requirements in standardisation activities. In ardor to analyse whether the process towards sustainability started in 1992 has taken roots, several evaluation studies revealed that broadening the range of instruments had proved to be more difficulty than envisaged when the recent European environmental policy was adopted. With the inevitable consequence that the most common environmental policy solution had frequently continued to be direct regulations. The scant progress in widening the range of instruments for control and behavioural change confirms the existence of a large disagreement between the normative prescriptions of economic theory and decisions effectively taken within the political process. If a large divergence between theory and practices often prevails, the relevant issue is then to understand why ED and Member States have failed to refer to the proposed wider box of instruments. In this direction, this paper points out the usefulness of the contribution that public choice theory can provide for understanding why particular environmental instruments are actually adopted and implemented. According to the individualistic approach of public choice, the paper deals with the issue concerning the choice and implementation of environmental policy tools through the analysis of the functioning of two strictly connected markets: the political market and the para-political market, and tries to give an explanation as to why in representative democracies, in which forces may be identified as demand and supply, an incentive-oriented environmental policy has many difficulties of being implemented

404

The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development : The design of Job Creation Strategies by use of Concrete Institutional Economics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development as well as public expenditures.

Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

405

Geography rules too!: Economic development and the geography of institutions  

OpenAIRE

To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This paper sheds a different light on these determinants. We use spatial econometrics to analyse the importance of the geography of institutions. We show that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate, but also relative geography, the spatial linkages between countries, that matters for a country?s...

Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

2006-01-01

406

The application of economic-demographic models to development planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Population Division's evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of economic-demographic models shows that procedures for considering the short and long-term implications of population growth can be significantly improved. The Division's research projects demonstrate that models can help planners to achieve an efficient allocation of scarce resources, set clear-cut national objectives and provide a national sense of political and social purpose. There are many advantages in applying economic-demographic models to development planning in order to integrate population factors within the development process, yet care must be taken in adopting and/or applying a certain model at the national level. Aside from the question of adopting a model, the question of the applicability and application of models is emphasized. The choice of model structure is discussed in terms of 4 major issues: 1) the choice of a central core; 2) the trade-off between simplicity and complexity and the appropriate degree of endogeneity; 3) the choice of a demand or supply orientation; and 4) the criteria for selecting a particular model for use. A representative selection of economic demographic models is presented. Included are the TEMPO (designed to illustrate the benefits of reduced fertility) and Long-Range Planning Models (LAPM--designed to illustrate the implications of policy assumptions for economic development, particularly in regard to health and education), both developed by the US government. Also described are the BACHUE and the UN Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA)/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) models. It is argued that these latter models offer the greatest promise as tools for planning in the ESCAP Region, at the present time. As the BACHUE model is primarily concerned with employment and the distribution of income and the UNFPA/FAO model with agriculture, incorporating both into the planning process could be desirable. PMID:12340524

1985-01-01

407

Economic conditioning of pork production development in the world  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors try to define the specific economic conditions of pork production in the world. Differentiation of pig production in regional and species scheme was also analysed and some predictions of the world pig market in the future presented. This paper presents also the regions that have particular conditions to develop pork production and to be leaders on the world pork market.

Magdalena Kozera

2010-01-01

408

Public finance and economic growth: Empirical evidence from developing countries  

OpenAIRE

The study is an empirical test of the effects of different categories of government expenditure, revenue and deficits on economic growth in developing countries. It is based on panel data of annual series over the last three decades for 103 countries, which are further classified into low-income, high-income, mineral exports dependent, and foreign aid dependent groups. Our findings suggest that the effects of the fiscal variables on growth vary across these groups of countries. But broadly, c...

Odedokun, Matthew O.

2001-01-01

409

Development of the overconfidence measurement instrument for the economic experiment  

OpenAIRE

In this article results of the two experiments, aimed at the development of the instrument (test) that would enable construction of the comprehensive measure of individual overconfidence for the use in economic overconfidence experiments, are presented. Instrument was obtained in a two-stage procedure. In the first experimental phase, a pilot test, consisting of fifty general-knowledge questions of the unknown difficulty, was conducted to divide the items into three difficulty levels: hard, a...

Michailova, Julija

2010-01-01

410

Urbanization, urban concentration and economic growth in developing countries  

OpenAIRE

We investigate how urban concentration and urbanization affect economic growth in developing countries. Using semi-parametric estimation techniques on a cross-country panel of 39 countries for the years 1960-1990 we discover a U-shaped relationship for urban concentration. This suggests the existence of an 'urban-concentration trap' where marginal increases in urban concentration would reduce growth for about a third of our sample. Furthermore, there appears to be no systematic relationship b...

Bertinelli, Luisito; Strobl, Eric

2003-01-01

411

Classical Free Trade: A Policy Towards Economic Growth and Development  

OpenAIRE

The central aim of this dissertation is to make an unambiguous international trade policy recommendation for developing countries grounded on rigorous economic theory. As is generally known, trade models featuring increasing returns to scale and imperfect competition have challenged the mainstream case for free trade which is built upon unrealistic assumptions like constant return to scale and perfect competition. In this context, the core contribution of this dissertation is the restatement ...

Morales Meoqui, Jorge

2010-01-01

412

Three Essays on Local Economic Development in India  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation examines the determinants of local economic and political development in India. In the first chapter, I study the impact that agricultural income shocks have on the local nonfarm economy. I find that positive rainfall shocks induce significant employment growth, not in the rural areas where agricultural production takes place but in the nearby towns. Manufacturing firms in particular respond to changes in agricultural production. Further investigation suggests that the most ...

Asher, Samuel Edward

2013-01-01

413

The Development of Cross-Border Economic Relations  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills a gap in the established literature on the internationalisation of firms by measuring the impact of the cognition and affection of entrepreneurs towards enterprise and entrepreneurs on t...

Houtum, H. J.

1998-01-01

414

Green finance is essential for economic development and sustainability  

OpenAIRE

Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...

Chowdhury, Tasnim; Datta, Rajib; Mohajan, Haradhan

2013-01-01

415

Culture and institutions : economic development in the regions of Europe  

OpenAIRE

Does culture have a causal effect on economic development? The data on European regions suggest that it does. Culture is measured by indicators of individual values and beliefs, such as trust and respect for others, and confidence in individual self-determination. To isolate the exogenous variation in culture, I rely on two historical variables used as instruments: the literacy rate at the end of the XIXth century, and the political institutions in place over the past several centuries. The p...

Tabellini, Guido

2005-01-01

416

Patriotisme économique et développement durable Economic patriotism and sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le patriotisme économique est généralement perçu comme une invitation faite aux acteurs économiques tels que l’État, les consommateurs ou les entreprises, à favoriser les activités nationales. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que le patriotisme économique n’est pas seulement un instrument au service de la puissance industrielle et commerciale d’un État ou un vecteur de sa puissance financière, mais qu’il est aussi parfaitement compatible avec les dimensions sociale et environnementale du développement durable. Le concept de patriotisme économique, à cet égard, a été examiné dans ses logiques traditionnelles d’inspiration mercantiliste, listienne et keynésienne et revisité dans l’optique de la théorie du don, initiée par Marcel Mauss et dans celle de Durkheim.Economic patriotism is generally perceived as an invitation given to economic actors such as the State, consumers or companies, to facilitate national activities. The objective of this article is to show that economic patriotism is not only an instrument in the service of the industrial and commercial power of a State or a vector of its financial power, but that it is also perfectly compatible with the social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The concept of economic patriotism, in this respect, was examined in its traditional logics (Mercantilism, List and Keynes and revisited in the optics of the theory of gift, introduced by Marcel Mauss and in the optics of Durkheim.

Jacques Poirot

2010-07-01

417

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

418

When Small is Big: Microcredit and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microcredit - the extension of small loans - gives people who would otherwise not have access to credit the opportunity to begin or expand businesses or to pursue job-specific training. These borrowers lack the income, credit history, assets, or security to borrow from other sources. Although the popularity and success of microcredit in developing countries has been trumpeted in the media, microcredit is established and growing in the United States and Canada as well. Its appeal comes from its capacity to provide the means for those who have the ability, drive, and commitment to overcome the hurdles to self-sufficiency. In this article, the role of microcredit as a stimulant for economic development is examined. First, its importance for the establishment of small businesss is described. Second, the article provides an overview of the general microcredit climate in the United states and the local situation in the Ottawa area. Third, brief stories about individuals who have received this type of loan reveal the human impact behind the economic benefits. Finally, the role of microcredit in funding startups is analyzed in comparison to other sources of available funding. The article concludes with a summary of the benefits of microcredit as a win-win proposition for economic development.

George Brown

2010-10-01

419

Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization Technique in Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the introduction of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO technique in 1992, the algorithm starts to gain popularity due to its attractive features. However, several shortcomings such as slow convergence and stagnation motivate many researchers to stop further implementation of ACO. Therefore, in order to overcome these drawbacks, ACO is proposed to be combined with Differential Evolution (DE and cloning process. This paper presents Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT technique in solving economic load dispatch problem. The combination creates a new algorithm that will be termed as Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT. DEIANT was utilized to optimize economic load dispatch problem. A comparison was made between DEIANT and classical ACO to evaluate the performance of the new algorithm. In realizing the effectiveness of the proposed technique, IEEE 57-Bus Reliable Test System (RTS has been used as the test specimen. Results obtained from the study revealed that the proposed DEIANT has superior computation time.

N. A. Rahmat

2013-01-01

420

A novel string structure for economic dispatch problems with practical constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The novel string structure for solving the economic dispatch problems through genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The proposed string scheme can effectively prevent getting infeasible solution when evolutionary computation methods are preceded. Therefore, it can increase the searching efficiency and also solution quality dramatically. Many nonlinear characteristics of the power generators and practical constraints, such as generation limitation, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zone, transmission loss and nonlinear cost functions are all considered for realistic operation. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method are demonstrated by three real systems, and compared with the literatures method in terms of the solution quality and computation efficiency. The experimental shows encouraging results that the proposed approach was indeed capable of obtaining higher quality and efficiency solutions in economic dispatch problems

421

Innovation Cluster and Economic Development in Bucharest Ilfov Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework for business development, collaboration between companies, universities, research institutions, suppliers, customers and competitors located in the same geographical area. Clusters of small and medium sized firms in developing economies are coming under increased pressure from competition as products mature, technology becomes widely available, and companies seek lower cost locations for production. In this paper, we consider that the cluster is an engine for economic development in our region and we need to have a regional strategy for clusters in Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Plan for 2014-2020.

Ana Cristina Adumitroaei

2013-08-01

422

Behavioral Economic Analysis of Natural Resolution of Drinking Problems using IVR Self-Monitoring  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons predicted patterns of alcohol consumption shortly after natural resolution when the risk of relapse is high. Using a computerized Interactive Voice Response (IVR) telephone system, untreated problem drinkers (n = 41) self-monitored their daily drinking, monetary expenditures, and surrounding contexts over intervals that ranged from a maximum of 42 to 128 days. Expanded Ti...

Tucker, Jalie A.; Foushee, H. Russell; Black, Bethany C.

2008-01-01

423

Economic Lot Scheduling Problems incorporating a Cost of using the Production Facility  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This paper considers scheduling the production of several different items on a single machine with constrained capacity, commonly known as the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem (ELSP). Most traditional approaches for the ELSP consider the sum of the setup cost and inventory holding cost and provide cyclic schedules that minimize this sum. In practice, there are not only costs for setups and inventory holding, but also costs for operating the production facility due to e.g. e...

Segerstedt, Anders; Brander, Pa?r

2009-01-01

424

An Efficient Novel TANAN’s Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems in powergeneration systems is to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the totalcost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents anefficient Novel TANAN’s Algorithm (NTA), for solving ELDProblem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost ofthe generating units having quadratic cost characteristicssubjected to limits on generator true power output andtransmission losses and including valve point loading effects. TheNTA is a simpl...

R.Subramanian,; Thanushkodi, Dr K.

2013-01-01

425

A NOVEL WEIGHT-IMPROVED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR COMBINED ECONOMIC AND EMISSION DISPATCH PROBLEMS  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a weight improved particle swarm optimization (WIPSO) strategy for solving the combined economic and emission ispatch (CEED) problems. From point of view of the safety of the environment, it has become necessary to reduce the emission of harmful pollutants from power plants. This leads to an increasedoperating cost of the plant. So a compromise has to be made between the emission and the cost. In this paper, the presented WIPSO strategy has been applied to two generating ...

BHUVNESH KHOKHAR; Singh Parmar, K. P.

2012-01-01

426

The Effect of Wind Power Plants on the Total Cost of Production in Economic Dispatch Problems  

OpenAIRE

This Study presents a new approach for Economic Dispatch (ED) problems incorporating wind power plants using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. As the wind power plant is renewable and clean, widely distributed, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land, its effect to conventional units that should be analyzed. Also the total cost is dependent on wind speed in specific period of time. Therefore, the mathematical techniques are not appropriate to find th...

Javad Ansari; Siamak Bandari; Mehdi Ghazavi Dozein; Mohsen Kalantar

2013-01-01

427

Dynamic Particle Swarm Optimization is to solve Emission and Economic Dispatch Problem  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an efficient and reliable Dynamic particle swarm optimization (Dynamic PSO) algorithm based technique for solving the emission and economic dispatch (E&ED) problems. The harmful ecological effects by the emission of particulate and gaseous pollutants from fossil fuel power plants can be reduced by proper load allocation among the various generating units of the plants. But this load allocation may lead to increase in the operating cost of the generating units. So, it is ne...

Urade, Ms Hemlata S.; Mrs.Bhagyashree Dharaskar

2014-01-01

428

A Hybrid Tabu Search and Algorithm Genetic for Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of optimization techniques to power system planning and operation problems has been an area of active research in the recent past. Genetic Algorithm (GA, Tabu Search (TS are widely used to combinatorial optimization in recent years. Combining the advantages of individual algorithms, a hybrid TS/GA algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is proposed in this paper, using the method of penalty to transform the problem ED with constraints in a simple problem without constraints. An IEEE 57-bus power system has been used to test the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of the proposed algorithm with GA, TS and proposed TS/GA hybrid method has the strongest capability of finding global optimal solution within reasonable computing time. We then give a comparison between two algorithms hybrids (Tabu Search / Genetic Algorithm TS/GA and (Tabu Search/ quasi-Newton method TS/QN.

Bakhta NAAMA

2013-06-01

429

Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Economic Load Dispatch Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent restructured power system scenario and complex market strategy, operation at absolute minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electric power. The economic load dispatch (ELD problem which accounts for minimization of both generation cost and power loss is itself a multiple conflicting objective function problem. In this paper, a modified shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (MSFLA, which is an improved version of memetic algorithm, is proposed for solving the ELD problem. It is a relatively new evolutionary method where local search is applied during the evolutionary cycle. The idea of memetic algorithm comes from memes, which unlike genes can adapt themselves. The performance of MSFLA has been shown more efficient than traditional evolutionary algorithms for such type of ELD problem. The application and validity of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated for IEEE 30 bus test system as well as a practical power network of 203 bus 264 lines 23 machines system.

Priyanka Roy

2011-09-01

430

Ant colony optimisation for economic dispatch problem with non-smooth cost functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a novel and efficient optimisation approach based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth cost functions. In order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm, three additional techniques, i.e. priority list, variable reduction, and zoom feature are presented. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed ACO is applied to two types of ED problems with non-smooth cost functions. Firstly, the ED problem with valve-point loading effects consists of 13 and 40 generating units. Secondly, the ED problem considering the multiple fuels consists of 10 units. Additionally, the results of the proposed ACO are compared with those of the conventional heuristic approaches. The experimental results show that the proposed ACO approach is comparatively capable of obtaining higher quality solution and faster computational time. (author)

Pothiya, Saravuth; Kongprawechnon, Waree [School of Communication, Instrumentation and Control, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani (Thailand); Ngamroo, Issarachai [Center of Excellence for Innovative Energy Systems, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

2010-06-15

431

Using Technological Approach in Developing Distance Learning Course of Regional Economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the present conditions of Ukraine integration into the European and world community and participation of the domestic system of higher education in the Bologna process the issue of updating the economic education becomes topical and that will bring the training of specialists closer to the requirements of the market economy. The processes of economic and the world’s labor market globalization expect a modern economist to have a fundamental economic education, developed economic thinking, independence, self-efficiency, ability to adapt to the changes in the market through the willingness to constantly upgrade his or her knowledge.Solving those problems requires using the technological approach in education. Despite the high interest and a wide development of the issue of implementing the technological approach into the sphere of the higher education of Ukraine, the issue of providing a methodical teaching disciplines on the basis of technological approach.The aim of the research is providing theoretical grounds and development of methodical recommendations on using technological approach in developing distance learning course of Regional Economics.Technological approach to education sets as a goal the designing of the educational process relying on the specified guidelines: social order, educational orientation point, goals of education, content of education. The specific character of the pedagogical technology is that the educational process within it has to guarantee the achievement of the goals set.The designed distance learning course of Regional Economics represents a pedagogical technology, totally based on the usage of information and communication technologies, which enables to change the paradigm of education itself and most effectively realize those possibilities, set in the new pedagogical technologies in order to make the specialists training more efficient.

V. Melnik

2010-06-01

432

Migrants Remittances, Official Development Aid and Economic Growth in the Developing Countries.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 73, ?. 1 (2013), s. 155-170. ISSN 0013-3205 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : International economics * remittances flows * Official Development Assistance * developing countries * international migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.141, year: 2011

Stojanov, Robert; Strielkowski, Wadim; Kowalska, K.

2013-01-01

433

Leadership and institutional factors in endogenous regional economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes that a virtuous circle for the sustainable developmentof a city or region is achieved through a process whereby proactive and strongleadership and effective institutions enhance the capacity and capability of a place tobetter use its resource endowments and gain an improved market fit in becomingcompetitive and being entrepreneurial. It is proposed that the performance of a city orregion at a point in time and the path of its economic development over time may berepresented by its position in a Regional Competitiveness Performance Cube. Thepaper proposes a new model framework whereby a city or region’s economic developmentand performance is an outcome dependent on how its resource endowmentsand market fit as quasi-independent variables are mediated by the interaction betweenleadership, institutions, and entrepreneurship as intervening variables. The experiencesof a number of case study cities from a variety of settings in the US, Europe,Asia and Australia are explored within that framework.

Robert J. Stimson

2005-11-01

434

Tourism Management as an Economic Development Tool in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probably the greatest single deterrent to tourism development is the lack of appreciation and enthusiasm for tourism by civic and business leaders. When tourism is not understood and its benefits are unclear, planning and implementation of measures to improve the industry are often lacking. Global tourism has become the largest industry in the world, with nearly 500 million consumers of tourism services per year spending hundreds of billions of dollars. The industry provides employment to over 100 million people worldwide. In view of tourism's increasing role in economic activity, the factors affecting its performance should be analyzed. An understanding of these factors is crucial to determine the ways in which national and international financial institutions, NGOs, and other entities can play the most value-adding role. This paper provides a brief profile of key factors and trends in tourism and their economic effects at the global, national and regional levels.

Mohammad Taleghani

2011-11-01

435

The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano

2014-08-01

436

Problems in establishing assay services in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems are initially of an organizational nature concerned with obtaining necessary local support from administrators with limited funds available from socialized health budgets. Stressing the relevance of proposed techniques to national priorities in many fields would be required. Centres should be located so as to serve as wide an area as possible, and administrative obstacles in communication, clearance, transport etc. should be overcome. It is suggested that emphasis be placed on training of personnel, particularly at technician level, in selected centres within a region, and by regional training courses, so that expertise gained may be better applied to local situations. The degree of sophistication of equipment selected is seen to depend on the factors of work load and possibility for repair and maintenance. The latter problem is often best solved locally through other arrangements, such as with suppliers themselves. The main operational problem of obtaining reagents for immunoassays is aggravated by shortage of foreign exchange, and economic factors preclude the widespread use of commercial assay kits. Possibilities that may exist to resolve this by greater interdependence amongst workers within the region are hampered by a serious lack of information, and correction of this situation would result in advantages in several respects. International agencies and governments providing aid play a major role in the above matters as well as in others such as the matters as well as in others such as the provision of consultant services and research contracts which are considered to be of great benefit. It is stressed that a correct attitude is as important as expertise for the realization of an expert assignment. In conclusion it is suggested that under existing conditions, third-world workers could abandon the attitude of looking towards the developed countries as first choice for solutions to problems and seek to exploit the potential available among themselves for mutual benefit. (author)

437

Appropriate Technological Development Guidelines for Rubber Plantation for Community Economic Development Using Local Wisdom in Northeastern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The agriculturists in northeastern Thailand had more rubber plantations. They faced the problem for high investments from using the new technologies. The purposes of the study was to examine appropriate technological development guide lines for rubber plantation for community economic development using local wisdom. Approach: As a qualitative research, documentary and fieldwork were carried out using a survey, interviews, observations and workshop. The research data were analyzed descriptively. Results: As each plantation owner expand his or her land for rubber trees, it was necessary for them to used appropriate technology handling the soil preparation, selecting the rubber saplings, spacing between rows and individual rubber tree, maintenance, fertilizer, pesticide and equipment needed for good quality rubber sheets. The rubber plantation owners realized that they needs appropriate technology and understanding to handle their own problem; They should know about the water drainage underneath each plot of land; the rubber stocks that could resist diseases and droughts and give more substance. Each rai of land should grow 76 rubber trees with 50×50×50 centimeters of each tree bed. The air flows for the plants should be calculated; homemade fertilizer, pesticide, equipment, the sipping and rubber sheets making should also be fully applied. Conclusion/Recommendation: The farmers developed the technologies for community economic development using local wisdom by improving the soils and adjusted to the climate and the geographical feature. They cooperated with the officials who support them to learn how using the appropriate technologies.

Prathip Channuan

2009-01-01

438

American Views on South Korea’s Economic Development in Los Angeles Times and New York Times, 1970-1974  

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Full Text Available The first half of 1970s was one of the crucial periods to understand the South Korea’s economic success. South Korea achieved great economic success as President Park Chung-hee concentrated his effort to maintain economic development to consolidate his dictatorial power as well as to overcome North Korean threats. Los Angeles Times and New York Times dealt with the issues on the South Korea’s economy with considerable amount of reports. To do so, they helped to provide general views of Americans on South Korea’s economy of the time. According to them, South Korea’s economic development was comparatively successful during this period. Some of them even highly praised the economic success of this country. However, the lack of democracy made them to believe that South Korea’s economic success was fragile. They failed to understand the South Korean people’s will and desperation to survive after the long years of poverty. Still, the analyses and advices presented in the reports were very valuable to see South Korea’s economic structure and problem. The reports of both American major newspapers contributed to develop the American views on South Korea and its economic development of the period.

Lee Young-gwan

2011-04-01

439

Study of Modern Problems of the Theory of Audit as a Compound System of Economic Sciences ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????  

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Full Text Available The article conducts analysis of essence of audit as an independent science in the system of economic sciences. Opinions of scientists regarding the form of audit existence in the system of economic sciences have two polar points of view. The first one is based on the fact that audit is a part of the science on economic control and factually cannot be considered as an independent science. According to the polar views, audit is an independent science. Revelation of the essence of audit as an independent economic science is done with consideration of the following: three-sided relations are an objective form of audit existence; audit develops under the influence of changes of the form of relations between users and a responsible party, which, in its turn, is a consequence of the evolution of economic relations; audit as a practical activity represents an independent assessment of financial information in the general system of economic management with the goal to provide a relevant level of assurance of users of this information, which allows reduction of information risks in the control environment and in the process of making managerial decisions. Taking into account all above specified circumstances, the article identifies the essence of audit as an independent economic science as follows: audit is a science on the aggregate and development of relations that arise between the subjects of information exchange with respect to the objective and complete formation of information about the property and financial state, results of activity, which is used in the process of making managerial decisions.? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????. ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????. ?????? ?????????? ?? ???, ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????. ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????? ????, ???: ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????; ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????, ???, ? ???? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????; ????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????. ? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ???: ????? – ??? ????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????

Ryadska Valentyna V.

2013-10-01

440

/ First Nature Determinants in South American Industrial and Economic Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Siguiendo una línea reciente de investigación, promovida por el Centro Internacional de Desarrollo de Harvard (y en particular por Jeffrey Sachs), el documento explora la relacion entre los determinantes de primera naturaleza (i.e.: naturaleza de la geografia) y el desarrollo económico, así como el [...] desarrollo industrial en los países de América del Sur antes de la implementación del Nuevo Modelo Económico en la región. Los análisis históricos y empíricos apuntan hacia una significativa influencia de las características geográficas (particularmente a traves del clima y el acceso al mar) y de los niveles de industrialización del país (particularmente por el tamaño de la población y las facilidades de transporte) en los niveles de desarrollo económico de los países de la región. Los resultados confirman ampliamente las predicciones teoricas y podrian incluir significativas implicaciones de política tanto para gobiernos como para agentes de desarrollo. Abstract in english Following a recent line of research promoted by the Harvard Centre for International Development (and by Jeffrey Sachs in particular), the paper explores the relationship between first nature determinants (i.e.: natural geography) and economic as well as industrial development in South American coun [...] tries before the implementation of the New Economic Model in the region. The historical and empirical analyses point to a significant influence of geographical characteristics on both the level of a country's economic development (particularly through climate and the degree of accessibility to the sea) and the level of a country's industrialization (particularly through the population size and the ease of transportation) throughout the region. The results largely confirm the theoretical predictions and may bear significant policy implications for governments as well as for development actors.

Massimiliano, Cali.

2004-10-01

441

Study of domestic social and economic impacts of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume 1: Economic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic impacts associated with OTEC development are identified and they are quantified by national, regional, and industry levels. The effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of 25 and 50 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000 are focused on. Economic impact analysis was emphasized. A likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. The industries affected by OTEC development are identified and an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. The profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation was estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed.

1981-12-01

442

A Novel Approach for Economic Load Dispatch Problem Based On GA and PSO  

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Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is an important issue in the operation of power system, and several models by using different techniques have been used to solve these problems. Some traditional approaches are utilized to find out the optimal solution of non-linear problem. More recently, the soft computing techniques have received more attention and were used in a number of successful and practical applications. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are the most popular algorithms in term of optimization. The PSO techniques have drawn much attention from the power system community and been successfully applied in many complex optimization problems in power systems. This paper find out the advantages of application of Genetic algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in specific to the economic load dispatch problem. Here, an attempt has been made to find out the minimum cost by using GA and PSO using the data of fifteen generating units. Comparison of both algorithm is shown here with a standard example when considering Loss and No Loss Conditions.

Nishant Chaturvedi

2014-03-01

443

Neuro-genetic hybrid approach for the solution of non-convex economic dispatch problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ED (Economic Dispatch) is non-convex constrained optimization problem, and is used for both on line and offline studies in power system operation. Conventionally, it is solved as convex problem using optimization techniques by approximating generator input/output characteristic. Curves of monotonically increasing nature thus resulting in an inaccurate dispatch. The GA (Genetic Algorithm) has been used for the solution of this problem owing to its inherent ability to address the convex and non-convex problems equally. This approach brings the solution to the global minimum region of search space in a short time and then takes longer time to converge to near optimal results. GA based hybrid approaches are used to fine tune the near optimal results produced by GA. This paper proposes NGH (Neuro Genetic Hybrid) approach to solve the economic dispatch with valve point effect. The proposed approach combines the GA with the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) using SI (Swarm Intelligence) learning rule. The GA acts as a global optimizer and the neural network fine tunes the GA results to the desired targets. Three machines standard test system has been tested for validation of the approach. Comparing the results with GA and NGH model based on back-propagation learning, the proposed approach gives contrast improvements showing the promise of the approach. (author)

444

An effortless hybrid method to solve economic load dispatch problem in power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. ? The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. ? Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. ? Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computationa solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.

445

Small business infrastructure development. Problems and ways to improve  

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Full Text Available The study reviews foreign and Ukrainian theory and practice in terms of business infrastructure. The infrastructure is one of the key factors to success of small and medium-sized enterprises which ensures their efficient operation. This paper defines small business infrastructure as a set of state and public institutions (organizations, entities which provide support services to enterprises, facilitate their economic activity and enhance its efficiency.The article concludes that organizational and informational infrastructure of small business support should be identified as an array of business support services (informational, consulting and legal offered by authorized institutions to facilitate small businesses. This study takes a look at the system of small business infrastructure in the country, its state, development and government support. Currently business incubators in the form of technology parks are the type of business assistance programs which prevail in regions and help startup and early-stage companies with technical advice during their first, the most difficult, year in the marketplace. Business incubators are nonprofit organizations financed by communities or sponsors. They can only recover 10 – 60 % of their cost. That is why the government, that declares state support to small business, should share the cost of business incubator programs and encourage sponsors and venture capitalists to give financial support. The dissertation studies the mechanisms of business incubator operation and the stages of its development. It analyzes the development of small business infrastructure elements in Ukrainian over the past 10 years. The analysis of regional business support programs implementation shows that no more than 5.2% of local budgets are allocated to develop the infrastructure. As a result, the majority of regions do not have an established network of financial credit or advisory infrastructure of business assistance, or it develops spontaneously, uncoordinated by local authorities which reduces the efficiency of infrastructure as a driving force of local small business development. The research uncovers the problems and offers ways to improve the infrastructure development

Mikhaylo Pyvovarov

2013-05-01

446

Economic feasibility of developing wind turbines in Aligoodarz, Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation

447

Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India  

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Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.

Vittorio Valli

2009-06-01

448

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindl