The aim of this paper is to discuss and suggest ways to overcome the barriers hindering the economic development of Bangladesh, including the steps the government has taken and is taking for a better future. The inefficiency of government policies, admisnistration, systems and managements has been discussed and the importance of education to raise awareness among the mass illiterate population of the nation has been pointed out. Researches and Developments made by the Agricultu...
Kazi, Siam Ahmed
The economic problems of the nuclear power development in the USA, Japan, and in the western European countries are discussed. An analysis is presented of the development and estimates are given of capital expendenditures in nuclear power plants and in enrichment and reprocessing plants and of the development of the uranium price within the fuel cycle. The problems of financing nuclear power are considered. (B.S.)
Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.
In the article were systematized and analyzed the problems of economic entities in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Particular attention is paid to economic and legal foundations, as well as trends in education and development, assessing their status in the region. Substantiates the main directions of development of small and medium-sized businesses, as well as commercial production companies in the country.? ?????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ???...
Kerimov Elsevar Nariman ogly
This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property
Full Text Available Slavonia and Baranja or Eastern Croatia is a physical-geographical part of the Pannonian Basin and it is divided administratively into 5 counties: Virovitica-Podravina, Požega-Slavonia, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Sirmium (which make nearly 20% of the state. Regarding functional organization, Slavonia and Baranja is a part of Osijek nodal region but with interrelated influences of other regional centres like Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Vukovar, ?akovo and Požega. Analysis of this region consisting of 22 cities and 104 municipalities with 805,998 people (according to Census 2011 will be conducted according to several economic-geographic indicators: foreign trade exchange, number of employed people per 100 inhabitants, number of unemployed people per 100 inhabitants, economic structure of population as well as the share of people employed in agriculture and industry as the most important sectors in the regional economy. Demographic problems will also be analysed, because the population is one of the most important factors of economic and social development. The main problems of the analysed region are depopulation, aging and rural exodus as well as the fact that every city or municipality, except one, had the decline of population comparing to previous Census of 2001. These processes are accompanied by spatial population polarization which has also resulted in economic decline.
Full Text Available For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology
Orlov A. I.
For strategic and operational management tasks in the aerospace industry we use a variety of organizational-economic models and methods. Their set is called an organizational-economic support. In this article we discuss the approaches to the development of adequate organizational-economic support in the aerospace industry. In particular, we consider the problems of estimation of the effectiveness and management of innovation-investment projects to create aviation and space technology
Orlov A. I.
The paper gives a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the factors and problems associated with the continued practice of conventional scattered location of nuclear power plants and external fuel cycle facilities. These problems are connected with the substantial increase in the flow of spent fuel shipments, alienation of valuable land and water resources, delays in site development and in the commissioning of nuclear power plants, increased expenditure of labour and other economic and ecological constraints of nuclear power plant siting in the European part of the USSR. The authors also consider one way of overcoming or reducing the difficulties by establishing large nuclear energy centres (including a group of nuclear power plants with condensers and external fuel cycle facilities) in areas with low population density where land and water resources are less valuable and not in short supply and by transmitting the electric power to the areas of consumption. A comparative evaluation has been made of two methods of future siting of nuclear power systems. (author)
The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author)
Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. Economic growth and demand for energy is positively correlated. The demand for energy increases with the increase in the standard of living and economic growth. It is vital input for industry, agriculture and service sectors as electricity is needed for their common needs of water supply, transport, communication and domestic lighting. India at present is predominantly dependent on fossil fuel based energy namely thermal, oil, natural gas followed by hydro, nuclear, and other renewable source for its energy like wind, solar etc.
S. R. Keshava
This section examines the role of energy in Cuba's economic development and builds on the overview of the national energy situation presented in Section 2, with an emphasis on its evolution in the 1990s, a period characterized by significant socioeconomic tensions resulting from the crisis brought on by the dissolution of the CMEA and the intensification of the economic blockade. Also, a detailed assessment of factors determining energy efficiency is carried out. Section 5.2 presents a discussion of the country's socioeconomic evolution; Section 5.3 examines the relationship between economic growth and development in the energy sector; Section 5.4 evaluates energy and economic issues before the 1990s crisis; Section 5.5 reviews the energy and economic policies after the 1990s crisis; and Section 5.6 assesses energy intensities and identifies economic strategies to strengthen sustainable energy development
As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC). The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007) for Economic Creativity Development (ECD). This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitab...
Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi; Ahmad Reza Kazemi Haghighi
Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic grow...
Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the International Economic Development Council (IEDC), was created through the merger of existing economic development organizations, effectively creating the nation's largest association working in this realm of public policy. The IEDC's mission is "to provide leadership and excellence in economic development for our communities, members and partners to build economically strong, sustainable communities." While some of the online materials are available only to association members, there is a good deal of material that may be accessed by the general public. Through the online resource center, visitors may access such materials as the Economic Developer's Reference Guide (which provides an overview of such key topics as tourism, venture capital, and empowerment zones) and an overview of ongoing legislative matters that may impact the landscape of economic development. Finally, the site is rounded out by an excellent section dedicated to brownfields redevelopment, which includes a general manual of redevelopment techniques and links to external websites, such as those offered by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Reduction of carbon emissions is of paramount importance in the context of global warming and climate change. Countries and global companies are now engaged in understanding systematic ways of solving carbon economics problems, aimed ultimately at achieving well defined emission targets. This paper proposes mechanism design as an approach to solving carbon economics problems. The paper first introduces carbon economics issues in the world today and next focuses on carbon economics problems...
Arava, Radhika; Narahari, Y.; Bagchi, Deepak; Suresh, P.; Subrahmanya, Sv
Trends in urbanization in developing countries are analyzed, with a focus on the causes of rapid urbanization and particularly on the role of the division of labor. The impact of urbanization on the process of economic development is described. The role of government and of urban planning policies is also considered. PMID:12281551
The Dallas (Texas)-based Alliance for Higher Education is a consortium of colleges, universities, corporations, hospitals, and other nonprofit organizations that strategically links business and higher education through distance education initiatives. The consortium has created an infrastructure that supports economic development in the…
Watson, Allan; Jordan, Linda
It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price i...
Thirlwall, A. P.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is s [...] trong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980) than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005); and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."
Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."
Problems related to the development of integrated systems for economic and environmental accouning: a preliminary analysis of the economic-environmental impact of human activities on the marine pollution in the Basilicata region
The efforts made during the last years to analyze the interrelations between economy and environment, suggest defining and constructing standardized integrated systems for national economic and environmental accounting. The methodologies that currently exist are not fully developed and involve numerous theoretical and applicative problems that limit, and delay considerably, the construction of such systems. In this article an alternative approach to the analysis is suggested, which aims to at...
Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância para os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários.
A. P. Thirlwall
Economic development: these two simple words are excessively used and often misused in many contexts, including municipal government. In this issue of the OSBR, we offer a mainly municipal perspective under which we discuss what economic development means and what it can deliver. Economic development acts as a headlight that can guide a city like Ottawa through a fog of national and international competition and uncertain economic realities. It is an overarching role that nudges the local gov...
Saad Bashir; Chris McPhee
Foreign papers dealing with technical and economical investigations of the problems of designing the nuclear power plants for district heating are reviewed. Results of investigations devoted to optimizing the profile, equipment set, technological arrangement and main parameters of the nuclear power plants for district heating (NPPDH) are considered as well as the results of studying the NPPDH and the thermal power plants (TPP) economic contestability. Results of determination of the rational scale of NDHP development are presented. The investigations carried out in the GDR show that the optimal power of the WWER type reactor unit for the single-purpose nuclear district heating plant is 100 MW(t). The FRG specialists maintain that expenses on heat generation at NPPDH and TPP.will be equal, if the cost of the organic fuel is 2 dollars/GJ (which corresponds to the world level of prices for oil and coal from Ruhr) with the reactor unit power of 1000-1200 MW(t) and heat supply of 500-600 MW(t). It is stressed that in the FRG the NPPDH with a reactor of 2000 MW thermal power and the distance of heat transportation more than 20 km and the NPPDH with the reactor of 3000 MW thermal power and transportation distance more than 30 km can contest with a thermal power plant. The economically reasonable level of the centralized heat supply system use for district heating is, as a rule, 40-60 % of the theoretically possible level
Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Discute-se neste artigo que, embora Keynes não tenha sido um economista do desenvolvimento no sentido convencional, seu aparato teórico e pensamento sobre como as economias capitalistas funcionam e suas propostas em Bretton Woods, em 1944, para uma nova ordem monetária internacional têm relevância p [...] ara os debates que ocorrem hoje sobre desenvolvimento econômico, particularmente no que diz respeito à liberalização financeira, o papel do governo em promover o nível de emprego e as conseqüências sobre instabilidade de preços de produtos primários. Abstract in english It is argued in this paper that although Keynes was not a development economist in the conventional sense, his theoretical apparatus and thinking about how capitalist economies function, and his proposals at Bretton Woods in 1944 for a new international monetary order, have relevance for the debates [...] that take place today in development economics, particularly regarding financial liberalisation, the role of government in achieving full employment and the consequences on primary product price instability.
A. P., Thirlwall.
Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for France for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth or reversely taking into account the negative effect of interest rate. Stock market development is estimated by the general stock market index. The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationship...
Athanasios Vazakidis; Antonios Adamopoulos
This paper attempts to answer the following questions: where were we in a systemic and development sense in October 2000? What changes have occurred in the last three years? What are the main problems regarding economic development and, opposed to them, the created stereotypes? What are the key mistakes from economic aspect? What should be done in the short run and in the medium run? In addition to providing the necessary level of investment as the most important tool of sustainable developme...
Stamenkovi? Stojan; Kova?evi? Miladin; Savin Davor; Nikoli? Ivan; Vu?kovi? Vladimir 1
Full Text Available Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by economic development on the environment. Straddling legality and illegality, harmful economic conduct is then equated to a specific form of white collar crime, while an attempt is made to trace in the history of economic thought itself the embryo of a destructive rationale. After considering how harm to individuals and the environment is hidden through ideological strategies, the paper looks at some refreshing proposals to turn the threats of economic development into human opportunities.
Working under a grant from the Ethics and Values in Science and Technology Program of the National Science Foundation, the authors examined some of the ethical foundations and implications of cost-benefit analysis, which is increasingly used for problems (such as nuclear policy) with long-term implications. Three ethical economic problems are that the ''correct'' distribution of costs and benefits may not occur, the discounting rate may impose unfair burdens on different generations, and that of assigning a dollar value to human life and safety. The notion of an ethical system as it pertains to these issues is developed, with cost-benefit analysis modified to incorporate weighting structures consistent with four alternative ethical systems: utilitarian, totally egalitarian, totally elitist, and libertarian, and applied to a case study of nuclear power. The study concludes that the unusual time distribution of costs and their potential magnitudes raises questions about discounting and looking only at the present value. 23 references, 2 figures, 7 tables
The paper discusses the problems of water economic northeastern Montenegro municipalities Berane, Andrijevica and Plav. It points to the problem of exploitation of water, protection of water and water protection. Within exploit water resources, the possibilities of water supply of population and industry, water supply, agriculture, hydropower exploitation, tourism and recreational use. Current and future use of water resources considered GeoScape, requires a new approach, which should be in a...
Goran Rajovic; Jelisavka Bulatovic
Full Text Available The deepening of the processes of market transformations in Ukraine requires a change of existing stereotypes of the economy management, methods of strategic planning, programming, forecasting, management principles and mechanisms of realization of the appropriate measures. So, the problem of the formation of strategic directions of the economic adjustment of the regional development is becoming urgent nowadays.The territorial development strategies, forecasting, and strategic planning of the development of territories, programming, and perspective (indicative planning of territorial development as well as the mechanism of realization of appropriate arrangements are the basic constituents of economic adjustment of regional development (due to the spatiotemporal aspect of their realization.The purpose of the article is to ground the methodological base of the strategic planning of economic development of a region (territory in the transition period by generalizing the available scientific experience as to the constituents of the up-to-date tools of economic adjustment of regional development.The object of the research is the analysis of interregional differences in economic development of regions.The subject of the research is the strategic planning of economic adjustment of regional development.The methodological base of the research and solution of the problem of overcoming the differences in the economic development of regions is the scientific research logic, the theoretical works of domestic and foreign scientists, who are the specialists in regionalistics (research in the field of regional development.It is stated that the tools of the regional development adjustment are not only to provide the harmonization of interests and constructive cooperation of different parties of social relations (the bodies of state and local power, population and business structures but also to smooth interregional differences existing in economic development. It is determined that the regional (territorial development strategy is a definite set of regulative measures which first of all are to coordinate the joint actions to specify some potential positive prospects of the spatiotemporal changes in the major parameters.The development strategy is a target document. It is formed in the process of strategic development, the idea of which is the statement of the research goals, a choice of the main priorities (directions of a region development, determination of the ways to advance, the selection of necessary technologies and institutes, the establishment of a necessary sector structure of the economy and the methods of solving social problems.
Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.
GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of economic development and pollutants in Brazil from 1960 to 2008. This investigation is conducted by scrutinizing and testing the much contested Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC); an economic theory relating income to environmental degradation by an inverted U-shape. Empirical tests of Carbon dioxide (CO2) per capita and income (GDP per capita) provided us with the conclusion that there is a strongly positive correlation between the...
Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.
Bazhenov Yu. N.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of economic development in various countries and the prospects for borrowing from the process of formation and implementation of economic and social policies as an example consider the strategy of Europe 2020 and the socio-economic development strategy of Russia until 2020
Pasko S. N.
...2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential Documents...May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum for...locally is a powerful engine of economic growth, they must be developed...
Economic initiative, by definition, is a human and social effort devoted to the collective wellbeing. However, economic development in general, along with more or less measurable benefits, may cause harm to people and the environment. This aspect tends to be obscured by advocates of the currently predominant philosophy (or ideology) known as neo-liberalism. This paper sets off with a critical analysis of the axioms of neo-liberalism focusing on the variable risk and on the harm provoked by ec...
Women empowerment and economic development are closely related: in one direction, development alone can play a major role in driving down inequality between men and women; in the other direction, empowering women may benefit development. Does this imply that pushing just one of these two levers would set a virtuous circle in motion? This paper reviews the literature on both sides of the empowermentâ€“development nexus, and argues that the interrelationships are probably too weak to be se...
Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)
Yapa, Lakshman S.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the following questions: where were we in a systemic and development sense in October 2000? What changes have occurred in the last three years? What are the main problems regarding economic development and, opposed to them, the created stereotypes? What are the key mistakes from economic aspect? What should be done in the short run and in the medium run? In addition to providing the necessary level of investment as the most important tool of sustainable development and growth in gross domestic product, it is also necessary to ensure: conditions for efficient market functioning, firm and uncompromising legal protection of businesses innovative management, modern technological base. If such conditions are fulfilled, it will be possible to transform the economy, to ensure sustainable economic growth and to regularly service foreign debts. The alternative is a populist scenario, with a short-run rise in living standards and its fall in the medium and long run.
The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.
Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)
This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.
Aseev, Sergei M; Besov, Konstantin O; Kryazhimskii, Arkadii V
This paper extends optimal control theory to a class of infinite-horizon problems that arise in studying models of optimal dynamic allocation of economic resources. In a typical problem of this sort the initial state is fixed, no constraints are imposed on the behaviour of the admissible trajectories at large times, and the objective functional is given by a discounted improper integral. We develop the method of finite-horizon approximations in a broad context and use it to derive complete versions of the Pontryagin maximum principle for such problems. We provide sufficient conditions for the normality of infinite-horizon optimal control problems and for the validity of the 'standard' limit transversality conditions with time going to infinity. As a meaningful example, we consider a new two-sector model of optimal economic growth subject to a random jump in prices. Bibliography: 53 titles.
Prior to the early part of the 19th century, China’s economy had long been superior to that of the West’s. The Chinese’s ability to utilize science and technology had been instrumental in leading their enormous population to economic prosperity and for a while, superiority. During the 18th century European science and technology surpassed that of the Chinese. It is my contention that a variety of Chinese contributions expedited Europe’s prolific economic development and aided in its e...
Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency E...
Full Text Available The regional process that is taking place in Europe in recent decades, was determined by the awareness of the important role that regional policies hold in the balanced development of territories, the goal being the revival of economic and social development, locally, the economic recovery of more underdeveloped areas, to reduce the differences existing among the levels of development of regions. The action is aimed at increasing the efficiency of public authorities (central, local in the use of resources they dispose of, in the development of some economic and financial policies aimed at encouraging investments, employment increase, living conditions improvement, taking into account the determinants of balancing regional development (resources, the development of technological processes and knowledge, political and institutional framework. The paper briefly presents the concepts of regionalism, regionalisation, whose common denominator is decentralization, that involves a multilevel governance, as well as the importance which the new model of economic and social development, consisting in the transfer of some prerogatives of the central administrative systems towards local communities, hold in solving problems that occur in regional, local plan.
Full Text Available The main characteristic of a modern enterprise should be its ability to dynamic changes. Development and implementation of an efficient business model of an enterprise is becoming increasingly important nowadays. Such a business model should include the availability of flexible strategies, moving plans, resources mobilizing alternatives and so on. However, despite the enterprises' desire for dynamic development, ensuring sustainability in the market environment is of great importance for an enterprise. Fragmented categorial and conceptual apparatus of the given problem prompted the subject of the research, which is to determine the economic content and usefulness of the category of steady economic development in the practice of company management. The paper presents a critical analysis of economists' views on the nature of such categories as "sustainability" and "steady economic development"; differentiation of the concepts of sustainability and stability of a company; substantiation of the expediency of using the term "steady economic development" in the practice of company management. Scientific novelties of the research are proposed interpretations of economic categories "sustainability" and "steady economic development". In particular, the author considers enterprise sustainability as the ability of a company to return to the balanced condition after deviations caused by destabilizing influence of external or internal factors. The main feature of stability and sustainability of a company is that stability implies immutability and sustainability means the ability to maintain equilibrium operation. A specific feature of the proposed approach to the definition of steady economic development is represented by the following content specifications: the purpose of development is increased enterprise flexibility and adaptability to internal and external destabilizing factors; the direction of development within the steady space borders can follow the ascending, descending or stagnation vector and different trajectories; in the case of lost sustainability resulting from development processes the company quickly returns to sustainable operation and restores its equilibrium. The practical significance is that specification of the content features of the concept "steady economic development" provides unconditional basis for a modern approach to enterprise development management from the standpoint of sustainability.
Full Text Available The article deals with problems caused by economic factors in the development of international tourism in China. Factors posing threads to development of tourism in China are considered.
Viktoria S. Matyushkina
The notion that good corporate governance means maximizing shareholder value derives from the neoclassical theory of the market economy. I explain why this perspective is highly problematic for understanding the operation and performance of the business corporation and hence the institutions that, for the sake of economic development, should govern it. The main problem is that the market-economy perspective cannot comprehend the process of innovation, including the role of the business corpor...
The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...
Chiritescu, Vergina; Gogonea, Manuela Rodica; Andrei, Ruxandra Daniela; Kruzslicika, Mihaela; Gavrila, Viorica
Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.
Oana Camelia Iacob
Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level.  In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.
This paper studies qualitative change taking place during economic development. In the model presented qualitative change is created by the emergence of new sectors, each of which produces an output that is different from other sectors. A system with a variable number of sectors is simulated. The model predicts that under given conditions the evolution of a sector tends to follow a life cycle in both the number of firms and in terms of employment. The cyclical behavior is determined by the ba...
Saviotti, Pier Paolo; Pyka, Andreas
Since most secondary school reading textbooks give home economics only minimal attention, this paper identifies selected information sources in home economics reading skills and in home economics for high school reading specialists. The first portion of the paper discusses eight principle problems that home economics poses for secondary school…
Cranney, A. Garr; And Others
Home economics presents at least eight problems to secondary school reading teachers. These problems include poor readers, difficult reading material, lack of reading materials, teachers' lack of training in reading instruction, scarce information about home economics for reading teachers, diversity of the home economics field (requiring a wide…
Cranney, A. Garr; And Others
The cost of drilling geothermal wells has large influence on the economical conditions of geothermal development. The variation of drilling cost in different European countries is large and this variation can hardly be explained by the different price levels in these countries. It is of importance of the geothermal development in Europe that this price difference can be explained. In the development of high-temperature fields for electricity generation, the subsurface cost (drilling) is typically 30-50% of the total development cost and the variation in predicted yields from wells can influence the total development cost by some 25%. Economical conditions for low-temperature development are more complex than high-temperature development and the variation in surface costs seems to have larger influence on the total development cost than is the case for high-temperature development. In spite of that, the energy price of geothermal energy for heating purposes seems to be favorable both in Iceland and other European countries. Direct savings in the Icelandic society by using geothermal energy instead of oil for heating of houses is at present equivalent to about 5% of the State budget. Analyzes of the drilling development in 30 high-temperature geothermal fields shows that the yield of each km drilled into these fields is fairly constant. In 67% of the cases, the yield is in the range 1,8-4,8 MW per drilled km. These results indicate that the 'geological risk' is relatively low for high-temperature geothermal development. On the other hand, some 10-20 wells have been required to learn about the reservoir conditions and to delineate the reservoir. It is therefore of importance that geothermal developers put large emphases on the drilling of the first wells in order to minimize the number of wells required for learning. Data is not available for a similar analyzes for low-temperature fields. (orig.)
Stefansson, V. [Orkustofnun, Reykjavik (Iceland)
The Problems of Social Responsibility of Marketing in Developed Countries with a Market Economy and in Ukraine in a Protracted Global Economic Crisis ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????
Full Text Available It was grounded the conclusion that the widely held concept socially responsible marketing, which is based on reliance only on the growth of awareness of owners of enterprises and social initiatives can not be realized. This concept is a consequence of the commitment of its sponsors the doctrine of neoliberalism. Leading role in the development of socially responsible marketing should play an effective government regulation and public organizations for the protection of consumer rights. Effectiveness of state regulation is highly dependent on the quality of the economic system, the development of democracy in the country.????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ???????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????.
Orlov Pyotr A.
Kirkwood Community College's (KCC's) economic development efforts in Iowa provide a full-service, regional delivery system for customized job training, retraining, and economic development services and programs. The mission of Kirkwood Economic Development Services (KEDS) is to assist the region's business and industry in becoming more productive,…
Ovel, Steven J.; Olejniczak, Lon
In traditional economics the decision-making process for individuals has effectively no role for ethics as individuals are self-interested. The key concepts in economics which determine the role of ethics in the decision-making process are utility, rationality and methodological individualism and hence how these can be and are formulated and combined determines different roles for ethics in economics. Amitai Etzioni, Amartya Sen and John Broome use different definitions of these concepts and ...
Rowen, D.; Dietrich, M.
Full Text Available Thinkers and academics around the word are in search of alternative approaches to the Western economic model that signifies the capitalist economy which supports a short-term maximizing profit and optimizing its shareholder’s value. In 2006, after the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan presented a Human Development Life-Time Achievement Award to His Majesty King Bhumibhol Adulyadej of Thailand, and the publication of UNDP Thailand Human Development Report about the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy in 2007, his work has become worldwide recognized as an efficient means towards sustainable development with a focus on human development. The philosophy of Sufficiency Economy is basically a means to achieve happiness at the individual, community and country levels because the Sufficiency Economy Approach is applicable to the micro and macro levels. All the principles are much related to human development process toward right living, therefore right interaction and relation with other beings on this planet including natural resources. From this basis, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy provides a practical tool to cultivate necessary conditions and to alter human well-being through happiness development process.
Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.
Full Text Available For the development stage, the actuality of China economy is very similar to the initial stage of 1970s in Japan, so we can use some feasible experiences to solve economic problems by Japan at the beginning of 1970s. The research to the foam economy in the middle and late stage of 1980s in Japan induces the consideration whether China would follow the same old disastrous road of Japan in 1980s. After that, from the long term depression of Japan in 1990s, we should exactly treat the China depression theory which has been occurred. Reviewing the course from the boom at the beginning of 1970s to the formation and break of foam in the middle and late of 1980s and to the long term depression in 1990s of economic development experienced by Japan, we can get some revelations about many aspects such as macro-economic control and financial security.
In this paper we bridge a gap between innovation economics and the human development approach by analyzing positive and negative effects of different types of economic diversification on social welfare. Economic variety is a driver and outcome of economic development. However, diversification leads to ambiguous effects on the well-being of human agents: on the one hand, increasing variety augments the freedom of human agents to choose. On the other hand, it can overburden their capabilities t...
Hartmann, Dominik; Pyka, Andreas
The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.
Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.
Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste; Problemes techniques et economiques lies au developpement des methodes de traitement et d'utilisation des dechets radioactifs
The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [French] La communication rappelle d'abord succinctement les differentes techniques de traitement des dechets radioactifs resultant necessairement de la production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire. On situe ensuite l'importance du probleme pose par ces residus dans le cycle du combustible nucleaire. On fait ressortir l'influence economique du choix des methodes de gestion sur le cout de production de l'energie, et par consequent sur la place devolue a l'energie nucleaire. Une part importante de ces dechets peut faire l'objet d'une utilisation rentable de l'industrie qui naitra de cette utilisation. Les principales applications envisagees sont evoquees: sources d'irradiation, sources chauffantes, generateurs auxiliaires d'energie. On conclut que d'ores et deja des solutions satisfaisantes ont ete apportees a ces problemes, et l'on decrit les perspectives d'amelioration concevables. (auteur)
Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view
The report, written by the experts of the Center for European Studies of IMEMO RAN – Dr. Alexey Kuznetsov, Natalia Toganova and Anna Gutnik – analyzes the evolution of the approaches to the problems of economic security in Europe. The report is prepared for the Commission of the Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative (EASI). The authors analyze the reasons why some economic problems in Europe cause the attention as the security problems. The report presents a study on transformation of the ...
Kuznetsov, Alexey; Toganova, Natalia; Gutnik, Anna
As many cities have begin to grapple with their vast areas of brownfields that dot the urban landscape, the federal government has begun to step in and provide various financial assistance in order to assist with the redevelopment of abandoned, idled and underused industrial and commercial facilities. This website, provided by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development, provides information about the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI), which is a competitive grant program that is meant to serve as a stimulus for local government and private sector parties to start the long redevelopment process. The site contains detailed information about the program, along with archived webcasts that talk about various success stories that have been funded with monies from the program thus far. Also on the site, information is provided about how brownfields are defined and how monies for the program have been distributed to various communities. Finally, visitors will want to take a look at the related publications available here, including those that detail various brownfields initiative and the potential long-term effects of environmental degradation.
Where software product development occurs is shifting from single companies to groups or collectives of companies. In this article, we retrace the evolution of how software product development is organized and then offer insights into the economic motivation for collectives, which will be relevant to companies considering joining a software product development collective. Building on the literature on software product line economics, we identify three factors affecting the economics of collec...
This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...
Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE) is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE) is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED) with t...
Kumar, C.; Alwarsamy, T.
Full Text Available The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side, it is an impediment to economic development of most nations. This paper correlates urbanization with economic development indicators of developing countries and concludes that there is weak relationship between urban growth and economic development in developing countries. To further the understanding of this relationship, the study also compares the economic situation of urban and rural areas which shows that, it was better in the cities.
Procedures for evaluating the technical, economic, and financial aspects of urban water quality management planning problems are presented. Accepted principles of benefit-cost analysis are used to conduct the economic analysis. Benefits are measured as the reduction in damages as...
The evaluation of transportation projects has traditionally been carried out in the context of economic efficiency in terms of savings in travel time, vehicle operating cost, and safety. The broader long-term effects on economic development (i.e., job, income and business growth) are a concern of transportation planners and decision-makers but have been often overlooked due to the lack of a reliable impact estimation methodology and/or data. Information on economic development effects of prop...
The evaluation of transportation projects has traditionally been carried out in the context of economic efficiency, in terms of savings in travel time, vehicle operating cost, and safety. The wider and longer-term effects on economic development (i.e., job, income and business growth) are a concern of transportation planners and decision-makers but have been often overlooked due to the lack of a reliable impact estimation methodology and/or data. Information on economic development impacts is...
Gkritza, Konstantina; Labi, Samuel; Sinha, Kumares C.
This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential...Documents Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Memorandum...achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a key role...
Full Text Available Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture share of both declines and that of manufacturing and services increases. Hence the economic indicators dominated the measurement of growth. But the middle of 20th century there was a sea change in looking at the development indicators. The Noble laureate Amarthya Sen points out that the important deficiency of traditional development economics is its concentration on national product, aggregate income, & total supply of particular goods rather than on the entitlements of the people and the capabilities that these entitlements generate. Development has many facets like economic, social and cultural. All the three facets are interdependent and influence each other. The cultural dimension has been long neglected aspect of development. Therefore the challenge lies in fostering a synergistic development between science and technology and cultural values. People should be able to derive the means and motivation for the development from their own cultural roots (Salim M Salim, 1992The art and cultural institutions of India can play a dominant role to solve the problems and be a part of economic decision too and there by economic development of our country. Many evils like poverty, dowry, female infanticide, unemployment, the caste system, can be uprooted by the art and culture institutions. As the culture can transform the personality of individual, it can be developed as a tool to economic freedom and dignity of individual
India, having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and being the most populous democratic country, has great potential to become a future superpower. However, in this increasingly globalised environment, India faces several threats to its security. The Naxalites has been identified as the biggest internal security threat to India by none other than the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The complex and structural causes of the problem support this proposition. The Naxal movement al...
Pradhan, Raj Kishor
The study of urbanization has, in recent years, gained increasing importance in developing countries not only because these countries are in the process of facing rapid urbanization, but also because the process of urbanization has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. There are two-side relationships between urbanization and economic development. On the one side, it promotes economic development, while on the other side,...
Full Text Available The paper investigates whether economic growth promotes financial development withannual time series data (1981-2010 from 24 African countries. The study uses GeneralizedMethod of Moments (GMM estimation technique with domestic credit to the private sectoras proxy for financial development. The results show that economic growth promotesfinancial development in the 24 African countries. The results also show that human capitaland inflation have positive and negative relationships with financial development respectively.These findings suggest that policies that stimulate economic growth and human capitaldevelopment as well as keep inflation rates at low levels are needed to improve the financialsystems of the study countries.
The propose of the paper is to analyze the relation between economic development and FDI flows. FDI should have a positive effect on economic growth as a result of positive externalities generated for host countries by multinational companies (MNCs). There are several studies on this issue, some of them pointing out that FDI has a considerable positive effect on host country economic growth but the magnitude depends on host country conditions, while other works indicate that there is no power...
Full Text Available The paper appraised the problems and prospects of globalization to developing economies (like Nigeria. Thus, the main objective was to expose the possible economic benefits of globalization and at the same time highlighted the negative economic consequences. Even though, the study is descriptive in design, yet it relied on secondary source of data from internet, documents, texts, conducted research reports, presented papers etc. Recommendations were proffered to enable developing economies ripe more benefits from globalization among others that they should provide economic environments that are conducive, capable of attracting foreign investors and strong enough to support the strength and capacity of the domestic industry, otherwise, the globalization opportunities could only be seen as a mirage.
Abubakar, M. B.
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.
Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.
This paper presents a sequential approach with matrix framework for solving various kinds of economic dispatch problems. The objective of the economic dispatch problems of electrical power generation is to schedule the committed generating units output so as to meet the required load demand while satisfying the system equality and inequality constraints. This is a maiden approach developed to obtain the optimal dispatches of generating units for all possible load demands of power system in a ...
Srikrishna Subramanian; Ganesan Sivarajan
Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.
This research analyzes the link between health economics and its determinants and sustainable development, emphasizing the significance that quality, equity and accessibility of health services have on the populations’ health, with implications upon the sustainable development of a society. The concept of sustainable development, although widely used, has different meanings, being an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Since health effects are one of...
Marius Ioan Pantea; Delia Gligor
Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is a process of scheduling the required load demand among available generation units such that the fuel cost of operation is minimized. The ELD problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem with both equality and inequality constraints. In this paper, two test systems of the ELD problems are solved by adopting the Cuckoo Search (CS) Algorithm. A comparison of obtained si...
Serapia?o, Adriane B. S.
Full Text Available The economy growth is always the attention focal point to every country. The economy growth impact the protecting environment, on the contrary the protecting environment also impacts the economy growth. Whether the environment is a factor considering the economic growth? The core answering these questions is how to regard the relationship between economic growth and environment. Concerning on the situation of economic and environment whether has the intrinsic relation or has any type relation, this still has the dispute. In this essay I will analyze the conflict between the developing economic and protecting environment. Through the analysis cause where can get a balance between them.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural region by improving the infrastructure and information network. Moreover, the new policy to open the country leads to increase in the international cooperation and attractive foreign direct investment (FDI. Laos has successfully developed amicable relations with regional states, being a members of many international organization, particularly, a member of ASEAN is necessary for Laos in respect of its economic progress both regional and global procedure.
Full Text Available Economic Dispatch is the process of allocating the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. There have been many algorithms proposed for economic dispatch out of which a Differential Evolution (DE is discussed in this paper. The Differential Evolution (DE is a population-based, stochastic function optimizer using vector differences for perturbing the population. The DE is used to solve the Economic Dispatch problem (ED with transmission loss by satisfying the linear equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing (SA.
It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030
Okpala, A O
The possibility of a climate change being brought about by our national economies has dominated the national and international ecopolitical discussion of the past few years like no other topic. The present study is an attempt at an as comprehensive an examination as possible of this problem. It works from the assumption that examining and solving environmental problems requires the cooperation and creativity of investigators from different disciplines. It accordingly develops a concept permitting an integration of scientific, economic, and ethical questions impinging on the problem of the greenhouse effect. Thus the study contributes to the groundwork of an ecological economics. The interdisciplinary approach to analysing the connections between climate changes, raw materials consumption, and economic development is variously seen to pinpoint the complex temporal structure of the problems. It becomes clear that ecopolitical measures take a long time to actually become effective. Besides shifiting the focus to questions as to the scope and limits of politico-economic action, the temporal strucutre of the problem also reveals the limitations of scientifically founded ecopolitical recommendations. This brings the ethical aspect of analysing and solving environmental problems to the fore. (orig./UA)
Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the recent literature in economic history and long-run development, and summarizes the main findings of the three essays presented in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, I examine the subject of villagization in Tanzania, a major episode of development planning in post-independence Tanzania. I revisit this period of Tanzania’s economic history, focusing on the legacy of developmental villages (vijiji uya maendeleo) introduced in mainland Tanzania over the...
Over the last few years, environmental issues have entered into policy design, particularly development and growth policies. Natural resources are considered necessary production inputs and environmental quality is considered a welfare determinant. The integration of environmental issues into economic growth and development theories and empirics is currently widely analyzed in the literature. The effects of natural resources endowment on economic growth are mainly analyzed through the so-call...
Costantini, Valeria; Monni, Salvatore
Full Text Available Economic development generally speaking should enable sustained economic growth. When we talk about the steady growth it is necessary to mention that he cannot be based on excessive use or abuse the use of natural resources. In this paper the author wants to emphasize the importance of economic development, long-term stable and sustainable growth is a priority of every company that goes through a transition period. The Great Depression was in the thirties of the 20th century and during that time the world faced a major financial problem, today the world is going through a similar period. The basis of sustainable development is in the basic economic principles, that is. Principle of simple and expanded reproduction and all that is spent must be reimbursed and that is to provide new value.
Energy problems are becoming increasingly important in the general context of the control of resources which includes the amounts of energy available, the cost of obtaining them, the political and economic constraints and the exhaustion of the reserves. These problems, which are very crucial and important to the developing countries that must have some access to energy resources and learn how to husband them by the most careful decisions based on the best possible situation analysis and on the maximum practical knowledge are examined
Full Text Available Economic growth and Sustainable development concepts have emerged at different moments in history.However, at this time, they are related to each other more than ever, because at one point, one of them evolutiondetermined the other’s birth, preventing humanity to destroy itself.This paper intends to present some conceptual delimitation, evolution of the concept of economic growth, butalso several theories and models of economic growth that was the subject of specialists’ researches. Like any economicphenomenon, growth brings some benefits and some costs. When these costs threaten the future of humanity, somesolutions need to be found, no matter how hard ware them to implement, to remove unwanted effects.In this light, the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development, with this emergence and evolution, butespecially with the link between sustainable development and economic growth.
The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor
DESCRIBED IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICS CURRICULAR MATERIALS FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS CONSIST OF 18 UNITS INTENDED FOR USE DURING ONE SEMESTER. A REPEATED PATTERN IN EACH UNIT IS (1) A TEACHER'S GUIDE TO THE CONCEPT AND THE PROBLEMS OF PRESENTING THE CONCEPT, AND (2) VARIOUS STUDENT MATERIALS. THE BALANCE OF THE MATERIAL CONSISTS…
LOVENSTEIN, MENO; AND OTHERS
Full Text Available This research study focused on to study the overall socio-economic condition and the development process through the government as well banking services and achieving sustainable development through the fulfillment of all basic needs of weaker section of society and eradicate social exclusion in this agree-based, developing, mix-economy accepted democratic country to make positive changes
Suryawanshi S. R.
The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.
Menshikova, Kristina A.; Malyuta, Lyubov E.
Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.
Kristina A. Menshikova
Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...
Rai, Shivani M.
Full Text Available The harmonisation of economic interests is one of the essential preconditions for the development of enterprises, including small ones. As practice shows, the harmonisation of major interests of small innovative business requires not only market instruments, but also state regulation, which demands the development of a corresponding mechanism. This study sets out to develop and justify the macroeconomic mechanism of development of small innovative enterprises on the basis of harmonisation of basic economic interests of their agents. The research significance of the results presented in the article consists in the fact that, for the first time, the problem of economic interest harmonisation has been considered in relation to the agents of small innovative business. The author juxtaposes the major economic interests of these agents and identifies their compatibility and conflict areas. The article offers a mechanism for the development of small innovative businesses, including two sets of instruments — those aimed at combining the agents’ efforts on the basis of their common economic interests and prevention of conflicts resulting from their incompatibility. The recommendations on the application of instruments for harmonizing economic interests can be used in drawing up programmes for the development of small innovative business at the federal, regional, and municipal levels.
Duplenko N. G.
Full Text Available At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are require. Therefore, in this paper, we investigated the environmental/economic power dispatch problem by employing a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The power dispatch is formulated into a bi-objective optimization problem, which is to minimize the fuel cost as well as pollutant emission simultaneously. Two objectives are merged in to a single objective by using the weighted sum method. Best cost and best emission solution are obtained for different loading conditions for the standard IEEE 118-bus, 14 generating units system.
Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.
Adamovi? Jelka M.
Full Text Available The propose of the paper is to analyze the relation between economic development and FDI flows. FDI should have a positive effect on economic growth as a result of positive externalities generated for host countries by multinational companies (MNCs. There are several studies on this issue, some of them pointing out that FDI has a considerable positive effect on host country economic growth but the magnitude depends on host country conditions, while other works indicate that there is no powerful interdependence between inward FDI to host country economic growth. However, it is generally accepted that there is a functional link between the degree of openness of trade and foreign direct investment, especially in developing countries.
This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of a watered down redistribution policy and a strong birth control policy may be the most promising. PMID:12179413
Aleman, J L
Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.
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...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development information clearinghouse...11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.11 Economic development information...
Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)
Recent evidence on the respective contributions of institutions and trade to income levels across countries has demonstrated that - once endogeneity is considered - institutional quality clearly dominates the effect of trade. We argue that overall trade is not the most appropriate measure for technology diffusion as a source of productivity growth and propose to focus on imports of research and development (R&D) intensive goods instead. Overall, we confirm previous findings that institutions ...
Busse, Matthias; Groizard, Jose? Luis
This paper develops a general equilibrium model of fertility and human capital investment under uncertainty. Uncertainty exists in the form of a probability that a young adult does not survive to old age. Parents maximize expected utility arising from own consumption, their fertility, and the discounted utility of future generations. There exists a precautionary demand for children. Young adult mortality is negatively related to the average human capital of young adults. Therefore, rising hum...
This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…
Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.
During the last years the relationship between financial development and economic growth has received widespread attention in the literature on growth and development. This paper summarises in its first part the results of this research, stressing the growth-enhancing effects of an increased interpersonal re-allocation of resources promoted by financial development. The second part of the paper seeks to identify the determinants of financial development based on Diamond's theory of financial ...
By incorporating curb market savings into a growth model, this study developed a unified view about financial development and economic growth, where McKinnon-Shaw school and neo-structuralists part each other. We demonstrate the ambiguous nature of the relationship between financial development and economic growth. The disaggregation of financial sector into consumer finance and business finance enables us to see that the development of different aspects of the financial sector has different ...
Full Text Available The debt crisis was triggered in 1982 by a combination of adverse external factors and poor economic and financial policies on the part of debtor countries. Furthermore, after the second oil "shock", stagnation in the industrial area caused a sharp slowdown in world trade, thus further deteriorating exports for developing countries. The present work analyses the debt problem for developing countries, its causes, the policies enacted thus far and possible solutions. The strategy to combat the problem between 1982 and 1985 is detailed and the Baker Plan is considered. The author then looks at more recent developments and innovative schemes to facilitate the solution of the debt problem. Finally, estimates are provided of the impact of some debt relief efforts on the banking system and on debtor countries.
Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.
Although developing countries face a drastic increase in their greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation actions against climate change do not rank high among their priorities. The obvious reason lies in the necessity for them to continue the development process, which is characterised by pressing needs other than emission control. For developing countries the real problem is thus not emissions but economic growth. Therefore the key question is whether or not the Kyoto Protocol provides an opportunity for growth and thus for their economic development. The only way to accelerate the participation of developing countries in climate agreements - and therefore to come closer to the goal of a global climate control - is to design strategies which enable their economic development. The dilemma of reducing emissions on a global scale while ensuring growth in the poorer regions can only be solved if there are possibilities embedded in the agreements which can contribute to the sustainable development of those regions. As a consequence, greater emphasis must be placed on the economic development dimension of the Kyoto Protocol as far as the impact on developing countries is concerned
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.08%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.56% and also an increase of investments rate per 1% induced an increase of bank credits per 0.18% in Spain. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that economic growth and investment have a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate has a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.
with the development of economy and society, technological innovation has become an important factor of supported the sustainable development of regional economy, it is the guarantee of sustained regional economic growth. This essay to interaction effects of technological innovation and regional economic development as the theme, elaborated advantages in the interaction between technological innovation and regional economic development, and to the problems in the development of the r...
"Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…
Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)
This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.
Full Text Available Economic Load Dispatch (ELD is a process of scheduling the required load demand among available generation units such that the fuel cost of operation is minimized. The ELD problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem with both equality and inequality constraints. In this paper, two test systems of the ELD problems are solved by adopting the Cuckoo Search (CS Algorithm. A comparison of obtained simulation results by using the CS is carried out against six other swarm intelligence algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization, Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm, Bacterial Foraging Optimization, Artificial Bee Colony, Harmony Search and Firefly Algorithm. The effectiveness of each swarm intelligence algorithm is demonstrated on a test system comprising three-generators and other containing six-generators. Results denote superiority of the Cuckoo Search Algorithm and confirm its potential to solve the ELD problem.
Adriane B. S. Serapião
This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisatio...
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207
Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark
Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.
Failure to consider lessons from behavioral economics in the case of whole genome sequencing may cause us to run into the 'last mile problem' - the failure to integrate newly developed technology, on which billions of dollars have been invested, into society in a way that improves human behavior and decision-making. PMID:25614766
Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S; McGuire, Amy L; Green, Robert C; Ubel, Peter A
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
Full Text Available Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may benefit from the application of game theory approaches and the use of revelation mechanisism designed for public goods. Economic Theory and Environmental Degradation: A Survey of Some Problems
Full Text Available Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, flexible fiscal and tax policies, and large-scale economic stimulus policies in 2013. The new Japanese government attempted to change up to 15 years continuous deflation situation by exacerbating the depreciation of the yen. This paper studied the economic situation in Japan, did a depth analysis of the Abe government's economic policy adjustment and of Japan's economic development after the adjustment. At the same time, this paper pointed out the Japanese economic trends in the "Abe Economics" and the use for reference for China's economic development finally.
The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-econ...
Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.; Timoshchenkova Olga A.
Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems. The results are obtained for a test system with three and thirteen generating units. In this paper the performance of the BFO is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The results clearly show that the proposed method gives better optimal solution as compared to the other methods.
This paper proposes augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problems. The proposed ALHN is a new improvement of continuous Hopfield neural network by using augmented Lagrange function as its energy function. The ALHN is applied for solving different ED problems consisting of classical ED, ED with fuel constraint, ED with piecewise quadratic fuel cost, ED with prohibited operating zones, combined heat and power ED, and ED for hydrothermal systems. The proposed method has been tested on different systems and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods. The result comparison has shown that the proposed ALHN can obtain less total costs and faster computational times than many others. Therefore, ALHN could be a very powerful method for solving the ED problems.
Dieu, Vo Ngoc; Schegner, Peter; Ongsakul, Weerakorn
Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.
SHIVANI M. RAI
The basic theme underlying this paper is qualitative change taking place during economic development. These changes in the composition of the economic system should become one of the most important variables in models of economic growth and development. Our knowledge of the relationship between economic development and qualitative change, however, is still very limited. This paper attempts to shed light on some important aspects of the role played by qualitative change in economic development...
Saviotti, P. P.; Pyka, A.
Full Text Available
with the development of economy and society, technological innovation has become an important factor of supported the sustainable development of regional economy, it is the guarantee of sustained regional economic growth. This essay to interaction effects of technological innovation and regional economic development as the theme, elaborated advantages in the interaction between technological innovation and regional economic development, and to the problems in the development of the regional economy, proposed the countermeasures for the technological innovation and regional economy development reciprocal promotion.
Key words: Technological innovation; Regional economic; Creativity
This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR) model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization ...
Shushu Li; Yong Ma
With a population of 600 million, ASEAN is considered to be one of the most diverse regions in the world. It is also one of the world's fastest growing regions. ASEAN's aim is to evolve into an integrated economic community by 2015. Crucial to achieving this ambitious target is cooperation in infrastructure development for physical connectivity, particularly in cross-border infrastructure. This paper provides an overview of the quantity and quality of existing infrastructure in ASEAN member c...
Bhattacharyay, Biswa Nath
We study the eþect of international financial integration on economic development when the quality of governance may be compromised by corruption. Our analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model of a small economy in which growth is driven by capital accumulation and public policy is administered by government appointed bureaucrats. Corruption may arise due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds, an opportunity that is made more attractive by financial liber...
Blackburn, Keith; Forgues-puccio, Gonzalo F.
The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...
In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Centr...
Corry Bregendahl; Cornelia Flora; Milan Wall; Mary Emery
Group-living animals often do not maintain territories, but instead have highly overlapping ranges, even though in principle these are economically defendable. We investigate whether this absence of range defence reflects a collective action problem, since a territory can be considered a public good. In a comparative analysis comprising 135 primate species, we find a positive association between range overlap and group size, controlling for economic defendability and phylogenetic non-independence. We subsequently demonstrate that groups with multiple adults of both sexes suffer levels of range overlap twice as high as groups with only a single adult representative of either sex, consistent with the presence of a collective action problem. Finally, we reveal that this collective action problem can be overcome through philopatry of the larger sex. These results suggest that a social complication of group living is a stronger determinant of between-group relations among social animals than ecological factors, but also that collective defence is still achieved where the dominant sex is philopatric and effective defence is critical to reproductive success and survival. In addition, our findings support the idea that human-like warfare, defined as escalated collective territorial conflict, has an evolutionary basis reflected by cases of convergent evolution among non-human primates. PMID:23516240
Willems, Erik P.; Hellriegel, Barbara; van Schaik, Carel P.
India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.
Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)
Health Informatics (HI) has become a world wide issue since 2005 when the WHO Health Metrics Network (HMN) was formed to encourage all of the developing countries (151) to get started in eHealth. Prior to this HMN initiative the only countries with HI in place were the developed countries (40) and a few developing countries (Jamaica, Malaysia, etc.) that were just getting started in HI with a very limited number of applications compared to the developed countries. This paper suggests that much of the experience in HI gained in the developed countries can be shared with the developing countries as 'lessons learnt' - as long as the issue of economics is kept front and foremost in the planning. PMID:21335705
Hébert, Ronald J
This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries
The Report argues that economic growth, if not properly managed, can be jobless, voiceless, ruthless, rootless and futureless, and thus detrimental to human development. The quality of growth is therefore as important as its quantity for poverty reduction, human development and sustainability.
United Nations Development Programme, Undp
Full Text Available This paper provides a broad overview of the relationship between infrastructure and growth, focusing on the Togolese case. The paper develops an intuitive theoretical framework in which to analyse this relationship, identifying channels through which infrastructure may effect growth: as a factor of production, a complement to other factors of production, a stimulus to factor accumulation, a stimulus to aggregate demand and a tool of industrial policy. A framework is developed for evaluating theory analyses of this relationship, which explores the implications of different definitions and measures of infrastructure on economics growth. The empirical literature on Togo is then assessed against this framework.
Aboudou Maman Tachiwou
Full Text Available One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM. The result showed that there is a substantial positive effect of financial development on economic growth in Nigeria. The Granger causality test showed that financial development promotes economic growth, but there is evidence of causality from economic growth to the development of financial intermediaries. Thus, advancement of the financial sector development, including diversification of financial instruments should be pursued to facilitate economic development in Nigeria.
Adelakun, O. J.
One of the most unending debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. The paper empirically examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In this study, the perceived relationship between financial development and economic growth is estimated econometrically using the Ordinary Least Square Estimation Method (OLSEM). The result showed that there is a substantial positiv...
Adelakun, O. J.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to offer a realistic perspective upon the imminent situation of demographic ageing issue in European Union. The forecasts are not reasons to major concern for the society but rather to become more responsible and not to neglect a problem that could affect our future. The demographic overview of Europe for 2011 – 2060 shows low birth rates, an increase in life expectancy and migration flows having an impact on population. As a result, the parent generation will no longer completely be replaced by the next generation of children and the narrowed active population will have to sustain a large number of persons far advanced in the age. Economic consequences of this social trend, such as increased expenditures on pensions, extended health care costs and the employment problems, are also discussed in order to define the best policy option available.
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient simulated annealing (SA algorithm for solving economic load dispatch (ELD problems in electrical power system. The objectives of ELD problems in electric power generation is to programmed the devoted generating unit outputs so as to meet the mandatory load demand at lowest amount operating cost while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraints. Global optimization approaches is inspired by annealing process of thermodynamics. The SA algorithm presented here is applied to two case studies, which analyze power systems having three, and six generating units. The results determined by SA algorithm are compared to those found by conventional quadratic programming (QP and genetic algorithm (GA.
Full Text Available In this paper we draw from lessons learned in four research projects to suggest effective strategies for building successful economies in Indian Country. Current thinking about economic development in Indian Country often focuses on the challenges of implementing successful models from outside Indian Country in a location considered deficient in the cultural, social, financial, and human preconditions necessary for successfully growing jobs and businesses. Recent research from the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Heartland Center for Leadership Development, and United Tribes Technical College counters this perception in three ways. First, despite some reports to the contrary, many successful entrepreneurs live in Indian Country. Second, while reservation communities do experience higher levels of poverty and unemployment than their non-reservation counterparts, Indian country abounds in unacknowledged and often uninvested natural, cultural, human, and social capital assets. Traditional mainstream approaches to job and business development typically overlook these assets. Third, our data indicates that many Native people define wealth in non monetary ways suggesting that successful economic development in Indian Country must be measured by the indicators that matter most to the people involved.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is clarifying economical problems of primary and secondary school teachers and effects of these problems on their performance. The data in the study were picked up with qualitative and quantitative ways. Among the primary and secondary school teachers in private and state schools within the municipality boarders of Denizli, 903 teachers were chosen with quantitative method and 109 of the rest were chosen through qualitative method for the proportional group sampling work. According to the findings of the study, problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers economic problem to agree is "completely agree" and economic problem to face is "always" and economic problem influencing the performance is "very". According to the findings of the study, the most important problems based on likert type concerning opinions of primary and secondary school teachers related the most important economic problem to agree is "the lack of financial aid for children" and about the most important economic problem to face is "insufficient fees for extra hours" and about the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "no satisfying economic opportunities". According to primary and secondary school teachers' opinions our open-ended written poll, the most important economic problem to agree is "insufficient wages" and the most important economic problem to face is home rent, bills, credit card payment" and the most important economic problem influencing the performance is "the income which does not meet the expenditures".
Ali R?za Erdem
The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...
Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu
The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country's location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income differences between SSA countries. We base our empirical analysis on a new economic geogr...
Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of analysis of statistical and expert data in problems of economics and management that are discussed in the framework of scientific specialization "Mathematical methods of economy", including organizational-economic and economic-mathematical modeling, econometrics and statistics, as well as economic aspects of decision theory, systems analysis, cybernetics, operations research. The main provisions of the new paradigm of this scientific and practical field are developed by the author of this article in the 1980s during the creation of the All-Union Statistical Association. The new paradigm is compared with the old (corresponding to the middle of XX century. Is summarized monographs, textbooks and manuals prepared under the leadership of the author of this paper in the XXI century according to the new paradigm
Orlov A. I.
Full Text Available The article studies the problem of inequality of socio-economic development of administrative and territorial formations. Analyzing the statistical data it proves the hypothesis about the presence of inequality of economic development of the regions of Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????????-??????????????? ???????????. ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????.
Raevneva Elena V.
The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...
This paper proposed a neural method to solve economic load dispatch problems in power systems. Economic Dispatch (ED) is defined as the process of allocating generation levels to the generating units so that the system load is supplied entirely and most economically. Systems based on artificial neural networks have high computational rates due to the use of a massive number of simple processing elements and the high degree of connectivity between these elements. The ability of neural networks to realize some complex nonlinear function makes them attractive for system optimization. Unlike other neural approaches that sometimes fail to converge towards feasible equilibrium points, the modified Hopfield network presented in this paper has been globally stable and it does not require any special treatment for initialization. The internal parameters of the modified Hopfield network developed in this study were computed using the valid-subspace technique. These parameters guarantee the network convergence to feasible equilibrium points. Simulated results have confirmed the validity of the proposed approach. In addition to providing a new approach for economic load dispatch problems, the proposed algorithm has the advantages of improved accuracy of equilibrium points; inclusion of constraint terms in single energy term, represented by Econf(t); simplicity of implementation of economic load dispatch problem in digital computers; and eliminating the need to adjust weighting constants for initialization. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.
Spatti, D.H.; Da Silva, I.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Essex County Gas Co. is using at new, highly efficient approach to simulate the daily economic dispatch of gas supplies to meet market requirements under FERC Order 636. Although sophisticated in its design, the modeling environment permits straightforward model construction with richly detailed components that can be readily changed as needed by gas utility personnel after only a short training period. It provides a mechanism for very detailed simulation of the market and supply balances governing LDC operations. The model serves as Essex County Gas' primary what if? tool for testing the operational and economic consequences of a wide variety of supply and demand-side-management alternatives. The model, developed by consultant E.J. Curtis, is driven by Effective Heating Degree-Day daily weather patterns, such as design, normal, warm and extreme. The model is driven by weather patterns input as time series, so other independent variables such as general inflation factors, energy cost projections and economic model results can also be input as time-series data. Alternatively, detailed submodels for such components can be imbedded within the model to automatically generate this information. It incorporates supply and market simulation elements, permitting ready adaptation for use not only in conventional supply planning but also integrated resource management. Comparative 'what if?' cases can be run with specific demand-side management initiatives toggled on and offagement initiatives toggled on and off
Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.
Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.
Minh Quang Dao
In this paper we are going to analyze the dynamics of barriers to entry at the international level. In our model economic development takes place and continues in the long run due to the emergence of new sectors, which can compensate for the diminishing ability of mature sectors to create employment and growth. Each new sector is created by a pervasive innovation, which creates a new market and into and out of which there are entry and exit of firms. Depending on the inter-temporal coordinati...
Saviotti, Paolo; Pyka, Andreas
In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)
In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze) can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.
Huru Dragos; Hrebrenciuc Andrei
Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.
The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits
Full Text Available We have studied the basic principles and structure analysis of the economic development of the region. Analyzes the basic steps of a comprehensive analysis of the economic development of the region.
Full Text Available Understanding of post-industrial society in the context of the role of economic thinking in the post-industrial society that becomes an actual in the mainstream of modern social and economic modernization in Russia is actualized. The peculiarities of the formation of economic thinking in the process of cooperation with the economic reality in the process of economic education and training are considered. The step-by-step analysis of development of categorical economic apparatus of an individual, the influence of theoretical and practical knowledge on the formation of economical thinking is made. The active role of people in the formation of their own economical thinking is shown.
Bogunov Leonid Aleksandrovich
Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for economic efficiency in the transportation field. The methodology used for this subject is based on the statistics data from the official documents and on the research made by the authors of the paper regarding the advantages from the economical point of view derived from the development of intermodal transport. The results we have reached show that the intermodal transportation is rapidly gaining acceptance as an integral component of the systems approach of conducting business in an increasingly competitive and interdependent global economy. The information on this paper have implications on other related fields: social, environmental and even political and the authors brought significant contribution raising the problem of the total costs of investments in the intermodal transport infrastructure and the long-term economical benefits if it.
The main purpose of this paper is to identify some reasons behind the economic performance of regions in Laos, especially the impacts of economic transformation from a central-planned economy to market-oriented under New Economic Mechanisms (NEMs) reform in 1986, the impact of reform has pursued significant economic growth, particularly the regional economic performance. Firstly, the growth was faster in big city with better infrastructure and then the growth extension from central to rural r...
Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.
The movement of many countries towards knowledge-based economic development requires the transition to more effective skill formation systems. This paper proposes an institutionalist approach to national skills development systems in the advancement towards knowledge-based economic development. There is currently no accepted general framework to analyze national skills development systems which has resulted in countries adopting reactive approaches to skills development problems. The conceptu...
The general framework for the assessment of the energy needs for economic development is presented and major indicators for the relations between economic growth and energy demand in developing countries are analysed. More than 70% of the population in the developing countries live in rural areas and around 40% of the total energy consumption is provided by non-commercial firewood. The present rural-urban disparity in energy consumption and economic status and the 'firewood crisis' are therefore matters of specific concern for a sustainable development. In general electricity generation and industrial development are at the core of economic development. Specific constraints are the dispersed contribution of the industrial sector to total energy consumption and the very low total and per head electricity consumption of all developing countries. Consequently the energy and electricity demand of the developing countries has to grow much faster compared with industrialized countries in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic North-South relationship. On the other hand, there are certain signs that the industrialized countries, taken together, have already reached energy consumption levels which are adequate to ensure the long term socio-economic development envisaged. The most difficult problem, however, is to translate the present complex situation into realistic future trends and to quantify the energy demand for a period beyond the turn of the century. A possible eyond the turn of the century. A possible framework for more detailed studies and for a general orientation of future energy demand for economic development in developing countries is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs
One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability. PMID:25536810
Stosi?, Sanja; Karanovi?, Nevena
Full Text Available Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services, while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. The biggest challenges for urban marketing are changes occurred in market structure and dynamics, which exceed the response capacity of the cities. The sole existence of a developed industrial infrastructure is not sufficient for a community to reach the development goals, marketing must create the image, the message to be conveyed to potential investors. Urban strategic marketing is the most adaptable and productive approach of the problems that the communities face. Urban marketing became an extremely important economic activity and, in some cases, the main source of local welfare. Inside clients – oriented marketing is not only a technical problem, of marketing technique, messages and targets, but also one defining the city development in terms of value system of the public.
Gabriela Cecilia ST?NCIULESCU
Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial immune algorithm with a multiplier updating method (AIA-MU for practical power economic dispatch (PED considering units with prohibited operating zones (POZ. The AIA equipped with a migration operation can efficiently search and actively explore solutions. The multiplier updating (MU is introduced to handle the system constraints. To show the advantages of the proposed algorithm, two examples are investigated, and the computational results of the proposed method are compared with that of the previous methods. The proposed approach integrates the AIA and the MU, revealing that the proposed approach has the following merits - ease of implementation; applicability to non-convex fuel cost functions of the POZ; better effectiveness than previous methods, and the requirement for only a small population in applying the optimal PED problem of generators with POZ.
C. L. Chiang
Availability of a reliable oxygen (O2) supply is critical for hospitals in developing countries. The AIDS pandemic that is associated with severe pulmonary infections has further enhanced this problem. Today in 2006, even though a number of financially viable solutions adapted to conditions in developing countries are available, lack of oxygen is still a cause of death in Africa including in some capital cities. Hospitals in industrial countries have wall outlets supplied from liquid O2 storage tanks (-183 degrees C). However this solution requires advanced cryogenic technology with storage as well as transportation of liquid O2. In developing countries, O2 is supplied from pressurized O2 cylinders (200 bars) sometimes stored in racks to supply wall outlets but more often moved from bed to bed as needed. This solution is expensive because of the cost of transportation on poor roads in all areas outside capital cities. Frequent supply shortages lead to major disruptions in care quality. Properly maintained O2 concentrators can provide a highly effective low-cost easy-to-use solution for health facilities in developing countries. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process based on reversible nitrogen adsorption is a reliable economical autonomous oxygen production process ideally suited to hospitals in developing countries. It can be used to supply wall outlets or fill cylinders. Return on investment is achieved within one to two years. PMID:17286038
L'Her, P; Tchoua, R; Hutin, R; Soumbou, A; Yos, P; Saissy, J M
The work is the result of a digitisation project funded by the New Opportunities Fund RLS (Resources for Learning in Scotland). This report contains 600 images and text descriptions on the economic minerals of Scotland. Most of the specimens have been sourced from the BGS collections. The digitisation project took place between December 2002 and March 2003 and the images and descriptions will be made available on the RLS website and the BGS National Archive of Geological Photog...
Mcintosh, R. P.; Hyslop, E. K.; Mactaggart, F.; Cullen, T.; Rayner, J.
Health care has become a leading growth sector of the economy, and a large part of that growth has its origin in the research generated by faculty in academic health centers. This paper discusses an effective program for translating academic health center research into economic development based upon observations at 12 centers. Topics included…
McPheeters, Harold L.
Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.
Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…
Bowen, William M.
Full Text Available Agrotourism represents the most important way for developing the rural area, generating income and creating jobs. The aim of the paper is to analyze the economic importance of tourism and agro-tourism, between the periods 2001 – 2011, for the top 10 leading countries by tourism receipts, according to Data World Bank: USA, China, Germany, France, England, Italy, Spain, Australia, Turkey and Austria, plus the main countries witch Romania is in competition, Hungary and Bulgaria, by the contribution of tourism and agro-tourism sector in accomplishment of GDP, by average made on the analyzed period and by annual growth rate, analyze that place Romania on the position 150 of 176 countries surveyed with an annual growth rate of 1.52% from GDP.
Within the lasting economic development, the essential role of verifying and promoting the general objectivesof society is enforced by the sector of services which se ttles the balance between the activities specific to these servicesand those specific to this type of development.The growth of services from their recognized values to those corresponding to the international standards,deals with the beginning and promotion of certain activities that should include on the one hand the participa...
Zaharia, Marian; Maniu, Cristina; Gogonea, Manuela-rodica
This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.
Full Text Available This work offers system and information content of the following economic categories: development, sustainable economic development. The author has formulated the fundamental principles of sustainable development: the principle of minimum resource dissipation and the equation of self-organization, the law of conserving the economic potential of a social system. The basic equation of development has been formulated. The model of sustainable development is viewed on the basis of the equation.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of the
slowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.
Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.
Full Text Available Cities are facing constant and more increasingly changes and challenges. In the light of these changes and challenges, this paper tries to configure the idea of how communities, especially those in urban areas face their problems and initiatives to use existing opportunities to access sustainable and balanced development. An integrated approach to urban development and the concept of cities as centers of power in disseminating positive effects in neighboring territories, led the European Union to structure a policy framework, an institutional and legal framework in order to support this type of events. Doing a little review of the EU and national action and support framework for urban development, this paper aims to highlight the effect of this support on urban development in terms of economic dimension. Approach starts from the assumption that urban areas are able to efficiently use the leverage created by the European Union and accessible nationally through established internal policies, in support of urban development. Proposed research hypothesis applies in a case study upon the urban development poles from Romania’s North-West Region, by linking information from the analysis of the local economic environment with the level of structural funds absorption rate for these poles in the 2007-2013 financial programming.
Several studies have explored the relationship between economy level crime rates or individual level crime and economic growth. However, few studies have examined the relationship between economic growth and crime against firms which is an important issue especially for developing economies. Using data for about 12,000 firms in 27 developing countries we find that economic growth has a negative effect on crime. We also find that several macro-economic factors can weaken or strengthen the rela...
The paper characterises the economic development of the Baltic countries after they have restored the independence. The authors explore the dynamic of the key economic indices - the GDP and inflation level, and show that there are tendencies for the economy to improve. The data on the direct foreign investments per capita are given for each Baltic country as well as on the greatest foreign firms - investors functioning in Latvia and the investment allocation among the sectors. The State Investment Programme realised in Latvia since 1996 is well illustrated, and the share is shown of the sectors involved. The authors briefly discuss legislative activities in the energy sector for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and present statistical data on the energy supply in Baltic countries. The energy production and import/export balance is analysed, and the tariffs for electricity are exemplified for all the three countries. The information is also given as to the number of energy debtors and the distributors of the debts for consumed energy among separate branches of energetics in Latvia and Lithuania. The data presented in the paper show that due to decrease in energy resource consumption the harmful pollution have also diminished. (author)
Full Text Available The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share of shadow economy. The article provides examples of social irresponsibility of marketing in chase of profit, revealed in industrially developed countries and Ukraine. They cause huge irreplaceable damage to society. The article justifies a conclusion that in countries, economic systems of which cannot ensure a proper level of state regulation of economy and social responsibility of economic subjects, the population is destined to be exploited by socially irresponsible subjects of business, moral and physical degradation and even extinction. The concept of socially responsible marketing, based only on the growth of consciousness of company owners and social initiative, cannot be realised widely.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??. ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????, ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????. ? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ? ???????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????. ????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????.
Orlov Petr A.
Full Text Available Virtually all aspects of human endeavor entail the use of money either self-generated or borrowed. In capital market, the stock in trade is money which could be raised through various instruments under well governed rules and regulations carefully administered and followed by different institutions or market operators. Economic development is a process by which a high degree of self reliant economic growth in a given society is sustained over a given time. It is associated with substantial reduction on poverty and unemployment levels, and income inequality. This paper examines the concept of capital market, the concept of economic growth and economic development, relationship between economic growth and development, factors that determines economic growth and development, framework of regulating the capital market, highlight of recent reforms in the capital market, the contributions of capital market to economic development in Nigeria.
Adewuyi, I. D.
Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!
Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.
Nuno Carlos LEITÃO
Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.
...Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration...of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board...
...Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration...of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board...
...Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration...of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board...
...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration 13 CFR Parts...Docket No. 120202093-2093-01] Economic Development Administration Regulatory Revision; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...
Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC) and suppor...
Kurt Mantonya; Milan Wall
Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.
Ghassan F. Issa
The purpose of the article is to establish areas in the province of Wielkopolska with the highest and lowest level of socio-economic development as well as to determine whether these areas are uniform with respect to the elements of the level of development. The author approaches this problem from the perspective of a subregion and a district. The empirical material for this study was based on the report on socio-economic development in Wielkopolska published by Statistical Off...
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.
Full Text Available Implementing a currency union may lead members to face financial crisis if their financial markets are not ready to adopt themselves to a new situation. There are still problems like ownership concentration and self-governing states cause limitation in economic growth, financial development, and the ability of a country to take advantage of financial integration. The evidence is that the proportion of global financial flows dedicated to the low- and middle-income developing economies, decreased after the Asian crisis of 1997-98 (Das, 2006. These problems explain why the impact of financial integration has been limited and why it can lead to capital flight and financial crises. In this study, we develop an analytical framework of economic growth and assessing special and differential treatment of currency union (a subject of financial integration members (like the EU and apply this framework to MENA countries. We propose specifically that one can evaluate the "average" impact of the currency union membership on growth of the countries. It reveals the fact that the routine program evaluation can be for all the EU and MENA members. We will call this treated or untreated, respectively. Next, we predict such outcomes for a group of countries based on matching of their characteristics. Hence we use the matching method to make a relationship between a response variable (economic growth and a treatment variable (financial integration experimentally in the economies of the EU and MENA.
Seyed Komail Tayebi
Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…
Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David
A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…
Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs
Pure mainstream economics, based on methodological and sociological individualism usually ignores politics; development economics, on the contrary frequently integrates social and political factors in order to explain economic progress. Within this branch of economics, politics can mainly be dealt in two different approaches. The classical and neoclassical approach takes politics essentially as an obstacle to the expression of agents’ rationality, and, therefore considers it a disturbance. ...
Branco, Manuel Couret
Economic system of a region is estimated to be not the sum total of the individual economies of one level, but a complex subordinated system of interrelating levels (supernational, macro-, mezzo-, and micro-levels). The basis for stability and efficiency of the regional economic system functioning is the development, interrelation, and mutual complementariness of these economic levels. The ability to react to the environmental changes in a complex, adequate, and timely way proves the economic...
Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.
Full Text Available This paper explains how integrative knowledge-based development can contribute to economic growth and social development as an important field of research. We show how it would be useful for country-specific demands and issues, and the significance of investment in knowledge-based research and the importance of universities in the practice and advancement of integrative approaches of knowledge-based development. Academic communities still prefer knowledge and research from applied sciences and physical sciences to contribute to government policies and initiatives in the context of development. But there is less attention paid to the contribution of the social sciences to economic and social development. Recently, research has been emphasized that incorporates multidisciplinary approaches in problem solving and best solutions for improving social, environmental, political, and economic crises. Though knowledge-based development is an international phenomenon, the concept of knowledge-based development as a form of capital and a well managed investment is still not realized in developing countries compared with developed countries. Universities are a platform to promote and advance knowledge-based development by cultivating multidisciplinary and integrative research beyond individual discipline boundaries.
Shah Md. Atiqul Haq
In modern conditions of functioning and development of economic systems it is expedient to specify the term „new economy” in the aspect of economic systems. In the given aspect „new economy” may be examined from positions of "modern economic system”.The modern economic system is a set of economic systems of a different level: the state, regions, areas, the enterprises etc.
Zabolotnyy, G. M.; Kozlovskiy, S. V.
Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.
Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. ice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)
The establishment of a market for CO2 emission rights in Europe leads oil-refining companies to add a cost associated with carbon emissions to the objective function of linear programming models used to manage refineries. These models may be used to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO2 emissions of the refinery. Babusiaux (Oil. Gas Sci. Technol., 58, 2003, 685-692) has shown that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating the carbon emissions of the refinery. Thus, it can be used in a well-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment. In fact, this result holds if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity. Then, allocating CO2 emissions on a marginal basis tends to over-value (or undervalue) the total volume of emissions. In order to extend the existing methodology, we discuss two distinct solutions to this problem, inspired by economic theory: adapting either the Aumann-Shapley cost sharing method (Values of non-atomic games, 1974, Princeton University Press) or the Ramsey pricing formula (Econ. J., 37, 1927, 47-61; J. Econ. Theory, 3, 1971, 219-240). We compare these two solutions, with a strong argument in favour of Ramsey prices, based on the determination of the optimal environmental tax rate to which imported finished products should be subject. (authornished products should be subject. (author)
Full Text Available The rural society has been imperative in the supply of both humans and materials required by various sectors of every economy. But successive authorities are predisposed to neglect If not relegate to the background this goose that lays the golden egg in terms of sustenance and development. Oftentimes policies initiated for its development is not adequately and effectively implemented. Therefore, this paper is an attempt at acceptable mechanism for developing and implementing policies for rural emancipation. The paper adopted the exploratory research approach involving the use of secondary source with minimal primary source to generate data through questionnaire and interview guide. The paper observes that the problem is not the lack of effective policy/programme initiation and formulation but the dearth of the political will to implement; high incidence of corruption; complete absence of purposive leadership; misguided and misdirected priority; placing the wrong person at the strategic position; inconsistency and absent of continuity in policy/programmes implementation in government affairs. For a way out amongst others, involvement of the benefiting rural/urban communities in monitoring the implementation of programmes or project execution in their domain is important while avoiding the pitfall of role conflict in policies and programmes formulation cum implementation.
Francis C. Alinno
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as “transition countries”, have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect of foreign capital and the interplay between the profound institutional reform and economic performance in transition countries. The growth factors are different in the initial phase, when overc...
Rusinova, D. T.
This paper aims to account for varying economic performances and political stability under dictatorship. We argue that economic welfare and social order are the contemporary relevant factors of political regimes' stability. Societies with low natural level of social order tend to tolerate predatory behavior from dictators in exchange of a provision of civil peace. The fear of anarchy may explain why populations are locked in the worst dictatorships. In contrast, in societies enjoying a relati...
Full Text Available n the globalized and integrated world economy the questions of management of the regional development efficiency become of special importance. Foreign and domestic scientists devote considerable attention to estimation of the regions' functioning efficiency. However, nowadays the concepts and parameters which must be used for estimation of the economic development efficiency are not clearly defined. The purpose of the article is to form a methodological basis of the integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency. The research into economic efficiency was analyzed, in particular, in terms of the use of concepts and quantitative methods of estimation. The topicality of forming a scientific basis for making grounded decisions on the strategic management of regional development was defined. An algorithm and a formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency was developed taking into account economic, social and ecological aspects. An integral estimation method for the regional economic development efficiency was offered. The informative base of the estimation on the basic level is made up of the indexes of life duration and the gross regional product. On the additional level correction was made by the integrated coefficient of the regional economic development efficiency which takes into account three aspects with their corresponding values. An informative base for the research into the regional economic development efficiency was formed. The economic development efficiency rating was determined, which made it possible to distribute Ukraine's regions into conditional groups by their development levels. The results of the economic development efficiency analysis were presented for a separate region, in particular for Dnipropetrovsk region, which allowed researchers to determine the dynamics of the regional economy development change. Mathematical models were made and modeling of the economic development efficiency of Dnipropetrovsk region was executed using modern software and economic and mathematical methods. On the basis of the developed model of economic efficiency, prognostication of Dnipropetrovsk region development was executed and an expected growth by the economic efficiency index was presented. The methods and the formalized model for integral estimation of the regional economic development efficiency, as well as the formed informative base make basis for the system of the strategic decision-making support.
Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.
Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.
The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. PMID:21094300
Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu
This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve various types of economic dispatch (ED) problems in power systems such as, environmental/economic dispatch (EED) and multi-area environmental/economic dispatch. The proposed model considers the environmental impact to achieve the minimization of fuel costs and pollutant emissions, simultaneously. The EED problem is further extended to dispatch the power among different areas to aid emission allowance trading. The perfo...
Yee Ming Chen ,; Wen-Shiang Wang
The article is devoted to the study of macro-economic indicators of Ukrainian regions. It considers the resource and natural potential and socio-economic development of individual regions, which is a result of the imperfect territorial administration. It analyses main macro-economic indicators of development of regions of the country by geographic division, namely: areas of territories, population, gross regional product of a mega-region, employment and unemployment, and volume of investments...
Bril Mikhail S.
The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter). Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27), and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel dat...
Leita?o, Nuno Carlos
The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter). Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27), and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel dat...
Leita?o, Nuno Carlos
/ METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in spanish El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS) fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializ [...] ada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficies Abstract in english The Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the [...] ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding
Joaquín, Lira-Olivares; Sara, González Rodulfo; Jessica, De Abreu De Abreu.
Recubrimientos metálicos y cerámicos solucionan el problema económico y ambiental de países desarrollados y en desarrollo METALLIC AND CERAMIC COATINGS SOLVE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Full Text Available El Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies (CIS fue concebido con la idea de realizar investigación en el área de materiales orientada a las aplicaciones industriales y también dedicados a la promoción de jóvenes talentos facilitándoles herramientas y enlaces para el logro de su capacitación especializada, ambas funciones con la finalidad última de contribuir al desarrollo del país. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de una de las líneas de investigación desarrolladas en el CIS, los Recubrimientos. Al diseñar un recubrimiento la atención se enfoca en dos características importantes: la resistencia del mismo a las condiciones operativas y su adherencia a la superficie en que será colocado. Demás está decir que otras características del mismo van a ser importantes, ya sea que estén relacionadas con el aspecto o con las propiedades físicas y químicas. Teniendo en cuenta distintas aplicaciones finales de los recubrimientos, el Centro ha incursionado en la implementación y desarrollo de varios tipos de recubrimientos y se presenta aquí un resumen, destacando los resultados obtenidos en cada uno de los casos. Entre los procesos de recubrimiento que se mencionarán se encuentran: recubrimientos agalvánicos, por plasma, sol-gel, pirolisis, por CVD y lecho fluidizado, termorrociado oxiacetilénico, asistido por láser y nitruración de superficiesThe Center for Surface Engineering was conceived with the idea of conducting research in the area of materials aimed at industrial applications and also dedicated to the promotion of young talents by providing tools and links to the achievement of their specialized training, both functions with the ultimate aim of contributing to national development. This paper presents a review of one of the research lines developed at the Center, Coatings. In designing a coating, attention focuses on two important characteristics: the resistance to the environment in which we are placing the piece, and adhesion of the coating to the substrate. Needless to say, other features will be important, whether they relate to the appearance or physical and chemical properties of the coating. Taking into account different end uses of the coating, the Center has been searched the implementation of various types of coatings, offering in this paper a summary of results, highlighting the achievements in each case. Among the coating processes to be mentioned are: electroless coatings, plasma, solgel, pyrolysis, and fluidized bed CVD, laser and acetylene thermal-spray and surface nitriding
Since New York "Plaza Accord" in the 1980s, the yen had continued to rise in value and Japan’s economy had experienced a long period of malaise. In addition to the impact of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Fukushima power plant nuclear leak and the tsunami triggered by the major earthquake occurred in Japan in 2011 both hit the Japan’s economy. In order to stimulate economic development, Abe, Japan's new government launched a series of radical monetary easing policies, fle...
Xinguang Chen; Yong He; Haiqing Qian
The clinical-economic trial is a study design that is appearing with greater frequency in medical and public health literature. Some experienced investigators view these trials with skepticism; to policy makers they represent a promising step in the control of rising health care costs. The success of clinical-economic trials in meeting the important goal of more rational and efficient use of health care resources will depend on the strengths and limitations of the research method. As part of ...
Powe, Nr; Griffiths, Ri
At the present time, the extensive use of fossil based fuels in power generation units requires the concern of the environmental pollution. The traditional economic power dispatch cannot meet the environmental safety requirements, since it focus only on minimizing the total fuel cost of the system. The multi-objective optimization in electric power systems treats economic and emission act as competing objectives, to reach an optimal solution some reasonable trade off among objectives are requ...
Neha Mishra; Manjaree Pandit
Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…
Full Text Available Economic development in Indian Country has a long history of various programs intended to provide economic opportunities for reservation residents. Many of these programs have failed due in part to development perspectives that subjugated the people to - what works in one place, will work here - theory of development. In order to help create sustainable economic opportunities, the Heartland Center for Leadership Development in conjunction with United Tribes Technical College (UTTC and support from the Economic Development Administration (EDA, Denver Region, conducted a series of case studies focusing on promising programs in Indian Country that were meeting with success. These case studies reflect the positive economic conditions in order to build on them and provide a framework for other communities to follow.
The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)
Environmental variables largely determine the disease pattern in developing countries. Infections and malnutrition predominate, due to the effects of both poverty (a summary of many aspects of material deprivation) and a high ambient temperature. Environmental changes may be intended to improve health--examples include improved domestic water supplies and sanitation--or they may be due to socio-economic developments, which often have favourable or unfavourable health consequences. These are explored for water resource developments, where the health effects are complex, and for deforestation and urbanization. Although environmental impact assessment has been of value in reducing the adverse health impacts of socio-economic development projects, the use of health opportunity assessment is proposed as a more positive approach to optimizing the consequences of development to human health. PMID:8222995
Bradley, D J
Full Text Available The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.
The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.
Historical development was reviewed on the measurement and interpretation of radon and its daughter nuclides in occupational and general environment, starting from the early 1950s when a report was made on the 'mountain-disease' among the miners in Saxony, Germany up to the present when indoor radon concentration has become a subject of concern for the general public. A particular emphasis was placed on the importance of keeping overall consistency for the factors that are involved in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure with regard to the uncertainties which are attached to the various physical as well as physiological parameters. Subjects of importance were indicated for each step of researches that were necessary in the process of assessment and management of risks due to radon exposure. (author)
Full Text Available The authors of the article "Theoretical and Methodical Bases of the Ecologically Balanced Management of Region Social and Economic Development" approach to providing the regional ecologically balanced management of social and economic development. This is an especially actual topic for Ukraine.Some basic approaches to a regional management issue were analyzed by the authors of the article. It is offered to understand the way a regional management is carried out, realization and regulation of a complex of purposes, approaches and actions connected with the balanced management of region social and economic development based on the mutual consistency of both national and regional interests.The article considers the ways of solving the basic management problems of region social and economic development. The authors of the article assert that a part of these problems can be solved on a regional level, while some scientists insist on state intervention.The article presents the regional management structure scheme, where the authors suggest distinguishing between the regional management controlled by the state structures and the regional management controlled by the local authority.The authors believe the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development to be effective only if there is an accurate definition between its purposes. The most significant purposes presented in the article separate social and economic development management into economic, social and ecological components.The authors affirm that the ecologically-balanced management of region social and economic development should provide the achievement of all purposes because the realization of some of them does not improve the entire social and economic system and does not balance its management development.
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between financial development and economic growth. Itpresents evidence on a cross section of 50 African countries whose data is available for theperiod 1980-2008. Two proxies of financial development are employed: the ratio of credit tothe private sector to total GDP and the ratio of broad money (M2 to total GDP. We establisha positive relationship between financial development and economic growth. However, wefind that the relationship between private sector credit and economic growth is much strongerthan the relationship between money supply and economic growth. In addition, we find thatthe relationship between financial sector development and economic growth is bi-directional.The results suggest that both the financial sector and the real sector are important ininfluencing Africa’s current and future growth trajectory.
Rodgers Anyanga Musamali
The work represents human capital development problems in Lithuania. There is conception, clasification and formation of human capital resources theoretical analization. It also identifies and analizes human capital formation, development and investing problems. The experiment part uncovers the qualification boucle in Lithuania. In the last part of theoretical analization is given the summation of human capital development opportunities in the future and the possible solutions for existing pr...
Full Text Available 1. IntroductionIn late November, 2008, just after President Barak Obama won the American election, a group of progressive economists met in New York city at the New School for Social Research, to discuss the ongoing economic crisis and to try to reach a consensus on financial and macroeconomic policies that the group should advise the Obama Administration to implement. Organized under the sponsorship of the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy (SCEPA and the University of Massach...
The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetra...
Vittorio Valli; Donatella Saccone
Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impact...
Qiang He; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Bo Li; Guoqian Chen; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Junhong Bai; Tao Sun; Pennings, Steven C.; Jianguo Liu; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Baoshan Cui
This paper explores the regional engagement of Polish universities and shows that the assumptions about the linkages between universities, their regions and economic competitiveness that are taken for granted in the knowledgeeconomy policy discourse in advanced Western European economies may not fit Poland today. Universities in Poland contribute to economic development,but numerous other features that are known to contribute to economic growth are non-existent and numerous inhibitors of e...
Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision:- to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics;- to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators;- identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management.The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following:- it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life;- it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms;- as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-28
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Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.
The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development. Connections are revealed to have no significant influence on the internal control of resources but a significant direct influence on economic development through value chain activities. Through the analyses in this paper the notion of ‘boundary utility’ is elaborated as the crossing and transformation of the dynamic composite underlying boundaries to enable innovation for positive impact on economic development.
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of the fiscal policy on economic development in Jordan during the time period (1989-2013, a mathematical model has been designed to measure this effect on economic development in Jordan. The researcher found that there is a statistically positive significant effect of the current expenses and annual tax revenues on economic development in Jordan, and at the same time there is a statistically negative significant effect of the capital expenditures on economic development in Jordan. The empirical results show that the elements of fiscal policy considered in this study are important variables in explaining economic development in Jordan, and the joint effect of the fiscal policy elements (annual tax revenues, current expenditures and capital expenditures on economic development is statistically significant. In sum, current expenditures, when compared to taxes, yield greater per capita income results. The fiscal adjustments based on capital expenditures cuts accompanied by efficiency in tax revenues collection have been considered as one of the successful forms of policy for increasing per capita income and promoting economic development simultaneously.
Ali Sulieman Al-Shatti
Full Text Available In the background of urban and reral balanced development, in order to promote the understanding for rural development in Chongqing , and this article evaluated its economic and social development. Based on the development status of Chongqing's urban and rural areas, we set the indicators system of evaluation for Chongqing rural economic and social development, and prove its reason through the factor analysis and gray relational analysis. Finally we get the composite score and ranking of each district. Taking cluster analysis to composite scores and correlation analysis with per capita investment in fixed assets, road density and the economic pattern,and also taking hierarchical display, we get three levels area of rural development status, and prove that it is correct to increase investment and build infrastructure and make a rational economic distribution. It also shows that , for every regional rural economic and social development states, an hour economic areas is better than the northeast of Chongqing ,and the northeast of Chongqing is better than the southest of Chongqing overall. Finally, we try to explore some overall measures for superior areas such as an hour economic area, Wanzhou district and poor areas , the northeast and the southeast of Chongqing and Tongnan county in the west edge.
Increasing emphasis is being placed on local economic development (LED) by the South African government, given the paradigm shift away from local government being viewed as simply delivery agents to the concept of developmental local government. LED is essentially an ongoing process, based on local initiatives and driven by local stakeholders (especially the local government) to stimulate economic activity and to create jobs in a specific locality. The structural weaknesses and problems...
Vuren, Lennard Clifford
Full Text Available Article is devoted to an actual problem of poverty in Russia. Availability of poverty constrains economic development of Russia, because reduces economic activity of its inhabitants. Poverty separation by types is given. Based on surveys of different kinds dependencies poverty “poverty equation” built. The difference between the right and left parts of this equation shows the degree of social tension. Dependence of this tension on the time was obtained, and a comparison with significant events has been conducted.
Sergey A. Surkov
Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.
Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras
OAK-B135 The objectives of the meeting were as follows: (1) Learn more about and discuss economic impacts of wind power development in the U.S, highlighting the NWCC report, ''Assessing the Economic Impacts of Wind Power Development''; (2) Learn more about and discuss wind integration costs and the impacts of recent studies on wind energy development; and (3) Review activities and products planned for FY 2004.
This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integ...
Vazakidis Athanasios; Adamopoulos Antonios
Based upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regressing GEM’s 2002 data for nascent entrepreneurship in 36 countries on the level of economic development as measured either by per capita income or by an index for innovative capacity, we find support for a ...
Wennekers, A. R. M.; Stel, A. J.; Thurik, A. R.; Reynolds, P.
Full Text Available PPP in today's globalised world is seen as an efficient mechanism to develop infrastructure in developing economy and transform the static economy into dynamic economy. Despite more than six decades of planning, rural India is having high illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, ignorance, blind beliefs, and other social economic evils, when compared to Urban India. Government proposed PPP in rural development to utilize the private sector efficiencies to finance and build the socio- economic infrastructure in India
S, R. Keshava
Approaches to the economics of training and personnel development are reviewed, and results from an empirical survey of 450 Swedish training managers are summarized with regard to competence as a production factor. Preconditions for an economics of competence include a long-range perspective and combining qualitative and quantitative variables.…
Lundmark, Annika; Soderstrom, Magnus
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the possibilities of the accumulation and mobilization of savings and their role in the economic development of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Currently, the national economic growth is mostly based on the resource components; crude oil, natural gas and oil products. For the development of the non-oil sector the mobilization of domestic savings into investments would prove very useful. Savings of people should be the most important investment resource for the development of the non-oil sector, as the foreign capital is mostly involved in production of natural resources like oil and gas. The mobilization of domestic savings is crucial for raising the economic growth and promoting development, as it is the private savings that affect the domestic investments significantly. The most of the savings are made when they are fully channeled into the productive investments. As a result, this will lead to the solution of problems of employment and economic growth.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization with 29 Member countries from North America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific area. The OECD serves as a "forum for governments of the industrialized democracies to study and formulate the best policies possible in all economic and social spheres." Content is organized into activity sections such as development and co-operation, economics, environmental issues, transition economies, trade and transport. Within each activity, visitors can usually find related publications. The OECD site features a news and events page highlighting the latest OECD developments, and a guide to free on-line documents sorted by activity.
The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture. PMID:12284704
Okpala, A O
Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.
Full Text Available The economic development of the Republic of Cameroon at the present time is analyzed. The dependence between the level of economy development and the level of info-communication development is shown. The problems inter-fering an output of the Republic of Cameroon on the modern level in the field of info-communications are considered. It is stated that Cameroon is going through scientific and technical and information revolution which has already distinctly changed the conditions and the way of economic development of the country.
In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)
This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)
Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)
The main objective of this paper is to analyse problems and perspectives of economic systems of Mediterranean basin in the process of energetic and environmental integration fixed in the 1995 Barcelona declaration
This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…
Easton, D. K.
STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1
Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.
Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov
Full Text Available In modern conditions of functioning and development of economic systems it is expedient to specify the term „new economy” in the aspect of economic systems. In the given aspect „new economy” may be examined from positions of "modern economic system”.The modern economic system is a set of economic systems of a different level: the state, regions, areas, the enterprises etc.
G. M. Zabolotnyy
AIMS—To estimate the financial cost to the NHS of infant crying and sleeping problems in the first 12 weeks of age and to assess the cost effectiveness of behavioural and educational interventions aimed at reducing infant crying and sleeping problems relative to usual services.?METHODS—A cost burden analysis and cost effectiveness analysis were conducted using data from the Crying Or Sleeping Infants (COSI) Study, a three armed prospective randomised controlled tria...
Morris, S.; St, J.; Sleep, J.; Gillham, P.
Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO) is a swarm intelligence technique used to solve problem in power systems. The algorithm is based on the group foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E-Coli) bacteria present in human intestine. This social foraging behaviour of E.coli bacteria has been used to solve optimization problems. In this paper, an overview of the biology of bacterial foraging and the pseudo-code that models this process also explained. This paper presents a novel BFO to solve Ec...
Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint analysis of how natural resources and aid potentially affect total output in society through rent-seeking activities. We survey the existing evidence on both direct and indirect effects of windfalls and provide some new empirical evidence of the association between aid/natural resources and institutions in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola
The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.
Mastrangelo, Christina M.
Shipping works in nuclear power plant supply expand with growing importance of electric power generation from nuclear energy. Related technological problems can practically be considered to be solved. In the present paper the main economic problems growing with shipping works in nuclear fuel industry are cleared up. To solve the relevant tasks, mathematical and economic means of decision are to be created and applied. For this purpose, hints for solution are given. (author)
Full Text Available Priorities of strategy of economic development of Ukraine in the context of credible desires of its people are examined. The most acceptable strategy must not be oriented both to the European union and on Russia.
This paper deals with the concept and objectives of economic development from an Islamic perspective.A few related issues including motivation, role of the state, population, and growth-equity trade off have also been discussed.
The constituents of competitiveness of potential of small enterprises are certain. The economic mechanism of renewal and development of small enterprise of Ukraine is resulted. Tasks which are decided by a small enterprise are certain.?????????? ???????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???...
Prokhorova Victoria Volodymyrivna
This paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of services trade on economic development of Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries. Our analysis is based on a panel data framework over the period 1990 to 2010 covering thirty-three countries. The paper employs the endogenous growth model to examine the nonlinearities associated with services exports and services imports in the economic development process of SSA countries under consideration. The trade data was disaggregated into travel, trans...
Alege, Philip; Ogundipe, Adeyemi
This paper examines the effects of preschool expansion in Kalamazoo County on the county's economic development. Effects on the county's economic development are defined as effects on the employment and earnings of county residents. The estimated effects are found to be large relative to the costs. In addition to their relevance to Kalamazoo County, these simulations illustrate how the analysis presented in two previous papers (Bartik 2006, 2008) can be done for an individual county or metrop...
Bartik, Timothy J.
This article is centered on the role of the Nigeria capital and economic development. The capital market is primarily established to boast the industrial growth and economic development of Nigeria economy by mobilizing long-term funds and capital formation for investment and productive purposes. Using time series data from 1971-2010 and applying the Engle-Granger and Johansen method of co-integration in a VECM setting estimation technique. The results revealed that in the long run, the Nigeri...
Samson Ogege; Ezike, John E.
This study attempts to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth and also the empirical analysis examines Granger causality of this relationship. Time series models are applied for six countries with emerging markets and different types of financial system (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Tunisia, Morocco, Israel and Egypt). For the pairwise combinations of financial development indicators and economic growth which do not have cointegrating relationships, Granger ...
Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight....
Crisan Radu; Stef?nescu Patrick; D?r?ban? Simina
The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The m...
Full Text Available Endeavors have been made in this paper to discern the long-run relations between FDI (Foreign Direct Investment and economic development in China in the comprehensive framework, which incorporates determinants as output, FDI, capital formation, employment, human capital and international openness. VAR (vector autoregressive modelsImpulse Response, Variance Decomposition, Johansen Co-integration and VECM (vector error correction have been estimated, focusing on the long-run structural relations; findings indicate that in the long run, FDI tends to decrease economic growth; economic development in China seems to be fueled by domestic capital accumulation and employment growth; FDI inflows do crowd out domestic capitals, and reduce employment growth.
Full Text Available Neoliberal discourse often conceptualizes nature in relation to its market utility and economic development. This article will address the role of metaphors in shaping neoliberal discourse in business education. The aim of this article is to reveal reasoning patterns about environmental problems and economic development in students of sustainable business minor. The case study described in this article involves business students at The Hague University in The Netherlands. This case study aimed to explore a shift in student understanding of environmental problems and economic development before and after the intervention. The results suggest that critical curriculum can inform students about the alternative conceptions as well as instruct them about potential solutions to the sustainability challenges. The article culminates with the argument that without goal-oriented education for sustainability; neoliberal education may not permit transcendence from unsustainable practices.
...Business Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic Development Plans; Comment Request AGENCIES...SUMMARY: The Division of Economic Development (DED), Office of...
This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.
This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. (author)
Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom); Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ (United Kingdom)
Full Text Available Sharp reducing of the government cutting of the university funding and simultaneously increasing the requirements for the efficiency, particularly in teaching and education, research and financial economic areas posed a serious problem of complex analysis of aggregate performance indicators of the universities and reforming organizational and economic relations between the departments.Scientific researches of the leading national economists were devoted to the the issue of organizational-economic mechanism of higher education but in these works not enough attention has been paid to theoretical premises of theoretical organizational-economic mechanism of the universities towards the strategy of innovative development, and that led to the topicality of these investigations.General analysis of the approaches to solving the problems of university management underlines that scientists (especially foreign focus on the study of the factors of macro- and micropositions of the universities, leading to organizational changes in the structure of universities, that led to the increase of the competition between them for receiving orders and financing.The search for new organizational and economic forms is carried out in the direction of greater decentralization and autonomy of the university system and transferring the functional load on the subsystems.The application of the above-mentioned approaches will create an effective organizational and economic mechanism of universities in the direction of the strategic focus.Further the proposed organizational economic mechanism will provide innovative development of the universities in a competitive market providing educational services.
Dynamic economic dispatch (DED) is a complicated nonlinear constrained optimization problem and one of the most important problems in operation of power systems. In this paper two novel optimization algorithms have been proposed to be applied on DED problem. The first method, Krill herd (KHA) is a novel meta heuristic algorithm for solving optimization problems which is based on the simulation of the herding of the krill swarms as a biological and environmental inspired method and is applied ...
Mani Ashouri; Seyed Mehdi Hosseini
Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.
Full Text Available This paper deals with a decision problem for final purchase quantity needed for the appropriate support of service parts for S Electronics which is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. The cost elements of the final purchase quantity, the economic models, the optimal solution methods, and the expected effect are presented.
Wan Seon Shin
This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from the employee's viewpoint or the employer's. The consequences of importing manpower must be studied in relation to possible alternatives. PMID:12346374
Lim, L L
Regarding the connection between economic development and public health, the statistically evident correlation between a country's gross domestic product and life expectancy is widely discussed. An important aspect that keeps resurfacing in discussions on why the relationship between the latter appears to trail off or even reverse its sign once a certain gross domestic product level has been reached is that of increasing economic and social inequality of distribution within many industrialize...
The paper studies the problem of tourism development in cross-border areas, justified the need for a cross-border inter-regional eco-tourism cluster in the Azov-Black Sea region, defined its main objectives and development potential.
Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of tourism development in cross-border areas, justified the need for a cross-border inter-regional eco-tourism cluster in the Azov-Black Sea region, defined its main objectives and development potential.
Full Text Available Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.
Full Text Available Since the cooperative movement was first introduced in Malaysia approximately eighty five years ago, there is no doubt that it has had a positive impact on Malaysia’s economic development. The characteristic of being community-centered and catering to those most vulnerable to economic vagaries has rendered cooperatives as valuable institutions in promoting agricultural development and trade, the creation of employment opportunities and in advancing the social and economic positions of societies in general. This paper evaluates the policies of cooperatives and their programs and performances in boosting the economy of Malaysia as well as investigates the function of cooperative societies in the growth of economic development. It concludes by stating that to be effective and successful, cooperative institutions must adhere to the principles and precepts provided for by the government as in the Cooperatives Societies Act 1993.
Nazura Abdul Manap
Full Text Available The term monetary policy is also known as the 'credit policy' or called 'RBI's money management policy' in India. How much should be the supply of money in the economy? How much should be the ratio of interest? How much should be the viability of money? etc. Such questions are considered in the monetary policy. From the name itself it is understood that it is related to the demand and the supply of money. Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate (to achieve policy goals.
...this important industry and to coordinate...Agriculture and Energy and the Administrator...market development program, which shall...rural development program to assure rural...needed to preserve industry employment...Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008...Improvements Program, which has...
Full Text Available The relationship between financial system development and economic development has attracted interest of a number of researchers all over the world, however institutional differences and capital allocation variations between and within economies, make it very difficult to generalize findings and thus increasing the need for country-specific studies. This study examines the causal relation between financial system development and economic growth from a Zimbabwean perspective, based on two inter-related broad aims, the first being the established of cointegration relationship between the two and the ultimate direction of the causal relationship. Using multivariate Granger causality test the study finds existence of demand following financial development in Zimbabwe, there is unidirectional causality from economic growth to financial development. Financial system development is therefore an outcome of the pressure for institutional development in capital markets and introduction of modernized financial instruments. As such policy concern should focus on trade liberalization and other related activities in order to spur economic growth, since financial system development is a passive reaction to economic growth. Such policies might include investment promotion and removal of barriers for foreign investments.
This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…
Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario
Sustainable development of resource orientated city is a highly regarded problem in China and in the world. By analyzing the status quo of resource orientated city, this paper puts forward the problems in the development of resource orientated city, such as economic structure, spatial structure, environmental pollution, capital and technology, and puts forward countermeasures for these problems. It is concluded that cities should insist on sustainable development in the future.
Zhen Wang,; Yuanyuan Liu; Yan Xu
Traditional models of macroeconomic dynamics are fundamentally incorrect. The reason lies in a misunderstanding of peculiarities of the analysis of infinitesimal quantities. However, even those types of solutions that are envisaged by the above-mentioned models are nonrepresentative in the sense of the reflection of realities. It became obvious that the techniques of the theory of linear differential equations were insufficient here. Accordingly, the scientists' attention switched to the theory of nonlinear differential equations. At the same time, balance and, accordingly, the model with matrix properties are objectively inherent in the economic system. For the reduction of this model to a differential form, there exist rather elementary means that proved to be unclaimed. Macroeconomic rhetoric - the power of the accelerator, a lag on the part of demand, etc. - accompanied by the use of a lot of abstract coefficients prevailed. However, there is no organic interrelation between matrix and nonlinear different...
Chernyshov, S I; Voronin, A V
Full Text Available In practical cases, the fuel cost of generators can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation and satisfied constraints for minimizing of fuel cost. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is used for the optimization of active power dispatch of generating units. The proposed method is able to determine, the output power generation for all of the power generation units, so that the total cost is minimized. Simulation and analysis of economic load dispatch using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method, genetic algorithm (GA and shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost.
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.
This paper provides a broad overview of the relationship between infrastructure and growth, focusing on the Togolese case. The paper develops an intuitive theoretical framework in which to analyse this relationship, identifying channels through which infrastructure may effect growth: as a factor of production, a complement to other factors of production, a stimulus to factor accumulation, a stimulus to aggregate demand and a tool of industrial policy. A framework is developed for evaluatin...
Aboudou Maman Tachiwou; Ousseini Hamadou
Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of this study was to examine the causality relations between financial development, trade openness and economic growth (GDP for the Turkish economy. Approach: In time series context, recently developed econometric techniques were used: namely the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF for unit root, Johansen and Juselius (JJ for cointegration and Granger causality test for causal relationships. Results: The findings of the study showed that while trade openness has a positive effect, financial development has a negative effect on growth. Conclusion: Moreover, the Granger causality test results revealed the presence of bicausal relationship between financial development, trade openness and growth indicating that economic policies aimed at financial development and trade openness have a statistically significant impact on economic growth.
Full Text Available This paper broadly analyzes the nature of the impact of family types on the (regional economic development. Results of the research of these issue at the level of regions in Europe have pointed to the relevance of the „family perspective” for the study of differential economic development, which opens the way for consideration of this issue at the level of regions in Serbia. In order to test the impact of family types on regional economic development in Serbia we have collected and analyzed data on average household size, family composition of households, types of families, the average number of household members, educational attainment measured by the proportion of the population with basic and higher education, the overall share of employees in the workforce, data on employment of women, as well as data on gross domestic product. The above demographic and socio-economic data are collected based on data from the 2011. census, and are represented at the level of four regions of Serbia (Belgrade region, the region of Vojvodina, Šumadija and Western Serbia, the region of Eastern and Southern Serbia. The research was largely done based on theoretical and methodological foundation used to investigate the impact of family types on regional socio-economic development of Europe, with extensive use of Emmanuel Todd descriptions of family types. The results suggest that although many factors exogenous to family structure seem likely to cause major economic changes, family structure itself may be a key determinant in adapting such changes.
For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1979-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 2.2%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 5.6% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development for Greece.
Full Text Available The foundation of welfare economics is the assumption of Pareto-efficiency and its concept of tradeoffs. Also the production possibility frontier, efficiency frontier, nondominated set, etc., belong to the plethora of tools derived from the Pareto principle. The assumption of tradeoffs does not address the issue of system design or redesign in order to reduce or eliminate tradeoffs as a sure characteristic of suboptimal, inefficient system configuration. In this paper we establish that tradeoffs are not attributes of objectives, criteria or dimensions, as it is habitually assumed, but are the properties of the very sets of possibilities, alternatives or options they purport to value and measure. We use De novo programming, through which the so called feasible set of opportunities can be redefined towards optimal, tradeoffs-free configuration. The implications of tradeoff-free economics are too vast to foresee and elaborate in a single paper; they do touch the very foundations of economic thought. So me numerical examples are given in order to illustrate system-design calculations in linear systems.
Technical and economical problems of decommissioning process of the nuclear power units world wide are very actual at this moment. Because of their specific construction and the circumstances during the exploitation period, one of the most interesting topics this problem are Russian reactors RBMK-1000. This document issues basic principles of the decommissioning process. (author)
This report contains two lectures by Dr. Barry Commoner at the Physics Laboratory of the Istitut Superiore di Sanita, Rome. Lecture I is entitled The Problem: Origin and Significance of Three Crises--Environmental, Energy, and Economic. The following are discussed: (1) relations between the productive system and the economic system; and (2) scientific bases of the problem in ecology and in thermodynamics. Lecture II is entitled Sources of Energy: Fossil Fuels. Considered in this lecture are: the depletion of petroleum reserves; environmental dangers of coal and synthetic fuel production and inflationary consequences of the energy problem.
This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.
Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.
...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS...1 Designation of Economic Development Districts...request of a District Organization (as defined in...designate a Region as an Economic Development District...for intra-District cooperation, self-help,...
...Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development AGENCY: Department...property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development. Most of the comments...PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 0 1. The...
In article results of research of non-uniformity of economic development of regions of Ukraine on indicators of level of economic development and dynamics of economic development over the last ten years are presented.? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????...
Geyman O. A.; Krupa Olesya. M.
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Research papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics”. The breadth of coverage is substantial, and includes original research and comprehensive review papers on theoretical, empirical and numerical topics in Financial Economics and Econometrics...
Chang, C. L.; Allen, D. E.; Mcaleer, M. J.
The role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of education in promoting economic well-being, with a particular focus on the role of educational quality. It concludes that there is strong evidence that the cognitive skills of the population - rather than mere school attainment - are powerfully related to individual earning...
Hanushek, Eric Alan; Woessmann, Ludger
China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities
China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO2-emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities. (author)
Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.
A survey is presented of nuclear fuel reprocessing problems with a view to the significance, history and the current state of reprocessing. Factors stipulating international cooperation are discussed and some results are given of cooperation between capitalist countries. Data are tabulated on constructed, projected or reconstructed reprocessing plants in the capitalist countries. The conclusion is arrived at that the lack of reprocessing capacities for highly irradiated oxide fuels may, in the future, be only coped with by constructing new reprocessing plants, this in harmony with projecting and constructing nuclear power installations. (J.H.)
Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system
A feature of the economies of many less developed countries (LDC's) is their heavy reliance for foreign exchange earnings on a few export commodities whose markets are characterised by low income elasticities on the demand side and whose supply is continually expanding under the influence of improved production technologies while remaining highly sensitive to year weather conditions. Given these commodity market characteristics, such economies, unless they reduce their high export concentrati...
Vincent, David P.
Neoclassical theory presumes that the demand for labor is a function of its real wage. Many local development agencies have taken this proposition as an article of faith, designing policies that effectively lower the real cost of labor. Empirical evidence for the textiles and electronics industries in a set of states in the USA provides only limited support for this theory and its implied policy menu. Alternative models of the demand for labor are explored, including neo-Keynesian fixed-price...
Clark, Gordon L.
In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial in...
Olusegun Olowe, Ph D.
This paper estimated models for GDP growth rates, poverty levels, and inequality measures for the period 1990–2000 using data on 54 developing countries at five-yearly intervals. Issues of globalization were investigated by analysing the differential effects of the countries’ exports and imports and by postulating trans-logarithmic models that allow for non-linear effects of literacy levels and measures of openness. The main findings were that literacy rates affected growth rates in a qua...
The cost of nuclear fuel is put into perspective by a short review of the total nuclear power costs and comparisons are made with other types of thermal electricity generating plants. Fuel costs are divided into components of natural uranium, enrichment services, fabrication, inventory and back end, which are used as a structure for discussing the impact of different development trends on the final fuel costs and, consequently, the incentives for future fuel improvements. The factors related to fuel design and performance affect nuclear power plant operation and are the most important incentive for future fuel development, depending on the power system under which the nuclear power plants operate. The potential impact of fuel improvements, both in terms of design and verification of performance, is analysed and discussed with respect to the following: plant operation: load follow, capacity factors; fuel utilization: extended burnup, improved moderation, low parasitic absorption; back end costs: volume of fuel, MOX fuel; fabrication processes: improved processes; fuel related technology: fuel management, safety analysis. A short historical review is given for each item in order to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, the expected impact of changes that have occurred and the incentives to continue development along historical trends. Constraints which might limit the actual benefits of these potential improvements are pointed out. The areas in whichements are pointed out. The areas in which the incentives for further improvements in design and performance of nuclear fuel are most pronounced are identified and discussed. (author)
A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emisscouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)
Full Text Available This article is centered on the role of the Nigeria capital and economic development. The capital market is primarily established to boast the industrial growth and economic development of Nigeria economy by mobilizing long-term funds and capital formation for investment and productive purposes. Using time series data from 1971-2010 and applying the Engle-Granger and Johansen method of co-integration in a VECM setting estimation technique. The results revealed that in the long run, the Nigerian capital market positively and significantly influence economic development. We therefore recommend that government should put more effort in developing an active new issues market by encouraging more floatation of new issues and create stable environment for business.
Full Text Available The study examined the contribution of different measures of human capital development to economic growth in Nigeria. It used data from Nigeria and adopted the growth account model which specifies the growth of GDP as a function of labour and capital. The model also included a measure of policy reforms. Based on the estimated regression and a descriptive statistical analysis of trends of government commitment to human capital development, it was found that though little commitment had been accorded health compare to education, empirical analysis showed that both education and health components of human capital development are crucial to economic growth in Nigeria.
Wakeel A. Isola
Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is there a cluster effect that properly harnessed in an US could allow achieving a significant economic growth in the area.
Florin Marian Buhociu
Development is multi-dimensional phenomenon, some of the major indicators of development includes the level of economic growth, level of income, health service, degree of modernization, status of women, level of nutrition, quality of housing distribution of natural resources, services access to communication and other goods and services (Seers 1969).
Ashok Kumar(University of Delhi, Delhi, India); Paramjit
Full Text Available During the economic and political changes that took place in Europe and in Romania after 1989, it was imposed and also made important steps in the foundation of a new concept and a new regional development policy. Regional development policy in Romania is now an important component of the Government Program.
EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU
Both market and policy failures can lead to environmental degradation. Considerable progress has been made in the area of project evaluation and the valuation of environmental effect. On the other hand the analytical tools to study the effects of policy failures -the impact of taxes, prices, exchange rate and incentives- are more limited. The correct handling of uncertainty also remains a major issue. The analysis of intemational environmental problems, such as acid rain or CO2 buildup, may b...
The harmonisation of economic interests is one of the essential preconditions for the development of enterprises, including small ones. As practice shows, the harmonisation of major interests of small innovative business requires not only market instruments, but also state regulation, which demands the development of a corresponding mechanism. This study sets out to develop and justify the macroeconomic mechanism of development of small innovative enterprises on the basis of harmonisation of ...
Duplenko N. G.
Japan was the first non-western country to accomplish successful industrialization, and the dominant perception of its industrial policy had over-emphasized specific characteristics of Japan. However, from the perspective of today's development thinking, Japan's economic history shared a wide range of common factors in usual economic development: macroeconomic stability, human resource development, and economic infrastructure. Industrial policy in Japan sometimes worked well and sometimes did...
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine whether a relationship exists between financial development and economic growth in Lebanon. The investigation of this link is carried out within a VECM framework over the period 1972–2012. This study uses the VECM-based Granger-causality test to provide empirical evidence of the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth. The evidence suggests that the credit market is still underdeveloped in this country and its contribution to economic growth is limited owing to a lack of financial depth. Therefore, the focus is on the banking sector to measure the financial development. The findings indicate the presence of a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth in the short run that is accompanied by bidirectional Granger causality between these variables. However this relationship is found to be insignificant in the long run. Moreover, the results indicate that the efficiency of the banking sector has an important role in the Lebanese economic growth.
Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.
Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore
How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.
De Bruyn, S.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical approach to the analysis of human subjectivity in economic development from the perspective of socio-humanizing activities.? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????????? ????????????.
Savitskaya Nataliya L.
This paper proposes a theoretical approach to the analysis of human subjectivity in economic development from the perspective of socio-humanizing activities.? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????????? ????????????.
Savitskaya Nataliya L.
Full Text Available The study empirically investigated the contribution of financial sector in sustainable economic development of Pakistan. Annual data were used from the period of 1973 to 2007. The main objectives of the study were to analyze the long run relationship between financial sector development and sustainable economic development along with direction of causality between financial sector indicators and sustainable development. Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bound testing technique for cointegration was applied to estimate the long run relationship. A stable long run relationship was found between financial sector indicators and the sustainable economic development. Error Correction coefficient was statistically significant. It was concluded that financial sector had positive impact on the sustainable economic development in short run as well as in the long run. Causality test revealed that financial sector development was the basis for economic development.
The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities aeation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs
A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)
Jacob Raglend, I. [School of Electrical Sciences, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B. [School of Electrical Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 004 (India); Kothari, D.P. [FNAE, FNASC, SMIEEE, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India)
The challenge of economic development in the 21st century is linked to innovation. Enabling innovation contains a wide span from the new idea to learning how to provide value through the new idea and continuing to how to control resources to perform at prime. The focus in this paper is set on how to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for econo...
This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant
The introduction per new century has brought to atomic Engineering many new problems. One of them, which has got a serious urgency, we now shall consider. It is a problem of decommissioning NPP in Russia. By 2014 all maintained nowadays NPP in Russian Federation will develop the regular service life. And all of them on idea should be removed from operation. But, as we understand, in today's difficult economic conditions, to it NPP the procedure of prolongation of service life will be applied, and where it is impossible by virtue of the various reasons, the procedure of translation NPP in nuclear - safe condition and in a mode of a long storage under supervision, before acceptance of the decision about a method and way of financing of a decommissioning will be applied. Possible the following variants will be: use platforms of the old NPP for construction new NPP, or using as burial place NPP. The variant of a decommissioning up to a condition 'green grass' is represented unprofitable because of its dearness. The similar decommissioning was carried out in Japan. Was removed from operation research reactor of a type WWR. The expenses for this method of a decommissioning considerably surpass expenses for a method of a burial place NPP basically because of high cost of dismantle and transportation in long-term storehouses of the 1 contour equipment. The most urgent problem of decommissioning NPP, which developed their regular service life - is financing this final stage of a exploitation cycle of the block. I shall remind, that the financing is carried out from uniform fund of decommissioning. The formation of this fund occurs by deduction 1.3 % of cost of the put electric power to the consumers by all maintained NPP of Russia. The expenditure of this fund is carried on time on some tens years. They are spent for 3 basic stages: preparation to decommissioning NPP, long endurance under supervision, dismantle and burial the NPP equipment. Nowadays on faculty NPP MPEI under the direction of the senior lecturer Mikhail A. Skachek was estimated the basic economic parameters of decommissioning process NPP with the various types of reactors (WWR-440, WWR-1000, RBMK-1000) Now we are researching the subscription of disposal the nuclear waste in a total cost of decommissioning NPP. The estimation of expenses for decommissioning NPP was carried out with the helps of the program DECOST - adapted on faculty NPP MPEI to a Russian economy conditions of the transition period. Program 'DECOST' is developed for an estimation of expenses and payments for removal from operation of nuclear power installations in different conditions. (author)
Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a revolutionary transformation of the social organization of production in China would resolve overpopulation have since been rectified by opposing ideological positions: changing the basic mode of production through institutional decollectivization and checking population growth with the 1-child policy. This dilemma in rural areas translates to greater productivity and diversification with Chinese families having abundant adult labor and secured by the number of sons. It is difficult to substantiate the benefit of small families for peasants theoretically. Political rewards have been curtailed by economic declines. The peasant family has adapted by reconstituting old family forms and kin networks and by out-migration and nonagricultural employment. PMID:12285338
Chang, K S
...Abstract The mission of the Economic Development Administration (EDA) is to lead the Federal economic agenda by promoting innovation...preparing American regions for growth and success in the worldwide...administer and monitor its economic development assistance...
Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined te...
Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.
This paper establishes the financial feasibility of an employer-of-last-resort (ELR) program in a small developing country like Tunisia. It argues that an ELR-led economic development policy is vastly superior to the traditional import substitution industrialization (ISI), export-led, and FDI-led development models, all of which Tunisia has adopted without much success in reducing unemployment. Despite outperforming its peers in terms of macroeconomic stability, Tunisia’s official unemp...
Developing countries in Asia and Africa have economically often been lagging behind the economies of the West. One reason can be found by looking at the executive capacities and the necessary financial structures. Global financial crisis has made the situation worse for many of the developing countries. What can be done to make developing countries in Asia and Africa stronger participants in the growing global economy? Will an improved financial sector reflected by an expansion of the insuran...
The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions
Full Text Available Banking system occupies a unique position in every economy and that is why it often attracts more than a casual regulatory attention. The banks act as catalyst to economic development. This review examined the contributions of banks to the economic development in Nigeria. The study highlighted banks as efficient mechanism for mobilizing financial resources and allocating same for productive investment. Given the key roles that banks play in facilitating economic growth and financing developmental projects, particularly key infrastructure, agriculture and industry, most emerging market economies have been known to use the domestic financial institutions to execute real sector big ticket projects. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigerian banks to compete favourably in the competitive global financial system, the current reforms in Nigeria banking system must be sustained and strengthened.
Adewuyi, I. D.
This year's annual report on the economic prospects for developing countries focuses on international trade and the policies needed to help these nations benefit from global integration. The news is good for many developing countries, whose economic growth is expected to register "5.3 percent this year, 5 percent next year, and ease to 4.8 percent by 2002." However, the world's poorest nations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have not kept pace. The full report is available online, but each chapter must be downloaded separately in .pdf format. The official press release and summary are available in several languages including Chinese, German, Russian, and English. The main page also provides a slide show of the primary points and issues of the report and a video interview with the Director of the Bank's Economy Policy and Prospects program, as well as regional economic prospects and related links.
This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance
There has been a rapid expansion of radiation oncology services in developing countries over the past decade. The question arises of how far, how fast and which technology should be introduced and expanded and yet remain sustainable. The problem can be reduced to a simple issue of an increasing number of cancer cases (refer S. Whelan), hence increasing demand for radiotherapy in less-developed countries while the current resources for treatment are at present concentrated in well-developed countries. By 2015 there will be a shortfall of 10,000 teletherapy machines for providing radiotherapy. Micro- and macro-economic aspects that affect development of radiotherapy in developing countries are discussed
In 1988, the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges (CCC) established an Economic Development Program (EDP) to support community colleges' efforts to provide education, training, and technical services to business and industry. The EDP's mission was to establish model programs, demonstration projects, and college/business…
Stanley, Pat; Prentiss, John
This guide aims to help readers navigate the vast literature on business clusters and provide parameters and tools for applying the information and integrating the concepts into economic development policy wisely and efficiently. It is both a primer on clusters for those unfamiliar with the basic concepts and a repository of policy options for those responsible for growing and strengthening clusters.
Rosenfeld Stuart, A.
There is a strong linear dependence of economic activity as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) on both the fossil fuel energy and the total emergy consumed by nations. Conceptual models of global and regional environmental systems were developed to examine the factors c...
...transfer is an Economic Development Conveyance (EDC). (b) For installations having...entity able to receive property under an EDC. (d) A properly completed application...decide whether an LRA will be eligible for an EDC. An LRA may submit an EDC...
The proceedings contain 14 papers on: economic analyses of the cost of nuclear power plant construction and service life extension; comparison of environmental impacts of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants; processing and burial of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning; the development and current status of assessment of nuclear power plant accident risks. (J.P.)
Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.
We acknowledge the inadequacy of the ancient model to develop the wealth of nations and the recognition that both economics and ecology are the best possible ways to manage world and human resources to achieve a better wealth of nations. The rebuilding of economics and of a credible strategy for increasing the wealth and well-being of nations is today at the center of the problem of providing a sound basis for the legitimacy and credibility of public institutions and governments. If the dicho...
Economic load dispatch (ELD) is an important issue in the operation of power system, and several models by using different techniques have been used to solve these problems. Some traditional approaches are utilized to find out the optimal solution of non-linear problem. More recently, the soft computing techniques have received more attention and were used in a number of successful and practical applications. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are the most popul...
Nishant Chaturvedi; Walkey, A. S.
We consider the Multi-Area Economic Dispatch problem (MAEDP) in deregulated power systemenvironment for practical multi-area cases with tie line constraints. Our objective is to generate allocationto the power generators in such a manner that the total fuel cost is minimized while all operatingconstraints are satisfied. This problem is NP-hard. In this paper, we propose Hybrid Particle SwarmOptimization (HGAPSO) to solve MAEDP. The experimental results are reported to show the efficiency ofpr...
Huynh Thi Thanh Binh
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Natural products have been, historically, very important for Brazil. Coffee, sugar and soy were some examples that prove this economical significance. A project that involves phytoproducts should be guide by three main axis: agriculture management for the plants; pharmaceutical; support the national [...] industry and academy. In Brazil, pharmaceutical products contribute negatively to the commerce balance showing an enormous technological dependence in this economical sector. The consolidation of the phytoproduct's chain in Brazil could contribute for the development of the pharmaceutical sector in order to help all domains in natural products area.
José Angelo S., Zuanazzi; Paulo, Mayorga.
Health is an asset with an intrinsic value as well as an instrumental value. Good health is a source of wellbeing and highly valued throughout the world. Health is not only the absence of illness, but capacity to develop a person’s potential. Health is also an important determinant of economic growth. Given the importance of health, both as a source of human welfare and a determinant of overall economic growth, the Popular Health Insurance (Seguro Popular) was first introduced in Mexico as ...
The article studies interaction of inequality of distribution of income and economic growth in correspondence with evolution of concepts of economic development. It is shown that economic growth, as a criterion of economic development, corresponds with conceptual foundations of stable development. The body of indicators of stable development at a regional level is formed.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????...
Dmitrishin Lesya I.
The analysis shows cointegration between exports, economic growth and financial development in case of Pakistan. The results that economic growth and financial development stimulate rate of exports growth in Pakistan. The causality analysis reveals bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and economic growth, financial development and exports and exports and economic growth in case of Pakistan.
Shahbaz, Muhammad; Rahman, Mizanur
The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health yesterday released this 210-page report on the role of health in global economic development. The Commission, which was established in January of last year, finds "that extending the coverage of crucial health services, including a relatively small number of specific interventions, to the world's poor could save millions of lives each year, reduce poverty, spur economic development, and promote global security." The report recommends an effort on the part of developing and developed nations alike and argues that millions of lives would be saved annually if cooperating countries invested one tenth of one percent of national income. At the site, users can download the report in full or by section.
This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.
Full Text Available This paper identifies a set of criteria and indicators to highlight the economic and social development from different smart cities. To characterize and prioritize various urban areas of a city should be used a set of indicators. These indicators help us to establish the evolution and the grade of prepare of cities to smart society. This represents a starting point in formulating objectives and strategies for smart city development.
The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT) development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. T...
Urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives (attracting new national or international companies, consolidate industrial infrastructure, developing tourism, diversifying and improving transport and health services), while they have to maintain a certain level or to cut off public expenses, and to face the harsh competition to attract ...
Sta?nciulescu, Gabriela Cecilia
Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. ...
To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480
Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E
A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabsn. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs
Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups, helping to clarify and explain the dynamics of the socioeconomic differences that still exist. We use a Multidimensional scaling analysis with the aim of exploring the relationship between credit and socioeconomic development in the different Italian areas, observing in particular the structural differences that could lead to a deeper distance of the wellbeing of the poorest regions in the South compared to that of North-central.
When energy specialists discuss the relationships between energy use and economic development, the focus is usually on how energy supports economic growth, alleviates poverty and increases people's well-being. On rare occasions, though, the effect that a country's choices for promoting economic development have on energy production and use is a matter of concern. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the way Brazil's choices for promoting economic development over time have impacted primary and final energy use in the country. Economic growth has different levels of quality, which lead to different economic development paths. Some paths are more effective than others in creating wealth and in protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations. Quality actually matters as much for economic development as for energy. This chapter is divided into four sections covering energy and economic development relationships, the evolution of final energy use in Brazil, strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in the country and a summary of main issues. In Section 5.1, energy and economic development relationships are discussed, setting the background for the analysis of the impacts on final energy use of some of Brazil's choices for promoting economic development. The section begins by focusing on the basics of energy and economic development relationships. It should be noted that most energy specialists usually discuss only thenergy specialists usually discuss only the basics of energy and economic development (the 'energy in support of economic development' theme), but this approach alone is not enough to explain differences in countries' final energy use patterns, or to identify strategies to enhance sustainable energy development. In this sense, the main contribution of this section is to further illuminate the role of social and economic choices in determining the effectiveness of a given country's economic development and that country's primary and final energy use patterns. Section 5.2 assesses energy use in Brazil by analysing energy intensities. A decomposition analysis technique is applied to final energy use figures to help identify the factors affecting final energy use in the Brazilian economy. Such a technique allows the decomposition of energy use changes into three basic effects: activity, structure and intensity. The activity effect results from the impact of overall economic growth on final energy use. The structure effect derives from the impact that the sectoral composition of the economy has on the final energy use of a country. The intensity effect refers to the final energy requirements per unit of activity of each sector considered (sectoral breakdown). Findings are contrasted with historical events and circumstances to provide a better understanding of the impacts of Brazil's economic and social choices on its final energy use patterns. Section 5.3 recommends synergetic strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in Brazil based on what has been learned from the country's previous economic and social choices and from the experiences of other countries. The final section is a summary of the main issues related to Brazil's energy system and its economic development. The chapter presents indicators mainly related to energy intensity. Other important economic indicators that are part of the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) set are addressed in other parts of the report: fuel mix in Chapter 2, reserves to production ratios in Chapter 3, technology efficiencies in Chapter 4, per capita energy use in Chapter 7 and import dependence in Chapter 8
Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.
Sobolev Volodymyr M.
The coordination between resources and economy is a challenge for Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, which is a new economic development zone in China, with the rapid development in the past few years, the contradiction is more intense than ever before. In this paper, the coupling degree between the carrying capacity of land water resources and economical development were assessed to demonstrate how optimal coupling path can be selected. Methods of information entropy were employed to dete...
Tian-gui Lv; Ci-fang Wu
Full Text Available In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the “spirit of capitalism” in orthodox countries. For that purpose this article compares political-historical circumstances on the territory of the Western and Eastern Church on one, and pictures the theological-philosophical basis of both Protestantism and Orthodoxy on the other side.
Full Text Available In the recent years, many studies have showed that weak institutions and the extent of economic crimes in developing countries are one of the deep causes of their poor economic performances. Debt crises which are among other consequences of a low of public levies are accentuated in developing countries, in particular with the development of what is generally known as shadow economy. This research aims to study the potential link existing between economic crimes and the financing of development in developing countries. The economic crimes sector, which is an essential component of the underground economy has a negative effect on the tax mobilization, by cons, the quality of governance is a positive factor in favor of state budgets. This sector is an important fiscal centre which unfortunately for both social and political reasons, sometimes bears fiscal charges beyond its real contributory capacities. This study aims in particularly to investigate the impact of economic crimes on Financing for Development in approximately one hundred developing countries through the channel of public resource mobilization. The main results of empirical analyses using data covering the period 1996-2012 confirm that, it is better for developing countries to fight against economic crimes playing on improving the quality of institutional governance to ensure economic growth sustainability.
The identification of production functions from data is an important task in the modelling of economic growth. In this paper, we consider a non-parametric approach to this identification problem in the context of the spatial Solow model which allows for rather general production functions, in particular convex-concave ones that have recently been proposed as reasonable shapes. We formulate the inverse problem and apply Tikhonov regularization. The inverse problem is discretized by finite elements and solved iteratively via a preconditioned gradient descent approach. Numerical results for the reconstruction of the production function are given and analysed at the end of this paper. PMID:25288819
Engbers, Ralf; Burger, Martin; Capasso, Vincenzo
In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors sh...
The approach of the subject is theoretical starting from the need to support the economic activities by local social institutions fostering the access to information and technology and identifying some solutions that meet these needs - industrial parks. Even if industrial parks in Romania are still considered in draft form, some examples can be identified as functional and supporting the local development. Their functionality is given by the involvement of local authorities and the interest of the business environment in exploiting the economic potential of the region. The role of industrial parks in supporting the local development is measured in the number of new jobs created, the income received by local institutions by paying taxes and duties from firms benefiting from the infrastructure made available through their involvement in attracting investors; the more productive the industry and more efficient the production, the higher the company\\\\\\'s results and therefore the benefits of local institutions.
This paper examined issues dealing with the effectiveness of the Nigerian educationsector in meeting the human capital needed for economic development in an era of reforms. The paper is essentially a descriptive analysis of a set of indicators to assess the readiness of the sector in providing the needed human capital for the diverse segments of the Nigerian economy. The indicators used to assess the effectiveness of the education sector include: level of funding, the rate of return to inv...
Omojimite, Ben U.
Abstract Economic theory suggests that development is enhanced through income growth, which is driven through increased trade. However, the empirical evidence of such a relationship most of the times is proved to be weak. In this study we try to determine the factors influencing this relationship by measuring “trade efficiency”. Using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) window method for a sample of 16 OECD countries, we obtained the efficiency scores and the optimal output lev...
Halkos, George Emm; Tzeremes, Nickolaos
Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...
Chowdhury, Tasnim; Datta, Rajib; Mohajan, Haradhan
Energy intensity represents one of the main indicators for economic development and is expressed as the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and gross domestic product (GDP). The least energy-intensive economies in the EU are Denmark, Ireland and the UK. Among the most energy-intensive economies are Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In socialist times, eastern European Member States had economies with high shares of energy-intensive industries as wel...
FELIX-CONSTANTIN BURCEA; EMILIA UNGUREANU; CRISTINA FLORENTINA BÂLDAN
Bangladesh started the process of financial liberalization since the late 1980’s. Like many other underdeveloped countries the consequences of financial liberalization in Bangladesh are dubious. Previous studies done in within the context of Bangladesh mostly pertain to the performance of economy and financial institutions. This study is focused on the impact of financial liberalization upon economic growth of Bangladesh, considering three proxies of financial development suc...
Kabir, Sarkar Humayun; Hoque, Hafiz Al Asad Bin
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.
Zaheer Khan KAKAR
This dissertation examines the determinants of local economic and political development in India. In the first chapter, I study the impact that agricultural income shocks have on the local nonfarm economy. I find that positive rainfall shocks induce significant employment growth, not in the rural areas where agricultural production takes place but in the nearby towns. Manufacturing firms in particular respond to changes in agricultural production. Further investigation suggests that the most ...
Asher, Samuel Edward
The study is an empirical test of the effects of different categories of government expenditure, revenue and deficits on economic growth in developing countries. It is based on panel data of annual series over the last three decades for 103 countries, which are further classified into low-income, high-income, mineral exports dependent, and foreign aid dependent groups. Our findings suggest that the effects of the fiscal variables on growth vary across these groups of countries. But broadly, c...
Odedokun, Matthew O.
Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch (DED is a complicated nonlinear constrained optimization problem and one of the most important problems in operation of power systems. In this paper two novel optimization algorithms have been proposed to be applied on DED problem. The first method, Krill herd (KHA is a novel meta heuristic algorithm for solving optimization problems which is based on the simulation of the herding of the krill swarms as a biological and environmental inspired method and is applied on DED problem with two configurations named KHA1 and KHA2. The second algorithm is based on how the streams and rivers flow downhill toward the sea and change back in nature, named Water Cycle (WCA method. Two common case studies considering various constraints have been used to show the effectiveness of these methods. The results and convergence characteristics show that the proposed methods are capable of giving high quality results which are better than many other previously applied algorithms.
This work the author has set the goal - to analyze e-business development in Lithuania and to investigate the economic characteristics of e-business impact on the country's economic competitiveness by using statistical data analysis. The scientific work was analyzed and systematized the various Lithuanian and foreign authors theoretical e-business development and its impact on economic competitiveness issues and the empirical basis of their relationship. Authors formed a research hypothesis w...
Z?emaitis, Vytautas; Milkintis, Martynas
This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system
Some optimization problems occurring in developing the automatic control system (ASC) of a commercial amalgamation (ACS-ATOM), assessments of economically optimal structure of location of computation centres and means of data transmission in particular are considered
Sustainable agriculture is a long-term goal that seeks to overcome some of problems and constraints that confront the economic viability, environmental soundness and social acceptance of agricultural production systems. In this context, bio-fertilizers assume special significance particularly because they are 'eco-friendly', but also since their alternative, chemical fertilizers are expensive. Undoubtedly, the most commonly used bio-fertilizers are soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, but others like Azolla, Azospirillum, various cyanobacteria also contribute significant amounts of N to e.g. rice. Other bacteria like Frankia and Acetobacter contribute N to trees of the genus Casuarina and sugarcane, respectively. Furthermore, although they are rarely used as inoculants, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and phosphobacteria help countless plants solubilise and assimilate soil phosphorus. Despite these advantages, bio-fertilizers could be more widely used in developing countries. Contingent upon greater use is improved quality of the inoculants, and all aspects of their production are discussed here. (author)
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the natural and social conditions for the development economy in northeastern Montenegro, in the example municipalities Berane, Andrejevica and Plav in the geographical context of its utilization and use. Spatial distribution of the economy is determined by the natural and social conditions. The natural conditions in terms of the economy are of particular significance relief, climatic and hydrographic conditions, soil... According to degree benefits of natural conditions extracted are three relatively homogeneous regions. That is, which rational production of this part of north-eastern Montenegro, can be organized taking into account the natural conditions and the level of socio-economic development. For collocation and the structure of the economy have an important role in the social conditions which the economy is formed. Our research the records clearly pointed to the forefront some very obvious problems: first, is related to the population, especially in workforce, respectively, for the aging; second, that there is a strong migration of people whose intensive processes of differentiation and left behind an unfavorable structure of the population - age and education what the any negative impact on economic development; third, the characteristics of land area, its small size, inadequate and outdated processing, low technical capacity. The natural resources of this part of north-eastern Montenegro, as well as the population as a factor of economic development need to have met: economic, social, developmental organizational and management dimension to be on benefit the present, but also future generations
Full Text Available The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. The formulation of the progress’ general rules and its prediction was done. It was monitored the dynamics of ICT sales, depending on its form and the influence of global economy.
Full Text Available This paper describes the problem facing the Nigerian agricultural production, the basic and fundamental reasons why the government has failed to realize and address the failure in the sector. Though agricultural program was finalized in 1988 and new policy was released in 2001 but still accommodates the policies of the old one. Which means the policies was on the right direction. Still little or no effect has been made in the sector. Currently, however, many important questions about the goals, objectives, reforms, and ways to achieve them, tactics and strategies of development of agribusiness, the location of bodies, state powerand administration in place of socio- economic processes and others are debatable. Agribusiness development is a large constrained combination of factors: unfavorable to microeconomic conditions, inadequate legal basis of functioning on enterprises and their relationships with each other and the state, lack of comprehensive scientific research in this field of knowledge that are acceptable in a transition economy. This paper will serve as the brain and evaluation of the problems and the strategies required to revive the sector. Agriculture is vast and the most important sector of the Nigeria economy engaging about 70% of the labor force, the sector has not been exploited to the fullness and that is why the country cannot compete with other countries in the world even with 95% of the land cultivable. As economic activity, agriculture can be the source of growth for national economy provider of investment opportunities for private sector and a prime diver of agriculture related industries and the rural nonfarm economy.
In the Philippines the development of geothermal energy resources for electricity generation is undertaken by two independent agencies. One develops the steamfield and sells the steam. The second buys the steam, which, in the case of the Philippines, is the National Power Company (NPC), a government-owned corporation mandated to produce electricity for sale and distribution to various consumers. One such steamfield developer is the Phillippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC/EDC), Geothermal Division. At present PNOC is operating in two areas, the Tongonan Field and the Palimpinon Field. This paper discusses the economics of the development of these two steamfields. Historical investments are presented for both. Past and projected additional investments up to commissioning for a new field are also presented. Variations in the investment levels for the three fields are discussed and explanations for the variances are presented.
Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.
Abstract in English:The development is the dominant characteristic of the evolution of the world economy since the end of the last war. Evidently it requires an important effort of investment in order to increase the potential of production and a programming or scheduling to orient the choices and the actions.It rests on the economical growth but this growth needs all activity branches to be lasting. The question is to know if it is possible to arrive to the stage of a supportable growth from...
This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785
Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano
The economical efficiency of the lifetime prolongation of the Ignalina NPP is analyzed in a broad scope of different scenarios and cases by using mathematical models of power system development and a specially developed model of the variant analysis. The economical efficiency of the lifetime prolongation of a power plant depends on various factors: investments for replacement of technological channels, investments for safety improvement, domestic electricity demand and export, fuel prices, etc. However, lifetime prolongation was an economically acceptable option in each case of factors combination influencing the economics of the plant. This option also reduces electricity production costs and prices. (author)
The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) problems in powergeneration systems is to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the totalcost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents anefficient Novel TANAN’s Algorithm (NTA), for solving ELDProblem. The main objective is to minimize the total fuel cost ofthe generating units having quadratic cost characteristicssubjected to limits on generator true power output andtransmission losses and including valve point loading effects. TheNTA is a simpl...
R.Subramanian,; Thanushkodi, Dr K.
This paper presents a new approach for solving the Combined Heat and Economic Dispatch (CHPED) problem using an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC). Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (ABC) is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bee swarm, is a biological inspired optimization. It shows more effective than the other optimization algorithms. The performance of the proposed algorithm ABC is validated by illustration with single area cogeneration test system. The results of the proposed al...
Murugan, R.; Mohan, M. R.
Full Text Available We consider the Multi-Area Economic Dispatch problem (MAEDP in deregulated power systemenvironment for practical multi-area cases with tie line constraints. Our objective is to generate allocationto the power generators in such a manner that the total fuel cost is minimized while all operatingconstraints are satisfied. This problem is NP-hard. In this paper, we propose Hybrid Particle SwarmOptimization (HGAPSO to solve MAEDP. The experimental results are reported to show the efficiency ofproposed algorithms compared to Particle Swarm Optimization with Time-Varying AccelerationCoefficients (PSO-TVAC and RCGA.
Huynh Thi Thanh Binh
This paper introduces a solution of the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem using a hybrid approach of Hopfield neural network (HNN) and quadratic programming (QP). The hybrid algorithm is based on using enhanced HNN; to solve the static part of the problem; the QP algorithm for solving the dynamic part of the DED. This technique guarantees the global optimality of the solution due to its look-ahead capability. The new algorithm is applied and tested to an example from the literature and the solution is then compared with that obtained by some other techniques to prove the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)
Abdelaziz, A.Y.; Kamh, M.Z.; Mekhamer, S.F.; Badr, M.A.L. [Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Elsarayat Street, Abdo Basha Square, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)
Full Text Available In the recent restructured power system scenario and complex market strategy, operation at absolute minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electric power. The economic load dispatch (ELD problem which accounts for minimization of both generation cost and power loss is itself a multiple conflicting objective function problem. In this paper, a modified shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (MSFLA, which is an improved version of memetic algorithm, is proposed for solving the ELD problem. It is a relatively new evolutionary method where local search is applied during the evolutionary cycle. The idea of memetic algorithm comes from memes, which unlike genes can adapt themselves. The performance of MSFLA has been shown more efficient than traditional evolutionary algorithms for such type of ELD problem. The application and validity of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated for IEEE 30 bus test system as well as a practical power network of 203 bus 264 lines 23 machines system.
This paper presents a novel and efficient optimisation approach based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem with non-smooth cost functions. In order to improve the performance of ACO algorithm, three additional techniques, i.e. priority list, variable reduction, and zoom feature are presented. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed ACO is applied to two types of ED problems with non-smooth cost functions. Firstly, the ED problem with valve-point loading effects consists of 13 and 40 generating units. Secondly, the ED problem considering the multiple fuels consists of 10 units. Additionally, the results of the proposed ACO are compared with those of the conventional heuristic approaches. The experimental results show that the proposed ACO approach is comparatively capable of obtaining higher quality solution and faster computational time. (author)
Pothiya, Saravuth; Kongprawechnon, Waree [School of Communication, Instrumentation and Control, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani (Thailand); Ngamroo, Issarachai [Center of Excellence for Innovative Energy Systems, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)
Full Text Available The application of optimization techniques to power system planning and operation problems has been an area of active research in the recent past. Genetic Algorithm (GA, Tabu Search (TS are widely used to combinatorial optimization in recent years. Combining the advantages of individual algorithms, a hybrid TS/GA algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem is proposed in this paper, using the method of penalty to transform the problem ED with constraints in a simple problem without constraints. An IEEE 57-bus power system has been used to test the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of the proposed algorithm with GA, TS and proposed TS/GA hybrid method has the strongest capability of finding global optimal solution within reasonable computing time. We then give a comparison between two algorithms hybrids (Tabu Search / Genetic Algorithm TS/GA and (Tabu Search/ quasi-Newton method TS/QN.
...purposes of determining economic distress levels and Investment...solely by its level of economic distress, as set forth...sector and its various supply chains. In general, RICs...and drivers of Regional economic growth, such as...
...government. (1) Adverse economic impact of closure or realignment...the region and potential for economic recovery through an EDC...state and local investment, level of risk incurred, and the...the installation. (9) Economic benefit to the Federal...
The aim of the article. The purpose of article is the analysis history of free economic zones development and features of their activity.The results of the analysis. Through free economic zones in regions and countries get foreign investments, technologies, experience of management. The free economic zone is the tool for achievement of definite economic and public aims. Free economic zones perform a number of the microeconomic and macroeconomic goals. Ultimate goal of free economic zones is r...
Full Text Available This paper examines and compares institutional arrangements addressing market failures endemic to rural areas. It argues that rural market failures cannot be satisfactorily addressed by for-profit firms and thus require the operation of third sector organizations, such as NGOs, cooperatives, and associations. The important role of these organizations in rural development is explained by the particular severity of rural market failures that inhibit the development of rural markets and thus constrain the operation of rural for-profit firms. This argument is applied to the development of rural tourism in Central and Eastern Europe. The rural tourist markets in this region are shown to fail in a number of ways that require recourse to tourism associations and other relevant third sector organizations. The paper concludes with calling for further research on developing the institutional economic theory of the rural third sector.
Full Text Available The first half of 1970s was one of the crucial periods to understand the South Korea’s economic success. South Korea achieved great economic success as President Park Chung-hee concentrated his effort to maintain economic development to consolidate his dictatorial power as well as to overcome North Korean threats. Los Angeles Times and New York Times dealt with the issues on the South Korea’s economy with considerable amount of reports. To do so, they helped to provide general views of Americans on South Korea’s economy of the time. According to them, South Korea’s economic development was comparatively successful during this period. Some of them even highly praised the economic success of this country. However, the lack of democracy made them to believe that South Korea’s economic success was fragile. They failed to understand the South Korean people’s will and desperation to survive after the long years of poverty. Still, the analyses and advices presented in the reports were very valuable to see South Korea’s economic structure and problem. The reports of both American major newspapers contributed to develop the American views on South Korea and its economic development of the period.
This paper examines the economics of oil and gas exploration and development in the West of Scotland region. A considerable exploration effort has resulted in some discoveries but the overall success rate has been quite low. The region is comprised of several distinct geological basins. To date the Judd Basin has experienced the best discovery rate. Expected returns as measured by expected monetary values are generally low, confirming the high-risk nature of the region. The most economical field development concept depends to a large extent on a combination of field size and water depth which vary markedly from basin to basin. In typical cost conditions at an $18 price returns to investors in medium and large-sized fields at the development phase are positive, but at $14 only when costs are relatively low are positive returns in prospect. Stand-alone gas developments are very unlikely to be viable in current market conditions. The fuller exploitation of the whole region requires higher oil and gas prices and /or significant innovation and technological progress. (Author)
Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.
Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, [...] the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential, and recognised in as much in the preamble to the National Water Act of 1998, with regards to livelihoods, health and from a socio-economic development perspective since there are no substitutes for it. While water rationing is imminent, the reality thereof has not yet led to a rethink of macro-economic policies. This delayed effect can create a degree of comfort and ill-founded complacency leading to non-action, whereas there is an urgent need for proactive measures towards water conservation.
James, Blignaut; Jan, van Heerden.
Develops a realistic group problem-solving exercise to analyze information, make deductions from presented facts, draw conclusions, and communicate these processes to others. Describes the national education system of New Guinea, the exercise, and some comments. Provides a technical and economic report and a worksheet for the exercise.
Marshall, Stewart; Gilmour, Marion
Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed
Prowse, Terry D. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Chouinard, Rebecca (Water Resources Div., Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Yellowknife, NT (Canada)); Melling, Humfrey (Inst. for Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada)); Milburn, David (Private Consultant, 28 Kennebecasis River Road, Hampton, NB (Canada)); Smith, Sharon L. (Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))
The article discusses several theoretical characteristics in the development of health economics. Particularly, the need of adequate health financing to implement sector functioning in satisfying the needs of population in medical services is emphasized. The consideration is given to the specificity of medical needs and conclusion is made that particular conditions are to be established for adequate resources support of public health system. The changeable health needs of population can be comprehensively considered only in the public health system with flexible accounting of this kind of changes as related to the health services with operational bringing the amount of financial flows in correspondence with the mentioned alterations. PMID:20232505
Nechaev, V S; Markun, E R
Full Text Available This article provides a non-comprehensive overview of social and economic theories regarding the contribution to the small communities’ economy and society of institutions, in all forms of expression. Institutions, first analyzed in terms of local culture together with elites and leadership, as well as formal institutions organized by state or NGO’s, generate a so-called spiritual infrastructure, intangible, but necessary for social progress on primary levels of aggregation. The study was accomplished using critical analysis of literature on which we grafted some examples from Romanian society. Finally, the article proposes some practical ideas for community development institutional interventionism.
Both China and India, the emerging giants in Asia, have achieved significant economic development in recent years. China has enjoyed a high annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent and India has achieved an annual GDP growth rate of 6 per cent since 1981. Decomposing China and India’s GDP growth from 1981 to 2004 into the three factors’ contribution reveals that technology has contributed significantly to both countries’ GDP growth, especially in the 1990s. R&D outputs (high-tech exports, ...
Highlights: ? We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. ? The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. ? Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. ? Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computationa solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.
ED (Economic Dispatch) is non-convex constrained optimization problem, and is used for both on line and offline studies in power system operation. Conventionally, it is solved as convex problem using optimization techniques by approximating generator input/output characteristic. Curves of monotonically increasing nature thus resulting in an inaccurate dispatch. The GA (Genetic Algorithm) has been used for the solution of this problem owing to its inherent ability to address the convex and non-convex problems equally. This approach brings the solution to the global minimum region of search space in a short time and then takes longer time to converge to near optimal results. GA based hybrid approaches are used to fine tune the near optimal results produced by GA. This paper proposes NGH (Neuro Genetic Hybrid) approach to solve the economic dispatch with valve point effect. The proposed approach combines the GA with the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) using SI (Swarm Intelligence) learning rule. The GA acts as a global optimizer and the neural network fine tunes the GA results to the desired targets. Three machines standard test system has been tested for validation of the approach. Comparing the results with GA and NGH model based on back-propagation learning, the proposed approach gives contrast improvements showing the promise of the approach. (author)
Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is an important issue in the operation of power system, and several models by using different techniques have been used to solve these problems. Some traditional approaches are utilized to find out the optimal solution of non-linear problem. More recently, the soft computing techniques have received more attention and were used in a number of successful and practical applications. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are the most popular algorithms in term of optimization. The PSO techniques have drawn much attention from the power system community and been successfully applied in many complex optimization problems in power systems. This paper find out the advantages of application of Genetic algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in specific to the economic load dispatch problem. Here, an attempt has been made to find out the minimum cost by using GA and PSO using the data of fifteen generating units. Comparison of both algorithm is shown here with a standard example when considering Loss and No Loss Conditions.
The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs
Problems for the final stage of nuclear power development are considered from the viewpoint of new requirements to its structure and components. In order to a maximum postpone this moment in time it is necessary that the undesired consequences should be accumulated slowly. Construction of nuclear facilities should provide for their operation with equilibrium radionuclide quantity. To preserve the economical efficiency of such facilities it will be probably required to solve the problem on minimization of this equilibrium quantity
The problems are initially of an organizational nature concerned with obtaining necessary local support from administrators with limited funds available from socialized health budgets. Stressing the relevance of proposed techniques to national priorities in many fields would be required. Centres should be located so as to serve as wide an area as possible, and administrative obstacles in communication, clearance, transport etc. should be overcome. It is suggested that emphasis be placed on training of personnel, particularly at technician level, in selected centres within a region, and by regional training courses, so that expertise gained may be better applied to local situations. The degree of sophistication of equipment selected is seen to depend on the factors of work load and possibility for repair and maintenance. The latter problem is often best solved locally through other arrangements, such as with suppliers themselves. The main operational problem of obtaining reagents for immunoassays is aggravated by shortage of foreign exchange, and economic factors preclude the widespread use of commercial assay kits. Possibilities that may exist to resolve this by greater interdependence amongst workers within the region are hampered by a serious lack of information, and correction of this situation would result in advantages in several respects. International agencies and governments providing aid play a major role in the above matters as well as in others such as the matters as well as in others such as the provision of consultant services and research contracts which are considered to be of great benefit. It is stressed that a correct attitude is as important as expertise for the realization of an expert assignment. In conclusion it is suggested that under existing conditions, third-world workers could abandon the attitude of looking towards the developed countries as first choice for solutions to problems and seek to exploit the potential available among themselves for mutual benefit. (author)
Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and creating environment that fosters economic growth and the wellbeing of people
This paper analyses the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth in Botswana for the period 1977 to 2006, using Granger causality through cointegrated Vector Autoregression methods. The results show that there is a stable longrun relationship between financial development and economic growth. Financial development causes economic growth in Botswana. The causality runs from financial development to economic growth. The results suggest that the financial...
Eita, Joel Hinaunye; Jordaan, Andre Cillie
Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century a unique economic school was formed in the Czech countries. It is name has not become established in the professional literature. It was called the teleological school, Engliš teleological school,schoolofBrno, etc. Its coverage was not limited only to the universities ofBrnobut it involved representatives from other universities and institutions. It was built up as a centre of economic theory as late as the end of thirties of the last century. The notion that the Engliš teleological school was had already been formed inCzechoslovakiain the twentieth of the 20th century is not entirely precise. Karel Engliš grouped together his adherents only in the second half of the thirties of the 20th century. These adherents developed his teaching. They were the direct followers of his work. A range of significant personalities belonged to the Engliš teleology school: Jan Loevenstein, Alois Král, Václav Chytil, Miloš Horna, František Zeman, Jan Siblík, Vladimír Vybral and others. The teaching of Engliš teleology school penetrated meantime to most of the Czech universities in the second half of the 1930. TheCharlesUniversityinPragueand theMasarykUniversityinBrnobelonged to them. After the war, the teaching of Karel Engliš expanded to theUniversityofBratislava. The school ceased following political interventions after 1948.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Biotechnology complements technological developments in main sectors of economies, such as health, energy, and agriculture, and thus contributes to economic development. It provides solutions to the problems that are frequently faced in developing economies, such as resource constraints, [...] lower productivity and environmental concerns. In order to benefit from biotechnology, its associated markets need to develop and function well to support the developments and transactions of intangible assets, such as technology transfers, license agreements and research and development joint ventures. Economic valuation of the intangible assets is necessary for the development and functioning of these markets. It provides better understanding of value creation at micro scales and its economic and financial dynamics. The literature lacks valuation studies in biotechnology sectors in developing economies. This study performs economic valuation analysis of a research and development project of a Turkish biotechnology company operating in health sector. Turkey, as a developing economy, has slow progress in biotechnology despite its wealth of biological resources and genetic variety. Thus, the study provides an excellent case to analyze valuation issues in developing economies. It uses data from in-depth interviews from the company and employs real options and discounted cash flow (DCF) methods. Results: Developing countries and biotechnology sector introduce additional risks that need to be accounted for in valuation. These risks reduce the value of the project under real options and discounted cash flow methods. Since real options method permits the valuation of options that might arise during the R&D process and provides flexibility to managers to act, it results in higher values compared to discounted cash flow method. The grant from a public institution that partially financed the Project reduces the discount factor and thus increases the value of it. Conclusions: Economic values of biotechnology intangibles in developing countries are affected by country and sector risks and public financing. Thus, both microeconomic and macroeconomic policy interventions are important for the development of biotechnology in these economies. While public financing enables the risky R&D projects to take place, it makes them more valuable than they would be under no intervention. Long run effects of these interventions require diligent analyses.
Bahar Celikkol, Erbas; Selin Arslanhan, Memis.
Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important problems to be solved in power generation as fractional percentage fuel reductions represent significant cost savings. ED wishes to optimise the power generated by each generating unit in a system in order to find the minimum operating cost at a required load demand, whilst ensuring both equality and inequality constraints are met. For the process of optimisation, a model must be created for each generating unit. The particle swarm optimisation technique is an evolutionary computation technique with one of the most powerful methods for solving global optimisation problems. The aim of this paper is to add in a constriction factor to the particle swarm optimisation algorithm (CFBPSO). Results show that the algorithm is very good at solving the ED problem and that CFBPSO must be able to work in a practical environment and so a valve point effect with transmission losses should be included in future work.
Young, Steven; Montakhab, Mohammad; Nouri, Hassan
The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)
Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail: email@example.com
Full Text Available Since reform and opening up. exports and FDI, as two main internationalization patterns, successfully promote China's economic growth and increase the per capita